Science.gov

Sample records for cobalt compounds

  1. Bioaccessibility testing of cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Stopford, Woodhall; Turner, John; Cappellini, Danielle; Brock, Tom

    2003-08-01

    Testing of metal compounds for solubility in artificial fluids has been used for many years to assist determining human health risk from exposure to specific compounds of concern. In lieu of obtaining bioavailability data from samples of urine, blood, or other tissues, these studies measured solubility of compounds in various artificial fluids as a surrogate for bioavailability. In this context, the measurement of metal "bioaccessibility" can be used as an in vitro substitute for measuring metal bioavailability. Bioaccessibility can be defined as a value representing the availability of metal for absorption when dissolved in in vitro surrogates of body fluids or juices. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the bioaccessibility of selected cobalt compounds in artificial human tissue fluids and human serum. A second aim was to initiate studies to experimentally validate an in vitro methodology that would provide a conservative estimate of cobalt bioavailability in the assessment of dose from human exposure to various species of cobalt compounds. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of cobalt(II) from 11 selected cobalt compounds and an alloy in 2 physical forms in 5 surrogate human tissue fluids and human serum. Four (4) separate extraction times were used up to 72 hours. The effect of variables such as pH, dissolution time, and mass-ion effect on cobalt bioaccessibility were assessed as well. We found that the species of cobalt compound as well as the physico-chemical properties of the surrogate fluids, especially pH, had a major impact on cobalt solubility. Cobalt salts such as cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate were highly soluble, whereas cobalt alloys used in medical implants and cobalt aluminate spinels used as pigments, showed minimal dissolution over the period of the assay.

  2. Cobalt compounds as antidotes for hydrocyanic acid

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C. Lovatt

    1964-01-01

    The antidotal potency of a cobalt salt (acetate), of dicobalt edetate, of hydroxocobalamin and of cobinamide against hydrocyanic acid was examined mainly on mice and rabbits. All the compounds were active antidotes for up to twice the LD50; under some conditions for larger doses. The most successful was cobalt acetate for rabbits (5×LD50), which was effective at a molar cyanide/cobalt (CN/Co) ratio of 5, but had as a side-effect intense purgation. Hydroxocobalamin was irregular in action, but on the whole was most effective for mice (4.5×LD50 at a molar ratio of 1), and had no apparent side effects. Dicobalt edetate, at molar ratios of up to 2, was more effective for rabbits (3×LD50) than for mice (2×LD50), but had fewer side effects than cobalt acetate. The effect of thiosulphate was to augment the efficacy of dicobalt edetate and, in mice, that of hydroxocobalamin; but, apparently, in rabbits, to reduce that of hydroxocobalamin. Cobinamide, at a molar ratio of 1, was slightly more effective than hydroxocobalamin on rabbits and also less irregular in its action. Cobalt acetate by mouth was effective against orally administered hydrocyanic acid. The oxygen uptake of the body, reduced by cyanide, is rapidly reinstated when one of the cobalt antidotes has been successfully administered. PMID:14256807

  3. COBALT COMPOUNDS AS ANTIDOTES FOR HYDROCYANIC ACID.

    PubMed

    EVANS, C L

    1964-12-01

    The antidotal potency of a cobalt salt (acetate), of dicobalt edetate, of hydroxocobalamin and of cobinamide against hydrocyanic acid was examined mainly on mice and rabbits. All the compounds were active antidotes for up to twice the LD50; under some conditions for larger doses. The most successful was cobalt acetate for rabbits (5xLD50), which was effective at a molar cyanide/cobalt (CN/Co) ratio of 5, but had as a side-effect intense purgation. Hydroxocobalamin was irregular in action, but on the whole was most effective for mice (4.5xLD50 at a molar ratio of 1), and had no apparent side effects. Dicobalt edetate, at molar ratios of up to 2, was more effective for rabbits (3xLD50) than for mice (2xLD50), but had fewer side effects than cobalt acetate. The effect of thiosulphate was to augment the efficacy of dicobalt edetate and, in mice, that of hydroxocobalamin; but, apparently, in rabbits, to reduce that of hydroxocobalamin. Cobinamide, at a molar ratio of 1, was slightly more effective than hydroxocobalamin on rabbits and also less irregular in its action. Cobalt acetate by mouth was effective against orally administered hydrocyanic acid. The oxygen uptake of the body, reduced by cyanide, is rapidly reinstated when one of the cobalt antidotes has been successfully administered.

  4. Update on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lison, D; De Boeck, M; Verougstraete, V; Kirsch-Volders, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To integrate recent understandings of the mechanisms of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the different cobalt compounds.
METHOD—A narrative review of the studies published since the last IARC assessment in 1991 (genotoxicity, experimental carcinogenesis, and epidemiology).
RESULTS—Two different mechanisms of genotoxicity, DNA breakage induced by cobalt metal and especially hard metal particles, and inhibition of DNA repair by cobalt (II) ions contribute to the carcinogenic potential of cobalt compounds. There is evidence that soluble cobalt (II) cations exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental systems but evidence in humans is lacking. Experimental data indicate some evidence of a genotoxic potential for cobalt metal in vitro in human lymphocytes but there is no evidence available of a carcinogenic potential. There is evidence that hard metal particles exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in human studies, respectively. There is insufficient information for cobalt oxides and other compounds.
CONCLUSION—Although many areas of uncertainty remain, an assessment of the carcinogenicity of cobalt and its compounds requires a clear distinction between the different compounds of the element and needs to take into account the different mechanisms involved.


Keywords: cobalt; DNA breakage; inhibition of DNA repair PMID:11555681

  5. Cobalt(II) and Cobalt(III) Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment which illustrates the formation of tris(phenanthroline)cobalt complexes in the 2+ and 3+ oxidation states, the effect of coordination on reactions of the ligand, and the use of a ligand displacement reaction in recovering the transformed ligand. Uses IR, UV-VIS, conductivity, and NMR. (MVL)

  6. Cobalt(II) and Cobalt(III) Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment which illustrates the formation of tris(phenanthroline)cobalt complexes in the 2+ and 3+ oxidation states, the effect of coordination on reactions of the ligand, and the use of a ligand displacement reaction in recovering the transformed ligand. Uses IR, UV-VIS, conductivity, and NMR. (MVL)

  7. Alterations of histone modifications by cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Ke, Qingdong; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of CoCl2 on multiple histone modifications at the global level. We found that in both human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells, exposure to CoCl2 (≥200 μM) for 24 h increased H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, uH2A and uH2B but decreased acetylation at histone H4 (AcH4). Further investigation demonstrated that in A549 cells, the increase in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by cobalt ions exposure was probably through enhancing histone methylation processes, as methionine-deficient medium blocked the induction of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by cobalt ions, whereas cobalt ions increased H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 by directly inhibiting JMJD2A demethylase activity in vitro, which was probably due to the competition of cobalt ions with iron for binding to the active site of JMJD2A. Furthermore, in vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays revealed that the cobalt-induced histone H2A and H2B ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of deubiquitinating enzyme activity. Microarray data showed that exposed to 200 μM of CoCl2 for 24 h, A549 cells not only increased but also decreased expression of hundreds of genes involved in different cellular functions, including tumorigenesis. This study is the first to demonstrate that cobalt ions altered epigenetic homeostasis in cells. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in cobalt-induced alteration of histone modifications, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis since cobalt at higher concentrations is a known carcinogen. PMID:19376846

  8. Cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving compound.

    PubMed

    Kanan, Matthew W; Surendranath, Yogesh; Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy on a large scale requires efficient storage. Solar-to-fuels has the capacity to meet large scale storage needs as demonstrated by natural photosynthesis. This process uses sunlight to rearrange the bonds of water to furnish O2 and an H2-equivalent. We present a tutorial review of our efforts to develop an amorphous cobalt-phosphate catalyst that oxidizes water to O2. The use of earth-abundant materials, operation in water at neutral pH, and the formation of the catalyst in situ captures functional elements of the oxygen evolving complex of Photosystem II.

  9. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  10. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  11. Cobalt.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt has been a recognized allergen capable of causing contact dermatitis for decades. Why, therefore, has it been named 2016 "Allergen of the Year"? Simply put, new information has come to light in the last few years regarding potential sources of exposure to this metallic substance. In addition to reviewing some background on our previous understanding of cobalt exposures, this article will highlight the recently recognized need to consider leather as a major site of cobalt and the visual cues suggesting the presence of cobalt in jewelry. In addition, a chemical spot test for cobalt now allows us to better identify its presence in suspect materials.

  12. Cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    1993-02-01

    Cobalt is typical a by- or co-product with copper or nickel. The average crustal abundance of cobalt is 23 pans per million. Cobalt-containing minerals include cobaltite, skutterudite, and linnaeite. Due to the diversity of cobalt deposits, several techniques are used to extract the ore. The copper/cobalt-bearing ores of Zaire are extracted by open pit and underground methods. In Zambia, similar deposits are mined using modified sublevel, and cut-and-fill underground stoping methods. The sulfide and oxide ore concentrates mined in Zaire are roasted and leached in sulfuric acid. Copper is subsequently recovered by electrolysis, and cobalt is precipitated in the form of a hydrate. Finally, the hydrate is dissolved in acid and cobalt is recovered by electrolysis.

  13. Exposure to cobalt in the production of cobalt and cobalt compounds and its effect on the heart

    PubMed Central

    Linna, A; Oksa, P; Groundstroem, K; Halkosaari, M; Palmroos, P; Huikko, S; Uitti, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether exposure to cobalt in cobalt plants has any measurable effect on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Occupational, cross sectional study, using a self administered questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests in which 203 male workers with at least one year of exposure to cobalt and 94 unexposed controls participated. Echocardiography was performed on a subset of 122 most highly exposed cobalt workers, of which 109 were analysed, and on 60 controls, of which 57 were analysed. Analysis of covariance and a multiple regression analysis were used to evaluate the data. Results: Two of the echocardiography parameters measured were associated with cobalt exposure. In the higher exposure group the left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (mean 53.3, 49.1, and 49.7 ms in the high exposure, low exposure, and control groups respectively) and the deceleration time of the velocity of the early rapid filling wave (mean 194.3, 180.5, and 171.7 ms for those in the high exposure, low exposure, and control groups respectively) were prolonged, indicating altered left ventricular relaxation and early filling. Conclusion: Cumulative exposure to cobalt was found to be associated with the results of Doppler echocardiography measurements, indicating altered diastole. This finding supports the hypothesis that cobalt accumulation in the myocardium could affect myocardial function. Whether this finding has clinical implications remains to be evaluated. PMID:15477280

  14. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-03

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, cobalt has been well-known for its chemical uses, including pigments used in ceramic glazes that create the popular cobalt blue color derived from cobalt aluminate. Because of its diverse physical properties, the element is linked to many other applications, including superalloys, permanent magnets, and chemical catalysts. Cobalt 60, a radioisotope of cobalt, continues to be a contributor to the success of high-technology advancements, including innovations in medical treatments. Typically a by-product of copper and nickel production, significant cobalt reserves are found in only a few countries. The African countries of Zaire and Zambia, as well as Canada, are leading cobalt producers. Although the USA is the world's largest consumer, accounting for about one-third of total consumption, it has no domestic production and relies solely upon foreign imports to satisfy demand. The world market has been plagued with the effects of economic and political factors throughout the years, and consequently, price instability has been common. Presently, supply and demand are moving toward a closer balance, and lower market prices are expected within the next year.

  16. A 1982-1992 surveillance programme on Danish pottery painters. Biological levels and health effects following exposure to soluble or insoluble cobalt compounds in cobalt blue dyes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M

    1994-06-30

    This paper provides a short overview of cobalt-related diseases with particular reference to the potential carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds, and a review of a 10-year surveillance programme on plate painters exposed to cobalt in two Danish porcelain factories. Clinical experience and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cobalt exposure may lead to severely impaired lung function, i.e. hard metal lung disease and occupational cobalt-related asthma, contact dermatitis and cardiovascular effects. However, the evidence for the carcinogenicity of cobalt and cobalt compounds is considered inadequate (IARC, 1991). Most frequently, exposure to cobalt occurs simultaneously with exposure to other elements known to pose a health risk, (e.g. nickel, arsenic, chromium, tungsten). The importance of cobalt as sole causal agent in hard metal lung diseases, cardiomyopathy and cancer are still a matter of controversy. In the two Danish porcelain factories, cobalt blue underglaze dyes have been used since 1888. In contrast to the exposure experience of hard metal factories, the exposure of plate painters occurs with only low trace levels of other potentially harmful compounds such as the carcinogenic metals nickel, arsenic and chromium. Consequently, the nearly-pure cobalt exposure makes the plate painters an attractive group for studies on the health effects of cobalt. During the period 1982-1992 the surveillance programme showed a profound reduction in the urine level of cobalt (Co-U) from 100-fold to 10-fold above the median level of the unexposed control subjects. In the same period, the airborne cobalt exposure declined from 1356 nmol/m3 to 454 nmol/m3, the Danish occupational exposure limit being 845 nmol/m3. In 1982, when the cobalt exposure was above the occupational exposure limit, the plate painters showed a chronic impaired lung function. The obstructive effects may be similar to some of the effects observed in hard metal workers. In 1988, a study on the

  17. Hydroformylation of olefinic compounds in the presence of a cobalt catalyst and an organic nitrile promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Virnig, M.J.

    1986-09-16

    A process for preparing a formylated olefinic fatty compound is described comprising reacting an olefinic fatty compound having at least 9 carbon atoms with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalytic amount of a soluble cobalt salt catalyst and a promoter comprised of an organic nitrile selected from the group consisting of cyano-substituted alkanes having from 2 to 44 carbon atoms and cyano-substituted alkanes having from 4 to 22 carbon atoms containing no substituent other than cyano.

  18. New investigations into the genotoxicity of cobalt compounds and their impact on overall assessment of genotoxic risk.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Brock, Tom; Haddouk, Hasnaà; Hargeaves, Victoria; Lloyd, Melvyn; Mc Garry, Sarah; Proudlock, Raymond; Sarlang, Séverine; Sewald, Katherina; Sire, Guillaume; Sokolowski, Andrea; Ziemann, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of cobalt metal and cobalt compounds has been widely studied. Several publications show induction of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei or DNA damage in mammalian cells in vitro in the absence of S9. Mixed results were seen in gene mutation studies in bacteria and mammalian cells in vitro, and in chromosomal aberration or micronucleus assays in vivo. To resolve these inconsistencies, new studies were performed with soluble and poorly soluble cobalt compounds according to OECD-recommended protocols. Induction of chromosomal damage was confirmed in vitro, but data suggest this may be due to oxidative stress. No biologically significant mutagenic responses were obtained in bacteria, Tk(+/-) or Hprt mutation tests. Negative results were also obtained for chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow and spermatogonia) and micronuclei at maximum tolerated doses in vivo. Poorly soluble cobalt compounds do not appear to be genotoxic. Soluble compounds do induce some DNA and chromosomal damage in vitro, probably due to reactive oxygen. The absence of chromosome damage in robust GLP studies in vivo suggests that effective protective processes are sufficient to prevent oxidative DNA damage in whole mammals. Overall, there is no evidence of genetic toxicity with relevance for humans of cobalt substances and cobalt metal. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and hydride transfer reactions of cobalt and nickel hydride complexes to BX3 compounds.

    PubMed

    Mock, Michael T; Potter, Robert G; O'Hagan, Molly J; Camaioni, Donald M; Dougherty, William G; Kassel, W Scott; DuBois, Daniel L

    2011-12-05

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H(2) gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe)(2) (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane)) was capable of reducing a variety of BX(3) compounds having a hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to the HA of BEt(3). This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, HCo(dmpe)(2) and [HNi(dmpe)(2)](+), to form B-H bonds. The hydride donor abilities (ΔG(H(-))°) of HCo(dmpe)(2) and [HNi(dmpe)(2)](+) were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX(3) compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX(3) compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe)(2) was observed to transfer H(-) to BX(3) compounds with X = H, OC(6)F(5), and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh)(3) is accompanied by the formation of dmpe-(BH(3))(2) and dmpe-(BH(2)(SPh))(2) products that follow from a reduction of multiple B-SPh bonds and a loss of dmpe ligands from cobalt. Reactions between HCo(dmpe)(2) and B(SPh)(3) in the presence of triethylamine result in the formation of Et(3)N-BH(2)SPh and Et(3)N-BH(3) with no loss of a dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe)(2)](+) with B(SPh)(3) under analogous conditions give Et(3)N-BH(2)SPh as the final product along with the nickel-thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe)(2)(SPh)](+). The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe)(2) (dedpe = Et(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PPh(2)) from H(2) and a base is also discussed, including the formation of an uncommon trans dihydride species, trans-[(H)(2)Co(dedpe)(2)][BF(4)].

  20. Synthesis and Hydride Transfer Reactions of Cobalt and Nickel Hydride Complexes to BX₃ Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; O'Hagan, Molly; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-10-31

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H₂ gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe)₂ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane)) was capable of reducing a variety of BX₃ compounds having a hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to the HA of BEt₃. This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, HCo(dmpe)₂ and [HNi(dmpe)₂]+, to form B–H bonds. The hydride donor abilities (ΔGH °) of HCo(dmpe)₂ and [HNi(dmpe)₂]+ were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX₃ compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX₃ compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe)₂ was observed to transfer H to BX₃ compounds with X = H, OC₆F₅, and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh)₃ is accompanied by the formation of dmpe-(BH₃)₂ and dmpe-(BH₂(SPh))₂ products that follow from a reduction of multiple B–SPh bonds and a loss of dmpe ligands from cobalt. Reactions between HCo(dmpe)₂ and B(SPh)₃ in the presence of triethylamine result in the formation of Et₃N–BH₂SPh and Et₃N–BH₃ with no loss of a dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe)₂]+ with B(SPh)₃ under analogous conditions give Et₃N–BH₂SPh as the final product along with the nickel–thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe)₂(SPh)]+. The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe)₂ (dedpe = Et₂PCH₂CH₂PPh₂) from H₂ and a base is also discussed, including the formation of an uncommon trans dihydride species, trans-[(H)₂Co(dedpe)₂][BF₄].

  1. Cobalt-Catalyzed Reductive Multicomponent Synthesis of β-Hydroxy- and β-Aminocarbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jérôme; Presset, Marc; Cantagrel, Frédéric; Le Gall, Erwan; Léonel, Eric

    2017-01-05

    The cobalt-catalyzed multicomponent reaction between sp(2) -hybridized organic halides, Michael acceptors, and unsaturated electrophiles has been developed. The reaction proceeds through a formal conjugate addition/aldol or aza-aldol (Mannich) tandem reaction initiated by the in situ metalation of the organic halide by cobalt catalysis. The essentially new reaction conditions that have been developed are very mild and atom-economic. Under these conditions, a broad range of β-hydroxy- and β-aminocarbonyl compounds are obtained in good to high yields.

  2. Microchip capillary electrophoresis/electrochemical detection of hydrazine compounds at a cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Wang, Joseph

    2005-10-31

    This article reports on the use of cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (CoPc)-modified carbon paste amperometric detector for monitoring hydrazine compounds following their microchip separation. The marked catalytic electrochemical properties of CoPc-modified electrode display enhanced sensitivity compared with unmodified carbon pastes at a relatively low detection potential (+0.5V versus Ag/AgCl). Factors influencing the on-chip separation and detection processes have been optimized. Three hydrazines (hydrazine, 1,1 dimethylhydrazine, and phenylhydrazine) have been separated within 130s at a separation voltage of 1kV using a 10mM phosphate run buffer (pH 6.5). The detection limits obtained from using the CoPc-modified carbon paste electrodes for hydrazine and phenylhydrazine are 0.5 and 0.7muM, respectively, with linearity over the 20-200muM range examined. Such miniaturization and speed advantages of microchip CE are coupled to the highly sensitivity and convenient preparation of CoPc-modified carbon paste electrode. The resulting microsystem should be attractive for field monitoring of toxic hydrazine compounds in environmental applications.

  3. Synthesis and Hydride Transfer Reactions of Cobalt and Nickel Hydride Complexes to BX3 Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-12-05

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H{sub 2} gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe){sub 2}, dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane) was capable of reducing a variety of BX{sub 3} compounds having hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to HA of BEt{sub 3}. This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, (HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +}), to form B-H bonds. The hydride donor abilities ({Delta}G{sub H{sup -}}{sup o}) of HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX{sub 3} compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX{sub 3} compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe){sub 2} was observed to transfer H{sup -} to BX{sub 3} compounds with X = H, OC{sub 6}F{sub 5} and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh){sub 3} is accompanied by formation of (BH{sub 3}){sub 2}-dmpe and (BH{sub 2}SPh){sub 2}-dmpe products that follow from reduction of multiple BSPh bonds and loss of a dmpe ligand from Co. Reactions between HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and B(SPh){sub 3} in the presence of triethylamine result in formation of Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh and Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3} with no loss of dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} with B(SPh){sub 3} under analogous conditions give Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh as the final product along with the nickel-thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe){sub 2}(SPh)]{sup +}. The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe){sub 2} (dedpe = diethyldiphenyl(phosphino)ethane) from H{sub 2} and a base is also discussed; including the formation of an uncommon trans

  4. Occurrence, exposure, effects, recommended intake and possible dietary use of selected trace compounds (aluminium, bismuth, cobalt, gold, lithium, nickel, silver).

    PubMed

    Dolara, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Minerals, metals, clays and rocks were widely used by physicians in the past. However, it was and it is well known that some inorganic elements at high dosage may have curative effects but also serious toxicity. The effects at low or ultra-low concentrations, on the contrary, are less documented, but the idea that low dosage supplementation might be beneficial to human health is widespread even in the present period. The main information about aluminium, bismuth, cobalt, gold, lithium, nickel and silver was selected and evaluated from a vast body of medical literature. In modern times, most elements are proposed for human use at levels comparable with normal dietary intake, probably for precautionary considerations. Some inorganic trace compounds might have unexpected effects at extremely low dosages, but scientific demonstrations of beneficial effects of supplementation are mostly not available in the medical literature.

  5. Solution for Depositing an Electroless Cobalt Alloy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOLUTIONS(MIXTURES), *ELECTROLESS PLATING), (*PATENTS, ELECTROLESS PLATING), (*COBALT ALLOYS, ELECTROLESS PLATING), ADDITIVES, SODIUM COMPOUNDS... TUNGSTATES , POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL COMPOUNDS, SULFATES, THIOUREA, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

  6. CoBi3-the first binary compound of cobalt with bismuth: high-pressure synthesis and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tencé, S.; Janson, O.; Krellner, C.; Rosner, H.; Schwarz, U.; Grin, Y.; Steglich, F.

    2014-10-01

    The first compound in the cobalt bismuth system was synthesized by high-pressure high-temperature synthesis at 5 GPa and 450 °C. CoBi3 crystallizes in space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice parameters of a = 8.8464(7) Å, b = 4.0697(4) Å and c = 11.5604(9) Å adopting a NiBi3-type crystal structure. CoBi3 undergoes a superconducting transition at Tc = 0.48(3) K as evidenced by electrical-resistivity and specific-heat measurements. Based on the anomaly of the specific heat at Tc and considering the estimated electron-phonon coupling, the new Bi-rich compound can be classified as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-type superconductor with weak electron-phonon coupling. Density-functional theory calculations disclose a sizable influence of the spin-orbit coupling to the valence states and proximity to a magnetic instability, which accounts for a significantly enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient.

  7. The Evolution of Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of the Bismuth Layer Compounds with Cobalt Ions Substitution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weipeng; Shen, Xi; Wang, Wei; Guan, Xiangxiang; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Yu, Richeng

    2017-03-20

    One of the core issues for the A/B site doping in the bismuth layer magnetoelectric materials is to find out the evolution of the magnetic structure, crystal structure and elemental distribution, and the coupling effects between spin and lattice with the increase of ion substitution. Here, we have conducted systematic structural and physical property studies on the series samples of Bi5Ti3Fe1-xCoxO15. This work presents that Bi5Ti3Fe1-xCoxO15 forms a single four layer perovskite-like structure for 0 ≤ x < 0.67, while a three layer perovskite-like structure block begins to arise for x ≥ 0.67. With different cobalt content, the sample demonstrates antiferromagnetism, spin state determined magnetism, or magnetic anisotropy determined magnetism. The weak ferromagnetism is considered to be induced by the larger displacement of Co(3+) ions from the center of octahedra and the change of the spin state of Co(3+) ions. It is also observed that Fe and Co elements are homogeneously substituted in the three layer structure block, accompanied by the rotation (and/or distortion) of BO6 octahedra.

  8. Molecular and thin film properties of cobalt half-sandwich compounds for optoelectronic application.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Maxwell; Dalgleish, Simon; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Reissig, Louisa; Matsushita, Michio M; Crain, Jason; Awaga, Kunio; Robertson, Neil

    2017-03-01

    The structure and electronic properties of a novel cobalt half sandwich complex of cyclopentadiene (Cp) and diaminonaphthalene (DAnap) [CpCo(DAnap)] are described and compared to the previously reported diaminobenzene derivative [CpCo(DAbnz)] in view of their potential for (opto)electronic device application. Both complexes show stable redox processes, tunable through the diaminoacene ligand, and show strong absorption in the visible region, with additional transitions stretching into the near infrared (NIR). CpCo(DAnap) crystallises with a particularly large unit cell (9301 Å(3)), comprising 32 molecules, with a gradual rotation over 8 molecules along the long c-axis. In the solid state the balance of the optical transitions in both complexes is reversed, with a suppression of the visible band and an enhancement of the NIR band, attributed to extensive intermolecular electronic interaction. In the case of CpCo(DAnap), highly crystalline thin films could be formed under physical vapor deposition, which show a photocurrent response stretching into the NIR, and p-type semiconductor behavior in field effect transistors with mobility values of the order 1 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The device performance is understood through investigation of the morphology of the grown films.

  9. Magnetic Properties of Some Gadolinium, Erbium, Dysprosium, Manganese Substituted Samarium-2 Cobalt-17 Intermetallic Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    that excellent temperature compensation could be achieved in these compounds in the teinper~ture (cont’d) ~‘ DD I ? ) 1Q3 L°’TI°M °’ INOV BI...following prop— erties: energy products in excess of 30 MGOe, low reversible tem- perature coefficients of magnetization , c~, and linear demagnetiza...Sm2(Co,Fe) i7 compounds significantly enhances their coercivities and energy products. Thus, we have been investigating the magnetic properties of these

  10. Combined use of HPLC-ICP-MS and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of cobalt compounds in nutritive supplements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2014-03-15

    Speciation analysis of cobalt in nutritive supplements has been carried out using HPLC and ICP-MS equipped with a membrane desolvation sample introduction system as detector. In this study, cobalt containing compounds, namely Co(II), cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) and hydroxylcobalamin (OH-Cbl), were well separated by reversed phase HPLC with a C8-HPLC column as the stationary phase and 8 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate in 22%v/v methanol solution (pH 4) as the mobile phase using isocratic elution. Detection limit was in the range of 0.008-0.014 μg CoL(-1) for various Co species. Over 98% of the total cobalt species was extracted in nutritive supplements using a 0.5%v/v HNO3 solution in a microwave field; and the spike recovery was in the range of 92-108% for various species. The HPLC-ICP-MS results showed a satisfactory agreement with the total cobalt concentrations obtained by ICP-MS analysis of completely dissolved samples.

  11. Magnetization, Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy and Magnetostriction in Some Rare-Earth-Cobalt Compounds, R2 C017.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    AlP Conference Proceedings, 18, 1212—1216, (1973). 0 _~ £ i 16. Steven K.W .H., Matrix Elements and Operator Equiva—t O 0.9 0.0 07 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2...constant K2 and the meg— the rare earth i~n in compounds with transition metals netostriction Constant ÀY of single crystals of and in pure elements ...of the Tb3 ~~o1, and Ho;Co27 are both easy basal plane and R;Co1, compound is positive whereas the contribution Er;Co17 is easy C axis. The field

  12. Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, F; Miyamoto, E; Nakano, Y

    2001-11-01

    Spirulina platensis NIES-39 was grown under open culture system in the presence or absence of CoSO(4) (12 microg/L) and/or vitamin B(12) (10 microg/L) to confirm whether CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) stimulate or are essential for growth of the algal cells and for accumulation of vitamin B(12). The addition of CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) could not affect both cell growth and cell yield of the alga. The amount of corrinoid-compound was increased significantly by the addition of CoSO(4) but not by vitamin B(12). A C18 reversed-phase HPLC pattern of the Spirulina corrinoid-compound increased by the addition of CoSO(4) was identical to that of authentic pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive for human. These results indicate that the algal cells grown in the absence of CoSO(4) are suitable for use of human health foods because the inactive corrinoid-compound can be reduced significantly.

  13. Cytotoxic activity, X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic characterization of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds with 2-substituted benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guadarrama, Obdulia; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Höpfl, Herbert; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2009-09-01

    Herein we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with 2-methylbenzimidazole (2mbz), 2-phenylbenzimidazole (2phbz), 2-chlorobenzimidazole (2cbz), 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (2cmbz) and 2-guanidinobenzimidazole (2gbz). Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated using human cancer cell lines, PC3 (prostate), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-15 (colon), HeLa (cervic-uterine), SKLU-1 (lung) and U373 (glioblastoma), showing that the zinc(II) and copper(II) compounds [Zn(2mbz)(2)Cl(2)].0.5H(2)O, [Zn(2cmbz)(2)Cl(2)].EtOH, [Cu(2cmbz)Br(2)].0.7H(2)O and [Cu(2gbz)Br(2)] had significant cytotoxic activity. The isostructural cobalt(II) complexes showed not significant activity. The cytotoxic activity is related to the presence of halides in the coordination sphere of the metal ion. Recuperation experiments with HeLa cells, showed that the cells recuperated after removing the copper(II) compounds and, on the contrary, the cells treated with the zinc(II) compounds did not. These results indicate that the mode of action of the coordination compounds is different.

  14. Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, Isacco; Scavetta, Erika; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica

    2011-03-15

    In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(III)/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that Co(IV) centers act as the oxidant. The CV investigation demonstrates that the process is controlled both by mass and charge transfer and that the Co(IV) centers involved in the oxidation are two for each SA molecule. The estimated value of the catalytic constant is 4×10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The determination of salicylic acid was performed both by DPV and chronoamperometry. The linearity ranges and the LOD values resulted 1×10(-5) to 5×10(-4), 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-4), 6×10(-6) and 2×10(-7) M, respectively. The Co/Al HTLC electrode has been used for SA determination in BAYER Aspirina® and the obtained results are consistent with an independent HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rates of water exchange for two cobalt(II) heteropoly-oxotungstate compounds in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlin, C. Andre; Harley, Stephen J.; McAlpin, J. Gregory; Hocking, Rosalie K.; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Johnson, Rene L.; Villa, Eric M.; Fidler, Mary Kate; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Spiccia, Leone; Britt, R. David; Casey, William H.

    2011-03-17

    Polyoxometalate ions are used as ligands in water-oxidation processes related to solar energy production. An important step in these reactions is the association and dissociation of water from the catalytic sites, the rates of which are unknown. Here we report the exchange rates of water ligated to CoII atoms in two polyoxotungstate sandwich molecules using the 17O-NMR-based Swift–Connick method. The compounds were the [Co4(H2O)2(B-α-W9O34)2]-10 and the larger αββα-[Co4(H2O)2(P2W15O56)2]-16 ions, each with two water molecules bound trans to one another in a CoII sandwich between the tungstate ligands. The clusters, in both solid and solution state, were characterized by a range of methods, including NMR, EPR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and EXAFS spectroscopy, ESI-MS, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and potentiometry. For [Co4(H2O)2(B-α-PW9O34)2]-10 at pH 5.4, we estimate: k 298=1.5(5)±0.3×106 s-1, ΔH=39.8±0.4 kJ mol-1, ΔS=+7.1±1.2 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔV=5.6 ±1.6 cm3 mol-1. For the Wells–Dawson sandwich cluster (αββα-[Co4(H2O)2(P2W15O56)2]-16) at pH 5.54, we find: k298=1.6(2)±0.3×106 s-1, ΔH=27.6±0.4 kJ mol-1 ΔS=-33±1.3 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔV=2.2±1.4 cm3mol-1 at pH 5.2. The molecules are clearly stable and monospecific in slightly acidic solutions, but dissociate in strongly acidic solutions. This dissociation is detectable by EPR

  16. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Zheng, Tongzhang; Pierce Wise, John

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt is a toxic metal used in various industrial applications leading to adverse lung effects by inhalation. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells, especially normal lung epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in normal primary human lung epithelial cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble and particulate cobalt induced similar cytotoxicity while soluble cobalt was more genotoxic than particulate cobalt. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung epithelial cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Trigonal Prismatic Tris-pyridineoximate Transition Metal Complexes: A Cobalt(II) Compound with High Magnetic Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Alexander A; Savkina, Svetlana A; Belov, Alexander S; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Efimov, Nikolay N; Voloshin, Yan Z; Novikov, Valentin V

    2017-06-19

    High magnetic anisotropy is a key property of paramagnetic shift tags, which are mostly studied by NMR spectroscopy, and of single molecule magnets, for which magnetometry is usually used. We successfully employed both these methods in analyzing magnetic properties of a series of transition metal complexes, the so-called clathrochelates. A cobalt complex was found to be both a promising paramagnetic shift tag and a single molecule magnet because of it having large axial magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropy at room temperature (22.5 × 10(-32) m(3) mol(-1)) and a high effective barrier to magnetization reversal (up to 70.5 cm(-1)). The origin of this large magnetic anisotropy is a negative value of zero-field splitting energy that reaches -86 cm(-1) according to magnetometry and NMR measurements.

  18. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity.

  19. Two new hybrid compounds assembled from Keggin phosphotungstates, cobalt/zinc cations and V-shaped imidazole ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Kun; Ma, Huiyuan; Pang, Haijun; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Zhuanfang; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid compounds, [Co(H2O)2(bimb)2]2[PWVWVI11O40] (1) and [Zn3(H2O)4(bimb)4][PWV3WVI9O40] (2) (bimb = 1,3-bis(1-imidazoly)benzene) have been obtained and characterized by routine methods. Compounds 1 and 2 are synthesized under the same hydrothermal conditions except for alternation of the metal cations, however, their eventual structures are different. Compound 1 exhibits a 1D chain, whereas 2 shows a complicated 3D framework. The distinct structural features of the two compounds indicate that metal cations should have great effects on the structures of POM-based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. The electrochemical properties of 1 and 2 have been also investigated, and the results show that 1 has a good electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) molecules ascribed to W-centers.

  20. Cobalt poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wear and tear of some cobalt/chromium metal-on-metal hip implants. This type of implant is an ... hip socket that is created by fitting a metal ball into a metal cup. Sometimes, metal particles ( ...

  1. Compounds of glycine with metal sulfates and thiosulfates: glycine cobalt sulfate pentahydrate, glycine sodium thiosulfate dihydrate and glycine potassium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Michel; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    In the crystal structures of the title compounds, hexaaquacobalt(II) tetraaquadiglycinatocobalt(II) bis(sulfate), [Co(H2O)6][Co(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, (I), poly[diaqua-mu3-glycinato-di-mu4-thiosulfato-tetrasodium(I)], [Na4(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)2(H2O)2]n, (II), and poly[mu2-glycinato-mu4-thiosulfato-dipotassium(I)], [K2(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)]n, (III), all atoms are located on general positions, except the Co atoms in (I), which are located on inversion centres. In (I), hydrogen bonds play an important role, while the alkali thiosulfate compounds are characterized by three-dimensional frameworks of polyhedra. Relations to other compounds of glycine and metal sulfates are commented on.

  2. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L.; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  3. Characteristics of polyaniline cobalt supported catalysts for epoxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established.

  4. Characteristics of Polyaniline Cobalt Supported Catalysts for Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established. PMID:24701183

  5. Cobalt superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, P.

    1983-11-15

    Disclosed is a cobalt-base superalloy containing about 32% cobalt, 8% nickel, 26.5% chromium, 2.5% tungsten, 5% niobium, about 1% each manganese and silicon, about 0.4% carbon, and the balance about 23% iron plus incidental impurities and modifiers normally found in alloys of this class. The alloy is readily processed in the form of wrought products, castings, metal powder and all forms of welding and hardfacing materials. The outstanding characteristics of the new alloy include the resistance to cavitation erosion and galling, low cost and minimal use of strategic metals.

  6. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  8. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, P.G.; Xiang, X.; Goldwasser, I.

    1998-07-07

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties. 58 figs.

  9. The Study of a Cobalt Complex--A Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehlin, James H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an 8-week project involving the synthesis of cobalt compounds. Once synthesized, compounds are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Background information, laboratory procedures, and results/discussion are provided for three project experiments. (Author/JN)

  10. The Study of a Cobalt Complex--A Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehlin, James H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an 8-week project involving the synthesis of cobalt compounds. Once synthesized, compounds are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Background information, laboratory procedures, and results/discussion are provided for three project experiments. (Author/JN)

  11. Advances in cobalt complexes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Catherine R; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan

    2015-08-21

    The evolution of resistance to traditional platinum-based anticancer drugs has compelled researchers to investigate the cytostatic properties of alternative transition metal-based compounds. The anticancer potential of cobalt complexes has been extensively studied over the last three decades, and much time has been devoted to understanding their mechanisms of action. This perspective catalogues the development of antiproliferative cobalt complexes, and provides an in depth analysis of their mode of action. Early studies on simple cobalt coordination complexes, Schiff base complexes, and cobalt-carbonyl clusters will be documented. The physiologically relevant redox properties of cobalt will be highlighted and the role this plays in the preparation of hypoxia selective prodrugs and imaging agents will be discussed. The use of cobalt-containing cobalamin as a cancer specific delivery agent for cytotoxins will also be described. The work summarised in this perspective shows that the biochemical and biophysical properties of cobalt-containing compounds can be fine-tuned to produce new generations of anticancer agents with clinically relevant efficacies.

  12. 2,6-Bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II): synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray study and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bulit, Pablo; Garza-Ortíz, Ariadna; Mijangos, Edgar; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Contreras, Rosalinda; Reedijk, Jan; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) and the ligand 2,6-bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (L) were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray diffraction for two representative cases. These novel compounds were designed to study their activity as anti-proliferative drugs against different human cancer cell lines. The tridentate ligand forms heptacoordinated compounds from nitrate metallic salts, where the nitrate acts in a chelating form to complete the seven coordination positions. In vitro cell growth inhibition was measured for Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, as well as for the free ligand. Upon coordination, the IC50 value of the transition-metal compounds is improved compared to the free ligand. The copper(II) and zinc(II) compounds are the most promising candidates for further in vitro and in vivo studies. The activity against colon and prostate cell lines merits further research, in views of the limited therapeutic options for such cancer types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Particulate and Soluble Cobalt in Human Urothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Speer, Rachel M; The, Therry; Xie, Hong; Liou, Louis; Adam, Rosalyn M; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-03-21

    Cobalt use is increasing particularly due to its use as one of the primary metals in cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) metal-on-metal prosthetics. CoCrMo is a high-strength, wear-resistant alloy with reduced risk for prosthetic loosening and device fracture. More than 500,000 people receive hip implants each year in the USA which puts them at potential risk for exposure to metal ions and particles released by the prosthetic implants. Data show cobalt ions released from prosthetics reach the bloodstream and accumulate in the bladder. As patients with failed hip implants show increased urinary and blood cobalt levels, no studies have considered the effects of cobalt on human urothelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate and soluble cobalt in urothelial cells. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ions. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found, when compared to particulate cobalt, soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic, but induced similar levels of genotoxicity. Interestingly, at similar intracellular cobalt ion concentrations, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by a lack of metaphases not observed after particulate cobalt treatment. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human urothelial cells and solubility may play a key role in cobalt-induced toxicity.

  14. Coordination chemistry of a bis(benzimidazole) disulfide: eleven membered chelate ring in cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) halide compounds; oxidative disulfide cleavage when coordinated to nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Esparza-Ruiz, Adriana; González-Gómez, Guadalupe; Mijangos, Edgar; Peña-Hueso, Adrián; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Contreras, Rosalinda; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2010-07-21

    Herein we report the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds with bis[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl]disulfide [bis-(2phSbz)] (1) and cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) halides (2-7). Their X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the metal ions present similar distorted tetrahedral structures, with the disulfide ligand coordinated through the imidazolic nitrogen atoms, forming a twisted eleven membered chelate ring. Structures of nickel(II) compounds 8 and 9, showed that the disulfide bond in the ligand was cleaved forming six membered chelates. In 8, the two ligands are sulfides, however in 9 one of them was oxidized to a sulfone. In both compounds the nickel(II) has a distorted square planar geometry and the sulfur atoms are in cis positions. The oxidation reaction of bis-(2phSbz) was performed in KMnO4/NaOH, giving the 2-(1H,3H-benzimidazolium-2-yl)-benzene sulfonate (10). The solid state structure of compounds 2-5 and 7-10 was determined by X-ray diffraction analyses.

  15. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  16. Sensitive Detection of Aromatic Hydrophobic Compounds in Water and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Human Serum by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with Amine Functionalized Graphene-Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with the use of amine functionalized graphene-coated cobalt nanoparticles (CoC–NH2 nanoparticles) to analyse aromatic hydrophobic compounds that are known environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our results demonstrated that SALDI-MS can detect PCP, anthracene, and pyrene in water. In particular, the CoC–NH2 nanoparticles proved to be an efficient means of capturing PCP in water because of the high adsorption capacity of the nanoparticles for PCP, which resulted in a detectability of 100 ppt. Furthermore, the CoC–NH2 nanoparticles also functioned as an adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from human serum, displaying good performance with a detectability of 10 ppb by SALDI-MS. PMID:26819871

  17. Sensitive Detection of Aromatic Hydrophobic Compounds in Water and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Human Serum by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with Amine Functionalized Graphene-Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with the use of amine functionalized graphene-coated cobalt nanoparticles (CoC-NH2 nanoparticles) to analyse aromatic hydrophobic compounds that are known environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our results demonstrated that SALDI-MS can detect PCP, anthracene, and pyrene in water. In particular, the CoC-NH2 nanoparticles proved to be an efficient means of capturing PCP in water because of the high adsorption capacity of the nanoparticles for PCP, which resulted in a detectability of 100 ppt. Furthermore, the CoC-NH2 nanoparticles also functioned as an adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from human serum, displaying good performance with a detectability of 10 ppb by SALDI-MS.

  18. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  19. Metal-Based Biologically Active Compounds: Synthesis, Spectral, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes of Triazole-Derived Schiff Bases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kiran; Kumar, Yogender; Puri, Parvesh; Sharma, Chetan; Aneja, Kamal Rai

    2011-01-01

    A series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/ethyl-1,2,4-triazole with 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, magnetic moment measurements, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was supported by infrared and thermal gravimetric studies. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis) and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus). The metal complexes exhibited significantly enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activity as compared to their simple Schiff bases. PMID:22216017

  20. Structure Evolution and Multiferroic Properties in Cobalt Doped Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ Intergrowth Aurivillius Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. L.; Huang, W. C.; Chen, Z. W.; Zhao, W. B.; Feng, L.; Li, M.; Yin, Y. W.; Dong, S. N.; Li, X. G.

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the structure evolution, magnetic and ferroelectric properties in Co-doped 4- and 3-layered intergrowth Aurivillius compounds Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ. The compounds suffer a structure evolution from the parent 4-layered phase (Bi4NdTi3FeO15) to 3-layered phase (Bi3NdTi2CoO12-δ) with increasing cobalt doping level from 0 to 1. Meanwhile the remanent magnetization and polarization show opposite variation tendencies against the doping level, and the sample with x = 0.3 has the largest remanent magnetization and the smallest polarization. It is believed that the Co concentration dependent magnetic properties are related to the population of the Fe3+ -O-Co3+ bonds, while the suppressed ferroelectric polarization is due to the enhanced leakage current caused by the increasing Co concentration. Furthermore, the samples (x = 0.1-0.7) with ferromagnetism show magnetoelectric coupling effects at room temperature. The results indicate that it is an effective method to create new multiferroic materials through modifying natural superlattices.

  1. Structure Evolution and Multiferroic Properties in Cobalt Doped Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ Intergrowth Aurivillius Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D. L.; Huang, W. C.; Chen, Z. W.; Zhao, W. B.; Feng, L.; Li, M.; Yin, Y. W.; Dong, S. N.; Li, X. G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the structure evolution, magnetic and ferroelectric properties in Co-doped 4- and 3-layered intergrowth Aurivillius compounds Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ. The compounds suffer a structure evolution from the parent 4-layered phase (Bi4NdTi3FeO15) to 3-layered phase (Bi3NdTi2CoO12-δ) with increasing cobalt doping level from 0 to 1. Meanwhile the remanent magnetization and polarization show opposite variation tendencies against the doping level, and the sample with x = 0.3 has the largest remanent magnetization and the smallest polarization. It is believed that the Co concentration dependent magnetic properties are related to the population of the Fe3+ -O-Co3+ bonds, while the suppressed ferroelectric polarization is due to the enhanced leakage current caused by the increasing Co concentration. Furthermore, the samples (x = 0.1–0.7) with ferromagnetism show magnetoelectric coupling effects at room temperature. The results indicate that it is an effective method to create new multiferroic materials through modifying natural superlattices. PMID:28272495

  2. Nickel-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: efficient catalysts for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds and photo-oxidative degradation of toxic dyes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjit; Goyal, Ankita; Singhal, Sonal

    2014-07-21

    This study deals with the exploration of NixCo₁-xFe₂O₄ (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) ferrite nanoparticles as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B. The ferrite samples with uniform size distribution were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique. The structural investigation was performed using powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy. The spherical particles with ordered cubic spinel structure were found to have the crystallite size of 4-6 nm. Diffused UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the optical properties of the synthesized ferrite nanoparticles. The surface area calculated using BET method was found to be highest for Co₀.₄Ni₀.₆Fe₂O₄ (154.02 m(2) g(-1)). Co₀.₄Ni₀.₆Fe₂O₄ showed the best catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as reducing agent, whereas CoFe₂O₄ was found to be catalytically inactive. The reduction reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The effect of varying the concentration of catalyst and NaBH₄ on the reaction rates was also scrutinized. The photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B, enhanced oxidation efficacy was observed with the introduction of Ni(2+) in to the cobalt ferrite lattice due to octahedral site preference of Ni(2+). Almost 99% degradation was achieved in 20 min using NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles as catalyst.

  3. Photolysis and thermolysis of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt azides: C-H activation from putative cobalt nitrido complexes.

    PubMed

    Hojilla Atienza, Crisita Carmen; Bowman, Amanda C; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-11-24

    A series of planar aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine cobalt azide complexes were prepared and evaluated as synthetic precursors for the corresponding cobalt nitrido compounds. Thermolysis or photolysis of two examples resulted in intramolecular C-H activation of the benzylic positions of the aryl substituents. For the mesityl-substituted compound, C-H activation by the putative nitride resulted in formation of a neutral imine ligand and modification of the chelate by hydrogen transfer to the imine carbon.

  4. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  5. Marine cobalt resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    Ferromanganese oxides in the open oceans are more enriched in cobalt than any other widely distributed sediments or rocks. Concentrations of cobalt exceed 1 percent in ferromanganese crusts on seamounts, ocean ridges, and other raised areas of the ocean. The cobalt-rich crusts may be the slowest growing of any earth material, accumulating one molecular layer every 1 to 3 months. Attention has been drawn to crusts as potential resources because they contain cobalt, manganese, and platinum, three of the four priority strategic metals for the United States. Moreover, unlike abyssal nodules, whose recovery is complicated by their dominant location in international waters, some of the most cobalt-rich crusts occur within the exclusive economic zone of the United States and other nations. Environmental impact statements for crust exploitation are under current development by the Department of the Interior.

  6. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  7. Selective recognition of cobalt (II) ion by a new cryptand compound with N2O2S2 donor atom possessing 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene Schiff base moiety.

    PubMed

    Başoğlu, Aysel; Parlayan, Semanur; Ocak, Miraç; Alp, Hakan; Kantekin, Halit; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Ocak, Ummühan

    2009-07-01

    A new cryptand compound carrying 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene Schiff base moiety (3) was designed and synthesized by reaction of the corresponding macrobicyclic amine compound (1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2). The influence of metal cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Fe2+,Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Al3+ and Pb2+ on the spectroscopic properties of the new fluoroionophore was investigated in acetonitrile-dichloromethane solution (9.5/0.5) by means of absorption and emission spectrometry. The blue shifts on the fluorescence spectrum were observed for all metal cations at 504 nm. At the same time the fluorescence spectrum of the ligand showed quenching in the intensity of the signal at 504 nm for all metal cations except for Zn2+. Interaction of Co2+ with the ligand caused quenching of naphtyl fluorescence higher than 84%. The method showed good selectivity and sensitivity for Co2+ with respect to other metal cations with linear range and detection limit of 1.5 x 10(-7) to 3.3 x 10(-6) M and 4.8 x 10(-8) M respectively.

  8. Magnetism in cobalt clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Jeffrey Wayne

    The results of Stern-Gerlach type magnetic deflection experiments on clusters of cobalt consisting of 15 to 200 atoms are reported. These cobalt clusters exhibit superparamagnetic behavior over a wide range of temperatures and applied magnetic fields. The average magnetic moment per atom was determined for each cluster size. These range from 2.28 muB to 3.40 mu B, significantly exceeding the 1.72 muB per atom moment of bulk cobalt. This enhanced magnetism predictably decreases with increasing cluster size, but the evolution to the bulk is not smooth and exhibits detailed structure.

  9. The azide-bridged mixed-valent cobalt(II,III) compound [(CH(3))(3)NH](2)[CoCo(2)(N(3))(10)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Li, Yu-Xian; Xu, Min; Wang, Xia

    2010-12-04

    The crystal structure of the title compound, poly[bis-(tri-methyl-ammonium) hexa-μ(1,1)-azido-tetra-azido-tricobalt-ate(II,III)], [(CH(3))(3)NH](2)[Co(II)Co(III) (2)(N(3))(10)], consists of anionic chains [Co(II)Co(III) (2)(N(3))(10)](2-) extending parallel to the c axis and [(CH(3))(3)NH](+) counter-cations situated between the chains. In the anionic chain, one tetra-hedrally coordinated Co(II) atom (site symmetry 2) and two octa-hedrally coordinated Co(III) atoms are arranged alternately and are linked by μ(1,1)-azide bridges. The anionic chains and cations are connected via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonding into a three-dimensional structure.

  10. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  11. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  12. Structural diversity in manganese, iron and cobalt complexes of the ditopic 1,2-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-6-yl)ethyne ligand and observation of epoxidation and catalase activity of manganese compounds.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Vedichi; Ekambaram, Balaraman; Shimon, Linda J W; Diskin, Yael; Leitus, Gregory; Neumann, Ronny

    2010-08-21

    -carbon bond formation, rather the ligand is constrained in this position, as deduced by the observation that the bond lengths and angles of the ligand are essentially the same as those for the free ligand, L. Reaction of L with perchlorate or triflate salts of Fe(II), Mn(II) and Co(II) in dry acetonitrile yielded binuclear triple helicate structures (2:3 metal to L ratios) [Fe(2)L(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(4) x CH(3)CN (4), [Mn(2)L(3)](ClO(4))(4) x 1.7 CH(3)CN x 1.65 EtOEt (5) and [Co(2)L(3)](ClO(4))(4) x 2 CH(3)CN x 2 EtOEt (6) where each M(II) center with a slightly distorted octahedral geometry is bridged by three of the ditopic ligands. The M-M distances varied; 5.961 A (Mn), 6.233 A (Co) 6.331 A (Fe). Reaction of L with Co(ClO(4))(2) x 6 H(2)O in wet acetonitrile yielded a dicobalto(III) compound, [Co(2)L'(3)(O)(2)](ClO(4))(2) x H(2)O (7), with two types of L' fragments; one bridging between the two Co centers and two non-bridging ligands, each bonded to a Co atom via one bipyridyl group where the other is non-bonding. The octahedral coordination sphere around each Co atom is completed by the formation of a cobalt-carbon bond from the two carbon atoms of the ethene moiety of the bridging ligand and by a hydroxy moiety that is also bonded to the ethene group of the non-bridging ligand. Reaction of L with Co(ClO(4))(2) x 6 H(2)O in dry acetonitrile in the presence of Et(3)N yielded the tetracobalto(II) complex {[Co(2)L(4)(OH)(4)](ClO(4))(4)}(2) (8) with a unique twisted square configuration of cobalt ions with Co-Co distances of 3.938 to 4.131 A. In addition to the L bridging ligand the Co atoms are linked by hydroxy moieties. Some preliminary catalytic studies showed that the Mn compounds 1 and 2 were active (high yield within 3 min) for alkene epoxidation with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide dismutation (catalase activity).

  13. Mercury-based cobalt magnetic fluids and cobalt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massart, R.; Rasolonjatovo, B.; Neveu, S.; Cabuil, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a magnetic and conducting liquid consisting of cobalt nanoparticles dispersed in mercury. The magnetic nanoparticles are obtained in one step by the electroreduction of a cobalt(II) solution on mercury. These particles are then extracted using an organic solution of surfactant in order to obtain a ferrofluid based on cobalt nanoparticles.

  14. Catalysis: Cobalt gets in shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Solid cobalt-based catalysts are used commercially to convert carbon monoxide and hydrogen into synthetic fuels. It emerges that much more valuable chemicals can be produced by using a different form of cobalt catalyst. See Letter p.84

  15. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AGING(MATERIALS), AGING(MATERIALS), INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, VANADIUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, TEMPERATURE, TIME ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, HARDNESS, TRANSFORMATIONS, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, MEASUREMENT, MICROSCOPY, ALLOYS, METALLOGRAPHY, X RAY DIFFRACTION.

  16. Cobalt(II) complexes with hydroxypyridines and halogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojer, Brina; Pevec, Andrej; Jagličić, Zvonko; Kristl, Matjaž

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized two new cobalt(II) complexes: difluoridotetrakis(3-hydroxypyridine-κN)cobalt(II), [CoF2(C5H5NO)4] (1) and hexa(2-pyridone-κO)cobalt(II) tetrachloridocobaltate(II), [Co(C5H5NO)6][CoCl4] (2). The complexes were prepared by solvothermal synthesis. A methanol solution of hydroxypyridine was added to water solution of cobalt(II) acetate dihydrate followed by a few drops of concentrated hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid into the mixture. The crystals of the compounds 1 and 2 are stable on air. The compounds were characterized structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, spectrally by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermally. Thermal analysis showed that the final product of both complexes after heating to 900 °C is elemental cobalt. The interactions between building units in the crystal structures include intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in both compounds and π-π interactions in compound 2.

  17. Determination of traces of cobalt in soils: A field method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almond, H.

    1953-01-01

    The growing use of geochemical prospecting methods in the search for ore deposits has led to the development of a field method for the determination of cobalt in soils. The determination is based on the fact that cobalt reacts with 2-nitroso-1-naphthol to yield a pink compound that is soluble in carbon tetrachloride. The carbon tetrachloride extract is shaken with dilute cyanide to complex interfering elements and to remove excess reagent. The cobalt content is estimated by comparing the pink color in the carbon tetrachloride with a standard series prepared from standard solutions. The cobalt 2-nitroso-1-naphtholate system in carbon tetrachloride follows Beer's law. As little as 1 p.p.m. can be determined in a 0.1-gram sample. The method is simple and fast and requires only simple equipment. More than 40 samples can be analyzed per man-day with an accuracy within 30% or better.

  18. Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A

    1966-07-01

    The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper.

  19. Cyanidotetra-kis-(trimethyl-phosphine)cobalt(I).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-01

    The title compound, [Co(CN)(C(3)H(9)P)(4)], was obtained as a product of the reaction of [Co(PMe(3))(4)] with a molar equivalent of 2,6-difluoro-benzonitrile in diethyl ether. This compound is stable in the air for several hours, but rapidly decomposes at room temperature in solution. The cobalt(I) atom has s trigonal-bipyramidal coordination enviroment in which the cyano group and one of the PMe(3) groups are in the axial positions.

  20. Cobalt toxicity: chemical and radiological combined effects on HaCaT keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Gault, N; Sandre, C; Poncy, J-L; Moulin, C; Lefaix, J-L; Bresson, C

    2010-02-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element well known as a constituent of vitamin B(12), but different compounds of Co are also described as highly toxic and/or radiotoxic for individuals or the environment. In nuclear power plants, (58)Co and (60)Co are radioactive isotopes of cobalt present as activation products of stable Co and Ni used in alloys. Skin exposure is a current occupational risk in the hard metal and nuclear industries. As biochemical and molecular cobalt-induced toxicological mechanisms are not fully identified, we investigated cobalt toxicity in a model human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. In this study, we propose a model to determine the in vitro chemical impact on cell viability of a soluble form of cobalt (CoCl(2)) with or without gamma-ray doses to mimic contamination by (60)Co, to elucidate the mechanisms of cobalt intracellular chemical and radiological toxicity. Intracellular cobalt concentration was determined after HaCaT cell contamination and chemical toxicity was evaluated in terms of cellular viability and clonogenic survival. We investigated damage to DNA in HaCaT cells by combined treatment with chemical cobalt and a moderate gamma-ray dose. Additive effects of cobalt and irradiation were demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of cobalt toxicity is not clearly established, but our results seem to indicate that the toxicity of Co(II) and of irradiation arises from production of reactive oxygen species.

  1. Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide

    DOEpatents

    Hurlburt, P.K.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-05-20

    A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10{prime} positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron. 1 fig.

  2. Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide

    DOEpatents

    Hurlburt, Paul K.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10' positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron.

  3. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  4. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  5. OMCVD of cobalt and cobalt silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormans, G. J. M.; Meekes, G. J. B. M.; Staring, E. G. J.

    1991-11-01

    Cobalt and cobalt silicide layers were deposited by OMCVD using the Co precursors Co(C 5H 5) 2, Co 2(CO) 8, Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 and CoCF 3(CO) 4, and the Si precursors SiH 4 and Si 2H 6. Strongly textured (111)-β Co layers were grown from Co(C 5H 5) 2, Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 and CoCF 3(CO) 4 at temperatures above 300°C in H 2 at atmospheric pressure. Growth from Co(C 5H 5) 2 is inhibited on Si substrates. For temperatures ≥600°C the Co layers deposited from Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 react with the Si(100) substrate to form CoSi 2(00 l) aligned with the substrate orientation. Co 2(CO) 8 gives amorphous Co between 200 and 300°C. The upper temperature is set by the occurrence of homogeneous gas-phase reactions at atmospheric reactor pressure. Cobalt silicide layers can be grown from CO 2(CO) 8 and (di)silane at temperatures between 200 and 400°C. The Co/Si ratio in the layers decreases with increasing temperature and is independent of the gas-phase Co/Si ratio. Stoichiometric CoSi 2 is obtained at ~ 300°C. Both Co(C 5H 5) 2 and Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 react with (di)silane, leading to the incorporation of carbon in the layer. The Co/Si ration and the carbon content in the layers are practically independent of the deposition conditions. With CoCF 3(CO) 4 no contamination-free silicide could be grown. The carbon incorporation with Co(C 5H 5) 2 and Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 can be avoided by a pulsed growth method in which the Co precursor and the Si precursor are introduced alternately into the reactor. With Co(C 5H 5) 2 the growth is then inhibited on Si substrates.

  6. Vibrational spectrum and structure of CoO6: a model compound for molecular oxygen reversible binding on cobalt oxides and salts; a combined IR matrix isolation and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Asma; Danset, Delphine; Zhou, Ming Fei; Gong, Yu; Alikhani, Mohammad E; Manceron, Laurent

    2011-08-18

    The formation and structure of a novel species, a disuperoxo-cobalt dioxide complex (CoO(6)), has been investigated using matrix isolation in solid neon and argon, coupled to infrared spectroscopy and by quantum chemical methods. It is found that CoO(6) can be formed by successive complexation of cobalt dioxide by molecular oxygen without activation energy by diffusion of ground state O(2) molecules at 9K in the dark. The IR data on one combination and seven fundamentals, isotopic effects, and quantum chemical calculations are both consistent with an asymmetrical structure with two slightly nonequivalent oxygen ligands complexing a cobalt dioxide subunit. Evidence for other, metastable states is also presented, but the data are not complete. The electronic structure and formation pathway of this unique, formally +VI oxidation state, complex has been investigated using several functionals of current DFT within the broken-symmetry unrestricted formalism. It has been shown that the M06L pure local functional well reproduce the experimental observations. The ground electronic state is predicted to be an open shell (2)A'' doublet with the quartet states above by more than 9 kcal/mol and the sextet lying even higher in energy. The ground state has a strong and complex multireference character that hinders the use of more precise multireference approaches and requires caution in the methodology to be used. The geometrical, energetic, and vibrational properties have been computed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Cobalt sorption in silica-pillared clays.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, A; Fetter, G; Bosch, P; Bulbulian, S

    2006-01-03

    Silicon pillared samples were prepared following conventional and microwave irradiation methods. The samples were characterized and tested in cobalt sorption. Ethylenediammine was added before cobalt addition to improve the amount of cobalt retained. The amount of cobalt introduced in the original clay in the presence of ethylenediammine was the highest. In calcined pillared clays the cobalt retention with ethylenediammine was lower (ca. 40%). In all cases the presence of ethylenediammine increased twice the amount of cobalt sorption measured for aqueous solutions.

  8. Cobalt ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Varying concentrations of an organometallic cobalt complex were added to an epoxy system currently used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin. Methods for combining cobalt (III) acetylacetonate with a tetraglycidyl 4,4 prime - diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy were investigated. The effects of increasing cobalt ion concentration on the epoxy cure were demonstrated by epoxy gel times and differential scanning calorimetry cure exotherms. Analysis on cured cobalt-containing epoxy castings included determination of glass transition temperatures by thermomechanical analysis, thermooxidative stabilities by thermogravimetric analysis, and densities in a density gradient column. Flexural strength and stiffness were also measured on the neat resin castings.

  9. Advanced alloy design technique: High temperature cobalt base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Sandrock, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced alloy design technique was developed for treating alloys that will have extended life in service at high temperature and intermediate temperatures. Process stabilizes microstructure of the alloy by designing it so that compound identified with embrittlement is eliminated or minimized. Design process is being used to develop both nickel and cobalt-base superalloys.

  10. Dioxygen bound cobalt corroles.

    PubMed

    Mittra, Kaustuv; Mondal, Biswajit; Mahammed, Atif; Gross, Zeev; Dey, Abhishek

    2017-01-10

    Two cobalt-dioxygen adducts, [CoH8]-O2 and [CoCl8]-O2, chelated by electron-rich and electron-poor corroles, respectively, were isolated in solution. Characterization by resonance Raman (rR) and EPR spectroscopy, together with DFT analyses, point towards (corrole) cobalt(iii)-O2˙(-) structures in both cases. The most significant insight was obtained from the Co-O and O-O stretching frequencies, which revealed that the Co-O bond in [CoH8]-O2 is somewhat stronger than in [CoCl8]-O2 and its O-O is weaker, but also that the differences are truly minute (8-10 cm(-1) for the O-O stretch). These conclusions are vital regarding the various applications that rely on efficient reduction of molecular oxygen. In particular, these kinds of cobalt complexes are perfectly suited for serving as electrocatalysts that may be tuned to operate at minimal overpotential without losing almost anything in terms of activity.

  11. Cobalt chloride speciation, mechanisms of cytotoxicity on human pulmonary cells, and synergistic toxicity with zinc.

    PubMed

    Bresson, Carole; Darolles, Carine; Carmona, Asuncion; Gautier, Céline; Sage, Nicole; Roudeau, Stéphane; Ortega, Richard; Ansoborlo, Eric; Malard, Véronique

    2013-02-01

    Cobalt is used in numerous industrial sectors, leading to occupational diseases, particularly by inhalation. Cobalt-associated mechanisms of toxicity are far from being understood and information that could improve knowledge in this area is required. We investigated the impact of a soluble cobalt compound, CoCl(2)·6H(2)O, on the BEAS-2B lung epithelial cell line, as well as its impact on metal homeostasis. Cobalt speciation in different culture media, in particular soluble and precipitated cobalt species, was investigated via theoretical and analytical approaches. The cytotoxic effects of cobalt on the cells were assessed. Upon exposure of BEAS-2B cells to cobalt, intracellular accumulation of cobalt and zinc was demonstrated using direct in situ microchemical analysis based on ion micro-beam techniques and analysis after cell lysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Microchemical imaging revealed that cobalt was rather homogeneously distributed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm whereas zinc was more abundant in the nucleus. The modulation of zinc homeostasis led to the evaluation of the effect of combined cobalt and zinc exposure. In this case, a clear synergistic increase in toxicity was observed as well as a substantial increase in zinc content within cells. Western blots performed under the same coexposure conditions revealed a decrease in ZnT1 expression, suggesting that cobalt could inhibit zinc release through the modulation of ZnT1. Overall, this study highlights the potential hazard to lung function, of combined exposure to cobalt and zinc.

  12. Synthesis of lithium cobaltate in halide melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modenov, D. V.; Dokutovich, V. N.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Antonov, B. D.; Kochedykov, V. A.; Zakir'yanova, I. D.

    2013-02-01

    A new method for the synthesis of lithium cobaltate LiCoo2 in salt melts is proposed and tested. The method is based on the oxidation of halide ions with molecular oxygen in Li X-CoCl2 mixtures ( X = Cl, Br, I). The chemical and phase compositions of the prepared powders and the crystal structure of the synthesized compound are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The average size of LiCoO2 crystallites is estimated from the X-ray diffraction data.

  13. Spectroelectrochemical studies of cobalt(II) porphyrins with paracyclophanyl, pyridinium and nucleoside substituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinski, T.; Kubaszewski, E.; Bennett, J.; Fish, J.; Niedbala, H.; Wheeler, D. E.; Czuchajowski, L.

    1992-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of novel cobalt complexes of porphyrins: ( meso-tetrakis [2.2]paracyclophanylporphyrinato)cobalt(II) (T(PCP)PCo(II)); ( meso-mono[2.2]paracyclophanyltriphenylporphyrinato)cobalt(II) (PCPPCo(II)); ( meso-tetrakis(5'-0- p-phenylene-2',3'-0-isopropylideneuridine)porphyrinato)cobalt(II) (TPUPCo(II)), and ( meso-5'-0- p-phenylene-2',3'-0-isopropylideneuridinetri( N-methyl-4-pyridinium)porphyrinato)cobalt(II) (PUPCo(II)). The redox properties of these complexes were characterized by voltammetry and UV—visible spectroelectrochemistry. The effects of the electron-donating and electron-withdrawing properties of the substituents on the electrochemical and spectroscopic data obtained are described and discussed. These compounds are the first examples of a linkage of a biomolecule, such as uridine, with the porphyrin system. These porphyrins also undergo electrochemical polymerization with the formation of conductive films.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of α-cobalt hydroxide nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Zhu, J. L.; Chen, L.; An, B.; Liu, Q. Q.; Huang, K. L.

    2011-08-01

    α-Cobalt hydroxide was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process from Co(Ac)2 and NH3·H2O in the presence of 1,3-propanediol. The large-scale-prepared cobalt hydroxide has a uniform nanobelt morphology with a considerably high aspect-ratio more than 20 which may be advantageous for exploration of their physicochemical properties. This synthetic method is convenient, economical, and controllable. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, CHN element analysis, thermogravimetric and differential-thermogravimetric analysis, which revealed the compound is lamellar structural cobalt organic-inorganic hybrid with the chemical formula of Co(OH)1.49(NH3)0.01(CO3 2-)0.22(Ac-)0.07(H2O)0.11 and single-crystalline.

  15. Cobalt source calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, H.M.

    1999-12-03

    The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

  16. Energetic co-ordination compounds: synthesis, characterization and thermolysis studies on bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(III) perchlorate (BNCP) and its new transition metal (Ni/Cu/Zn) perchlorate analogues.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Agrawal, A P; Asthana, S N

    2005-04-11

    Bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine[cobalt(III)/nickel(III)] perchlorates (BNCP/BNNP) and mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine [copper(II)/zinc(II)] perchlorates (MNCuP/MNZnP) have been synthesized during this work. The synthesis was carried out by addition of carbonato tetraammine metal [Co/Ni/Cu/Zn] nitrate [CTCN/CTNN/CTCuN/CTZnN] to the aqueous solution of sodium salt of 5-nitrotetrazole followed by reaction with perchloric acid. The precursors were synthesized by the reaction of aqueous solution of their respective nitrates with ammonium carbonate at 70 degrees C. The complexes and their precursors were characterized by determining metal and perchlorate content as well as infrared (IR), electron spectra for chemical analysis (ESCA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The TG profiles indicated that BNCP, BNNP and MNCuP are thermally stable up to the temperature of 260-278 degrees C unlike MNZnP (150 degrees C). Sudden exothermic decomposition was observed in case of bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(III) perchlorate, bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine nickel(III) perchlorate and mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine zinc(II) perchlorate resulting in the severe damage of the sample cup. Sensitivity data indicated that the Co/Ni/Cu complexes are more friction sensitive (3-4.8 kg) than mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine zinc(II) perchlorate (14 kg). The impact sensitivity results of the complexes corresponded to h50% of 30-36 cm.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrochemistry of sigma-Bonded Cobalt Corroles in High Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Will, Stefan; Lex, Johann; Vogel, Emanuel; Adamian, Victor A.; Van Caemelbecke, Eric; Kadish, Karl M.

    1996-09-11

    The synthesis, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and structural characterization of two high-valent phenyl sigma-bonded cobalt corroles containing a central cobalt ion in formal +IV and +V oxidation states is presented. The characterized compounds are represented as phenyl sigma-bonded cobalt corroles, (OEC)Co(C(6)H(5)) and [(OEC)Co(C(6)H(5))]ClO(4), where OEC is the trianion of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylcorrole. The electronic distribution in both molecules is discussed in terms of their NMR and EPR spectroscopic data, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry.

  18. Carbene radicals in cobalt(II)-porphyrin-catalysed carbene carbonylation reactions; a catalytic approach to ketenes.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nanda D; Chirila, Andrei; Lu, Hongjian; Zhang, X Peter; de Bruin, Bas

    2013-09-23

    One-pot radicals: Cobalt(III)-carbene radicals, generated by metallo-radical activation of diazo compounds and N-tosylhydrazone sodium salts with cobalt(II) complexes of porphyrins, readily undergo radical addition to carbon monoxide, allowing the catalytic production of ketenes. These ketenes subsequently react with various amines, alcohols and imines in one-pot tandem transformations to produce differently substituted amides, esters and β-lactams in good isolated yields.

  19. Cobalt: for strength and color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  20. Splitting water with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Artero, Vincent; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Fontecave, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The future of energy supply depends on innovative breakthroughs regarding the design of cheap, sustainable, and efficient systems for the conversion and storage of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. The production of hydrogen, a fuel with remarkable properties, through sunlight-driven water splitting appears to be a promising and appealing solution. While the active sites of enzymes involved in the overall water-splitting process in natural systems, namely hydrogenases and photosystem II, use iron, nickel, and manganese ions, cobalt has emerged in the past five years as the most versatile non-noble metal for the development of synthetic H(2)- and O(2)-evolving catalysts. Such catalysts can be further coupled with photosensitizers to generate photocatalytic systems for light-induced hydrogen evolution from water.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of cobalt following a single intravenous administration to horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Mitchell, M M; Holser, I; Poppenga, R; Smith, L L; Helm, M N; Sams, R A; Gaskill, C L

    2015-07-01

    Cobalt has been used by human athletes due to its purported performance-enhancing effects. It has been suggested that cobalt administration results in enhanced erythropoiesis, secondary to increased circulating erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations leading to improvements in athletic performance. Anecdotal reports of illicit administration of cobalt to horses for its suspected performance enhancing effects have led us to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of this compound when administered in horses, so as to better regulate its use. In the current study, 18 horses were administered a single intravenous dose of cobalt chloride or cobalt gluconate and serum and urine samples collected for up to 10 days post administration. Cobalt concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pharmacokinetic parameters determined. Additional blood samples were collected for measurement of equine EPO concentrations as well as to assess any effects on red blood cell parameters. Horses were observed for adverse effects and heart rate monitored for the first 4 h post administration. Cobalt was characterized by a large volume of distribution (0.939 L/kg) and a prolonged gamma half-life (156.4 h). Cobalt serum concentrations were still above baseline values at 10 days post administration. A single administration of cobalt had no effect on EPO concentrations, red blood cell parameters or heart rate in any of the horses studied and no adverse effects were noted. Based on the prolonged gamma half-life and prolonged residence time, regulators should be able to detect administration of a single dose of cobalt to horses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Structural features of macrocyclic cobalt complexes - catalysts of chain transfer to a monomer in radical polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Gridnev, A.A.; Lampeka, Ya.D.; Smirnov, B.R.; Yatsimirskii, K.B.

    1987-11-01

    Data are given on the catalytic activity of a series of cobalt coordination compounds with macrocyclic and acyclic ligsnds of different structures in radical polymerization reactions of methacrylic monomers. The influence of various factors (especially the structure of the ligand) on the manifestation of catalytic properties of the compounds studied is discussed.

  3. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Pignon, Antoine; Le Gall, Erwan; Martens, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed.

  4. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Pignon, Antoine; Martens, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed. PMID:24605162

  5. Electronic structure of icosahedral cobalt-sulfur clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.G.; Bashkin, J.K.; Karplus, M. )

    1990-11-21

    This paper uses the multiple scattering (MS)-X{alpha} method to calculate the electronic structure of several clusters that contain an octahedral Co{sub 8}S{sub 6} core. Two of the cluster are analogous to compounds that have been previously synthesized, and the results of these calculations are consistent with the experimentally observed spin states, absorption spectra, and structural similarity of these compounds. These clusters are of particular interest because they are related to the component structures of the mineral cobalt pentlandite. To obtain information that can be extended to cobalt pentlandite, the effects of oxidation state and added ligands to the core structure of the clusters are studied. An extended Hueckel theory (EHT) study of similar clusters has been performed by Burdett and Miller. The spectra from the two types of calculations correspond in general and the central conclusions of Burdett and Miller are supported by the MS-X{alpha} results.

  6. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  7. Wrought cobalt-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Klarstrom, D.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Wrought cobalt-base superalloys are used extensively in gas turbine engines because of their excellent high-temperature creep and fatigue strength and resistance to hot corrosion attach. In addition, the unique character of the oxide scales that form on some of the alloys provides outstanding resistance to high-temperature sliding wear. This article provides a review of the evolutionary development of wrought cobalt-base alloys in terms of alloy design and physical metallurgy. The topics include solid-solution strengthening, carbide precipitation characteristics, and attempts to introduce age hardening. The use of PHACOMP to enhance thermal stability characteristics and the incorporation of rare-earth elements to improve oxidation resistance is also reviewed and discussed. The further development of cobalt-base superalloys has been severely hampered by past political events, which have accentuated the strategic vulnerability of cobalt as a base or as an alloying element. Consequently, alternative alloys have been developed that use little or no cobalt. One such alternative, Haynes 230 alloy, is discussed briefly.

  8. Cobalt-60 production at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.F.

    1995-02-01

    Over the past 8 or 9 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has produced close to 4 million curies of cobalt-60 by irradiating cobalt-59 in the production reactors. This paper reviews past and current irradiations, cobalt-60 production methods, and costs.

  9. Transport of cobalt-60 industrial radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Gibson, Wayne

    This paper will deal with safety aspects of the handling of Cobalt-60, the most widely used industrial radio-isotope. Cobalt-60 is a man-made radioisotope of Cobalt-59, a naturally occurring non radioactive element, that is made to order for radiation therapy and a wide range of industrial processing applications including sterilization of medical disposables, food irradiation, etc.

  10. Stereoselective Alkane Oxidation with meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid (MCPBA) Catalyzed by Organometallic Cobalt Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B; Loginov, Dmitriy A; Shul'pina, Lidia S; Ikonnikov, Nikolay S; Idrisov, Vladislav O; Vinogradov, Mikhail M; Osipov, Sergey N; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Tyubaeva, Polina M

    2016-11-22

    Cobalt pi-complexes, previously described in the literature and specially synthesized and characterized in this work, were used as catalysts in homogeneous oxidation of organic compounds with peroxides. These complexes contain pi-butadienyl and pi-cyclopentadienyl ligands: [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(benzene)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(C₆H₆)]PF₆ (1); diiodo(carbonyl)(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt, Cp*Co(CO)I₂ (2); diiodo(carbonyl)(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, CpCo(CO)I₂ (3); (tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(dicarbonyl)(iodo)cobalt, (C₄Me₄)Co(CO)₂I (4); [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(acetonitrile)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(bipy)(MeCN)]PF₆ (5); bis[dicarbonyl(B-cyclohexylborole)]cobalt, [(C₄H₄BCy)Co(CO)₂]₂ (6); [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(phen)I]PF₆ (7); diiodo(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, [CpCoI₂]₂ (8); [(cyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [CpCo(bipy)I]PF₆ (9); and [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(bipy)I]PF₆ (10). Complexes 1 and 2 catalyze very efficient and stereoselective oxygenation of tertiary C-H bonds in isomeric dimethylcyclohexanes with MCBA: cyclohexanols are produced in 39 and 53% yields and with the trans/cis ratio (of isomers with mutual trans- or cis-configuration of two methyl groups) 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. Addition of nitric acid as co-catalyst dramatically enhances both the yield of oxygenates and stereoselectivity parameter. In contrast to compounds 1 and 2, complexes 9 and 10 turned out to be very poor catalysts (the yields of oxygenates in the reaction with cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane were only 5%-7% and trans/cis ratio 0.8 indicated that the oxidation is not stereoselective). The chromatograms of the reaction mixture obtained before and after reduction with PPh₃ are very similar, which testifies that alkyl

  11. Cobalt-catalysed site-selective intra- and intermolecular dehydrogenative amination of unactivated sp3 carbons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuesong; Yang, Ke; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Ge, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-catalysed sp2 C–H bond functionalization has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of the low cost of cobalt complexes and interesting modes of action in the process. In comparison, much less efforts have been devoted to the sp3 carbons. Here we report the cobalt-catalysed site-selective dehydrogenative cyclization of aliphatic amides via a C–H bond functionalization process on unactivated sp3 carbons with the assistance of a bidentate directing group. This method provides a straightforward synthesis of monocyclic and spiro β- or γ-lactams with good to excellent stereoselectivity and functional group tolerance. In addition, a new procedure has been developed to selectively remove the directing group, which enables the synthesis of free β- or γ-lactam compounds. Furthermore, the first cobalt-catalysed intermolecular dehydrogenative amination of unactivated sp3 carbons is also realized. PMID:25753366

  12. Determination of trace cobalt concentrations in human serum by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Kajic, Petra; Milosev, Ingrid; Pihlar, Boris; Pisot, Venceslav

    2003-01-01

    The goal of our study was to develop an accurate and reliable method for determining trace cobalt concentrations in human serum. The method was used to determine cobalt in the sera of healthy persons and patients with orthopaedic implants containing cobalt - a possible source of systemic release of cobalt into the human body. This goal is of vital interest since cobalt and its compounds are classified by IARC as potentially carcinogenic to humans. We used an electrochemical method, adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV), which made possible the low detection limit and high sensitivity needed for measurements in human serum. The serum was acid digested by a combination of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 in a 10 mL Kjeldhal flask. The digested sample was then dissolved in 0.1 mol/L ammonia buffer, pH 9.0 +/- 0.2. The determination is based on the adsorptive collection of the complex of cobalt (II) with dimethylglyoxime on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The optimum values of adsorption potential and time were determined to be -0.8 V and 60 s. The optimisation of the sample digestion protocol and measurement procedures ensured the reliable assessment of low cobalt concentrations, down to 0.03 microg/L. The mean concentration of serum cobalt in four healthy persons was 0.11 +/- 0.06 microg/L, and in four patients with total hip replacements 0.34 +/- 0.07 microg/L. This method will be used routinely for measuring serum cobalt levels in patients with total hip replacements.

  13. Controlling the misuse of cobalt in horses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Chan, George H M; Wan, Terence S M; Curl, Peter; Riggs, Christopher M; Hurley, Michael J; Sykes, David

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is a well-established inducer of hypoxia-like responses, which can cause gene modulation at the hypoxia inducible factor pathway to induce erythropoietin transcription. Cobalt salts are orally active, inexpensive, and easily accessible. It is an attractive blood doping agent for enhancing aerobic performance. Indeed, recent intelligence and investigations have confirmed cobalt was being abused in equine sports. In this paper, population surveys of total cobalt in raceday samples were conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary threshold of 75 ng/mL and plasma threshold of 2 ng/mL could be proposed for the control of cobalt misuse in raceday or in-competition samples. Results from administration trials with cobalt-containing supplements showed that common supplements could elevate urinary and plasma cobalt levels above the proposed thresholds within 24 h of administration. It would therefore be necessary to ban the use of cobalt-containing supplements on raceday as well as on the day before racing in order to implement and enforce the proposed thresholds. Since the abuse with huge quantities of cobalt salts can be done during training while the use of legitimate cobalt-containing supplements are also allowed, different urinary and plasma cobalt thresholds would be required to control cobalt abuse in non-raceday or out-of-competition samples. This could be achieved by setting the thresholds above the maximum urinary and plasma cobalt concentrations observed or anticipated from the normal use of legitimate cobalt-containing supplements. Urinary threshold of 2000 ng/mL and plasma threshold of 10 ng/mL were thus proposed for the control of cobalt abuse in non-raceday or out-of-competition samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cobalt Alums. A Demonstration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, Claus E.; Steenberg, Paul

    2002-08-01

    The demonstration experiment describes the isolation of [Co(H2O)6]3+ both as the pure blue crystalline cesium cobalt alum, CsCo(SO4)2·12H2O, and as a light greenish-blue solid solution of ammonium cobalt alum in (NH4)Al(SO4)2·12H2O. The hexaaquacobalt(III) ion is prepared chemically by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, taking advantage of the stabilization of CoIII relative to CoII by complexation with the carbonate ligand. A brief description of alum structure and a characterization of alum subclasses are included.

  15. Characterization of feline serum-cobalt binding.

    PubMed

    Schnelle, Amy N; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Mitchell, Mark M; Solter, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress inhibits albumin's ability to complex with cobalt. Feline serum-cobalt binding has not been described. The objective was to develop a cobalt binding test for use with feline serum, and correlate the results with other biochemical and cellular constituents in blood, and with clinical diseases of cats. A colorimetric test of cobalt binding, based on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Co(+2) and dithiothreitol, was developed using feline serum. The test was used to measure cobalt binding in stored serum from 176 cats presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a variety of disease conditions. Time-matched hematology and biochemical data, and clinical information, were obtained from the medical record of each cat and correlated with the serum-cobalt binding results. Serial dilution of feline serum with phosphate-buffered saline resulted in a highly linear decrease in serum-cobalt binding (r(2)  = .9984). Serum-cobalt binding of the clinical samples also correlated with albumin concentrations in a stepwise linear regression model (r(2)  = .425), and both cobalt binding and albumin were significantly decreased in cases of inflammation. Albumin and cobalt binding also shared significant correlations with several erythron variables, and serum concentration of total calcium and bilirubin. The correlation of cobalt binding measured by a colorimetric test with albumin concentration in the clinical samples and with serum dilution is consistent with feline albumin-cobalt complex formation. Hypoalbuminemia is the likely cause of reduced serum-cobalt binding in inflammation and the correlations observed between cobalt binding and other variables. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. COBALT Flight Demonstrations Fuse Technologies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-07

    This 5-minute, 50-second video shows how the CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies (COBALT) system pairs new landing sensor technologies that promise to yield the highest precision navigation solution ever tested for NASA space landing applications. The technologies included a navigation doppler lidar (NDL), which provides ultra-precise velocity and line-of-sight range measurements, and the Lander Vision System (LVS), which provides terrain-relative navigation. Through flight campaigns conducted in March and April 2017 aboard Masten Space Systems' Xodiac, a rocket-powered vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) platform, the COBALT system was flight tested to collect sensor performance data for NDL and LVS and to check the integration and communication between COBALT and the rocket. The flight tests provided excellent performance data for both sensors, as well as valuable information on the integrated performance with the rocket that will be used for subsequent COBALT modifications prior to follow-on flight tests. Based at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, CA, the Flight Opportunities program funds technology development flight tests on commercial suborbital space providers of which Masten is a vendor. The program has previously tested the LVS on the Masten rocket and validated the technology for the Mars 2020 rover.

  17. Analysis of a case of internal contamination with cobalt radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Vrba, T; Malatova, I; Jurochova, B

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by compounds of cobalt radioisotopes occurs time to time at nuclear power plants. Intakes and committed effective doses are estimated by biokinetic models described in ICRP publications. The paper deals with a case of internal contamination of a worker engaged in a maintenance task at NPP Dukovany. In this case significant discrepancy was observed between intakes based on various datasets (whole body counting, analysis of urine and faeces) when default model setting was used. The reason of this phenomenon was searched for. Three different least square methods of fits were used to find out possible effect of a fitting method. The measured data were fitted by set of biokinetic functions, which covered all intake ways (ingestion and inhalation) and types (M, S, different AMADs and different f1) of the contaminant. The biokinetic model of cobalt needs further improvements as to find better agreement between data fit from direct measurements and bioassay.

  18. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli; Møller, Per; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-08-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure. The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items. Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these. This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future. Industries may not be fully aware of the potential cobalt allergy problem.

  19. Cosine (Cobalt Silicide Growth Through Nitrogen-Induced Epitaxy) Process For Epitaxial Cobalt Silicide Formation For High Performance Sha

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Chong Wee; Shin, Chan Soo; Gall, Daniel; Petrov, Ivan Georgiev; Greene, Joseph E.

    2004-09-28

    A method for forming an epitaxial cobalt silicide layer on a MOS device includes sputter depositing cobalt in an ambient to form a first layer of cobalt suicide on a gate and source/drain regions of the MOS device. Subsequently, cobalt is sputter deposited again in an ambient of argon to increase the thickness of the cobalt silicide layer to a second thickness.

  20. Insight into Transmetalation Enables Cobalt-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross Coupling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the fundamental transformations that comprise a catalytic cycle for cross coupling, transmetalation from the nucleophile to the metal catalyst is perhaps the least understood. Optimizing this elementary step has enabled the first example of a cobalt-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling between aryl triflate electrophiles and heteroaryl boron nucleophiles. Key to this discovery was the preparation and characterization of a new class of tetrahedral, high-spin bis(phosphino)pyridine cobalt(I) alkoxide and aryloxide complexes, (iPrPNP)CoOR, and optimizing their reactivity with 2-benzofuranylBPin (Pin = pinacolate). Cobalt compounds with small alkoxide substituents such as R = methyl and ethyl underwent swift transmetalation at 23 °C but also proved kinetically unstable toward β–H elimination. Secondary alkoxides such as R = iPr or CH(Ph)Me balanced stability and reactivity. Isolation and structural characterization of the product following transmetalation, (iPrPNP)Co(2-benzofuranyl), established a planar, diamagnetic cobalt(I) complex, demonstrating the high- and low-spin states of cobalt(I) rapidly interconvert during this reaction. The insights from the studies in this elementary step guided selection of appropriate reaction conditions to enable the first examples of cobalt-catalyzed C–C bond formation between neutral boron nucleophiles and aryl triflate electrophiles, and a model for the successful transmetalation reactivity is proposed. PMID:28058283

  1. Polytypic transformations during the thermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2010-06-15

    The isothermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature leads to the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The phase evolution during the decomposition process was monitored using powder X-ray diffraction. The transformation of cobalt hydroxide to cobalt oxide occurs via three phase mixture while cobalt hydroxynitrate to cobalt oxide occurs through a two phase mixture. The nature of the sample and its preparation method controls the decomposition mechanism. The comparison of topotactical relationship between the precursors to the decomposed product has been reported in relation to polytypism. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal thermal decomposition studies of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature show the metastable phase formed prior to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase.

  2. On the cobalt and cobalt oxide electrodeposition from a glyceline deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Sakita, Alan M P; Della Noce, Rodrigo; Fugivara, Cecílio S; Benedetti, Assis V

    2016-09-14

    The electrodeposition of cobalt and cobalt oxides from a glyceline deep eutectic solvent is reported. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are employed to study the Co deposition processes. Surface analysis reveals that metallic cobalt is deposited at potentials less negative than the current peak potential whereas cobalt oxides are detected and electrochemically observed when the deposition is done at more negative potentials. i-t transients are analyzed by applying the Scharifker and Hills (SH) theoretical model. It is concluded that cobalt deposition occurs via a progressive nucleation and growth mechanism for concentrations higher than 0.05 mol L(-1) cobalt ions. For concentrations ≤0.025 mol L(-1) cobalt ions and low overpotentials, the mechanism changes to instantaneous nucleation. The im-tm relationships of the SH model are used to determine the values of the kinetic parameters and the cobalt ion diffusion coefficient.

  3. Late First-Row Transition-Metal Complexes Containing a 2-Pyridylmethyl Pendant-Armed 15-Membered Macrocyclic Ligand. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Seven-Coordinate Cobalt(II) Compound.

    PubMed

    Antal, Peter; Drahoš, Bohuslav; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2016-06-20

    The 2-pyridylmethyl N-pendant-armed heptadentate macrocyclic ligand {3,12-bis(2-methylpyridine)-3,12,18-triaza-6,9-dioxabicyclo[12.3.1]octadeca-1,14,16-triene = L} and [M(L)](ClO4)2 complexes, where M = Mn(II) (1), Fe(II) (2), Co(II) (3), Ni(II) (4), and Cu(II) (5), were prepared and thoroughly characterized, including elucidation of X-ray structures of all the compounds studied. The complexes 1-5 crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Sohncke space groups as racemic compounds. The coordination numbers of 7, 6 + 1, and 5 were found in complexes 1-3, 4, and 5, respectively, with a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal (1-4) or square pyramidal (5) geometry. On the basis of the magnetic susceptibility experiments, a large axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) was found for 2, 3, and 4 (D(Fe) = -7.4(2) cm(-1), D(Co) = 34(1) cm(-1), and D(Ni) = -12.8(1) cm(-1), respectively) together with a rhombic ZFS (E/D = 0.136(3)) for 4. Despite the easy plane anisotropy (D > 0, E/D = 0) in 3, the slow relaxation of the magnetization below 8 K was observed and analyzed either with Orbach relaxation mechanism (the relaxation time τ0 = 9.90 × 10(-10) s and spin reversal barrier Ueff = 24.3 K (16.9 cm(-1))) or with Raman relaxation mechanism (C = 2.12 × 10(-5) and n = 2.84). Therefore, compound 3 enlarges the small family of field-induced single-molecule magnets with pentagonal-bipyramidal chromophore. The cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in 1-3 and 5, except for the Ni(II) complex 4, where a quasi-reversible process was dominantly observed. Presence of the two 2-pyridylmethyl pendant arms in L with a stronger σ-donor/π-acceptor ability had a great impact on the properties of all the complexes (1-5), concretely: (i) strong pyridine-metal bonds provided slight axial compression of the coordination sphere, (ii) substantial changes in magnetic anisotropy, and (iii) stabilization of lower oxidation states.

  4. Technical and business considerations of cobalt hydrometallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Edgar; Åkre, Torjus; Asselin, Edouard

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 55,000 tonnes of cobalt are produced annually worldwide, which represents an estimated 1-3 billion in annual sales depending on cobalt price changes. Cobalt is a common impurity in both non-ferrous mineral sulfide and oxide processing. In this paper some business and technical considerations are presented to facilitate the decision-making process required to produce either an intermediate or a finished cobalt product via a hydrometallurgical route. Methods currently available and practiced for the recovery of cobalt are considered, and process requirements up- and down-stream associated with each chosen method are discussed. In particular, some environmental, energy, or other sustainable development implications of each process are mentioned. An outlook on the future of the cobalt industry and anticipated future trends is included.

  5. Interaction of cobalt ions with carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Moratal, J M; Castells, J; Donaire, A; Salgado, J; Jiménez, H R; Domingo, R

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of cobalt(II) with native and cobalt(II)-substituted carboxypeptidase has been investigated, at pH 7.5, by electronic absorption and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The reaction of the cobalt(II) uptake by the metalloenzyme [MCPA] (M = Zn or Co) occurs very slowly and a bimetallic complex, [MCPA(Co)], is formed. On the basis of the 1H NOE experiments, the isotropically shifted proton resonances were assigned as belonging to a coordinated histidine residue. 1H NMR titrations of [ZnCPA(Co)] with zinc(II) show that the zinc ion does not compete with cobalt for binding to the noncatalytic site. The temperature dependence of the isotropic shifts, molar absorbance, and longitudinal relaxation time values are indicative of a five-coordinated geometry for the cobalt ion. The identification of the noncatalytic cobalt binding site is also discussed.

  6. Size dependent stability of cobalt nanoparticles on silica under high conversion Fischer-Tropsch environment.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Moritz; Kotzé, Hendrik; Fischer, Nico; Claeys, Michael

    2017-02-15

    metal-support compounds is in accordance with conducted thermodynamic predictions. None of the extreme Fischer-Tropsch conditions initiated hydrothermal sintering. Seemingly, the formation of metal-support compounds stabilised the metallic crystallites and/or higher partial pressures of CO are required to increase the concentration of mobile, cobalt oxide-type species on the metallic surface.

  7. [Neurotoxic effects of cobalt: an open question].

    PubMed

    Catalani, S; Apostoli, P

    2011-01-01

    Increased cobalt levels have been associated with neurological diseases (hand tremor, incoordination, cognitive decline, depression, vertigo, hearing loss and visual changes) in addition to "classic" and known cardiac diseases (arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies) and allergic or endocrine symptoms. Cobalt neurotoxicity is reported in isolated cases: old occupational or iatrogenic exposures and more recent releases of metallic ions by prosthesis. The studies of these cases have revealed a typical symptomatology of cobalt probably due to its ability to induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.

  8. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H borylation.

    PubMed

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J

    2014-03-19

    A family of pincer-ligated cobalt complexes has been synthesized and are active for the catalytic C-H borylation of heterocycles and arenes. The cobalt catalysts operate with high activity and under mild conditions and do not require excess borane reagents. Up to 5000 turnovers for methyl furan-2-carboxylate have been observed at ambient temperature with 0.02 mol % catalyst loadings. A catalytic cycle that relies on a cobalt(I)-(III) redox couple is proposed.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: cobalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt is a metal used in numerous commercial, industrial and military applications. On a global basis, the leading use of cobalt is in rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride battery electrodes. Cobalt use has grown rapidly since the early 1990s, with the development of new battery technologies and an increase in demand for portable electronics such as cell phones, laptop computers and cordless power tools.

  10. The respiratory effects of cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Cugell, D.W.; Morgan, W.K.; Perkins, D.G.; Rubin, A. )

    1990-01-01

    We studied seven subjects with certain manifestations of cobalt-induced lung disease. All worked with cobalt and were involved in either the production or use of hard metal. The mode of presentation varied from an acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis that cleared completely when exposure ceased to progressive severe interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. In one subject reexposure was followed by a recurrence of the symptoms. All subjects showed restrictive ventilatory impairment and a reduction of their diffusing capacity. The radiologic appearances varied greatly. While two subjects had clear roentgenograms with small lung volumes, others had a micronodular pattern or small blotchy nodular infiltrates, and one had diffuse reticulonodulation as is seen in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. The pathologic appearances varied between desquamative interstitial pneumonia and overt mural fibrosis of the alveoli. Six of the seven patients had multinucleated giant cells in their biopsy specimens or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

  11. Low Temperature VOC Combustion Over Manganese, Cobalt and Zinc AlPO{sub 4} Molecular Sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Szostak, R.

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project is to prepare manganese, cobalt and zinc containing AlPO{sub 4} molecular sieves and evaluate their catalytic activities for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. This report highlights our research activities for period October 1,1996 to March 31, 1997.

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Near infrared spectroscopy of divalent cobalt in polycrystalline magnesium and zinc gallate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosman, L. P.; Dias Tavares, A., Jr.; Abritta, T.

    2000-01-01

    Infrared luminescence of MgGa2 O4 :Co2+ and ZnGa2 O4 :Co2+ polycrystalline samples is presented. The bands observed in these cobalt compounds are assigned to the 4 T1 (4 P)icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 4 T1 (4 F) transition of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions.

  13. Oxidation of low cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Four high temperature alloys: U-700, Mar M-247, Waspaloy and PM/HIP U-700 were modified with various cobalt levels ranging from 0 percent to their nominal commercial levels. The alloys were then tested in cyclic oxidation in static air at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1150 C at times from 500 to 100 1 hour cycles. Specific weight change with time and X-ray diffraction analyses of the oxidized samples were used to evaluate the alloys. The alloys tend to be either Al2O3/aluminate spinel or Cr2O3/chromite spinel formers depending on the Cr/Al ratio in the alloy. Waspaloy with a ratio of 15:1 is a strong Cr2O3 former while this U-700 with a ratio of 3.33:1 tends to form mostly Cr2O3 while Mar M-247 with a ratio of 1.53:1 is a strong Al2O3 former. The best cyclic oxidation resistance is associated with the Al2O3 formers. The cobalt levels appear to have little effect on the oxidation resistance of the Al2O3/aluminate spinel formers while any tendency to form Cr2O3 is accelerated with increased cobalt levels and leads to increased oxidation attack.

  14. Crystal structure, solvothermal synthesis, thermogravimetric studies and DFT calculations of a five-coordinate cobalt(II) compound based on the N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine anion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; Liu, Xianrong; Wang, Qijun; Wang, Lisheng; Song, Baoling

    2016-10-01

    The reaction of CoCl2·6H2O, N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in ethanol solution under solvothermal conditions produced crystals of [N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycinato]chloridocobalt(II), [Co(C6H12NO4)Cl]. The Co(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal-bipyramidal environment which is defined by three O atoms occupying the equatorial plane and the N and Cl atoms in the apical sites. In the crystal, two types of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). The mol-ecular structure of the title compound confirms the findings of FTIR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS analysis and TG analysis. By using the density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, the molecular structure has been calculated and optimized.

  15. Origin of electron disproportionation in metallic sodium cobaltates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysogorskiy, Y. V.; Krivenko, S. A.; Mukhamedshin, I. R.; Nedopekin, O. V.; Tayurskii, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    Recently, an unusual metallic state with a substantially nonuniform distribution of the charge and magnetic density in CoO2 planes was found experimentally in the NaxCoO2 compound with x >0.6 . We have investigated the origin of such an electron disproportionation in the lamellar sodium cobaltates by calculating the ion states as a function of the strength of the electron correlations in the d (Co) shells within the GGA+U approximation for a system with a realistic crystal structure. It was found that the nonuniformity of spin and charge densities are induced by an ordering of the sodium cations and enhanced correlations. Two important magnetic states of cobalt lattice competing with each other at realistic values of the correlation parameter were found—low-spin hexagons lattice (LS) and higher-spin kagome lattice (HS-KSL). In the heterogeneous metallic HS-KSL phase, magnetic Co ions form a kagome structure. In LS phase, the kagome pattern is decomposed into hexagons and the Co ions possess the minimal values of their spin. Coexistence of these states could explain the emergence of the disproportionation with the peculiar kagome structure experimentally revealed in previous studies of the cobaltates.

  16. β-diketone-cobalt complexes inhibit DNA synthesis and induce S-phase arrest in rat C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaizhi; Zhao, Xingli; Liu, Junzhi; Fang, Xiangyang; Wang, Xuepeng; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Rui

    2014-03-01

    β-diketone-cobalt complexes, a family of newly synthesized non-platinum metal compounds, exhibit potential antitumor activity; however, the antitumor mechanism is unclear. The current study investigated the mechanism by which β-diketone-cobalt complexes inhibit rat C6 glioma cell proliferation. It was found that β-diketone-cobalt complexes suppress rat C6 glioma cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (3.125-100 μg/ml). In rat C6 glioma cells, the IC50 value of β-diketone-cobalt complexes was 24.7±3.395 μg/ml and the IC10 value was 4.37±1.53 μg/ml, indicating a strong inhibitory effect. Further investigation suggested that β-diketone-cobalt complexes inhibit rat C6 glioma cell proliferation, which is associated with S-phase arrest and DNA synthesis inhibition. During this process, β-diketone-cobalt complexes decreased cyclin A expression and increased cyclin E and p21 expression. In addition, β-diketone-cobalt complexes exhibit a stronger antitumor capability than the antineoplastic agent, 5-fluorouracil.

  17. High cycle life, cobalt free, AB{5} metal hydride electrodes [Revised 11/10/98

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Tom; Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Adzic, G.D.; Ticianelli, E.A.; Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.

    1998-11-10

    Cobalt-free La(Ni,Sn)5+x alloys have been identified as low cost, corrosion resistant electrodes for nickel-metal-hydride batteries. The structure of theses alloys are similar to non-stoichiometric La(Ni,Cu)5+x compounds; i.e., they retain the P6/mmm space group while Ni dumbbells occupy La sites. Electrodes fabricated from some of these novel alloys have capacities and cycle lives equivalent to those made from commercial, battery grade, AB5 alloys with cobalt.

  18. Study of the influence of the bridge on the magnetic coupling in cobalt(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Oscar; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pasán, Jorge; Delgado, Fernando S; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2009-12-07

    Two new cobalt(II) complexes of formula [Co(2)(bta)(H(2)O)(6)](n) x 2nH(2)O (1) and [Co(phda)(H(2)O)](n) x nH(2)O (2) [H(4)bta = 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, H(2)phda = 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid] have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional compound where the bta(4-) ligand acts as 2-fold connector between the cobalt(II) ions through two carboxylate groups in para-conformation. Triply bridged dicobalt(II) units occur within each chain, a water molecule, a carboxylate group in the syn-syn conformation, and an oxo-carboxylate with the mu(2)O(1);kappa(2)O(1),O(2) coordination mode acting as bridges. Compound 2 is a three-dimensional compound, where the phda(2-) group acts as a bridge through its two carboxylate groups, one of them adopting the mu-O,O' coordination mode in the syn-syn conformation and the other exhibiting the single mu(2)-O'' bridging mode. As in 1, chains of cobalt(II) ions occur in 2 with a water molecule, a syn-syn carboxylate group, and an oxo-carboxylate constitute the triply intrachain bridging skeleton. Each chain is linked to other four ones through the phda(2-) ligand, giving rise to the three-dimensional structure. The values of the intrachain cobalt-cobalt separation are 3.1691(4) (1) and 3.11499(2) A (2) whereas those across the phenyl ring of the extended bta(4-) (1) and phda(2-) (2) groups are 10.1120(6) and 11.4805(69 A, respectively. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K, and their analysis has revealed the occurrence of moderate intrachain ferromagnetic couplings [J = +5.4 (1) and +2.16 cm(-1) (2), J being the isotropic magnetic coupling parameter], the magnetic coupling through the extended bta(4-) and phda(2-) with cobalt-cobalt separations larger than 10 A being negligible. The nature and magnitude of the magnetic interactions between the high-spin cobalt(II) ions in 1 and 2 are compared to those of related systems and

  19. LOW TEMPERATURE VOC COMBUSTION OVER MANGANESE, COBALT AND ZINC ALPO4 MOLECULAR SIEVES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosemarie Szostak

    2003-03-06

    The objective of this project was to prepare microporous aluminophosphates containing magnesium, manganese, cobalt and zinc (MeAPOs) and to evaluate their performance as oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods for metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework; (2) To characterize these materials for crystallinity, phase purity, the location and nature of the incorporated metal in the framework; and (3) To evaluate the materials for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of volatile organic environmental pollutants.

  20. A Raney Cobalt Mediated Reductive Cyclization Route to the Uleine Alkaloid Gilbertine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-11-04

    Reductive cyclization of the 2,4,5-trisubstituted cyclohexenone 16 using dihydogen in the presence of Raney cobalt afforded compound 17 (60%) that could be elaborated over a further five steps, including one involving a cationic cyclization process, into the racemic modification of the unusual uleine alkaloid gilbertine. Single-crystal X-ray analyses of compounds (±)-1, 16, and a derivative of 17 are reported.

  1. Effects of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride on oxidative stress-related parameters and drug metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjit; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride has been advocated as a potential anticarcinogenic compound. There is no information on the effects of this compound on oxidative stress-related parameters in animals. In the present study the effects of administration of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride in drinking water to balb/c male mice at doses of 25, 50, and 100 ppm for 14 weeks were examined. The tissue distribution of the compound was seen in liver, kidney, lung, intestine, blood, and spleen. The effects of the compound were monitored on levels of lipid peroxidation, GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase, GST, and Cyt P450, along with the liver and kidney function tests. The results show that the cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney followed by liver, intestine, blood, spleen, and lung in decreasing order, in a dose-dependent manner. GSH and GST also showed increase in a dose-dependent manner while SOD and catalase showed increase with the highest dose only. Liver and kidney function tests showed no untoward change with any dose at the end of the study. The results suggest an antioxidant potentiating effect of the hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride besides nontoxicity to liver and kidney. Since the ability to induce an increase of GSH and GST along with other detoxifying enzymes by anticarcinogenic agents has been reported to correlate with the inhibition of tumorigenesis, the cobalt complex might qualify as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent.

  2. Cobalt Reduction Guidelines, Revision 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report, which updates and supersedes an earlier report (EPRI NP-6737) on the same subject, describes methods for establishing a program to identify nuclear power plant valves with high-cobalt hardfacing that are potential significant contributors to the cobalt inventory that is irradiated in the reactor core. The resulting radioactive cobalt isotope, cobalt-60, is a major contributor to plant radiation levels and therefore occupational doses received by plant operational and maintenance personnel. A methodology to determine whether hardfacing is actually required on specific valves is also described as is the physical, mechanical and wear properties of high-cobalt and potential replacement cobalt-free hardfacing and trim alloys. Discussions are presented of the general and specific design requirements for valve hardfacing in nuclear service. Current world-wide nuclear utility experience with cobalt-free hardfacing alloys is described. The regulatory and industry code issues related to replacing and/or changing valve hardfacing materials are discussed. The actions and responsibilities of utility management in implementing an effective cobalt-reduction program are also delineated.

  3. Cobalt improves nickel hydroxide electrodes for batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, S. R.; Seiger, H. N.

    1969-01-01

    Positive nickel hydroxide electrodes containing 20 mole percent of cobalt hydroxide are more efficient than when impregnated to the same degree by weight with nickel hydroxide alone. Charge-acceptance and oxygen-evolution tests indicate cobalt electrodes are more efficient than plain positive nickel hydroxide electrodes at all rates of charge.

  4. Serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, G; Angelova, M; Christova, I; Nikolov, A; Alexiev, A

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the cardiovascular system is one of many aspects of cobalt metabolism in humans. Elastin and collagen are the main proteins of the vascular wall. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine serum cobalt concentrations in children with hypertension; and 2) to study the correlation between serum cobalt and some biological markers of the extracellular matrix of the vascular wall, i.e., anti-elastin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Patients showed statistically significant higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significantly lower serum cobalt concentrations, than controls. Children with hypertension showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.0003) and collagen type IV IgM (P = 0.04). Collagen type IV IgG levels (P = 0.027) were lower than in controls. Serum cobalt in patients showed a correlation with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.44, P = 0.05), elastin IgM (r = 0.60, P = 0.007), and collagen type IV IgG (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). Our data suggest the existence of a correlation between changes in levels of serum cobalt, total cholesterol, anti-collagen type IV antibodies, and essential hypertension in children. This is the first study of serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

  5. Modification of Wide-Band-Gap Oxide Semiconductors with Cobalt Hydroxide Nanoclusters for Visible-Light Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiko; Ishimaki, Koki; Tokunaga, Yuki; Lu, Daling; Eguchi, Miharu

    2016-07-11

    Cobalt-based compounds, such as cobalt(II) hydroxide, are known to be good catalysts for water oxidation. Herein, we report that such cobalt species can also activate wide-band-gap semiconductors towards visible-light water oxidation. Rutile TiO2 powder, a well-known wide-band-gap semiconductor, was capable of harvesting visible light with wavelengths of up to 850 nm, and thus catalyzed water oxidation to produce molecular oxygen, when decorated with cobalt(II) hydroxide nanoclusters. To the best of our knowledge, this system constitutes the first example that a particulate photocatalytic material that is capable of water oxidation upon excitation by visible light can also operate at such long wavelengths, even when it is based on earth-abundant elements only.

  6. Cobalt Derivatives as Promising Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Heffern, Marie C.; Yamamoto, Natsuho; Holbrook, Robert J.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic complexes are versatile platforms for the development of potent and selective pharmaceutical agents. Cobalt possesses a diverse array of properties that can be manipulated to yield promising drug candidates. Investigations into the mechanism of cobalt therapeutic agents can provide valuable insight into the physicochemical properties that can be harnessed for drug development. This review presents examples of bioactive cobalt complexes with special attention to their mechanisms of action. Specifically, cobalt complexes that elicit biological effects through protein inhibition, modification of drug activity, and bioreductive activation are discussed. Insights gained from these examples reveal features of cobalt that can be rationally tuned to produce therapeutics with high specificity and improved efficacy for the biomolecule or pathway of interest. PMID:23270779

  7. Tungsten- and cobalt-dominated heavy metal contamination of mangrove sediments in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Songjun; Lin, Chuxia; Qiu, Penghua; Song, Yan; Yang, Wenhuai; Xu, Guanchang; Feng, Xiaodan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Xiu; Niu, Anyi

    2015-11-15

    A baseline investigation into heavy metal status in the mangrove sediments was conducted in Shenzhen, China where rapid urban development has caused severe environmental contamination. It is found that heavy metal contamination in this mangrove wetland is characterized by the dominant presence of tungsten and cobalt, which is markedly different from the neighboring Hong Kong and other parts of the world. The vertical variation pattern of these two metals along the sediment profile differed from other heavy metals, suggesting an increasing influx of tungsten and cobalt into the investigated mangrove habitat, as a result of uncontrolled discharge of industrial wastewater from factories that produce or use chemical compounds or alloys containing these two heavy metals. Laboratory simulation experiment indicated that seawater had a stronger capacity to mobilize sediment-borne tungsten and cobalt, as compared to deionized water, diluted acetic, sulfuric and nitric acids.

  8. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the... and to prevent “gushing.” (b) Food containing any added cobaltous salts is deemed to be adulterated...

  9. Monomeric square-planar cobalt(II) acetylacetonate: mystery or mistake?

    PubMed

    Vreshch, Volodimir D; Yang, Jen-Hsien; Zhang, Haitao; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2010-09-20

    No evidence was found for the existence of a previously reported mononuclear square-planar form of unsolvated cobalt(II) acetylacetonate, Co(acac)(2), in all samples that have been obtained by using a variety of preparative techniques and crystallization conditions. It was confirmed that the structure of tetramer Co(4)(acac)(8), reported back in 1964 by Cotton and Elder, is correct, the synthesis is reproducible, and the bulk material corresponds to single-crystal data. Additionally, the title compound can be isolated in tetranuclear form by reducing cobalt(III) acetylacetonate with cobalt metal in solvent-free conditions or by crystallization from a hexanes solution. At the same time, from noncoordinating halogenated solvents, Co(acac)(2) crystallizes as a trinuclear core molecule, in which all Co atoms also exhibit octahedral coordination. From coordinating solvents such as ethanol, cobalt(II) acetylacetonate was found to appear in the form of its bis-adduct Co(acac)(2)(EtOH)(2). On the basis of observations made in this work and the details presented in the original paper, we suggest that the reported mononuclear structure of square-planar acetylacetonate should likely contain copper instead of cobalt.

  10. Cobalt - poly(amido amine) superparamagnetic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Atwater, James E; Akse, James R; Holtsnider, John T

    2008-06-30

    Metallic cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were prepared using generation 5 Poly(amido amine) dendrimers with primary amino termini. Cobalt loading of ~38 atoms per dendrimer was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Magnetic properties of the cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were investigated across the temperature range from 2-300 K by SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization as a function of temperature and applied field strength was studied in zero field cooled samples. Magnetization-demagnetization curves (hysteresis loops) were also acquired at temperatures between 10 - 300 K. These results clearly indicate superparamagnetism for the nanocomposites with a characteristic blocking temperature of ~50 K.

  11. Cobalt - poly(amido amine) superparamagnetic nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were prepared using generation 5 Poly(amido amine) dendrimers with primary amino termini. Cobalt loading of ~38 atoms per dendrimer was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Magnetic properties of the cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were investigated across the temperature range from 2–300 K by SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization as a function of temperature and applied field strength was studied in zero field cooled samples. Magnetization-demagnetization curves (hysteresis loops) were also acquired at temperatures between 10 – 300 K. These results clearly indicate superparamagnetism for the nanocomposites with a characteristic blocking temperature of ~50 K. PMID:20352068

  12. Growth of cobalt and cobalt disilicide on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J. M.; Miranda, R.; Molodtsov, S.; Laubschat, C.; Kaindl, G.

    1990-12-01

    The growth of Co on Si(100) and the initial stages of the formation of cobalt suicides have been studied by means of a multitechnique approach. Adsorption of Co on Si(100) at room temperature does not result in reaction and formation of a few ML-thick CoSi 2 overlayer, contrary to adsorption on (111) surfaces. Rather, a layer-by-layer growth of metallic Co with some Si interdiffused is observed. The formation of CoSi 2 requires annealing to 350°C, a temperature much lower than in the (111) surface. Annealing to 600° C results in additional Si-enrichment at the surface produced by disruption of the CoSi 2 overlayer. The thin CoSi 2 "template" layer, which is crucial to achieve epitaxial growth, contains Si at the outer surface, as demonstrated by chemical titration.

  13. Synthesis of certain pyridinyl and diazinyl hydrazones containing one or more ferroin groups, and their chromogenic reactions with iron, copper, cobalt and nickel.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A; Mohamed, N; Case, F H

    1979-02-01

    Fifteen new hydrazones with one or more ferroin groups were prepared, and their chelation and chromogenic properties with iron(II), copper(I), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) were investigated. Improved sensitivity in the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel is provided by several of the new compounds. Several others are capable of forming unusually stable and interesting binuclear iron(II) complexes.

  14. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts. ...

  15. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts. ...

  16. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts. ...

  17. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  18. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  19. Cobalt-related defects in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, T. M.; Backlund, D. J.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Transition metals from the 3d series are unavoidable and unwanted contaminants in Si-based devices. Cobalt is one of the most poorly understood impurities with incomplete experimental information and few theoretical studies. In this contribution, the properties of interstitial cobalt (Coi) in Si and its interactions with the vacancy, self-interstitial, hydrogen, and substitutional boron are calculated using the first-principles tools. The stable configurations, gap levels, and binding energies are predicted. The activation energy for diffusing Coi is calculated with the nudged-elastic-band method and found to be slightly lower than that of interstitial copper and nickel. The binding energies and gap levels of the substitutional cobalt (Cos) and of the {Cos,H} and {Cos,H,H} complexes are close to the experimental data. The properties of the cobalt-boron pair are calculated.

  20. Bioextraction of cobalt from complex metal sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.; Noah, K.S.; Wichlacz, P.L.; Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    The present study has investigated the bioleachability of naturally occurring cobaltite and synthetic cobalt sulfides using 29 pedigree and ``wild type`` strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. On the basis of a screening test, five strains of bacteria were selected for assessing the effects of leach parameters (pH, ferrous and ferric sulfates, ammonium sulfate, bipotassium hydrogen phosphate, and substrate concentrations) on cobalt extraction from Blackbird Mine ore and concentrate. The mechanisms of cobalt extraction were explained in terms of direct and indirect modes of bacterial activity, and the chemistry involved in these processes was identified. Using various size fractions of a high-grade cobaltite, the kinetic parameters of cobalt extraction were derived for the effect of specific surface area to be V{sub m} = 376 mg dm{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1} and K 1.27 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1}.

  1. Bioextraction of cobalt from complex metal sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.; Noah, K.S.; Wichlacz, P.L.; Torma, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The present study has investigated the bioleachability of naturally occurring cobaltite and synthetic cobalt sulfides using 29 pedigree and wild type'' strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. On the basis of a screening test, five strains of bacteria were selected for assessing the effects of leach parameters (pH, ferrous and ferric sulfates, ammonium sulfate, bipotassium hydrogen phosphate, and substrate concentrations) on cobalt extraction from Blackbird Mine ore and concentrate. The mechanisms of cobalt extraction were explained in terms of direct and indirect modes of bacterial activity, and the chemistry involved in these processes was identified. Using various size fractions of a high-grade cobaltite, the kinetic parameters of cobalt extraction were derived for the effect of specific surface area to be V[sub m] = 376 mg dm[sup [minus]3] h[sup [minus]1] and K 1.27 m[sup 2] g[sup [minus]1].

  2. Thermal oxidation of cobalt disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartur, M.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1982-10-01

    The thermal oxidation kinetics of cobalt disilicide on Si substrates have been investigated in the temperature range of 650 1100 °C in dry oxygen and wet oxygen. A surface layer of SiO2 grows parabolically with time. The growth rate is independent of the substrate orientation (<111> or <100>) and thickness of the CoSi2 layer. We surmize that the oxidation mechanism is dominated by the diffusion of an oxidant through the growing SiO2. Activation energies for the dry and wet oxidation are 1.49±0.05 eV and 1.05±0.05 eV, respectively. The kinetics is exactly the same as for NiSi2 oxidation which suggest that the same mechanism controls the oxidation of these two similar suicides.

  3. Role of cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R.; Barefoot, J.; Tien, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt or substituting for cobalt on the mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys is discussed. Waspaloy, UDIMET 700, and NIMONIC 115, which are representative of Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Ti-Mo superalloys having different gamma prime contents which are strengthened by a heavily alloyed matrix, coherent gamma prime precipitates, and carbides at the grain boundaries. Microstructure and in situ and extracted phase STEM micro-analysis were used to evaluate the three alloys.

  4. Role of cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R.; Barefoot, J.; Tien, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt or substituting for cobalt on the mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys is discussed. Waspaloy, UDIMET 700, and NIMONIC 115, which are representative of Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Ti-Mo superalloys having different gamma prime contents which are strengthened by a heavily alloyed matrix, coherent gamma prime precipitates, and carbides at the grain boundaries. Microstructure and in situ and extracted phase STEM micro-analysis were used to evaluate the three alloys.

  5. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization.

    PubMed

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Geisler, Carsten; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-03-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses in the draining lymph nodes compared to mice sensitized with cobalt alone. In contrast, the presence of cobalt during nickel sensitization only induced an increased CD8(+) T cell proliferation during challenge to nickel. Thus, the presence of nickel during cobalt sensitization potentiated the challenge response against cobalt more than the presence of cobalt during sensitization to nickel affected the challenge response against nickel. Taken together, our study demonstrates that sensitization with a mixture of nickel and cobalt leads to an increased immune response to both nickel and cobalt, especially to cobalt, and furthermore that the adjuvant effect appears to correlate with the inflammatory properties of the allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Are the cobalt hip prosthesis dangerous?].

    PubMed

    Mistretta, Virginie; Kurth, William; Charlier, Corinne

    The placement of a hip prosthesis is one of the most common orthopedic surgical procedures. Some implants contain metal and are therefore capable of releasing metal particles like cobalt in patients who wear metal prostheses. Cobalt can be responsible of local toxicity (including metallosis, hypersensitivity reaction, and benign tumor) or systemic toxicity (including cardiomyopathy, polycythemia, hypothyroidism, and neurological disorders). To monitor potential toxicity of metal hip prostheses, an annual monitoring of patients implanted is recommended and includes clinical examination, radiological examination and blood cobalt determination. The cobalt concentration in blood allows to estimate the risk of toxicity and to evaluate the performance of the implant. The currently recommended threshold value is equal to 7 µg of cobalt per liter of blood. Our study, conducted on 251 patients over a period of 4 years, has shown that the cobalt concentration average was 2.51 µg/l in blood, with 51 patients having a cobaltemia higher than the threshold of 7 µg/l. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  7. Intolerability of cobalt salt as erythropoietic agent.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Bastian; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Unfair athletes seek ways to stimulate erythropoiesis, because the mass of haemoglobin is a critical factor in aerobic sports. Here, the potential misuse of cobalt deserves special attention. Cobalt ions (Co(2+) ) stabilize the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that increase the expression of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene. Co(2+) is orally active, easy to obtain, and inexpensive. However, its intake can bear risks to health. To elaborate this issue, a review of the pertinent literature was retrieved by a search with the keywords 'anaemia', 'cobalt', 'cobalt chloride', 'erythropoiesis', 'erythropoietin', 'Epo', 'side-effects' and 'treatment', amongst others. In earlier years, cobalt chloride was administered at daily doses of 25 to 300 mg for use as an anti-anaemic agent. Co(2+) therapy proved effective in stimulating erythropoiesis in both non-renal and renal anaemia, yet there were also serious medical adverse effects. The intake of inorganic cobalt can cause severe organ damage, concerning primarily the gastrointestinal tract, the thyroid, the heart and the sensory systems. These insights should keep athletes off taking Co(2+) to stimulate erythropoiesis.

  8. The role of HIF in cobalt-induced ischemic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Novak, A E; Elliott, J P

    2013-11-12

    Understanding the endogenous survival pathways induced by ischemic tolerance may yield targets for neuroprotection from stroke. One well-studied pathway reported to be evoked by preconditioning stimuli is the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor). However, whether HIF induction by ischemic insults is neuroprotective or toxic is still unclear. We examined the ability of three prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors, which induce HIF, to protect hippocampal cultures from oxygen-glucose deprivation. Hippocampal cultures were exposed to ischemic preconditioning or various concentrations of cobalt chloride, deferoxamine (DFO) or dimethyloxylalyglycine (DMOG), prior to lethal oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cell survival of neurons and astrocytes was determined with dual-label immunocytochemistry. The induction of HIF targets was assessed in mixed as well as astrocyte-enriched cultures. Ischemic preconditioning, as well as low concentrations of cobalt and DFO, enhanced the survival of neurons following OGD. However, DMOG exacerbates OGD-induced neuronal death. At low concentrations, all three prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors increased the survival of astrocytes. Neuroprotective concentrations of cobalt induced the transcription of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) in astrocyte cultures. In addition, pretreatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rH-EPO) also protected neurons from OGD. Our data suggest that HIF-induced EPO, released from astrocytes, protects neurons from OGD. However, the three PHD inhibitors each exhibited different neuroprotective profiles at low concentrations, suggesting that not all PHD inhibitors are created equal. The protective effects at low doses is reminiscent of HIF involvement in ischemic tolerance, in which sub-lethal insults induce HIF pathways resulting in neuroprotection, whereas the high-dose toxicity suggests that over-activation of HIF is not always protective. Therefore, the choice of inhibitor and dose may determine

  9. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-02-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Charged metallopolymers as universal precursors for versatile cobalt materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiuyang; Yan, Yi; Chance, Michael W.; Chen, Jihua; Hayat, Jeffery; Ma, Shuguo; Tang, Chuanbing

    2013-10-16

    Here, inorganic metal-based materials have been widely utilized in catalytic chemistry, life sciences, and engineering.[1] Cobalt-related materials, including metallic cobalt,[2] cobalt oxide,[3] cobalt alloy,[4] and cobalt phosphide,[5] have been used in magnetic materials, aerospace engineering, and energy storage. With the development of modern nanoelectronic technology and the increasing demand for nanostructured materials,[6] the preparation of nanostructured inorganic cobalt-containing materials has become a crucial technological challenge.

  11. Cobalt-Catalyzed [2π + 2π] Cycloadditions of Alkenes: Scope, Mechanism, and Elucidation of Electronic Structure of Catalytic Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Valerie A; Hoyt, Jordan M; Margulieux, Grant W; Chirik, Paul J

    2015-06-24

    Aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine cobalt dinitrogen compounds, ((R)PDI)CoN2, are effective precatalysts for the intramolecular [2π + 2π] cycloaddition of α,ω-dienes to yield the corresponding bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane derivatives. The reactions proceed under mild thermal conditions with unactivated alkenes, tolerating both amine and ether functional groups. The overall second order rate law for the reaction, first order with respect to both the cobalt precatalyst and the substrate, in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies established the catalyst resting state as dependent on the identity of the precatalyst and diene substrate. Planar S = ½ κ(3)-bis(imino)pyridine cobalt alkene and tetrahedral κ(2)-bis(imino)pyridine cobalt diene complexes were observed by EPR spectroscopy and in the latter case structurally characterized. The hemilabile chelate facilitates conversion of a principally ligand-based singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) in the cobalt dinitrogen and alkene compounds to a metal-based SOMO in the diene intermediates, promoting C-C bond-forming oxidative cyclization. Structure-activity relationships on bis(imino)pyridine substitution were also established with 2,4,6-tricyclopentyl-substituted aryl groups, resulting in optimized catalytic [2π + 2π] cycloaddition. The cyclopentyl groups provide a sufficiently open metal coordination sphere that encourages substrate coordination while remaining large enough to promote a challenging, turnover-limiting C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination.

  12. Biological responses of isolated macrophages to cobalt metal and tungsten carbide-cobalt powders.

    PubMed

    Lison, D; Lauwerys, R

    1991-10-01

    A previous study from this laboratory, using morphological and biochemical (LDH release) parameters, has shown that tungsten carbide-cobalt dust exhibits a greater cytotoxicity toward isolated macrophages than cobalt metal powder alone. The present study extends this comparison by examining additional biological parameters. Glucose uptake and superoxide anion production by isolated macrophages were significantly more depressed by the tungsten carbide-cobalt mixture (WC-Co) than by cobalt alone (Co) while pure tungsten carbide (WC) had no effect or even stimulated the cells. For glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cell-associated plasminogen activator (PA) activities, no difference between Co and WC-Co dusts was observed. These observations add further evidence to our previous findings regarding the different biological reactivity of cobalt metal alone or mixed with tungsten carbide.

  13. Calcium-assisted reduction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for nanostructured iron cobalt with enhanced magnetic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, B.; Andrew, J. S.; Arnold, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of a calcium-assisted reduction process for synthesizing fine-grain ( 100 nm) metal alloys from metal oxide nanoparticles. To demonstrate the process, an iron cobalt alloy (Fe66Co34) is obtained by hydrogen annealing 7-nm cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles in the presence of calcium granules. The calcium serves as a strong reducing agent, promoting the phase transition from cobalt ferrite to a metallic iron cobalt alloy, while maintaining high crystallinity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate the annealing temperature is the dominant factor of tuning the grain size and magnetic properties. Annealing at 700 °C for 1 h maximizes the magnetic saturation, up to 2.4 T (235 emu/g), which matches that of bulk iron cobalt.

  14. Synergetic interactions improve cobalt leaching from lithium cobalt oxide in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Li, Tianchi; Liu, Chuan; Quan, Xie; Chen, Lijie; Wang, Aijie; Chen, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt leaching from lithium cobalt oxide is a promising reduction process for recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries, but suffers from consumption of large amount of reductants and energy, and generation of excess secondary polluted sludge. Thus, effective and environmental friendly processes are needed to improve the existing process limitations. Here we reported microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to effectively reduce Co(III) in lithium cobalt oxide with concomitant energy generation. There was a synergetic interaction in MFCs, leading to a more rapid Co(III) leaching at a rate 3.4 times the sum of rates by conventional chemical processes and no-acid controls. External resistor, solid/liquid ratio, solution conductivity, pH and temperature affected system performance. This study provides a new process for recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries with concomitant energy generation from MFCs.

  15. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  16. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  17. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Effect of ammonia on supported cobalt catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Pendyala, Venkat Ramana Rao; Jacobs, Gary; Bertaux, Clement; ...

    2016-02-22

    The effect of ammonia in syngas on the performance of various supported cobalt catalysts (i.e., Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2) was investigated during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The addition of ammonia (10 ppmv NH3) caused a significant deactivation for all supported cobalt catalysts, but the rate of deactivation was higher for the silica-supported catalysts relative to the alumina and titania-supported catalysts used in this work. Ammonia addition had a positive effect on product selectivity (i.e., lower light gas products and higher C5+) for alumina and titania-supported catalysts compared to ammonia free conditions, whereas, the additionmore » of ammonia increased lighter hydrocarbon (C1-C4) products and decreased higher hydrocarbon (C5+) selectivity compared to ammonia-free synthesis conditions for the silica-supported catalyst. For alumina and titania-supported catalysts, the activity almost recovered with mild in-situ hydrogen treatment of the ammonia exposed catalysts. For the silica-supported catalyst, the loss of activity is somewhat irreversible (i.e., cannot be regained after the mild hydrogen treatment). Addition of ammonia led to a significant loss in BET surface area and changes in pore diameter (consistent with pore collapse of a fraction of pores into the microporous range as described in the literature), as well as formation of catalytically inactive cobalt support compounds for the silica-supported catalyst. On the other hand, the pore characteristics of alumina and titania-supported catalysts were not significantly changed. In conclusion, XANES results of the ammonia exposed silica-supported catalysts further confirm the formation of cobalt-support compounds (cobalt silicates).« less

  18. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Effect of ammonia on supported cobalt catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pendyala, Venkat Ramana Rao; Jacobs, Gary; Bertaux, Clement; Khalid, Syed; Davis, Burtron H.

    2016-02-22

    The effect of ammonia in syngas on the performance of various supported cobalt catalysts (i.e., Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2) was investigated during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The addition of ammonia (10 ppmv NH3) caused a significant deactivation for all supported cobalt catalysts, but the rate of deactivation was higher for the silica-supported catalysts relative to the alumina and titania-supported catalysts used in this work. Ammonia addition had a positive effect on product selectivity (i.e., lower light gas products and higher C5+) for alumina and titania-supported catalysts compared to ammonia free conditions, whereas, the addition of ammonia increased lighter hydrocarbon (C1-C4) products and decreased higher hydrocarbon (C5+) selectivity compared to ammonia-free synthesis conditions for the silica-supported catalyst. For alumina and titania-supported catalysts, the activity almost recovered with mild in-situ hydrogen treatment of the ammonia exposed catalysts. For the silica-supported catalyst, the loss of activity is somewhat irreversible (i.e., cannot be regained after the mild hydrogen treatment). Addition of ammonia led to a significant loss in BET surface area and changes in pore diameter (consistent with pore collapse of a fraction of pores into the microporous range as described in the literature), as well as formation of catalytically inactive cobalt support compounds for the silica-supported catalyst. On the other hand, the pore characteristics of alumina and titania-supported catalysts were not significantly changed. In conclusion, XANES results of the ammonia exposed silica-supported catalysts further confirm the formation of cobalt-support compounds (cobalt silicates).

  19. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  20. Cobalt complex of cinchonine: intermolecular interactions in two crystalline modifications.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Agnieszka; Oleksyn, Barbara J; Sliwiński, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Two crystalline modifications of cinchonine cobalt complex, C19H23Cl3CoN2O, were obtained from mixture of saturated alcohol solutions of CoCl3 x 6H2O and cinchonine. The X-ray structure analysis revealed that the asymmetric unit of one modification, CoCn1, contains only zwitterionic molecules of the complex. In the asymmetric unit of the other, CoCn2, there are two molecules of the title compound and two molecules of ethanol. The influence of the absolute configuration, the CoCl3 coordination with quinoline, and the presence of alcohol molecules on the studied structures was established by comparison of the crystal and molecular structures of both cobalt complexes with the analogous quinine complex and zinc complex of cinchonine. The interactions that dominate in the packing of the molecules in both structures are intermolecular hydrogen bonds. They form characteristic ring systems, depending on the presence of the alcohol molecules. The ring features are also related to the absolute configuration of the alkaloid.

  1. Catalytic Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Nitrogen Heterocycles Using Heterogeneous Cobalt Oxide Supported on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon.

    PubMed

    Iosub, Andrei V; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-09-18

    Dehydrogenation of (partially) saturated heterocycles provides an important route to heteroaromatic compounds. A heterogeneous cobalt oxide catalyst, previously employed for aerobic oxidation of alcohols and amines, is shown to be effective for aerobic dehydrogenation of various 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines to the corresponding quinolines. The reactions proceed in good yields under mild conditions. Other N-heterocycles are also successfully oxidized to their aromatic counterparts.

  2. Facile heterogenization of a cobalt catalyst via graphene adsorption: robust and versatile dihydrogen production systems.

    PubMed

    Eady, Shawn C; Peczonczyk, Sabrina L; Maldonado, Stephen; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2014-07-28

    A heterogeneous dihydrogen (H2) production system has been attained by simply soaking electrodes made from electro-deposited graphene on FTO plated glass in solutions of a cobalt bis(dithiolate) compound. The resulting electrodes are active in weakly acidic aqueous solutions (pH > 3), have relatively low overpotentials (0.37 V versus platinum), show high catalytic rates (TOF > 1000 s(-1)), and are resistant to degradation by dioxygen.

  3. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt(II) complexes with pyridinecarboxamide ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojer, Brina; Pevec, Andrej; Belaj, Ferdinand; Jagličić, Zvonko; Kristl, Matjaž; Drofenik, Miha

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new cobalt(II) coordination compounds with nicotinamide (nia) and isonicotinamide (isn) are reported. The products were characterized magnetically, structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and spectrally by FT-IR spectroscopy. Using the reaction of cobalt(II) acetate tetrahydrate and nicotinamide in methanol we obtained light-red crystals of the mononuclear complex [Co(nia)2(H2O)4](CH3COO)2·2H2O (1). The synthesis in a system cobalt(II) acetate dihydrathe, isonicotinamide and dimethylformamide-methanol mixture gave a new dinuclear coordination compound with the formula [Co2(CH3COO)4(isn)4]·2C3H7NO (2). In both compounds a trans arrangement of pyridinecarboxamide ligands was found. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal structures of both complexes are discussed. The magnetic properties were studied between 2 K and 300 K giving the result μeff = 4.6 BM for 1 and μeff = 4.7 BM for 2 in the paramagnetic region.

  5. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    SciTech Connect

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  6. Nickel, cobalt and chromate sensitization and occupation.

    PubMed

    Rui, Francesca; Bovenzi, Massimo; Prodi, Andrea; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Romano, Ilaria; Peserico, Andrea; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Carrabba, Enrico; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2010-04-01

    Exposure to nickel, cobalt and chromate are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis. To estimate the prevalence of nickel, cobalt and chromate allergy in a population of consecutive patients and to investigate the possible association with individual and occupational risk factors. A total of 14 464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis. About 24.6% of the patients reacted positively to nickel sulphate, 10.2% to cobalt chloride and 8.7% to potassium dichromate. Nickel sensitization was higher in women aged 26-35 years in comparison with the youngest group (15-25 years) and the older group (> 45 years). In women, the prevalence of positive reactions to nickel was positively associated with metal and mechanical work (OR 1.54; 95%, CI 1.16-2.05). Chromate sensitization was more prevalent in building trade workers for both women (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.00-2.49) and men (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.55-3.22). Cobalt sensitization was associated with textile and leather work in women (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.09-2.12) and with cleaning work in men (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.18-2.93). Our study showed interesting associations between some occupations and nickel, chromate and cobalt allergy.

  7. Equilibrium phase boundary between hcp-cobalt and fcc-cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynn, Hyunchae; Lipp, Magnus J.; Evans, William J.; Baer, Bruce J.

    In 2000 (Yoo et al., PRL), fcc-cobalt was reported as a new high pressure phase transforming from ambient hcp-cobalt starting at around 105 GPa and 300 K. Both cobalts coexist up to 150 GPa and thereafter only fcc-cobalt was found to be the only stable phase to 200 GPa. Our recent synchrotron x-ray diffraction data on cobalt are at odds with the previous interpretation. We will present our new finding and elaborate on our understanding in terms of the equilibrium phase boundary of cobalt. We will also compare our previous work on xenon (Cynn et al., 2001, PRL) with our new results on cobalt. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Portions of this work were performed at HPCAT (Sector 16), APS, Argonne National Laboratory. HPCAT operations are supported by DOE-NNSA under Award No. DENA0001974 and DOE-BES under Award No. DE-FG02-99ER45775. The Advanced Photon Source is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Huang, Tao

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  12. [Suppression of activity of Candida albicans proteinases by cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kutyreva, M P; Mukhametzianova, A R; Ulakhovich, N A

    2012-01-01

    Influence of cobalt (II) chloride on the system of Candida albicans proteinase (SAP C. alb.) (both in solution and immobilized on a surface of nitrocellulose membranes) has been investigated. In solution cobalt chloride inactivated inducible but not constitute enzyme. In the heterogenous sytem proteolitical effect of the cobalt ion on inductible proteinase was also observed.

  13. Rapid phase synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavel, T.; Raj, S. Gokul; Rajarajan, G.; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    Synthesis of single phase nanocrystalline Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was achieved by single step autocombustion technique with the use of citric acid as a chelating agent in mono proportion with metal. Specimens prepared with this method showed significantly higher initial permeability's than with the conventional process. Single phase nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites were formed at very low temperature. Surface morphology identification were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The average grain size and density at low temperature increased gradually with increasing the temperature. The single phase formation is confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Magnetization measurements were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), which showed that the calcined samples exhibited typical magnetic behaviors. Temperature dependent magnetization results showed improved behavior for the nanocrystalline form of cobalt ferrite when compared to the bulk nature of materials synthesized by other methods.

  14. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, J. M.; Coker, V. S.; Moise, S.; Wincott, P. L.; Vaughan, D. J.; Tuna, F.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Lloyd, J. R.; Telling, N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 −xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt–iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe2+ site with Co2+, with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

  15. Total quality management of cobalt-60 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoske, G. R.

    1999-06-01

    Total Quality Management of Cobalt-60 sources by a supplier requires a life cycle approach to source management. This covers various aspects, including design, manufacturing, installation, field inspection, source surveillance and return of cobalt-60 sources at the end of their useful life. The Total Quality Management approach demonstrates a strong industry commitment to the beneficial use of gamma technology for industrial irradiation applications in both developed nations and in those nations who are developing their infrastructure and techniques for the beneficial use of this technology. MDS Nordion continues to demonstrate its support and commitment to the industry by developing and implementing state-of-the-art standards for the safe use of cobalt-60 sources.

  16. Nickel cobalt phosphorous low stress electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolytic plating process is provided for electrodepositing a nickel or nickel cobalt alloy which contains at least about 2% to 25% by atomic volume of phosphorous. The process solutions contains nickel and optionally cobalt sulfate, hypophosphorous acid or a salt thereof, boric acid or a salt thereof, a monodentate organic acid or a salt thereof, and a multidentate organic acid or a salt thereof. The pH of the plating bath is from about 3.0 to about 4.5. An electroplating process is also provided which includes electroplating from the bath a nickel or nickel cobalt phosphorous alloy. This process can achieve a deposit with high microyield of at least about 84 kg/mm.sup.2 (120 ksi) and a density lower than pure nickel of about 8.0 gm/cc. This process can be used to plate a deposit of essentially zero stress at plating temperatures from ambient to 70.degree. C.

  17. Syntheses and Properties of Cobalt and Nickel Hydroxide Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashina, Masashi; Eguchi, Akio; Kanezaki, Eiji; Shiga, Takuya; Oshio, Hiroki

    Nanosheets of cobalt and nickel hydroxides nanosheets were prepared by delamination of layered compounds, CoII(OH)1.73(DBS)0.27·0.87H2O (Co-DBS, DBS = dodecylbenzene sulfonate) and NiII(OH)1.63(DBS)0.37·1.24H2O (Ni-DBS), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses of the layered compounds revealed lattice parameters of a0 = 3.07 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Co-DBS) and a0 = 3.09 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Ni-DBS) in the hexagonal system. Dispersions of Co-DBS and Ni-DBS in 1-butanol produced colloidal solutions of nanosheets, [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam, respectively. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam and the mixtures were dried to yield Co-PVP and Ni-PVP, respectively. These nanosheets measured 150-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 135-400 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam by means of dynamic light scattering. Atomic force microscopy images showed lateral dimensions of 100-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 50-100 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam. In the former image, the cobalt hydroxide nanosheets had a fairly flat terrace structure with thickness of 3.1-3.6 nm and with aspect ratios of 30-150, whereas in the latter image dome-like nanosheets of nickel hydroxide with height of 2.2-2.3 nm were confirmed. These nanosheets were regarded as monolayer. Magnetization experiments at 1.8 K showed hysteresis loops for Co-DBS, Co-PVP, Ni-DBS, and Ni-PVP.

  18. Cobalt-based Catalysts for Ammonia Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Lendzion-Bielun, Zofia; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Arabczyk, Walerian

    2013-01-01

    An effect of promoters such as calcium, aluminium, and potassium oxides and also addition of chromium and manganese on the structure of cobalt catalysts was examined. Studies of the catalytic ammonia decomposition over the cobalt catalysts are presented. The studies of the ammonia decomposition were carried out for various ammonia-hydrogen mixtures in which ammonia concentration varied in the range from 10% to 100%. Co(0) catalyst, promoted by oxides of aluminium, calcium, and potassium, showed the highest activity in the ammonia decomposition reaction. Contrary to expectations, it was found that chromium and manganese addition into the catalysts decreased their activity. PMID:28809280

  19. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  20. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  1. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; cobalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crockett, R.N.; Chapman, G.R.; Forrest, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Major world resources of cobalt are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of cobalt on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  2. Effect of cobalt on the primary productivity of Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.M.; Panigrahi, S.; Azeez, P.A.

    1987-10-01

    Cobalt, a micronutrient for biological organisms, is a metal of wide use. Main sources of Co to the environment are combustion of fossil fuels, smelters, cobalt processing facilities, sewage and industrial wastes. Atomic power plants and nuclear weapon detonations form an important source of radioisotopes of this metal to the environment. Cobalt has been included in the 14 toxic trace elements of critical importance from the point of view of environmental pollution and health hazards. Cobalt deficiency leads to diseases like stunted growth. At toxic level, Co inhibits heme biosynthesis and enzyme activities. The present study reports the effect of cobalt on biomass productivity of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.

  3. Preparation of cobalt nanoparticles by hydrogen reduction of cobalt chloride in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hee Dong; Hwang, Dae Won; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Heon Chang; Lee, Byung Yoon; Jeong, In Bum

    2004-01-03

    Cobalt nanoparticles were produced by the hydrogen reduction of cobalt chloride vapor in a multistage tubular aerosol flow reactor. Reaction zone temperature, preheating temperature, mole fractions of CoCl{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and residence time were considered as key process variables for the control of particle size and size distribution. Ranging from 50 to 78 nm in average diameter, cobalt nanoparticles with narrow size distributions were synthesized throughout our experiments. All of the considered process variables affected the particle size and size distribution in the synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles. As the reaction zone temperature and the CoCl{sub 2} mole fraction increased, the average particle diameter increased. But the average particle diameter decreased as the residence time of reactants increased.

  4. Toxicity and bioactivity of cobalt nanoparticles on the monocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-ke; Ye, Jun; Han, Qing-lin; Tao, Ran; Liu, Fan; Wang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    To explore the toxicity and biological activity of cobalt nanoparticles on the osteoclasts. Analyze the relationship between cobalt nanoparticles and osteolysis. Monocyte-macrophages (RAW 264.7) was cultured in vitro, osteoclast-like cells were induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After RAW 264.7 was induced for 24 h, Methyl Thiazolium Tetrazolium (MTT) biological toxicity test of osteoclast-like cell was preceded using Cobalt nanoparticles (set 4 concentrations: 10, 20, 50, 100 μM) and cobalt chloride (set 4 concentrations: 10, 20, 50, 100 μM) at 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h respectively. The relative expression of mRNA of CA II and Cat K after RAW 264.7 induction was determined by Q-PCR. mRNA relative expression of CA II, Cat K were reduced at multiple concentrations both cobalt nanoparticles and cobalt chloride, and was time and concentration dependent, cobalt nanoparticles are more significant than cobalt chloride group. But when the cobalt nanoparticles concentration is in 10-50 μM, the mRNA relative expression of CA II, Cat K increased. Cobalt nanoparticles have biological toxicity. At multiple concentrations, the differentiation and proliferation of osteoclasts was inhibited, but when the concentration of cobalt nanoparticles is in 10-50 μM, it has been strengthened. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Synthesis, Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization, and Reactivities of Mononuclear Cobalt(III)-Peroxo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaeheung; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Kang, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jung Yoon; Kubo, Minoru; Ogura, Takashi; Solomon, Edward I.; Nam, Wonwoo

    2010-01-01

    Metal-dioxygen adducts are key intermediates detected in the catalytic cycles of dioxygen activation by metalloenzymes and biomimetic compounds. In this study, mononuclear cobalt(III)- peroxo complexes bearing tetraazamacrocyclic ligands, [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+ and [Co(13-TMC)(O2)]+, were synthesized by reacting [Co(12-TMC)(CH3CN)]2+ and [Co(13-TMC)(CH3CN)]2+, respectively, with H2O2 in the presence of triethylamine. The mononuclear cobalt(III)-peroxo intermediates were isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography, and the structural and spectroscopic characterization demonstrated unambiguously that the peroxo ligand is bound in a side-on η2 fashion. The O-O bond stretching frequency of [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+ and [Co(13- TMC)(O2)]+ was determined to be 902 cm−1 by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The structural properties of the CoO2 core in both complexes are nearly identical; the O-O bond distances of [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+ and [Co(13-TMC)(O2)]+ were 1.4389(17) Å and 1.438(6) Å, respectively. The cobalt(III)-peroxo complexes showed reactivities in the oxidation of aldehydes and O2-transfer reactions. In the aldehyde oxidation reactions, the nucleophilic reactivity of the cobalt-peroxo complexes was significantly dependent on the ring size of the macrocyclic ligands, with the reactivity of [Co(13-TMC)(O2)]+ > [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+. In the O2-transfer reactions, the cobalt(III)-peroxo complexes transferred the bound peroxo group to a manganese(II) complex, affording the corresponding cobalt(II) and manganese(III)- peroxo complexes. The reactivity of the cobalt-peroxo complexes in O2-transfer was also significantly dependent on the ring size of tetraazamacrocycles, and the reactivity order in the O2-transfer reactions was the same as that observed in the aldehyde oxidation reactions. PMID:21062059

  6. New perspectives of cobalt tris(bipyridine) system: anti-cancer effect and its collateral sensitivity towards multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Simon Wing Fai; Liu, Hauwei; Zeng, Wu; Han, Yu; Gordillo-Martinez, Flora; Chan, Wai-Kit; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2017-01-01

    Platinating compounds including cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are common chemotherapeutic agents, however, patients developed resistance to these clinical agents after initial therapeutic treatments. Therefore, different approaches have been applied to identify novel therapeutic agents, molecular mechanisms, and targets for overcoming drug resistance. In this study, we have identified a panel of cobalt complexes that were able to specifically induce collateral sensitivity in taxol-resistant and p53-deficient cancer cells. Consistently, our reported anti-cancer functions of cobalt complexes 1–6 towards multidrug-resistant cancers have suggested the protective and non-toxic properties of cobalt metal-ions based compounds in anti-cancer therapies. As demonstrated in xenograft mouse model, our results also confirmed the identified cobalt complex 2 was able to suppress tumor growth in vivo. The anti-cancer effect of the cobalt complex 2 was further demonstrated to be exerted via the induction of autophagy, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of cell invasion and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. These data have provided alternative metal ion compounds for targeting drug resistance cancers in chemotherapies. PMID:28903398

  7. Bis[bis-(penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt(III)] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate(II) di-chloro-methane disolvate.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph S; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra-hydro-furan. There are two deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di-chloro-methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di-chloro-methane mol-ecules display significant C-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4](-2) ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for adaptive cobalt tomotherapy: A proposal.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Eyles, David; John, Schreiner L; Battista, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft tissue contrast for oncology applications. We propose to combine a MRI scanner with a helical tomotherapy (HT) system to enable daily target imaging for improved conformal radiation dose delivery to a patient. HT uses an intensity-modulated fan-beam that revolves around a patient, while the patient slowly advances through the plane of rotation, yielding a helical beam trajectory. Since the use of a linear accelerator to produce radiation may be incompatible with the pulsed radiofrequency and the high and pulsed magnetic fields required for MRI, it is proposed that a radioactive Cobalt-60 ((60)Co) source be used instead to provide the radiation. An open low field (0.25 T) MRI system is proposed where the tomotherapy ring gantry is located between two sets of Helmholtz coils that can generate a sufficiently homogenous main magnetic field.It is shown that the two major challenges with the design, namely acceptable radiation dose rate (and therefore treatment duration) and moving parts in strong magnetic field, can be addressed. The high dose rate desired for helical tomotherapy delivery can be achieved using two radiation sources of 220TBq (6000Ci) each on a ring gantry with a source to axis-of-rotation distance of 75 cm. In addition to this, a dual row multi-leaf collimator (MLC) system with 15 mm leaf width at isocentre and relatively large fan beam widths between 15 and 30 mm per row shall be employed. In this configuration, the unit would be well-suited for most pelvic radiotherapy applications where the soft tissue contrast of MRI will be particularly beneficial. Non-magnetic MRI compatible materials must be used for the rotating gantry. Tungsten, which is non-magnetic, can be used for primary collimation of the fan-beam as well as for the MLC, which allows intensity modulated radiation delivery. We propose to employ a low magnetic Cobalt compound, sycoporite (CoS) for the Cobalt source material itself

  9. Toxic effects of hexaammine cobalt(III) chloride on liver and kidney in mice: Implication of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Naura, Amarjit S; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2009-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride is a trivalent complex cation of Co(III) and amine that has previously been shown to act as an inhibitor of insulin secretion, radiosensitizing agent, and an antiviral agent. We have recently reported the anticancer potential of the compound against diethylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in mice. However, there is no report on the potential toxicity of the compound. The present study was conducted to evaluate the tissue distribution of the compound and its potential toxicity following acute administration of the compound through intraperitoneal route in Balb/c mice. Our results showed that cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney, followed by liver, spleen, blood, and lung in a decreasing order and in a dose-dependent manner. Evaluation of liver and kidney function tests revealed that the compound exerted a relatively higher toxicity in kidney, as compared to liver, as evidenced by the sharp enhancement in the serum levels of urea and creatinine in a dose-dependent manner. Examination of levels of lipid peroxidation and selected oxidative stress-related parameters in kidney, liver, and lung suggest that higher accumulation of cobalt in kidney may promote higher oxidative stress in the organ, as compared to liver and lung, which may eventually impair kidney function.

  10. Localized comedo formation after cobalt irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Myskowski, P.L.; Safai, B.

    1981-10-01

    Following Cobalt-60 irradiation for a left frontotemporal tumor, a 61-year-old woman developed comedones on the forehead. These changes responded to conventional acne therapy with retinoic acid. Multiple acneigenic factors were implicated in the pathogenesis of her lesions.

  11. Sintered diamond compacts using metallic cobalt binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, W. F.; Katzman, H.

    1972-01-01

    Method is developed for sintering diamond powder which uses metallic cobalt as binder. Present samples show maximum microhardness of over 3000 kg/sq mm on Knoop scale. Material may be used as hard surface coating or may compete with cubic boron nitride as abrasive grain.

  12. Evidence of Formation of Superdense Nonmagnetic Cobalt

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Satpati, B.; Roy, A.; Basu, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the presence of 3d transition metals in the Earth’s core, magnetism of these materials in their dense phases has been a topic of great interest. Theory predicts a dense face-centred-cubic phase of cobalt, which would be nonmagnetic. However, this dense nonmagnetic cobalt has not yet been observed. Recent investigations in thin film polycrystalline materials have shown the formation of compressive stress, which can increase the density of materials. We have discovered the existence of ultrathin superdense nonmagnetic cobalt layers in a polycrystalline cobalt thin film. The densities of these layers are about 1.2–1.4 times the normal density of Co. This has been revealed by X-ray reflectometry experiments, and corroborated by polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) experiments. Transmission electron microscopy provides further evidence. The magnetic depth profile, obtained by PNR, shows that the superdense Co layers near the top of the film and at the film-substrate interface are nonmagnetic. The major part of the Co film has the usual density and magnetic moment. These results indicate the possibility of existence of nonmagnetic Co in the earth’s core under high pressure. PMID:28157186

  13. Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.B.C. ); Redman, J. , Los Angles, CA )

    1994-09-01

    The use of cobalt or nickel alloys for added wear resistance was initiated in the early 1900s with the development of the cobalt-chromium-tungsten family of alloys. The cobalt alloys were called the Stellite'' because of their bright, shiny, nontarnished appearance. Further development and characterization of this alloy system established its usage in unlubricated metal-to-metal contact or erosion by high-velocity fluid or solid particulate impingement. Initially, the alloys were used as solid castings but later were applied by welding to tougher or more ductile substrates, hence the birth of the hardfacing industry. Many of the original Stellite compositions are still in use, but many others, including the nickel and iron alloys, have been developed for special applications or for use by newer application procedures. Examining the microstructural features and wear properties of these families of hardfacing alloys can help in choosing the right alloy for the job. Various cobalt and nickel alloys, their available product forms and the corresponding hardfacing methods, are reviewed in this article.

  14. Solvothermal synthesis of cobalt oxides nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenyao; Yan, Mengwen

    2017-05-01

    CoO and Co3O4 nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal reaction in the presence of the oxidant NaOH and the surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The as-prepared cobalt oxide nanoparticles are size uniformed and have good dispersibility and good crystallinity.

  15. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1 nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  16. Sol-gel entrapped cobalt complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Omar J. de; Papacidero, Andrea T.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Sacco, Herica C.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L

    2003-03-15

    This work describes optimized conditions for preparation of a cobalt complex entrapped in alumina amorphous materials in the form of powder. The hybrid materials, CoNHG, were obtained by a nonhydrolytic sol-gel route through condensation of aluminum chloride with diisopropylether in the presence of cobalt chloride. The materials were calcined at various temperatures. The presence of cobalt entrapped in the alumina matrix is confirmed by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analyses (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared alumina matrix materials are amorphous, even after heat treatment up to 750 deg. C. The XRD, TGA/DTA and TEM data support the increase of sample crystallization with increasing temperature. The specific surface area, pore size and pore diameter changed as a function of the heat treatment temperature employed. Different heat treatment temperatures result in materials with different compositions and structures, and influence their catalytic activity. The entrapped cobalt materials calcined at 750 deg. C efficiently catalyzed the epoxidation of (Z)-cyclooctene using iodozylbenzene as the oxygen donor.

  17. Water splitting: Taking cobalt in isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable production of hydrogen is key to the delivery of clean energy in a hydrogen economy; however, lower-cost alternatives to platinum electrocatalysts are needed. Now, isolated, earth-abundant cobalt atoms dispersed over nitrogen-doped graphene are shown to efficiently electrolyse water to generate hydrogen.

  18. Evidence of Formation of Superdense Nonmagnetic Cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Satpati, B.; Roy, A.; Basu, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-02-01

    Because of the presence of 3d transition metals in the Earth’s core, magnetism of these materials in their dense phases has been a topic of great interest. Theory predicts a dense face-centred-cubic phase of cobalt, which would be nonmagnetic. However, this dense nonmagnetic cobalt has not yet been observed. Recent investigations in thin film polycrystalline materials have shown the formation of compressive stress, which can increase the density of materials. We have discovered the existence of ultrathin superdense nonmagnetic cobalt layers in a polycrystalline cobalt thin film. The densities of these layers are about 1.2–1.4 times the normal density of Co. This has been revealed by X-ray reflectometry experiments, and corroborated by polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) experiments. Transmission electron microscopy provides further evidence. The magnetic depth profile, obtained by PNR, shows that the superdense Co layers near the top of the film and at the film-substrate interface are nonmagnetic. The major part of the Co film has the usual density and magnetic moment. These results indicate the possibility of existence of nonmagnetic Co in the earth’s core under high pressure.

  19. Oxygenation of Cobalt Porphyrinates: Coordination or Oxidation?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianfeng; Noll, Bruce C.; Oliver, Allen G.; Ferraudi, Guillermo; Lappin, A. Graham; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray characterization of the five-coordinate picket-fence porphyrin complex, [Co(TpivPP)(2-MeHim)], is reported. The complex has the displacement of cobalt from the porphyrin plane = 0.15 Å, and Co–NIm = 2.145 (3) and (Co–Np)av = 1.979(3) Å. This five-coordinate complex, in the presence of dioxygen and excess 2-methylimidazole, undergoes an unanticipated, photoinitiated atropisomerization of the porphyrin ligand, oxidation of cobalt(II) and the formation of the neutral cobalt(III) complex [Co(α,α,β,β-TpivPP)(2-MeHim)(2-MeIm−]. Two distinct examples of this complex have been structurally characterized, both have structural parameters consistent with cobalt(III). The two new Co(III) porphyrin complexes have axial Co–NIm distances ranging from 1.952 to 1.972 Å, but which allow for the distinction between imidazole and imidazolate. An interesting intermolecular hydrogen bonding network is observed that leads to infinite helical chains. UV-vis spectroscopic study suggests that [Co(TpivPP)(2-MeHIm)(O2)] is an intermediate state for the oxidation reaction and the atropisomerization process is photocatalyzed. A reaction route is proposed based on the spectroscopic studies. PMID:20104874

  20. Preparation of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts from cobalt/iron hydrotalcites

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.H.; Boff, J.J.; Zarochak, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Compounds with the (hydrotalcites) have properties that make them attractive as precursors for Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. A series of single-phase hydrotalcites with cobalt/iron atom ratios ranging from 75/25 to 25/75 has been synthesized. Mixed cobalt/iron oxides have been prepared from these hydrotalcites by controlled thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition at temperatures below 600 {degrees}C typically produced a single-phase mixed metal oxide with a spinel structure. The BET surface areas of the spinal samples have been found to be as high as about 150 m{sup 2}/g. Appropriate reducing pretreatments have been developed for several of these spinels and their activity, selectivity, and activity and selectivity maintenance have been examined at 13 MPa in a fixed-bed microreactor.

  1. Phase equilibria in the iron oxide-cobalt oxide-phosphorus oxide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Prasanna, T. R. S.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel ternary compounds are noted in the present study of 1000 C solid-state equilibria in the Fe-Co-P-O system's Fe2O3-FePO4-Co3(Po4)2-CoO region: CoFe(PO4)O, which undergoes incongruent melting at 1130 C, and Co3Fe4(PO4)6, whose incongruent melting occurs at 1080 C. The liquidus behavior-related consequences of rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite formation from cobalt ferrite-phosphate melts are discussed with a view to spinel formation. It is suggested that quenching from within the spinel-plus-liquid region may furnish an alternative to quenching a homogeneous melt.

  2. Phase equilibria in the iron oxide-cobalt oxide-phosphorus oxide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Prasanna, T. R. S.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel ternary compounds are noted in the present study of 1000 C solid-state equilibria in the Fe-Co-P-O system's Fe2O3-FePO4-Co3(Po4)2-CoO region: CoFe(PO4)O, which undergoes incongruent melting at 1130 C, and Co3Fe4(PO4)6, whose incongruent melting occurs at 1080 C. The liquidus behavior-related consequences of rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite formation from cobalt ferrite-phosphate melts are discussed with a view to spinel formation. It is suggested that quenching from within the spinel-plus-liquid region may furnish an alternative to quenching a homogeneous melt.

  3. Online monitoring of cell metabolism to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles: the case of cobalt ferrite.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Valentina; Ponti, Jessica; Giudetti, Guido; Broggi, Francesca; Marmorato, Patrick; Gioria, Sabrina; Franchini, Fabio; Rauscher, Hubert; Rossi, François

    2012-05-01

    Different in vitro assays are successfully used to determine the relative cytotoxicity of a broad range of compounds. Nevertheless, different research groups have pointed out the difficulty in using the same tests to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we evaluated the possible use of a microphysiometer, Bionas 2500 analyzing system Bionas GmbH®, to detect in real time changes in cell metabolisms linked to NPs exposure. We focused our work on response changes of fibroblast cultures linked to exposure by cobalt ferrite NPs and compared the results to conventional in vitro assays. The measurements with the microphysiometer showed a cobalt ferrite cytotoxic effect, confirmed by the Colony Forming Efficiency assay. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that the measurement of metabolic parameters with a microphysiometer is a promising method to assess the toxicity of NPs and offers the advantage to follow on-line the cell metabolic changes.

  4. Polymorphism in a Cobalt-Based Single-Ion Magnet Tuning Its Barrier to Magnetization Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Alexander A; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Kats, Svitlana V; Penkova, Larysa V; Efimov, Nikolay N; Dmitrienko, Artem O; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Belov, Alexander S; Voloshin, Yan Z; Novikov, Valentin V

    2016-10-04

    A large barrier to magnetization reversal, a signature of a good single-molecule magnet (SMM), strongly depends on the structural environment of a paramagnetic metal ion. In a crystalline state, where SMM properties are usually measured, this environment is influenced by crystal packing, which may be different for the same chemical compound, as in polymorphs. Here we show that polymorphism can dramatically change the magnetic behavior of an SMM even with a very rigid coordination geometry. For a cobalt(II) clathrochelate, it results in an increase of the effective barrier from 109 to 180 cm(-1), the latter value being the largest one reported to date for cobalt-based SMMs. Our finding thus highlights the importance of identifying possible polymorphic phases in search of new, even more efficient SMMs.

  5. Covalency-driven structural instability and spin-phonon coupling in barium cobalt oxychloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanushree; Baidya, S.; Meneghini, Carlo; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Veronesi, Giulia; Merlini, Marco; Yokota, Hiroko; Itoh, Mitsuru; Majumdar, S.; Ray, Sugata

    2014-12-01

    Our combined experimental and theoretical study reveals unusually large cobalt-oxygen covalency in CoO4 tetrahedral unit of a barium cobalt oxychloride compound. This drives significant charge redistribution, resulting into large hole density on tetrahedral oxygens, which effectively behave as "positively charged" anions. These positively charged oxygens form local dipoles with dopant chloride anions, situated in the same atomic plane, which gets manifested in associated structural distortions. The spatial freezing of these local dipoles below certain temperature is found to produce concomitant effects on dielectric and magnetic responses, coupled via exchange-striction driven spin-phonon interaction. Our study should form the basis for designing new functional oxide materials using the concept of covalency-driven charge redistribution.

  6. Heteroatom-free arene-cobalt and arene-iron catalysts for hydrogenations.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Dominik; Welther, Alice; Rad, Babak Rezaei; Wolf, Robert; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel

    2014-04-01

    75 years after the discovery of hydroformylation, cobalt catalysts are now undergoing a renaissance in hydrogenation reactions. We have evaluated arene metalates in which the low-valent metal species is--conceptually different from heteroatom-based ligands--stabilized by π coordination to hydrocarbons. Potassium bis(anthracene)cobaltate 1 and -ferrate 2 can be viewed as synthetic precursors of quasi-"naked" anionic metal species; their aggregation is effectively impeded by (labile) coordination to the various π acceptors present in the hydrogenation reactions of unsaturated molecules (alkenes, arenes, carbonyl compounds). Kinetic studies, NMR spectroscopy, and poisoning studies of alkene hydrogenations support the formation of a homogeneous catalyst derived from 1 which is stabilized by the coordination of alkenes. This catalyst concept complements the use of complexes with heteroatom donor ligands for reductive processes.

  7. Aging effects on cobalt availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Laura A; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Aging processes in soils can significantly affect the potential biological availability of introduced metals via incorporation into crystal lattices, diffusion into micropores, or formation of metal precipitates on the surfaces of soil minerals. Over time, metals in contact with the soil solid phase are less freely exchangeable with the soil solution and, hence, less available to soil biota. In the present study, the effects of aging on the fate and behavior of added divalent cobalt (Co2+) in a range of soils with varying physicochemical characteristics was assessed using isotope-exchange techniques, chemical extraction, and plant growth. Following addition to soil, the Co2+ salt rapidly partitioned to the soil solid phase. Particularly in soils with neutral to alkaline pH, a large percentage of the surface-bound Co was fixed in forms no longer in equilibrium with soil solution cobalt through aging reactions. Using techniques commonly applied to estimate metal bioavailability in soil, the lability (E values), plant availability (L values), and extractability of added Co2+ salts with the mild chemical extractants calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) were observed to markedly decrease with time, particularly in soils with high pH or those containing appreciable quantities of iron/ manganese oxyhydroxide minerals. Results indicated rapid partitioning of added Co2+ into isotopically nonexchangeable pools, with more than 60% of the aging occurring within 15 d in most soils. Soil pH was the primary factor controlling the rate of cobalt aging and extent of exchangeability in the soils examined. Understanding the influence of long-term aging on cobalt availability in soils is necessary to accurately assess the potential risk associated with cobalt contamination of soil environments.

  8. Reducing the cobalt inventory in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ocken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Reducing the cobalt content of materials used in nuclear power plants is one approach to controlling the radiation fields responsible for occupational radiation exposure; corrosion of steam generator tubing is the primary source in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Wear of the cobalt-base alloys used to hardface valves (especially feedwater regulator valves) and as pins and rollers in control blades are the primary boiling water reactor (BWR) sources. Routine valve maintenance can also be a significant source of cobalt. Wear, mechanical property, and corrosion measurements led to the selection of Nitronic-60/CFA and PH 13-8 Mo/Inconel X-750 as low-cobalt alloys for use as pin/roller combinations. These alloys are currently being tested in two commercial BWRs. Measurements show that Type 440C stainless steel wears less than the cobalt-base alloys in BWR feedwater regulator valves. Sliding wear tests performed at room temperature in simulated PWR water showed that Colmonoy 74 and 84, Deloro 40, and Vertx 4776 are attractive low-cobalt hardfacing alloys if the applied loads are less than or equal to103 MPa. The cobalt-base alloys performed best at high loads (207 MPa). Ongoing laboratory studies address the development and evaluation of cobalt-free iron-base hardfacing alloys and seek to improve the wear resistance of cobalt-base alloys by using lasers. Reducing cobalt impurity levels in core components that are periodically discharged should also help reduce radiation fields and disposal costs.

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of the Linear-Chain Cobalt Oxide Sr 5Pb 3CoO 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, K.; Huang, Q.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2002-02-01

    The novel spin-chain cobalt oxide Sr5Pb3CoO12 [Poverline6×2m, a=10.1093(2) Å and c=3.562 51(9) Å at 295 K] is reported. A polycrystalline sample of the compound was studied by neutron diffraction (at 6 and 295 K) and magnetic susceptibility measurements (5 to 390 K). The cobalt oxide was found to be analogous to the copper oxide Sr5Pb3CuO12, which is comprised of magnetic-linear chains at an interchain distance of 10 Å. Although the cobalt oxide chains (μeff of 3.64 μB per Co) are substantially antiferromagnetic (θW=-38.8 K), neither low-dimensional magnetism nor long-range ordering has been found; a local-structure disorder in the chains might have an impact on the magnetism. This compound is highly electrically insulating.

  10. Physical and electrochemical study of cobalt oxide nano- and microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Alburquenque, D.; Vargas, E.; Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J.; Marco, J.F.; Gautier, J.L.

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt oxide nanocrystals of size 17–21 nm were synthesized by a simple reaction between cobalt acetate (II) and dodecylamine. On the other hand, micrometric Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared using the ceramic method. The structural examination of these materials was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). XRD studies showed that the oxides were pure, well-crystallized, spinel cubic phases with a-cell parameter of 0.8049 nm and 0.8069 nm for the nano and micro-oxide, respectively. The average particle size was 19 nm (nano-oxide) and 1250 μm (micro-oxide). Morphological studies carried out by SEM and TEM analyses have shown the presence of octahedral particles in both cases. Bulk and surface properties investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), point zero charge (pzc), FTIR and cyclic voltammetry indicated that there were no significant differences in the composition on both materials. The magnetic behavior of the samples was determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The compounds showed paramagnetic character and no coercivity and remanence in all cases. Galvanostatic measurements of electrodes formed with nanocrystals showed better performance than those built with micrometric particles. - Highlights: • Spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and microparticles with same structure but with different cell parameters, particle size and surface area were synthesized. • Oxide nanoparticles showed better electrochemical behavior than micrometric ones due to area effect.

  11. Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured Lanthanum Cobalt Ferrite Mixed Metal Oxides by Sol-Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresita, V. Mary; Jeseentharani, V.; Josephine, B. Avila; Antony, S. Arul

    2013-04-01

    Properties of nanoscale materials are very interesting and these are either comparable to or superior to those of bulk. These materials are interesting due to their exciting size dependent optical, electronic, magnetic, thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. Different mole ratios of nanostructured mixed metal oxides of LaCoxFe1-xO3-δ (x = 0 to 1) were prepared by the sol-gel method by varying the mole ratios of iron and cobalt substrates. The compounds were sintered for 700°C in the tubular furnace for 8 h. The purity of the compounds was analyzed by TG-DTA. The compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were employed to study the structural phases, vibrational frequencies, surface morphology of the highest humidity sensing compounds.

  12. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Yu. M. Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-15

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH){sub 2}]{sup +} cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network.

  13. Effects of cobalt precursor on pyrolyzed carbon-supported cobalt-polypyrrole as electrocatalyst toward oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A series of non-precious metal electrocatalysts, namely pyrolyzed carbon-supported cobalt-polypyrrole, Co-PPy-TsOH/C, are synthesized with various cobalt precursors, including cobalt acetate, cobalt nitrate, cobalt oxalate, and cobalt chloride. The catalytic performance towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is comparatively investigated with electrochemical techniques of cyclic voltammogram, rotating disk electrode and rotating ring-disk electrode. The results are analyzed and discussed employing physiochemical techniques of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, elemental analysis, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It shows that the cobalt precursor plays an essential role on the synthesis process as well as microstructure and performance of the Co-PPy-TsOH/C catalysts towards ORR. Among the studied Co-PPy-TsOH/C catalysts, that prepared with cobalt acetate exhibits the best ORR performance. The crystallite/particle size of cobalt and its distribution as well as the graphitization degree of carbon in the catalyst greatly affects the catalytic performance of Co-PPy-TsOH/C towards ORR. Metallic cobalt is the main component in the active site in Co-PPy-TsOH/C for catalyzing ORR, but some other elements such as nitrogen are probably involved, too. PMID:24229351

  14. RADIOLYSIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ADSORBED STATE

    DOEpatents

    Sutherland, J.W.; Allen, A.O.

    1961-10-01

    >A method of forming branch chained hydrocarbons by means of energetic penetrating radiation is described. A solid zeolite substrate is admixed with a cobalt ion and is irradiated with a hydrocarbon adsorbed therein. Upon irradiation with gamma rays, there is an increased yield of branched and lower molecular straight chain compounds. (AEC)

  15. Reversible carbon-carbon bond formation induced by oxidation and reduction at a redox-active cobalt complex.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Crisita Carmen Hojilla; Milsmann, Carsten; Semproni, Scott P; Turner, Zoë R; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-05-06

    The electronic structure of the diamagnetic pyridine imine enamide cobalt dinitrogen complex, ((iPr)PIEA)CoN2 ((iPr)PIEA = 2-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3N═CMe)-6-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3NC═CH2)C5H3N), was determined and is best described as a low-spin cobalt(II) complex antiferromagnetically coupled to an imine radical anion. Addition of potential radical sources such as NO, PhSSPh, or Ph3Cl resulted in C-C coupling at the enamide positions to form bimetallic cobalt compounds. Treatment with the smaller halocarbon, PhCH2Cl, again induced C-C coupling to form a bimetallic bis(imino)pyridine cobalt chloride product but also yielded a monomeric cobalt chloride product where the benzyl group added to the enamide carbon. Similar cooperative metal-ligand addition was observed upon treatment of ((iPr)PIEA)CoN2 with CH2═CHCH2Br, which resulted in allylation of the enamide carbon. Reduction of Coupled-((iPr)PDI)CoCl (Coupled-((iPr)PDI)CoCl = [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3N═CMe)-C5H3N-6-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3N═CCH2-)CoCl]2) with NaBEt3H led to quantitative formation of ((iPr)PIEA)CoN2, demonstrating the reversibility of the C-C bond forming reactions. The electronic structures of each of the bimetallic cobalt products were also elucidated by a combination of experimental and computational methods.

  16. Single-ion magnet behaviour in mononuclear and two-dimensional dicyanamide-containing cobalt(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Switlicka-Olszewska, Anna; Palion-Gazda, Joanna; Klemens, Tomasz; Machura, Barbara; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2016-06-21

    Three cobalt(ii) complexes of formulae [Co(dca)2(bim)4] (), [Co(dca)2(bim)2]n () and [Co(dca)2(bmim)2]n () [dca = dicyanamide, bim = 1-benzylimidazole and bmim = 1-benzyl-2-methylimidazole] were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound is a mononuclear species where the cobalt(ii) ion is six-coordinate with four bim molecules in the equatorial positions [Co-Nbim = 2.1546(15) and 2.1489(15) Å] and two trans-positioned dca ligands [Co-Ndca = 2.1575(18) Å] in the axial sites of a somewhat distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of and consist of two-dimensional grids of cobalt(ii) ions where each metal atom is linked to the other four metal centres by single dca bridges exhibiting the μ1,5-dca coordination mode [Co-Ndca = 2.190(3)-2.220(3) () and 2.127(3)-2.153(3) Å ()]. Two trans-coordinated bim ()/bmim () molecules achieve the six-coordination around each cobalt(ii) ion [Co-Nbim = 2.128(3)-2.134(4) Å () and Co-Nbmim = 2.156(3)-2.163(39) Å ()]. The values of the cobalt-cobalt separation through the single dca bridges are 8.927(2) and 8.968(2) Å in and 8.7110(5) and 8.7158(5) Å in . Magnetic susceptibility measurements for in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K reveal that these compounds behave as magnetically isolated high-spin cobalt(ii) ions with a significant orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements for show a frequency dependence of out-of-phase susceptibility under static applied fields in the range of 500-2500 G, a feature which is characteristic of the single-ion magnet behaviour (SIM) of the Co(ii) ion in them. The values of the energy barrier for the magnetic relaxation (Ea) are 5.45-7.74 (), 4.53-9.24 () and 11.48-15.44 cm(-1) (). They compare well with those previously reported for the analogous dca-bridged 2D compound [Co(dca)2(atz)2]n () (Ea = 5.1 cm(-1) under an applied static field of 1000 G), which was the subject of a

  17. Cobalt recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2002-01-01

    This report is one of a series of reports on metals recycling. It defines and quantifies the 1998 flow of cobalt-bearing materials in the United States, from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of cobalt?s many and diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 1998, an estimated 32 percent of U.S. cobalt supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of cobalt consumed from new scrap to that from old scrap was estimated to be 50:50. Of all the cobalt in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 68 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  18. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Nanoporous Cobalt Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunming; Nori, Sudhakar; Wei, Wei; Aggarwal, Ravi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Narayan, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous cobalt thin films were deposited on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes at room temperature using pulsed laser deposition. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoporous cobalt thin films retained the monodisperse pore size and high porosity of the anodized aluminum oxide substrates. Temperature- and field-dependent magnetic data obtained between 10 K and 350 K showed large hysteresis behavior in these materials. The increase of coercivity values was larger for nanoporous cobalt thin films than for multilayered cobalt/alumina thin films. The average diameter of the cobalt nanograins in the nanoporous cobalt thin films was estimated to be ~5 nm for blocking temperatures near room temperature. These results suggest that pulsed laser deposition may be used to fabricate nanoporous magnetic materials with unusual properties for biosensing, drug delivery, data storage, and other technological applications. PMID:19198344

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of nanoporous cobalt thin films.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunming; Nori, Sudhakar; Wei, Wei; Aggarwal, Ravi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Narayan, Roger J

    2008-11-01

    Nanoporous cobalt thin films were deposited on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes at room temperature using pulsed laser deposition. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoporous cobalt thin films retained the monodisperse pore size and high porosity of the anodized aluminum oxide substrates. Temperature- and field-dependent magnetic data obtained between 10 K and 350 K showed large hysteresis behavior in these materials. The increase of coercivity values was larger for nanoporous cobalt thin films than for multilayered cobalt/alumina thin films. The average diameter of the cobalt nanograins in the nanoporous cobalt thin films was estimated to be approsimately 5 nm for blocking temperatures near room temperature. These results suggest that pulsed laser deposition may be used to fabricate nanoporous magnetic materials with unusual properties for biosensing, drug delivery, data storage, and other technological applications.

  20. Impedance spectroscopic characterization of gadolinium substituted cobalt ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md. T. Ramana, C. V.

    2014-10-28

    Gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFGO) with variable Gd content (x = 0.0–0.4) have been synthesized by solid state ceramic method. The crystal structure and impedance properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFGO crystallize in the inverse spinel phase. The CFGO compounds exhibit lattice expansion due to substitution of larger Gd ions into the crystal lattice. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was performed under a wide range of frequency (f = 20 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (T = 303–573 K). Electrical properties of Gd incorporated Co ferrite ceramics are enhanced compared to pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to the lattice distortion. Impedance spectroscopic analysis illustrates the variation of bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions towards the electrical resistance and capacitance of CFGO materials with temperature. A two-layer heterogeneous model consisting of moderately conducting grain interior (ferrite-phase) regions separated by insulating grain boundaries (resistive-phase) accurately account for the observed temperature and frequency dependent electrical characteristic of CFGO ceramics.

  1. Cobalt metabolism and toxicology--a brief update.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Harbak, Henrik; Bennekou, Poul

    2012-08-15

    Cobalt metabolism and toxicology are summarized. The biological functions of cobalt are updated in the light of recent understanding of cobalt interference with the sensing in almost all animal cells of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Cobalt (Co(2+)) stabilizes the transcriptional activator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and thus mimics hypoxia and stimulates erythropoietin (Epo) production, but probably also by the same mechanism induces a coordinated up-regulation of a number of adaptive responses to hypoxia, many with potential carcinogenic effects. This means on the other hand that cobalt (Co(2+)) also may have beneficial effects under conditions of tissue hypoxia, and possibly can represent an alternative to hypoxic preconditioning. Cobalt is acutely toxic in larger doses, and in mammalian in vitro test systems cobalt ions and cobalt metal are cytotoxic and induce apoptosis and at higher concentrations necrosis with inflammatory response. Cobalt metal and salts are also genotoxic, mainly caused by oxidative DNA damage by reactive oxygen species, perhaps combined with inhibition of DNA repair. Of note, the evidence for carcinogenicity of cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate is considered sufficient in experimental animals, but is as yet considered inadequate in humans. Interestingly, some of the toxic effects of cobalt (Co(2+)) have recently been proposed to be due to putative inhibition of Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+)-signaling and competition with Ca(2+) for intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins. The tissue partitioning of cobalt (Co(2+)) and its time-dependence after administration of a single dose have been studied in man, but mainly in laboratory animals. Cobalt is accumulated primarily in liver, kidney, pancreas, and heart, with the relative content in skeleton and skeletal muscle increasing with time after cobalt administration. In man the renal excretion is initially rapid but decreasing over the first days, followed by a second, slow phase lasting several weeks

  2. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  3. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  4. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  5. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  6. Creep-fatigue of low cobalt superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Testing for the low cycle fatigue and creep fatigue resistance of superalloys containing reduced amounts of cobalt is described. The test matrix employed involves a single high temperature appropriate for each alloy. A single total strain range, again appropriate to each alloy, is used in conducting strain controlled, low cycle, creep fatigue tests. The total strain range is based upon the level of straining that results in about 10,000 cycles to failure in a high frequency (0.5 Hz) continuous strain-cycling fatigue test. No creep is expected to occur in such a test. To bracket the influence of creep on the cyclic strain resistance, strain hold time tests with ore minute hold periods are introduced. One test per composition is conducted with the hold period in tension only, one in compression only, and one in both tension and compression. The test temperatures, alloys, and their cobalt compositions that are under study are given.

  7. Low-cobalt single crystal Rene 150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cobalt content on a single crystal version of the advanced, high gamma prime content turbine airfoil alloy Rene 150 were investigated. Cobalt contents under investigation include 12 wt.% (composition level of Rene 150), 6 wt.%, and 0 wt.%. Preliminary test results are presented and compared with the properties of standard DS Rene 150. DTA results indicate that the liquidus goes through a maximum of about 1435 C near 6 wt.% Co. The solidus remains essentially constant at 1390 C with decreasing Co content. The gamma prime solvus appears to go through a minimum of about 1235 C near 6 wt.% Co content. Preliminary as-cast tensile and stress rupture results are presented along with heat treat schedules and future test plans.

  8. Cobalt contraction of vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Dominiczak, A.; Clyde, E.; Bohr, D. )

    1991-03-11

    Although it has been reported that cobalt causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism responsible for this contraction has not been defined. The authors studied these contractions in rat aortic rings. Concentration-response studies indicated that the threshold for contraction was 10{sup {minus}8}M, maximum contraction occurred at 3 {times} 10{sup 7}M and relaxation began at 10{sup {minus}6}M. No contraction occurred in a calcium-free physiological salt solution and the contraction was not inhibited by H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. The authors conclude the cobalt in low concentrations causes contraction by activating calcium channels and that in high concentrations it causes relaxation by inactivating these same channels.

  9. Creep-fatigue of low cobalt superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Testing for the low cycle fatigue and creep fatigue resistance of superalloys containing reduced amounts of cobalt is described. The test matrix employed involves a single high temperature appropriate for each alloy. A single total strain range, again appropriate to each alloy, is used in conducting strain controlled, low cycle, creep fatigue tests. The total strain range is based upon the level of straining that results in about 10,000 cycles to failure in a high frequency (0.5 Hz) continuous strain-cycling fatigue test. No creep is expected to occur in such a test. To bracket the influence of creep on the cyclic strain resistance, strain hold time tests with ore minute hold periods are introduced. One test per composition is conducted with the hold period in tension only, one in compression only, and one in both tension and compression. The test temperatures, alloys, and their cobalt compositions that are under study are given.

  10. Are cobaltates conventional? An ARPES viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.Z. . E-mail: mzhasan@Princeton.edu; Qian, D.; Foo, M.L.; Cava, R.J.

    2006-07-15

    Recently discovered class of cobaltate superconductors (Na{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O) is a novel realization of interacting quantum electron system in a triangular network with low-energy degrees of freedom. We employ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the quasiparticle parameters in the parent superconductors. Results reveal a large hole-like Fermi surface generated by the crossing of heavy quasiparticles. The measured quasiparticle parameters collectively suggest two orders of magnitude departure from the conventional weak coupling (such as Al) Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer electron dynamics paradigm and unveils cobaltates as a rather hidden class of relatively high temperature superconductors. These parameters also form the basis for a microscopic Hamiltonian of the system.

  11. Gamma europium- and cobalt-sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klochkov, E.P.; Risovany, V.D.; Ponomarenko, B.V.

    1993-12-31

    The double-purpose control rods of nuclear reactors were made in which the inserts containing cobalt and europium oxide with natural {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu content were used as an absorbing core. The mass content of europium oxide is to exceed 15% to provide for a necessary reactivity. Cobalt and europium radionuclides were shown to be accumulated during the reactor operation allowing the inserts to be used as gamma sources after unloading of control rods at large commercial plants for radiation processing of different materials. Shape, geometry and composition of inserts were optimized allowing their specific activity to be obtained above 2 x 10 Bq/g (about 60 Ci/g). The spectral activity and radiation resistance of gamma sources were studied.

  12. Superlattices of Organically Linked Cobalt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hongkun

    1998-03-01

    Superlattices of cobalt nanoparticles separated by organic tunnel junctions are prepared, and their electrical conductance is studied as a function of temperature, electric field, and magnetic field. The cobalt nanoparticles are synthesized chemically by thermal decomposition of an organometallic precursor, Co_2(CO)_8, in the presence of suitable organic surfactants. These magnetic nanoparticles self-assemble to form chains when their diameter is greater than 15 nm. Smaller particles assemble into two- and three-dimensional close-packed arrays when they are spin-cast on a SiO2 substrate. Covalently linked superlattices are subsequently formed by interconnecting nanoparticles with bifunctional organic molecules (1,6-hexamethylenediamine). The temperature and electric-field dependences of the conductivity for a three-dimensional superlattice follow a simple activated behavior. The same superlattice also exhibits negative magnetoresistance. These observations indicate that conduction through the superlattice is by spin-polarized electron hopping between metallic nanoparticles through organic tunnel barriers.

  13. Cobalt asthma in metalworkers from an automotive engine valve manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Walters, G I; Robertson, A S; Moore, V C; Burge, P S

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt asthma has previously been described in cobalt production workers, diamond polishers and glassware manufacturers. To describe a case series of occupational asthma (OA) due to cobalt, identified at the Birmingham Heartlands Occupational Lung Disease Unit, West Midlands, UK. Cases of cobalt asthma from a West Midlands' manufacturer of automotive engine valves, diagnosed between 1996 and 2005, were identified from the SHIELD database of OA. Case note data on demographics, employment status, asthma symptoms and diagnostic tests, including spirometry, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, skin prick testing (SPT) and specific inhalational challenge (SIC) tests to cobalt chloride, were gathered, and descriptive statistics used to illustrate the data. The natural history of presentations has been described in detail, as well as a case study of one of the affected workers. Fourteen metalworkers (86% male; mean age 44.9 years) were diagnosed with cobalt asthma between 1996 and 2005. Workers were principally stellite grinders, stellite welders or machine setter-operators. All workers had positive Occupational Asthma SYStem analyses of serial PEF measurements, and sensitization to cobalt chloride was demonstrated in nine workers, by SPT or SIC. We have described a series of 14 workers with cobalt asthma from the automotive manufacturing industry, with objective evidence for sensitization. Health care workers should remain vigilant for cobalt asthma in the automotive manufacturing industry. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  15. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  16. High-Spin Cobalt Hydrides for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Patrick L.

    2013-08-29

    Organometallic chemists have traditionally used catalysts with strong-field ligands that give low-spin complexes. However, complexes with a weak ligand field have weaker bonds and lower barriers to geometric changes, suggesting that they may lead to more rapid catalytic reactions. Developing our understanding of high-spin complexes requires the use of a broader range of spectroscopic techniques, but has the promise of changing the mechanism and/or selectivity of known catalytic reactions. These changes may enable the more efficient utilization of chemical resources. A special advantage of cobalt and iron catalysts is that the metals are more abundant and cheaper than those currently used for major industrial processes that convert unsaturated organic molecules and biofeedstocks into useful chemicals. This project specifically evaluated the potential of high-spin cobalt complexes for small-molecule reactions for bond rearrangement and cleavage reactions relevant to hydrocarbon transformations. We have learned that many of these reactions proceed through crossing to different spin states: for example, high-spin complexes can flip one electron spin to access a lower-energy reaction pathway for beta-hydride elimination. This reaction enables new, selective olefin isomerization catalysis. The high-spin cobalt complexes also cleave the C-O bond of CO2 and the C-F bonds of fluoroarenes. In each case, the detailed mechanism of the reaction has been determined. Importantly, we have discovered that the cobalt catalysts described here give distinctive selectivities that are better than known catalysts. These selectivities come from a synergy between supporting ligand design and electronic control of the spin-state crossing in the reactions.

  17. Cobalt Complexes as Antiviral and Antibacterial Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Complexes as Antiviral and Antibacterial Agents Eddie L. Chang 1,*, Christa Simmers 2 and D. Andrew Knight 2,* 1 Center for Bio/Molecular Science and...April 2010; in revised form: 04 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010 Abstract: Metal ion complexes are playing an increasing...role in the development of antimicrobials. We review here the antimicrobial properties of cobalt coordination complexes in oxidation state 3+. In

  18. Influence of artificial gastric juice composition on bioaccessibility of cobalt- and tungsten-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Harvey, Christopher J; Sbarra, Deborah C; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    The dissolution of metal-containing particles in the gastric compartment is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of artificial gastric juice chemical composition on bioaccessibility of metals associated with ingestion-based health concerns. Dissolution rates were evaluated for well-characterized feedstock cobalt, tungsten metal, and tungsten carbide powders, chemically bonded pre-sintered (spray dryer material) and post-sintered (chamfer grinder) cemented tungsten carbide materials, and an admixture of pure cobalt and pure tungsten carbide, prepared by mechanically blending the two feedstock powders. Dissolution of each study material was evaluated in three different formulations of artificial gastric juice (from simplest to most chemically complex): American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Approximately 20% of cobalt dissolved in the first dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.02 days) and the remaining 80% was released in the second long-term dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.5 to 1 days). Artificial gastric juice chemical composition did not influence dissolution rate constant values (k, g/cm(2)day) of cobalt powder, either alone or as an admixture. Approximately 100% of the tungsten and tungsten carbide that dissolved was released in a single dissolution phase; k-values of each material differed significantly in the solvents: NIOSH > ASTM > USP (p<0.05). The k-values of cobalt and tungsten carbide in pre- and post-sintered cemented tungsten carbide powders were significantly different from values for the pure feedstock powders. Solvent composition had little influence on oral bioaccessibility of highly soluble cobalt and our data support consideration of the oral exposure route as a contributing pathway to total-body exposure. Solvent composition appeared to influence bioaccessibility of the low soluble tungsten compounds, though

  19. Fabrication of nanosized cobalt powder from Cobalt(II) hydroxide of spent lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jung-Yeul; Park, Dahee; Jung, Sung-Sik; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2017-09-01

    This study was investigated to fabricate nanosized cobalt (Co) powder from cobalt hydroxide Co(OH)2 recovered from spent lithium ion battery. Direct process newly proposed was attempted to transform phases as follow: Co(OH)2 → Co3O4 → Co. The variation of weight with time of the sample was measured using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and it was found that weight loss was observed over 500 °C. Thermal treatment was conducted to determine proper operating time for phase transformation of Co3O4 at 500 °C. Subsequently, hydrogen reduction was carried out on the effect of temperature, reaction time and flowrate. In the long run, nanosized cobalt powder was successfully fabricated with a mean particle size of 100-500 nm as well as purity of 99.21 wt.%.

  20. Biocorrosion study of titanium-cobalt alloys.

    PubMed

    Chern Lin, J H; Lo, S J; Ju, C P

    1995-05-01

    The present work provides experimental results of corrosion behaviour in Hank's physiological solution and some other properties of in-house fabricated titanium-cobalt alloys with cobalt ranging from 25-30% in weight. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that, in water-quenched (WQ) alloys, beta-titanium is largely retained, whereas in furnace-cooled (FC) alloys, little beta-titanium is found. Hardness of the alloys increases with increasing cobalt content, ranging from 455 VHN for WQ Ti-25 wt% Co to 525 VHN for WQ Ti-30 wt% Co. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicates that melting temperatures of the alloys are lower than that of pure titanium by about 600 degrees C. Potentiodynamic polarization results show that all measured break-down potentials in Hank's solution at 37 degrees C are higher than 800 mV. The breakdown potential for the FC Ti-25 Wt% Co alloy is even as high as nearly 1200 mV.

  1. Hot corrosion of low cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The hot corrosion attack susceptibility of various alloys as a function of strategic materials content are investigated. Preliminary results were obtained for two commercial alloys, UDIMET 700 and Mar-M 247, that were modified by varying the cobalt content. For both alloys the cobalt content was reduced in steps to zero. Nickel content was increased accordingly to make up for the reduced cobalt but all other constituents were held constant. Wedge bar test samples were produced by casting. The hot corrosion test consisted of cyclically exposing samples to the high velocity flow of combustion products from an air-fuel burner fueled with jet A-1 and seeded with a sodium chloride aqueous solution. The flow velocity was Mach 0.5 and the sodium level was maintained at 0.5 ppm in terms of fuel plus air. The test cycle consisted of holding the test samples at 900 C for 1 hour followed by 3 minutes in which the sample could cool to room temperature in an ambient temperature air stream.

  2. Amorphous cobalt potassium phosphate microclusters as efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Chunsong; Dai, Xuezeng; Lin, Hong; Cui, Bai; Li, Jianbao

    2013-12-01

    A novel amorphous cobalt potassium phosphate hydrate compound (KCoPO4·H2O) is identified to be active photocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to facilitate hydrogen generation from water photolysis. It has been synthesized through a facile and cost-effective solution-based precipitation method using earth-abundant materials. Its highly porous structure and large surface areas are found to be responsible for the excellent electrochemical performance featuring a low OER onset at ˜550 mVSCE and high current density in alkaline condition. Unlike traditional cobalt-based spinel oxides (Co3O4, NiCo2O4) and phosphate (Co-Pi, Co(PO3)2) electrocatalysts, with proper energy band alignment for light-assisted water oxidation, cobalt potassium phosphate hydrate also exhibits robust visible-light response, generating a photocurrent density of ˜200 μA cm-2 at 0.7 VSCE. This catalyst could thus be considered as a promising candidate to perform photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  3. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  4. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-02-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. -- Highlights: ► Decreased survival following simultaneous exposure to NiCl{sub 2} and CoCl{sub 2}. ► Enhanced caspase and PARP cleavage following co-exposure. ► Increased formation of ROS in dual exposed cells. ► N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment decreases Co and Ni toxicity. ► Co-exposure to Ni and Co enhances the formation of double

  5. Thermal properties of rare earth cobalt oxides and of La1- x Gd x CoO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yu. S.; Dudnikov, V. A.; Gorev, M. V.; Vereshchagin, S. N.; Solov'ev, L. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction data for the crystal structure, phase composition, and molar specific heat for La1‒ x Gd x CoO3 cobaltites in the temperature range of 300-1000 K have been analyzed. The behavior of the volume thermal expansion coefficient in cobaltites with isovalent doping in the temperature range of 100-1000 K is studied. It is found that the β( T) curve exhibits two peaks at some doping levels. The rate of the change in the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions is calculated for the compounds under study taking into account the spin-orbit interaction. With the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, it is demonstrated that the low-temperature peak in the thermal expansion shifts with the growth of the pressure toward higher temperatures and at pressure P ˜ 7 GPa coincides with the second peak. The similarity in the behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient in the La1- x Gd x CoO3 compounds with the isovalent substitution and the undoped LnCoO3 compound (Ln is a lanthanide) is considered. For the whole series of rare earth cobalt oxides, the nature of two specific features in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and thermal expansion is revealed and their relation to the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions and to the insulator-metal transition is established.

  6. Cobalt(II) sheet-like systems based on diacetic ligands: from subtle structural variances to different magnetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Oscar; Pasán, Jorge; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Delgado, Fernando S; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2009-07-06

    The preparation, X-ray crystallography, and magnetic investigation of the compounds [Co(H(2)O)(2)(phda)](n) (1), [Co(phda)](n) (2), and [Co(chda)](n) (3) [H(2)phda = 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid and H(2)chda = 1,1-cyclohexanediacetic acid] are described herein. The cobalt atoms in this series are six- (1) and four-coordinated (2 and 3) in distorted octahedral (CoO(6)) and tetrahedral (CoO(4)) environments. The structures of 1-3 consists of rectangular-grids which are built up by sheets of cobalt atoms linked through anti-syn carboxylate bridges, giving rise to either a three-dimensional structure across the phenyl ring (1 and 2) or to regularly stacked layers with the cyclohexyl groups acting as organic separators (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 were investigated as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. Ferromagnetic coupling between the six-coordinate cobalt(II) ions across the anti-syn carboxylate bridge occurs in 1 (J = +1.2 cm(-1)) whereas antiferromagnetic coupling among the tetrahedral cobalt(II) centers within the sheets is observed in 2 and 3 [J = -1.63 (2) and -1.70 cm(-1) (3)] together with a spin-canted structure in 3 giving rise a long-range magnetic ordering (T(c) = 7.5 K).

  7. Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kazantzis, G

    1981-01-01

    The possible carcinogenicity of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium is reviewed, taking into account epidemiological data, the results of animal experimental studies, data on mutagenic effects and on other in vitro test systems. Of the great variety of occupations where exposure to one of these metals may occur, only haematite mining has been clearly shown to involve an increased human cancer risk. While the possibility that haematite might in some way act as a carcinogen has to be taken into consideration it is more likely that other carcinogens are responsible. Certain platinum coordination complexes are used in cancer chemotherapy, are mutagenic, and likely to be carcinogenic. Cobalt, its oxide and sulfide, certain lead salts, one organomanganese, and one organotitanium compound have been shown to have a limited carcinogenic effect in experimental animal studies, and except for titanium appear to be mutagenic. Certain mercury compounds are mutagenic but none have been shown to be carcinogenic. The presently available data are inadequate to assess the possible carcinogenicity of selenium compounds, but a few observations suggest that selenium may suppress the effect of other carcinogens administered to experimental animals and may even be associated with lower cancer mortality rates in man. Epidemiological observations are essential for the assessment of a human cancer risk, but the difficulty in collecting past exposure data in occupational groups and the complexity of multiple occupational exposures with changes over time, limits the usefulness of retrospective epidemiological studies. PMID:7023929

  8. Complex materials for molecular spintronics applications: cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomers, from molecules to polymers.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Chen, Yifeng; Lewis, Geoffrey F; Dougherty, Daniel B; Shultz, David; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno

    2012-11-01

    Using first principles calculations, we predict a complex multifunctional behavior in cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomeric compounds. Molecular spin-state switching is shown to dramatically alter electronic properties and corresponding transport properties. This spin state dependence has been demonstrated for technologically relevant coordination polymers of valence tautomers as well as for novel conjugated polymers with valence tautomeric functionalization. As a result, these materials are proposed as promising candidates for spintronic devices that can couple magnetic bistability with novel electrical and spin conduction properties. Our findings pave the way to the fundamental understanding and future design of active multifunctional organic materials for spintronics applications.

  9. Charge-lattice interplay in layered cobaltates RBaCo2O5+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, A. N.; Kameneva, M. Yu.; Kozeeva, L. P.; Zhdanov, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and thermal expansion measurements are used to study the interrelation between the structural, magnetic and electron-transport peculiarities in RBaCo2O5+x (R=Y, Gd) over a wide range of oxygen contents. We find that the anisotropic lattice strain caused by the oxygen chain ordering in these compounds favors the metallic state and is a necessary condition for the coupled insulator-to-metal and spin-state phase transitions to occur. The obtained data point to the key role of the crystal lattice in selecting the preferred spin and orbital states of cobalt ions.

  10. A Raney-cobalt-mediated tandem reductive cyclization route to the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole framework of the uleine and Strychnos alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Reekie, Tristan A; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2012-12-07

    The readily accessible enones 8, 17, and 18 undergo 2-fold reductive cyclization reactions upon exposure to hydrogen in the presence of Raney-cobalt and thereby afford compounds 11 (72%), 19 (47%), and 20 (84%), respectively. These products embody the ABCD-ring system associated with the title alkaloids, and compound 11 can be converted, over four steps and in 33% yield, into congener 24 incorporating the ABCDE-ring system of the Strychnos alkaloids.

  11. The role of cobalt on the creep of Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Chin, L.; Tien, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Cobalt was systematically replaced with nickel in Waspaloy (which normally contains 13% Co) to determine the effects of cobalt on the creep behavior of this alloy. Effects of cobalt were found to be minimal on tensile strengths and microstructure. The creep resistance and the stress rupture resistance determined in the range from 704 to 760 C (1300 to 1400 C) were found to decrease as cobalt was removed from the standard alloy at all stresses and temperatures. Roughly a ten-fold drop in rupture life and a corresponding increase in minimum creep rate were found under all test conditions. Both the apparent creep activation energy and the matrix contribution to creep resistance were found to increase with cobalt. These creep effects are attributed to cobalt lowering the stacking fault energy of the alloy matrix. The creep resistance loss due to the removal of cobalt is shown to be restored by slightly increasing the gamma' volume fraction. Results are compared to a previous study on Udimet 700, a higher strength, higher gamma' volume fraction alloy with similar phase chemistry, in which cobalt did not affect creep resistance. An explanation for this difference in behavior based on interparticle spacing and cross-slip is presented.

  12. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  13. Potential for cobalt recovery from lateritic ores in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cobalt is one of the 'critical metals' identified under the EU Raw Materials Initiative. Annually the global mine production of cobalt is around 55,000 tonnes,with Europe's industries consuming around 30% of that figure. Currently Europe produces around 27 tonnes of cobalt from mines in Finland although new capacity is planned. Co-bearing nickel laterite ores being mined in Greece, Macedonia and Kosovo where the cobalt is currently not being recovered (ores have typical analyses of 0.055% Co and >1% Ni,). These ores are currently treated directly in pyrometallurgical plants to recover the contained nickel and this process means there is no separate cobalt product produced. Hydrometallurgical treatment of mineralogically suitable laterite ores can recover the cobalt; for example Cuba recovers 3,500 tonnes of cobalt from its laterite mining operations, which are of a similar scale to the current European operations. Implementation of hydrometallurgical techniques is in its infancy in Europe with one deposit in Turkey planning to use atmospheric heap leaching to recover nickel and copper from oxide-dominated ores. More widespread implementation of these methods to mineralogically suitable ore types could unlock the highly significant undeveloped resources (with metal contents >0.04% Co and >1% Ni), which have been defined throughout the Balkans eastwards into Turkey. At a conservative estimate, this region has the potential to supply up to 30% of the EU cobalt requirements.

  14. Iontophoretic Cobalt Staining of the Body Wall of Phocanema decipiens

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Clare; Croll, Neil A.

    1978-01-01

    Iontophoretic cobalt staining of the nematode Phocanema decipiens results in the deposition of cobalt between the contractile bases of adjacent muscle cells and in a hexagonal lattice pattern in the hypodermis. The possibility of staining sarcolemmal invaginations between muscle cells which are proprioceptive or coordinate the activity of adjacent muscle cells is suggested. PMID:19305836

  15. Consumer leather exposure: an unrecognized cause of cobalt sensitization.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Jellesen, Morten S; Møller, Per; Sloth, Jens J; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil

    2013-11-01

    A patient who had suffered from persistent generalized dermatitis for 7 years was diagnosed with cobalt sensitization, and his leather couch was suspected as the culprit, owing to the clinical presentation mimicking allergic chromium dermatitis resulting from leather furniture exposure. The cobalt spot test, X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine cobalt content and release from the leather couch that caused the dermatitis and from 14 randomly collected samples of furniture leather. The sample from the patient's leather couch, but none of the 14 random leather samples, released cobalt in high concentrations. Dermatitis cleared when the patient stopped using his couch. Cobalt is used in the so-called pre-metallized dyeing of leather products. Repeated studies have found high levels of cobalt sensitization, but not nickel sensitization, in patients with foot dermatitis. We raise the possibility that cobalt may be widely released from leather items, and advise dermatologists to consider this in patients with positive cobalt patch test reactions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of cobalt on Escherichia coli metabolism and metalloporphyrin formation.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Tomas; Frerman, Frank E; Kraus, Jan P

    2011-04-01

    Toxicity in Escherichia coli resulting from high concentrations of cobalt has been explained by competition of cobalt with iron in various metabolic processes including Fe-S cluster assembly, sulfur assimilation, production of free radicals and reduction of free thiol pool. Here we present another aspect of increased cobalt concentrations in the culture medium resulting in the production of cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX), which was incorporated into heme proteins including membrane-bound cytochromes and an expressed human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). The presence of CoPPIX in cytochromes inhibited their electron transport capacity and resulted in a substantially decreased respiration. Bacterial cells adapted to the increased cobalt concentration by inducing a modified mixed acid fermentative pathway under aerobiosis. We capitalized on the ability of E. coli to insert cobalt into PPIX to carry out an expression of CoPPIX-substituted heme proteins. The level of CoPPIX-substitution increased with the number of passages of cells in a cobalt-containing medium. This approach is an inexpensive method to prepare cobalt-substituted heme proteins compared to in vitro enzyme reconstitution or in vivo replacement using metalloporphyrin heme analogs and seems to be especially suitable for complex heme proteins with an additional coenzyme, such as human CBS.

  17. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  18. Effect of cobalt on Escherichia coli metabolism and metalloporphyrin formation

    PubMed Central

    Majtan, Tomas; Frerman, Frank E.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity in Escherichia coli resulting from high concentrations of cobalt has been explained by competition of cobalt with iron in various metabolic processes including Fe–S cluster assembly, sulfur assimilation, production of free radicals and reduction of free thiol pool. Here we present another aspect of increased cobalt concentrations in the culture medium resulting in the production of cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX), which was incorporated into heme proteins including membrane-bound cytochromes and an expressed human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). The presence of CoPPIX in cytochromes inhibited their electron transport capacity and resulted in a substantially decreased respiration. Bacterial cells adapted to the increased cobalt concentration by inducing a modified mixed acid fermentative pathway under aerobiosis. We capitalized on the ability of E. coli to insert cobalt into PPIX to carry out an expression of CoPPIX-substituted heme proteins. The level of CoPPIX-substitution increased with the number of passages of cells in a cobalt-containing medium. This approach is an inexpensive method to prepare cobalt-substituted heme proteins compared to in vitro enzyme reconstitution or in vivo replacement using metalloporphyrin heme analogs and seems to be especially suitable for complex heme proteins with an additional coenzyme, such as human CBS. PMID:21184140

  19. Unconventional magnetisation texture in graphene/cobalt hybrids

    DOE PAGES

    Vu, A. D.; Coraux, J.; Chen, G.; ...

    2016-04-26

    Magnetic domain structure and spin-dependent reflectivity measurements on cobalt thin films intercalated at the graphene/Ir(111) interface are investigated using spin-polarised low-energy electron microscopy. We find that graphene-covered cobalt films have surprising magnetic properties. Vectorial imaging of magnetic domains reveals an unusually gradual thickness-dependent spin reorientation transition, in which magnetisation rotates from out-of-the-film plane to the in-plane direction by less than 10° per cobalt monolayer. During this transition, cobalt films have a meandering spin texture, characterised by a complex, three-dimensional, wavy magnetisation pattern. In addition, spectroscopy measurements suggest that the electronic band structure of the unoccupied states is essentially spin-independent alreadymore » a few electron-Volts above the vacuum level. These properties strikingly differ from those of pristine cobalt films and could open new prospects in surface magnetism.« less

  20. Unconventional magnetisation texture in graphene/cobalt hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Vu, A. D.; Coraux, J.; Chen, G.; N’Diaye, A. T.; Schmid, A. K.; Rougemaille, N.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic domain structure and spin-dependent reflectivity measurements on cobalt thin films intercalated at the graphene/Ir(111) interface are investigated using spin-polarised low-energy electron microscopy. We find that graphene-covered cobalt films have surprising magnetic properties. Vectorial imaging of magnetic domains reveals an unusually gradual thickness-dependent spin reorientation transition, in which magnetisation rotates from out-of-the-film plane to the in-plane direction by less than 10° per cobalt monolayer. During this transition, cobalt films have a meandering spin texture, characterised by a complex, three-dimensional, wavy magnetisation pattern. In addition, spectroscopy measurements suggest that the electronic band structure of the unoccupied states is essentially spin-independent already a few electron-Volts above the vacuum level. These properties strikingly differ from those of pristine cobalt films and could open new prospects in surface magnetism. PMID:27114039

  1. Unconventional magnetisation texture in graphene/cobalt hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, A. D.; Coraux, J.; Chen, G.; N’Diaye, A. T.; Schmid, A. K.; Rougemaille, N.

    2016-04-26

    Magnetic domain structure and spin-dependent reflectivity measurements on cobalt thin films intercalated at the graphene/Ir(111) interface are investigated using spin-polarised low-energy electron microscopy. We find that graphene-covered cobalt films have surprising magnetic properties. Vectorial imaging of magnetic domains reveals an unusually gradual thickness-dependent spin reorientation transition, in which magnetisation rotates from out-of-the-film plane to the in-plane direction by less than 10° per cobalt monolayer. During this transition, cobalt films have a meandering spin texture, characterised by a complex, three-dimensional, wavy magnetisation pattern. In addition, spectroscopy measurements suggest that the electronic band structure of the unoccupied states is essentially spin-independent already a few electron-Volts above the vacuum level. These properties strikingly differ from those of pristine cobalt films and could open new prospects in surface magnetism.

  2. Immobilization of cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes on polystyrene resin and a study of their catalytic activity for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Jain, Suman; Reiser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed [3+2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition and the Staudinger ligation are readily applicable and highly efficient for the immobilization of cobalt Schiff base complexes onto polystyrene resins. Stepwise synthesis of polymer-bound Schiff bases followed by their subsequent complexation with metal ions were successfully carried out. Direct covalent attachment of preformed homogeneous cobalt Schiff base complexes to the resins was also possible. The catalytic efficiency of the so-prepared polystyrene-bound cobalt Schiff bases was studied for the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The immobilized complexes were highly efficient and even more reactive than the corresponding homogenous analogues, thus affording better yields of oxidized products within shorter reaction times. The supported catalysts could easily be recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reused for subsequent experiments with consistent catalytic activity.

  3. Complete cobalt recovery from lithium cobalt oxide in self-driven microbial fuel cell - Microbial electrolysis cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liping; Yao, Binglin; Wu, Dan; Quan, Xie

    2014-08-01

    Complete cobalt recovery from lithium cobalt oxide requires to firstly leach cobalt from particles LiCoO2 and then recover cobalt from aqueous Co(II). A self-driven microbial fuel cell (MFC)-microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) system can completely carry out these two processes, in which Co(II) is firstly released from particles LiCoO2 on the cathodes of MFCs and then reduced on the cathodes of MECs which are powered by the cobalt leaching MFCs. A cobalt leaching rate of 46 ± 2 mg L-1 h-1 with yield of 1.5 ± 0.1 g Co g-1 COD (MFCs) and a Co(II) reduction rate of 7 ± 0 mg L-1 h-1 with yield of 0.8 ± 0.0 g Co g-1 COD (MECs), as well as a overall system cobalt yield of 0.15 ± 0.01 g Co g-1 Co can be achieved in this self-driven MFC-MEC system. Coulombic efficiencies reach 41 ± 1% (anodic MFCs), 75 ± 0% (anodic MECs), 100 ± 2% (cathodic MFCs), and 29 ± 1% (cathodic MECs) whereas overall system efficiency averages 34 ± 1%. These results provide a new process of linking MFCs to MECs for complete recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries with no external energy consumption.

  4. Microemulsion-mediated synthesis of cobalt (pure fcc and hexagonal phases) and cobalt-nickel alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Sharma, Shudhanshu; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Lofland, Samuel E; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2009-08-15

    By choosing appropriate microemulsion systems, hexagonal cobalt (Co) and cobalt-nickel (1:1) alloy nanoparticles have been obtained with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a cationic surfactant at 500 degrees C. This method thus stabilizes the hcp cobalt even at sizes (<10 nm) at which normally fcc cobalt is predicted to be stable. On annealing the hcp cobalt nanoparticles in H(2) at 700 degrees C we could transform them to fcc cobalt nanoparticles. Microscopy studies show the formation of spherical nanoparticles of hexagonal and cubic forms of cobalt and Co-Ni (1:1) alloy nanoparticles with the average size of 4, 8 and 20 nm, respectively. Electrochemical studies show that the catalytic property towards oxygen evolution is dependent on the applied voltage. At low voltage (less than 0.65 V) the Co (hexagonal) nanoparticles are superior to the alloy (Co-Ni) nanoparticles while above this voltage the alloy nanoparticles are more efficient catalysts. The nanoparticles of cobalt (hcp and fcc) and alloy (Co-Ni) nanoparticles show ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetization of Co-Ni nanoparticles is reduced compared to the bulk possibly due to surface oxidation.

  5. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V.; Errandonea, D.

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  6. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. )

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  7. Assembly of two layered cobalt-molybdenum phosphates: Changing interlayer distances by tuning the lengths of amine ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yunan; Zhou Baibin; Sha Jingquan; Su Zhanhua; Cui, Ji-Wen

    2011-02-15

    By using amines with different lengths, two layered cobalt-molybdenum phosphates with different interlayer distances, (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 10}) [HCo(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}P{sub 2}MoO{sub 10}] (1), and (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 4{l_brace}}Co{sub 3} [P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}(OH){sub 5}]{sub 2{r_brace}}. 5H{sub 2}O (2), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. In compound 1, the H{sub 2}en direct the [CoMoP{sub 2}] clusters to form a layered framework. By changing the lengths of protonated organic amines (H{sub 2}en to 1, 3-H{sub 2}pn), compound 2 is obtained, in which the sandwich-shaped [Co (Mo{sub 6}P{sub 4}){sub 2}] clusters are linked by tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt into a layered framework. With the lengths of protonated organic amines increasing, the interlayer distances in compound 2 become larger. This work successfully demonstrates that tuning the lengths and conformation of the protonated organic amines can provide a facile route for the formation of organically templated inorganic open-framework materials. Additionally, susceptibility measurement shows that the two compounds both exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions. -- Graphical abstract: By using amines with different lengths, two layered cobalt-molybdenum phosphates with different interlayer distances have been hydrothermally synthesized. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Two layered compounds have been synthesized by utilizing amines with different lengths. {yields} The chain lengths of amines can influence the overall supramolecular framework of the PMo-TMCs. {yields} The conformation of amines may influence the stacking mode of the inorganic building blocks. {yields} Susceptibility measurement shows that the two compounds both exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions.

  8. Comparison of supplemental cobalt form on fibre digestion and cobalamin concentrations in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cobalt is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B12, which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if cobalt form (cobalt carbonate vs cobalt glucoheptonate...

  9. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOEpatents

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  10. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  11. Atomically flat ultrathin cobalt ferrite islands.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Laura; Quesada, Adrián; Munuera, Carmen; Fernández, Jose F; García-Hernández, Mar; Foerster, Michael; Aballe, Lucía; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-10-21

    A route for fabricating structurally perfect cobalt ferrite magnetic nanostructures is demonstrated. Ultrathin islands of up to 100 μm(2) with atomically flat surfaces and free from antiphase boundaries are developed. The extremely low defect concentration leads to a robust magnetic order, even for thicknesses below 1 nm, and exceptionally large magnetic domains. This approach allows the evaluation of the influence of specific extrinsic effects on domain wall pinning. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  13. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  14. Exafs data analysis of some cobalt complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A.; Vibhute, Vishakha; Jain, Garima; Ninama, Samrath

    2012-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has assumed great significance with its increasing application in the different fields of physics like solid state physics, chemical physics, atomic physics, Plasma Physics and Astro physics etc.in present paper we obtained bond lengths of cobalt metal complexes using Levy's, LSS and Lytle methods and are compared by FEFFIT (Fitting of EXAFS by Fast Fourier Inverse Transform) method. Bond length basically known as radial distance between ligand and metal complexes. FEFFIT is computer program for calculating bond length obtained theoretical data of EXAFS.

  15. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Cast Alloys : NASA VIA, B-1900, 713C and 738X", Report NASA TN D-7682, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, August 1974. 36. Giggins, C.S. and...resistance of cobalt-base and nickel-base alloys . The contract was accomplished under the technical direction of Dr. H. C. Graham of the Aerospace Research...Interpretation of Results 3. SODIUM SULFATE INDUCED HOT CORROSION OF Co-25Al AND Co-35Cr ALLOYS a. Introduction b. Experimental Co-25Al c. Experimental

  16. Magnetic properties of cobalt and chromium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Forrest William

    We have used the Stern-Gerlach deflection technique to study magnetism in cobalt clusters of 13-187 atoms and chromium clusters with between 20-133 atoms. These clusters were observed at temperatures ranging from 60K to 250K and at magnetic field gradients up to 360 T/m. Using superparamagnetic theory we have determined the moment per atom for each cluster size and find enhanced magnetism due to reduced dimensionality of the clusters. Remarkably, we find that we are capable of making chromium clusters in two magnetically distinguishable forms for each cluster size with ≥34 atoms. We attribute this observation to the presence of structural isomers.

  17. Kinetic phase evolution of spinel cobalt oxide during lithiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; He, Kai; Meng, Qingping; Li, Xin; Zhu, Yizhou; Hwang, Sooyeon; Sun, Ke; Gan, Hong; Zhu, Yimei; Mo, Yifei; Stach, Eric A.; Su, Dong

    2016-09-15

    Spinel cobalt oxide has been proposed to undergo a multiple-step reaction during the electrochemical lithiation process. Understanding the kinetics of the lithiation process in this compound is crucial to optimize its performance and cyclability. In this work, we have utilized a low-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy method to visualize the dynamic reaction process in real time and study the reaction kinetics at different rates. We show that the particles undergo a two-step reaction at the single-particle level, which includes an initial intercalation reaction followed by a conversion reaction. At low rates, the conversion reaction starts after the intercalation reaction has fully finished, consistent with the prediction of density functional theoretical calculations. At high rates, the intercalation reaction is overwhelmed by the subsequently nucleated conversion reaction, and the reaction speeds of both the intercalation and conversion reactions are increased. Phase-field simulations show the crucial role of surface diffusion rates of lithium ions in controlling this process. Furthermore, this work provides microscopic insights into the reaction dynamics in non-equilibrium conditions and highlights the effect of lithium diffusion rates on the overall reaction homogeneity as well as the performance.

  18. Preconditioning with cobalt chloride modifies pain perception in mice.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Teodora; Luca, Andrei; Dondas, Andrei; Bohotin, Catalina Roxana

    2015-04-01

    Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) modifies mitochondrial permeability and has a hypoxic-mimetic effect; thus, the compound induces tolerance to ischemia and increases resistance to a number of injury types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CoCl2 hypoxic preconditioning for three weeks on thermonociception, somatic and visceral inflammatory pain, locomotor activity and coordination in mice. A significant pronociceptive effect was observed in the hot plate and tail flick tests after one and two weeks of CoCl2 administration, respectively (P<0.001). Thermal hyperalgesia (Plantar test) was present in the first week, but recovered by the end of the experiment. Contrary to the hyperalgesic effect on thermonociception, CoCl2 hypoxic preconditioning decreased the time spent grooming the affected area in the second phase of the formalin test on the orofacial and paw models. The first phase of formalin-induced pain and the writhing test were not affected by CoCl2 preconditioning. Thus, the present study demonstrated that CoCl2 preconditioning has a dual effect on pain, and these effects should be taken into account along with the better-known neuro-, cardio- and renoprotective effects of CoCl2.

  19. Kinetic phase evolution of spinel cobalt oxide during lithiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; He, Kai; Meng, Qingping; Li, Xin; Zhu, Yizhou; Hwang, Sooyeon; Sun, Ke; Gan, Hong; Zhu, Yimei; Mo, Yifei; Stach, Eric A.; Su, Dong

    2016-09-15

    Spinel cobalt oxide has been proposed to undergo a multiple-step reaction during the electrochemical lithiation process. Understanding the kinetics of the lithiation process in this compound is crucial to optimize its performance and cyclability. In this work, we have utilized a low-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy method to visualize the dynamic reaction process in real time and study the reaction kinetics at different rates. We show that the particles undergo a two-step reaction at the single-particle level, which includes an initial intercalation reaction followed by a conversion reaction. At low rates, the conversion reaction starts after the intercalation reaction has fully finished, consistent with the prediction of density functional theoretical calculations. At high rates, the intercalation reaction is overwhelmed by the subsequently nucleated conversion reaction, and the reaction speeds of both the intercalation and conversion reactions are increased. Phase-field simulations show the crucial role of surface diffusion rates of lithium ions in controlling this process. Furthermore, this work provides microscopic insights into the reaction dynamics in non-equilibrium conditions and highlights the effect of lithium diffusion rates on the overall reaction homogeneity as well as the performance.

  20. Kinetic phase evolution of spinel cobalt oxide during lithiation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jing; He, Kai; Meng, Qingping; ...

    2016-09-15

    Spinel cobalt oxide has been proposed to undergo a multiple-step reaction during the electrochemical lithiation process. Understanding the kinetics of the lithiation process in this compound is crucial to optimize its performance and cyclability. In this work, we have utilized a low-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy method to visualize the dynamic reaction process in real time and study the reaction kinetics at different rates. We show that the particles undergo a two-step reaction at the single-particle level, which includes an initial intercalation reaction followed by a conversion reaction. At low rates, the conversion reaction starts after the intercalationmore » reaction has fully finished, consistent with the prediction of density functional theoretical calculations. At high rates, the intercalation reaction is overwhelmed by the subsequently nucleated conversion reaction, and the reaction speeds of both the intercalation and conversion reactions are increased. Phase-field simulations show the crucial role of surface diffusion rates of lithium ions in controlling this process. Furthermore, this work provides microscopic insights into the reaction dynamics in non-equilibrium conditions and highlights the effect of lithium diffusion rates on the overall reaction homogeneity as well as the performance.« less

  1. C(sp(2))-H Borylation of Fluorinated Arenes Using an Air-Stable Cobalt Precatalyst: Electronically Enhanced Site Selectivity Enables Synthetic Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Bezdek, Máté J; Chirik, Paul J

    2017-02-22

    Cobalt catalysts with electronically enhanced site selectivity have been developed, as evidenced by the high ortho-to-fluorine selectivity observed in the C(sp(2))-H borylation of fluorinated arenes. Both the air-sensitive cobalt(III) dihydride boryl 4-Me-((iPr)PNP)Co(H)2BPin (1) and the air-stable cobalt(II) bis(pivalate) 4-Me-((iPr)PNP)Co(O2C(t)Bu)2 (2) compounds were effective and exhibited broad functional group tolerance across a wide range of fluoroarenes containing electronically diverse functional groups, regardless of the substitution pattern on the arene. The electronically enhanced ortho-to-fluorine selectivity observed with the cobalt catalysts was maintained in the presence of a benzylic dimethylamine and hydrosilanes, overriding the established directing-group effects observed with precious-metal catalysts. The synthetically useful selectivity observed with cobalt was applied to an efficient synthesis of the anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen.

  2. Cobalt Chloride Induces Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Line HK-2.

    PubMed

    Nishihashi, Katsuki; Kawashima, Kei; Nomura, Takami; Urakami-Takebayashi, Yumiko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Takano, Mikihisa; Nagai, Junya

    2017-01-01

    The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is a drug transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. The cis-regulatory elements in the BCRP promoter include a hypoxia response element, i.e., the DNA binding site for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In this study, we investigated the effect of cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1α, on the expression and function of BCRP in human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2. Cobalt chloride treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of not only glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), a typical HIF-1 target gene mRNA, but also ABCG2 mRNA in HK-2 cells. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143-sensitive accumulation of BCRP substrates such as Hoechst33342 and mitoxantrone was significantly enhanced by cobalt chloride treatment. In addition, treatment with cobalt chloride significantly increased the Ko143-sensitive accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled methotrexate in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, cobalt chloride treatment attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by mitoxantrone and methotrexate, which might be, at least in part, due to the increase in BCRP-mediated transport activity via HIF-1 activation. These findings indicate that HIF-1 activation protects renal proximal tubular cells against BCRP substrate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing the expression and function of BCRP in renal proximal tubular cells.

  3. A new organically-templated cobalt borophosphate with a novel borophosphatic anionic partial structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Guo Xiangqin; Su Ge; Cao Lixin; Wang Yonggang; Duan Jingrui

    2011-09-15

    A novel cobalt borophosphate, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2})[Co{sub 2}B{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O with the mixed cations has been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (tetragonal, I4{sub 1}/a (no. 88), a=14.207(3) A, c=24.956(6) A, V=5037.09(2) A{sup 3}, Z=8). The crystal structure consists of a new type of three-dimensional borophosphatic anionic partial framework, which is built from the condensation of the fundamental building unit (FBU) [B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 14}(OH)]. The CoO{sub 6} octahedra are enchased in such borophosphate network to form a complex open framework with a three-dimensional intersecting channel system, the voids of which are occupied by ammonium, dipronated piperazine ions and water molecules, respectively. The magnetic measurement of the title compound has also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: A new organically-templated cobalt borophosphate, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2})[Co{sub 2}B{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O with a novel borophosphate 3D anionic partial framework has been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions. Highlights: > The first cobalt borophosphate with the 3D anionic partial borophosphate network. > A porous framework with an intersecting three-dimensional channel system. > The borophosphate compound with the mixed cations.

  4. Temporal and spatial variability of cobalt in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mak A.; Moffett, James W.

    2002-06-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of cobalt in the Atlantic Ocean was investigated by means of adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. A vertical profile of total dissolved cobalt at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series station ranged from 17 to 73 pM and displayed surface depletion indicative of biological utilization. This profile when compared with a cobalt profile from the northeast Pacific shows no increase in deep-water concentrations with thermohaline circulation through the deep ocean basins. Moreover, the middepth maximum observed in northeast Pacific profiles is not present in the Sargasso Sea, perhaps because of the lack of cobalt scavenging by particulate manganese oxides in surface waters and to the absence of a suboxic oxygen minimum zone, which, if present, could dissolve the manganese oxides. Total dissolved cobalt measurements were also made on a surface transect from the Sargasso Sea to coastal Massachusetts, USA, and on time-series samples from the Moored In Situ Trace Element Serial Sampler. Dissolved cobalt on this transect correlated strongly with salinity (r2 = 0.93) and ranged from 19 to 133 pM, indicating mixing of cobalt from shelf waters into the Sargasso Sea. Time-series samples near Bermuda did not show an obvious response to the summer maximum in aeolian dust deposition, with an annual average of 20 ± 10 pM at 40- to 47-m depths. By use of this annual value and particulate cobalt data from the literature, 100-m surface-water residence times were calculated to be as low as 0.32 yr for cobalt. Several sharp decreases in cobalt were observed in the time series that occurred simultaneously with a shallowing of the thermocline depth. These decreases could be caused by nutrient drawdown associated with higher productivity mesoscale eddy events. A west-east surface transect across the South Atlantic showed high cobalt concentrations at the boundaries of the transect and low concentrations in the center despite the high precipitation rates

  5. Structural and dielectric properties of molybdenum doped cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Alejandra Gabriela

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4; referred to CFO hereafter) is one of the most promising materials from the 'ferrites family' with a large cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy (1.8 - 3x10 5 Jm-3 at 300 K). CFO exhibits unique, distinct characteristics such as higher Curie temperature ( 793 K), moderate saturation magnetization (80 emu/g), higher coercivity (5400 Oe), excellent chemical-structural stability, large Kerr effect, Faraday rotation and good mechanical hardness at room temperature. While it is well known that CFO is found in inverse spinel structure of the form AB2O4 , where O atoms are arranged in a face centered cubic lattice, A tetrahedral sites (Fe3+), and B octahedral sites (Co2+), it is also known that there are many unoccupied interstitial sites in the structure, which favors the movement of cations. To enhance dielectric properties for sensor applications, CFO needs to be doped with suitable metal ions. In this work, molybdenum (Mo) doped CFO (CoFe2-xMoxO4; referred to CFMO hereafter) ceramics were prepared using solid state reaction method with variable compositions (x= 0.0 - 0.3). Crystal structure, surface morphology and dielectric constant of CFMO were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations confirm that CFMO has inverse spinel crystal structure with a lattice expansion of 8.3 A with increasing Mo content and also increase in density of the compound. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicate an increase in grain size with increasing Mo content. The dielectric measurement results of pure CFO compared to those of CFMO compounds are enhanced because of the distortion created by the Mo incorporation attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner type polarization. The results demonstrate that the crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric properties can be tuned by Mo incorporation in the CFMO ceramics.

  6. "NiCo Buster": engineering E. coli for fast and efficient capture of cobalt and nickel.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Alexandre; Chansavang, Viviane; Frémion, Franck; Gonthier, Clémence; Louis, Yoann; Lejeune, Philippe; Springer, Fanny; Desjardin, Valérie; Rodrigue, Agnès; Dorel, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    thick biofilm structures, especially when exposed to nickel and cobalt metallic compounds. This study demonstrates the efficient use of genetic engineering to increase metal sequestration and biofilm formation by E. coli. This method allows Co and Ni contaminants to be sequestered while spatially confining the bacteria to an abiotic support. Biofiltration of nickel (II) and cobalt (II) by immobilized cells is therefore a promising option for treating these contaminants at an industrial scale.

  7. Azido- and chlorido-cobalt complex as carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pires, Bianca M; Giacomin, Letícia C; Castro, Frederico A V; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos S; Pereira, Marcos D; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Faria, Roberto B; Scarpellini, Marciela

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes are well-suited systems for cytotoxic drug release under hypoxic conditions. Here, we investigate the effect of cytotoxic azide release by cobalt-containing carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs. In addition, we study the species formed after reduction of Co(3+) → Co(2+) in the proposed models for these prodrugs. Three new complexes, [Co(III)(L)(N3)2]BF4(1), [{Co(II)(L)(N3)}2](ClO4)2(2), and [Co(II)(L)Cl]PF6(3), L=[(bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)methyl)(2-(pyridyl-2-yl)ethyl)amine], were synthesized and studied by several spectroscopic, spectrometric, electrochemical, and crystallographic methods. Reactivity and spectroscopic data reveal that complex 1 is able to release N3(-) either after reduction with ascorbic acid, or by ambient light irradiation, in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH6.2, 7.0 and 7.4) and acetonitrile solutions. The antitumoral activities of compounds 1-3 were tested in normoxia on MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate) and A-549 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial) cell lines, after 24h of exposure. Either complexes or NaN3 presented IC50 values higher than 200 μM, showing lower cytotoxicity than the clinical standard antitumoral complex cisplatin, under the same conditions. Complexes 1-3 were also evaluated in hypoxia on A-549 and results indicate high IC50 data (>200 μM) after 24h of exposure. However, an increase of cancer cell susceptibility to 1 and 2 was observed at 300 μM. Regarding complex 3, no cytotoxic activity was observed in the same conditions. The data presented here indicate that the tridentate ligand L is able to stabilize both oxidation states of cobalt (+3 and +2). In addition, the cobalt(III) complex generates the low cytotoxic cobalt(II) species after reduction, which supports their use as as carrier prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. ); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. )

    1993-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. In-plane Anisotropy of Cobalt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.; Gibson, Charles P.

    1996-03-01

    Hexagonal cobalt platelets of diameter 150 nm and thickness 15 nm have been fabricated using ultrasonic-assisted chemical reduction.(Charles P. Gibson and Kathy J. Putzer, Science 267, 1338 (1995)) Lorenz microscopy indicated that the magnetic moment of these particles lies in the basal plane of the platelets (unlike bulk cobalt in which the moment is preferentially oriented perpendicular to the basal plane). Disks with approximately 75to the plane of the disk have been measured and confirm a strong in-plane anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 150 emu/g (compared with the bulk value of 163 emu/g). The anisotropy field is approximately 2.5 T at room temperature. Temperature-dependent magnetization shows irreversibility between field cooled and zero-field-cooled configurations. A large, broad cusp at 150 K and a smaller cusp at 12 K are observed in both field-parallel-to-the-plane and field-perpendicular-to-the-plane configurations. The 12 K feature is also seen in assemblies of randomly oriented particles and is attributed to random anisotropy; however, the cusp at 150 K is only seen in the oriented samples.

  10. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Irshad, M. I. Mohamed, N. M.; Ahmad, F. Abdullah, M. Z.

    2014-10-24

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl{sub 2}Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidified by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications.

  11. Adapting Ruthenium Sensitizers to Cobalt Electrolyte Systems.

    PubMed

    Amit Kumar, Sangeeta; Urbani, Maxence; Medel, María; Ince, Mine; González-Rodríguez, David; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Bhaskarwar, Ashok N; Torres, Tomás; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-02-06

    In this work, we report the use of bulky substitutions in a new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) bipyridine complex, Ru(NCS)2LL', coded TT-230 to obtain high open-circuit potential in a dye-sensitized solar cell (where L is a bipyridine ligand appended with two cyclopenta(2,1-b;3,4-bA)dithiophene moieties, and L' = 4,4,'-dicarboxylic acid 2,2'-bipyridine). The electrolytes based on cobalt complexes have shown significant advantages in terms of attainable open-circuit potential compared to the standard iodide/tri-iodide redox mediators. These merits of the cobalt complexes were previously realized with a porphyrin sensitizer, achieving a VOC greater than 1 V in DSC. However, with conventional Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes such as the C101 dye, similar increase in the VOC could not be attained due to the enhanced recombination. In this work, we have shown that the use of bulky substituents can prevent the back reaction of photogenerated electron and subsequently increase the open-circuit potential of the device. The recombination processes were investigated by transient photovoltage decay measurements.

  12. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Cobalt Monoboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H. F.; Ng, Y. W.; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectrum of cobalt monoboride (CoB) in the visible region between 465 and 560 nm has been observed. CoB molecule was produced by the reaction of laser ablated cobalt atom and diborane (B_2H_6) seeded in argon. Over twenty five vibronic bands have been recorded, and both Co10B and Co11B isotopic species have been observed and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of the rotational lines showed that the observed vibronic bands belong to two categories namely: the Ω' = 2 - Ω'' = 2 and the Ω' = 3 - Ω'' = 3 transitions, which indicated the ground state of CoB is consistent with an assignment of a ^3Δ_i state predicted from ab initio calculations. Unresolved hyperfine structure arising from the Co nucleus (I = 7/2) causes a broadening of spectral lines. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the spectrum of the CoB molecule. Financial support from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKU 701008P) is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Nanocomposites of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles and cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkkalainen, K.; Leppänen, K.; Vainio, U.; Webb, M. A.; Elbra, T.; Kohout, T.; Nykänen, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Kotelnikova, N.; Serimaa, R.

    2008-10-01

    Polymeric matrices with stabilized metallic nanoparticles constitute an important class of nanostructured materials, because polymer technology allows fabrication of components with various electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties. The porous cellulose matrix has been shown to be a useful support material for platinum, palladium, silver, copper and nickel nanoparticles. In the present study, nanosized cobalt particles with enhanced magnetic properties were made by chemical reduction within a microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) matrix. Two different chemical reducers, NaBH4 and NaH2PO2, were used, and the so-formed nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These experimental techniques were used to gain insight into the effect of different synthesis routes on structural properties of the nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Particles made via the NaBH4 reduction were amorphous Co-B or Co oxide composites with diminished ferromagnetic behaviour and particles made via the NaH2PO2 reduction were well-ordered ferromagnetic hcp cobalt nanocrystals.

  14. Iron- and Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkene Hydrogenation: Catalysis with Both Redox-Active and Strong Field Ligands.

    PubMed

    Chirik, Paul J

    2015-06-16

    The hydrogenation of alkenes is one of the most impactful reactions catalyzed by homogeneous transition metal complexes finding application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and commodity chemical industries. For decades, catalyst technology has relied on precious metal catalysts supported by strong field ligands to enable highly predictable two-electron redox chemistry that constitutes key bond breaking and forming steps during turnover. Alternative catalysts based on earth abundant transition metals such as iron and cobalt not only offer potential environmental and economic advantages but also provide an opportunity to explore catalysis in a new chemical space. The kinetically and thermodynamically accessible oxidation and spin states may enable new mechanistic pathways, unique substrate scope, or altogether new reactivity. This Account describes my group's efforts over the past decade to develop iron and cobalt catalysts for alkene hydrogenation. Particular emphasis is devoted to the interplay of the electronic structure of the base metal compounds and their catalytic performance. First generation, aryl-substituted pyridine(diimine) iron dinitrogen catalysts exhibited high turnover frequencies at low catalyst loadings and hydrogen pressures for the hydrogenation of unactivated terminal and disubstituted alkenes. Exploration of structure-reactivity relationships established smaller aryl substituents and more electron donating ligands resulted in improved performance. Second generation iron and cobalt catalysts where the imine donors were replaced by N-heterocyclic carbenes resulted in dramatically improved activity and enabled hydrogenation of more challenging unactivated, tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes. Optimized cobalt catalysts have been discovered that are among the most active homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts known. Synthesis of enantiopure, C1 symmetric pyridine(diimine) cobalt complexes have enabled rare examples of highly enantioselective

  15. A Systematic Review of Systemic Cobaltism After Wear or Corrosion of Chrome-Cobalt Hip Implants.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Bradford D; Steck, Thomas; Woelber, Erik; Tower, Stephen S

    2015-06-12

    We sought to synthesize data on systemic arthroprosthetic cobaltism, a recently described syndrome that results from wear or corrosion of chrome-cobalt hip components. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify all reported cases of systemic arthroprosthetic cobaltism. To assess the epidemiologic link between blood cobalt levels (B[Co]), we developed a symptom scoring tool that evaluated 9 different symptom categories and a category of medical utilization. We identified 25 patients reported between 2001 and 2014 with a substantial increase in case reports over the past 3 years. Symptoms were diverse and involved the hip (84%), cardiovascular system (60%), audiovestibular system (52%), peripheral motor-sensory system (48%), thyroid (48%), psychological functioning (32%), visual system (32%), and the hematological, oncological, or immune system (20%). The mean latency from implantation to presentation or revision was 41 months (range, 9-99 months). The mean B[Co] was 324 μg/L and 4 patients had levels less than 20 μg/L. The B[Co] but not blood chromium level was highly associated with a quantitative measure of overall symptom severity (r, 0.81; P < 0.001). Mean B[Co] and symptom scores were substantially higher in patients with revisions of failed ceramic-on-ceramic prostheses than those with primary metal-on-metal prostheses. Systemic arthroprosthetic cobaltism is an increasingly recognized complication of wear or corrosion of chrome-cobalt hip implants, may involve a large number of organ systems, and may occur with relatively low B[Co]. There is an urgent need to better define the overall scope of the problem and to develop screening and management strategies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  16. TRIFLUOROMETHYL COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLUORIDES, *GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS, *HALIDES, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL BONDS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, HYDROLYSIS, IODIDES, METHYL RADICALS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, PYROLYSIS, STABILITY, SYNTHESIS, TIN COMPOUNDS.

  17. Production of cobalt and nickel particles by hydrogen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsman, J.; Tapper, U.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2008-05-01

    Cobalt and nickel nanoparticles were produced by hydrogen reduction reaction from cobalt or nickel chloride precursor vapour in nitrogen carrier gas. This aerosol phase method to produce nanoparticles is a scalable one-step process. Two different setups were introduced in particle production: a batch type reactor and a continuously operated reactor. Common feature in these setups was hydrogen mixing in a vertical flow reactor. The process was monitored on-line for particle mass concentration and for gas phase chemical reactions. Tapered element oscillating microbalance measured the particle mass concentration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor relevant gas phase species. The produced cobalt and nickel particles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The produced cobalt and nickel particles were crystalline with cubic fcc structure. Twinning was often observed in cobalt particles while nickel particles were mostly single crystals. The cobalt particles formed typically long agglomerates. No significant neck growth between the primary particles was observed. The primary particle size for cobalt and nickel was below 100 nm.

  18. Cobalt ions induce chemokine secretion in primary human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Queally, J M; Devitt, B M; Butler, J S; Malizia, A P; Murray, D; Doran, P P; O'Byrne, J M

    2009-07-01

    Chemokines are major regulators of the inflammatory response and have been shown to play an important role in periprosthetic osteolysis. Titanium particles have previously been shown to induce IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion in osteoblasts. These chemokines result in the chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Despite a resurgence in the use of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys in metal-on-metal arthroplasty, cobalt and chromium ion toxicity in the periprosthetic area has been insufficiently studied. In this study we investigate the in vitro effect of cobalt ions on primary human osteoblast activity. We demonstrate that cobalt ions rapidly induce the protein secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 in primary human osteoblasts. This elevated chemokine secretion is preceded by an increase in the transcription of the corresponding chemokine gene. Using a Transwell migration chemotaxis assay we also demonstrate that the chemokines secreted are capable of inducing neutrophil and macrophage migration. Furthermore, cobalt ions significantly inhibit osteoblast function as demonstrated by reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition. In aggregate these data demonstrate that cobalt ions can activate transcription of the chemokine genes IL-8 and MCP-1 in primary human osteoblasts. Cobalt ions are not benign and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteolysis by suppressing osteoblast function and stimulating the production and secretion of chemokines that attract inflammatory and osteoclastic cells to the periprosthetic area.

  19. Separation and Recovery of Cobalt from Copper Leach Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Significant amounts of cobalt, a strategic and critical metal, are present in readily accessible copper recycling leach solutions. However, cost-effective technology is not available to separate and recover the cobalt from this low-grade domestic source. The Bureau of Mines has developed a procedure using a chelating ion-exchange resin from Dow Chemical Co. to successfully extract cobalt from a pH 3.0 copper recycling solution containing only 30 mg/1 cobalt. Cyclic tests with the commercial resin XFS-4195 in 4-ft-high by 1-in.-diameter columns gave an average cobalt extraction of 95% when 65 bed volumes of solution were processed at a flow rate of 4 gpm/ft.2 Elution of the cobalt using a 50 g/l H2SO4 solution yielded an eluate containing 0.5 gli Co. Selective elution of the loaded resin and solvent extraction procedures using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and Cyanex 272 removed the impurities and produced a cobalt sulfate solution containing 25 g/l Co.

  20. High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona; Zaghini, Anna; Mariotti, Andrea; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Vielmi, Valentina; Semeraro, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Padovani, Alessandro; Rizzetti, Maria Cristina; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-09-01

    The adverse biological effects of continuous exposure to cobalt and chromium have been well defined. In the past, this toxicity was largely an industrial issue concerning workers exposed in occupational setting. Nevertheless, recent reports have described a specific toxicity mediated by the high levels of cobalt and chromium released by metallic prostheses, particularly in patients who had received hip implants. Clinical symptoms, including blindness, deafness and peripheral neuropathy, suggest a specific neurotropism. However, little is known about the neuropathological basis of this process, and experimental evidence is still lacking. We have investigated this issue in an experimental setting using New Zealand White rabbits treated with repeated intravenous injections of cobalt and chromium, alone or in combination. No evident clinical or pathological alterations were associated after chromium administration alone, despite its high levels in blood and tissue while cobalt-chromium and cobalt-treated rabbits showed clinical signs indicative of auditory and optic system toxicity. On histopathological examination, the animals showed severe retinal and cochlear ganglion cell depletion along with optic nerve damage and loss of sensory cochlear hair cells. Interestingly, the severity of the alterations was related to dosages and time of exposure. These data confirmed our previous observation of severe auditory and optic nerve toxicity in patients exposed to an abnormal release of cobalt and chromium from damaged hip prostheses. Moreover, we have identified the major element mediating neurotoxicity to be cobalt, although the molecular mechanisms mediating this toxicity still have to be defined.

  1. Synthesis, structures and antibacterial activities of benzoylthiourea derivatives and their complexes with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Liu, Huanhuan; Li, Mengying; Wang, Fan; Zhou, Weiqun; Fan, Jianfen

    2012-11-01

    Four new thiocarbonyl fluorobenzamides and their complexes with cobalt have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, and (1)H NMR. Five crystal structures of the thioylbenzamides complexes of Co(PTCB)(3), Co(2FPTCB)(3), Co(4FPTCB)(3), Co(2FMTCB)(2) and Co(4FMTCB)(3) have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial properties of these compounds against the bacteria, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and Shewanella sp. were investigated. The experiments showed that both compounds and the complexes had the antibacterial activities against all of the studied bacteria. The thioylbenzamides had stronger controls for the bacteria of E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa than their corresponding cobalt complexes. There was the contrary result against the bacteria of Shewanella sp. The para-substitution of fluorine atom increased antibacterial activities, while fluorine atom was substituted on ortho-benzoyl, the antibacterial activity weakened. The thioylbenzamides linked to piperidine instead of a morpholine group may increase the antibacterial activities.

  2. Genotoxicity and morphological transformation induced by cobalt nanoparticles and cobalt chloride: an in vitro study in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Jessica; Sabbioni, Enrico; Munaro, Barbara; Broggi, Francesca; Marmorato, Patrick; Franchini, Fabio; Colognato, Renato; Rossi, François

    2009-09-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field that involves the development, manufacture and measurement of materials and systems in the submicron to nanometer range. Its development is expected to have a large socio-economical impact in practically all fields of industrial activity. However, there is still a lack of information about the potential risks of manufactured nanoparticles for the environment and for human health. In this work, we studied the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and morphological transforming activity of cobalt nanoparticles (Co-nano) and cobalt ions (Co(2+)) in Balb/3T3 cells. We also evaluated Co-nano dissolution in culture medium and cellular uptake of both Co-nano and Co(2+). Our results indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity, assessed by colony-forming efficiency test, for both compounds. The toxicity was higher for Co-nano than for Co(2) after 2 and 24 h of exposure, while dose-effect relationships were overlapping after 72 h. Statistically significant results were observed for Co-nano with the micronucleus test and the comet assay, while for Co(2+) positive results were observed only with the latter. In addition, even when Co-nano was genotoxic (at >1 microM), no evident dose-dependent effect was observed. Concerning morphological transformation, we found a statistically significant increase in the formation of type III foci (morphologically transformed colonies) only for Co-nano. Furthermore, we observed a higher cellular uptake of Co-nano compared with Co(2+).

  3. Cobalt catalysis involving π components in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gandeepan, Parthasarathy; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2015-04-21

    Over the last three decades, transition-metal-catalyzed organic transformations have been shown to be extremely important in organic synthesis. However, most of the successful reactions are associated with noble metals, which are generally toxic, expensive, and less abundant. Therefore, we have focused on catalysis using the abundant first-row transition metals, specifically cobalt. In this Account, we demonstrate the potential of cobalt catalysis in organic synthesis as revealed by our research. We have developed many useful catalytic systems using cobalt complexes. Overall, they can be classified into several broad types of reactions, specifically [2 + 2 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloadditions; enyne reductive coupling; reductive [3 + 2] cycloaddition of alkynes/allenes with enones; reductive coupling of alkyl iodides with alkenes; addition of organoboronic acids to alkynes, alkenes, or aldehydes; carbocyclization of o-iodoaryl ketones/aldehydes with alkynes/electron-deficient alkenes; coupling of thiols with aryl and alkyl halides; enyne coupling; and C-H bond activation. Reactions relying on π components, specifically cycloaddition, reductive coupling, and enyne coupling, mostly afford products with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity and superior atom economy. We believe that these cobalt-catalyzed π-component coupling reactions proceed through five-membered cobaltacyclic intermediates formed by the oxidative cyclometalation of two coordinated π bonds of the substrates to the low-valent cobalt species. The high regio- and stereoselectivity of these reactions are achieved as a result of the electronic and steric effects of the π components. Mostly, electron-withdrawing groups and bulkier groups attached to the π bonds prefer to be placed near the cobalt center of the cobaltacycle. Most of these transformations proceed through low-valent cobalt complexes, which are conveniently generated in situ from air-stable Co(II) salts by Zn- or Mn-mediated reduction

  4. Aggregation of Cobalt (II) Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanine in Methanol- Water Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    10 2.1 Preparation of [29H, 31H- phthalocyanine -2,9, 16,23-tetra- sulfonate (2-) -N2’,N 3,N , ,N3 2] Cobalt (CoTSPC) ........... 10 2.2...INTRODUCTION In 1971 Abel and coworkers’ discovered that the cobalt (11) tetra- sulfonated phthalocyanine (TSPC), figure 1, binds oxygen reversibly as do oth...G.V. The Catalytic Properties of Sulfonated Cobalt Phthalocyanines with Oxidation of Cysteine and Hydrogen Sulphide. Kinetics and Catalysis, 14, 864

  5. Divergent Reactivity via Cobalt Catalysis: An Epoxide Olefination.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Megan L; Hume, Paul A; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-02-05

    Cobalt salts exert an unexpected and profound influence on the reactivity of epoxides with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide. In the presence of a cobalt catalyst, conditions for epoxide to an oxetane ring expansion instead deliver homoallylic alcohol products, corresponding to a two-carbon epoxide homologation/ring-opening tandem process. The observed reactivity change appears to be specifically due to cobalt salts and is broadly applicable to a variety of epoxides, retaining the initial stereochemistry. This transformation also provides operationally simple access to enantiopure homoallylic alcohols from chiral epoxides without use of organometallic reagents. Tandem epoxidation-homologation of aldehydes in a single step is also demonstrated.

  6. The Potent Inhibitory Effect of a Naproxen-Appended Cobalt(III)-Cyclam Complex on Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Paul B; Eskandari, Arvin; Bruno, Peter M; Lu, Chunxin; Hemann, Michael T; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan

    2016-09-15

    We report the potency against cancer stem cells (CSCs) of a new cobalt(III)-cyclam complex (1) that bears the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, naproxen. The complex displays selective potency for breast CSC-enriched HMLER-shEcad cells over breast CSC-depleted HMLER cells. Additionally, it inhibited the formation of three-dimensional tumour-like mammospheres, and reduced their viability to a greater extent than clinically used breast cancer drugs (vinorelbine, cisplatin and paclitaxel). The anti-mammosphere potency of 1 was enhanced under hypoxia-mimicking conditions. Detailed mechanistic studies revealed that DNA damage and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition contribute to the cytotoxic mechanism of 1. To the best of our knowledge, 1 is the first cobalt-containing compound to show selective potency for CSCs over bulk cancer cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cobalt-based particles formed upon electrocatalytic hydrogen production by a cobalt pyridine oxime complex.

    PubMed

    Ghachtouli, Sanae El; Guillot, Regis; Brisset, Francois; Aukauloo, Ally

    2013-12-01

    An open-coordination-sphere cobalt(III) oximato-based complex was designed as a putative catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Electrochemical alteration in the presence of acid occurs, leading to the formation of cobalt-based particles that act as an efficient catalyst for HER at pH 7. The exact chemical nature of these particles is yet to be determined. This study thus raises interesting issues regarding the fate of molecular-based complexes designed for the HER, and points to the challenging task of identifying the real catalytic species. Moreover, understanding and rationalizing the alteration pathways can be seen as a new route to reach catalytic particulates.

  8. Water-induced Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over Supported Cobalt/Ceria-Zirconia Catalysts under Ethanol-Steam Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sean S.-Y.; Kim, Do Heui; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ha, Su Y.

    2010-07-28

    The formation of water-induced cobalt oxides by re-oxidizing the metallic cobalt in the pre-reduced 10% Co/CeO2-ZrO2 catalyst was verified by in-situ TPR and in-situ XPS studies under various ethanol-steam conditions. The formation and transformation of water-induced cobalt oxide species were affected by the pre-reduction conditions used for the catalysts and the feed stream composition used in the reaction. This result suggests that the surface composition of the cobalt species in 10% Co-CZ catalyst, initially governed by the catalyst pre-treatment, was changed toward an equilibrium state that governed by the feed stream composition as the reaction proceeds. In addition, the reducibility of the ceria sites may play a significant role in the redox process involved both cobalt and ceria sites under ethanol-steam environment. Finally, the effect of the water-induced cobalt oxides on the catalytic performance, in particular for the carbon-carbon bond cleavage of ethanol, is negligible. However, these water-induced oxides may show importance for the subsequent reaction steps that determine the product selectivity during ethanol steam reforming, as their coexistence with the metallic cobalt species was revealed by the in-situ study under ethanol-steam conditions.

  9. New misfit-layered cobalt oxide (CaOH) 1.14CoO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuya, Mitsuyuki; Isobe, Masaaki; Baba, Yuji; Nagai, Takuro; Osada, Minoru; Kosuda, Kosuke; Takenouchi, Satoshi; Matsui, Yoshio; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized a new cobalt oxide (CaOH) 1.14CoO 2 by utilizing a high-pressure technique. X-ray and electron diffraction studies revealed that the compound has a layered structure that consists of CdI 2-type CoO 2 layers and rock-salt-type double CaOH atomic layers. The two subcells have incommensurate periodicity along the a-axis, resulting in a misfit-layered structure. From resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements, we have shown that the two-dimensional (2-D) variable-range hopping (VRH) regime with hole conduction is dominant at low temperature for this compound. As temperature increases, the conduction mechanism undergoes crossover from the 2-D VRH regime to a thermal activation-energy-type regime.

  10. Cobalt Coordination and Clustering in [alpha]-Co(OH)[subscript 2] Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Total Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, James R.; Kurzman, Joshua A.; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E.

    2010-09-17

    Structures of layered metal hydroxides are not well described by traditional crystallography. Total scattering from a synthesis-controlled subset of these materials, as described here, reveals that different cobalt coordination polyhedra cluster within each layer on short length scales, offering new insights and approaches for understanding the properties of these and related layered materials. Structures related to that of brucite [Mg(OH){sub 2}] are ubiquitous in the mineral world and offer a variety of useful functions ranging from catalysis and ion-exchange to sequestration and energy transduction, including applications in batteries. However, it has been difficult to resolve the atomic structure of these layered compounds because interlayer disorder disrupts the long-range periodicity necessary for diffraction-based structure determination. For this reason, traditional unit-cell-based descriptions have remained inaccurate. Here we apply, for the first time to such layered hydroxides, synchrotron X-ray total scattering methods - analyzing both the Bragg and diffuse components - to resolve the intralayer structure of three different {alpha}-cobalt hydroxides, revealing the nature and distribution of metal site coordination. The different compounds with incorporated chloride ions have been prepared with kinetic control of hydrolysis to yield different ratios of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt ions within the layers, as confirmed by total scattering. Real-space analyses indicate local clustering of polyhedra within the layers, manifested in the weighted average of different ordered phases with fixed fractions of tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt sites. These results, hidden from an averaged unit-cell description, reveal new structural characteristics that are essential to understanding the origin of fundamental material properties such as color, anion exchange capacity, and magnetic behavior. Our results also provide further insights into the

  11. Cobalt and nickel macrocycles anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: Sensitization, catalysis, and ligand association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Darren Craig

    The global demand for renewable, clean electricity and fuel has compelled efforts to utilize the immense power incident upon the Earth from the Sun. Photovoltaic systems could power the planet's electrical demands with only moderate efficiencies. However, mitigation of fossil fuels used for transportation and night-time electricity requires the storage of photon energy, for example, in the form of chemical bonds. Mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films provide a manifold for anchoring molecular species that absorb and utilize photons to catalyze fuel-generating reactions. The overarching theme of this thesis is to improve understanding of the semiconductor/molecule interface utilizing earth abundant first-row transition metal coordination compounds. Chapter 2 presents the non-ideal redox behavior of cobalt porphyrins anchored to semiconductor surfaces. Additionally, CoI porphyrins were utilized as photocatalysts for the 2e- reduction of organobromides to yield a CoIII-R intermediate. The cobalt-carbon bond of CoIII-R was photodissociated with visible light to yield Co II and R·. The organic radical dimerized to form R-R. Light excitation of CoI compounds was found to result in electron transfer to TiO2, Chapter 3. Cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, glyoximes, and corrins were all observed to exhibit this behavior. Electron transfer was demonstrated to primarily occur via excitation into the large extinction coefficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption bands of CoI complexes. Chapter 4 focuses on the unique coordination chemistry of cobalt porphyrins anchored to a TiO2 thin film. Notably, pyridine axially ligated a CoII porphyrin following excited-state electron transfer of the CoI porphyrin to the TiO2. The rate constant for recombination of an electron in the TiO2 with CoII was observed to decrease with increasing pyridine concentration, behavior attributed primarily to a negative shift of the CoII/I potential in the presence of pyridine. Finally

  12. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheric at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting.

  13. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide for 15 minutes in 50..., and set by annealing. (2) The quantity of the color additive does not exceed 2 percent by weight of...

  18. Recovery of Silver and Cobalt from Laboratory Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Donald F.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for recovering silver and cobalt from laboratory wastes (including those resulting from student experiments) are presented. The procedures are generally applicable since only common, inexpensive laboratory reagents are needed. (JN)

  19. Formation of cobalt silicide by ion beam mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Ye; Burte, Edmund P.; Ryssel, Heiner

    1991-07-01

    The formation of cobalt silicides by arsenic ion implantation through a cobalt film which causes a mixing of the metal with the silicon substrate was investigated. Furthermore, cobalt suicides were formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Sheet resistance and silicide phases of implanted Co/Si samples depend on the As dose. Ion beam mixing at doses higher than 5 × 10 15 cm -2 and RTA at temperatures T ⩾ 900° C result in almost equal values of Rs. RBS and XRD spectra of these samples illustrate the formation of a homogeneous CoSi 2 layer. Significant lateral growth of cobalt silicide beyond the edge of patterned SiO 2 was observed in samples which were only subjected to an RTA process ( T ⩾ 900 ° C), while this lateral suicide growth could be reduced efficiently by As implantation prior to RTA.

  20. Studies of the Codeposition of Cobalt Hydroxide and Nickel Hydroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. H.; Murthy, M.; VanZee, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: chemistry, experimental measurements, planar film model development, impregnation model development, results and conclusion. Also included: effect of cobalt concentration on deposition/loading; effect of current density on loading distribution.

  1. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C, a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C, the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled; values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35104

  2. Battery related cobalt and REE flows in WEEE treatment.

    PubMed

    Sommer, P; Rotter, V S; Ueberschaar, M

    2015-11-01

    In batteries associated with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), battery systems can be found with a higher content of valuable and critical raw materials like cobalt and rare earth elements (REE) relative to the general mix of portable batteries. Based on a material flow model, this study estimates the flows of REE and cobalt associated to WEEE and the fate of these metals in the end-of-life systems. In 2011, approximately 40 Mg REE and 325 Mg cobalt were disposed of with WEEE-batteries. The end-of-life recycling rate for cobalt was 14%, for REE 0%. The volume of waste batteries can be expected to grow, but variation in the battery composition makes it difficult to forecast the future secondary raw material potential. Nevertheless, product specific treatment strategies ought to be implemented throughout the stages of the value chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cobalt Oxide Hollow Nanoparticles Derived by Bio-Templating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.

    2005-01-01

    We present here the first fabrication of hollow cobalt oxide nanoparticles produced by a protein-regulated site-specific reconstitution process in aqueous solution and describe the metal growth mechanism in the ferritin interior.

  4. Cobalt Oxide Hollow Nanoparticles Derived by Bio-Templating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.

    2005-01-01

    We present here the first fabrication of hollow cobalt oxide nanoparticles produced by a protein-regulated site-specific reconstitution process in aqueous solution and describe the metal growth mechanism in the ferritin interior.

  5. Recovery of Silver and Cobalt from Laboratory Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Donald F.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for recovering silver and cobalt from laboratory wastes (including those resulting from student experiments) are presented. The procedures are generally applicable since only common, inexpensive laboratory reagents are needed. (JN)

  6. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C, a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C, the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled; values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35104

  7. Exposure to cobalt in the welding process with stellite.

    PubMed

    Ferri, F; Candela, S; Bedogni, L; Piccinini, R; Sala, O

    1994-06-30

    In some small factories producing moulds for ceramic tiles using a cobalt alloy (stellite), environmental and biological (CoU) monitoring was conducted for eight workers employed in gas-shielded arc (MAG) and oxy-acetylene welding processes. During oxy-acetylene braze-welding, the exposure to cobalt is very low as are urinary cobalt concentrations. On the other hand, during the MAG welding process, the exposure levels can exceed the TLV-TWA levels and correlated well with CoU at the end of a working shift. Two MAG welders followed for two consecutive weeks, showed different patterns of urinary cobalt excretion: under the same environmental conditions, the higher CoU was found in the worker with greater past exposure. This aspect needs further evaluation before adopting CoU as a current indicator of occupational exposure to the metal.

  8. [Dosimetric calibration of CT pencil chamber in cobalt beams].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Junliang; Wang, Yunlai

    2014-01-01

    To explore the dose-length product calibration method for pencil ionization chamber in cobalt beams. The PTW TM30009 ionization chamber was placed into the central hole of T40017 head phantom and irradiated 60 s in 20 cm x 20 cm cobalt beam. The charge was collected with UNIDOS electrometer. Absorbed doses were measured with TM30013 0.6 mL farmer-type chamber under the same condition. The CT chamber calibration factor was expressed in dose-length product. Dose linearity and spatial response were also investigated. The calibration factor in dose-length product was derived from measured data. Dose linearity and spatial response were good in cobalt beams. It is feasible to calibrate the CT chamber in cobalt beams for patient dose evaluation in MVCT.

  9. Mixed alumina and cobalt containing plasma electrolytic oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, G. Sh; Ved', M. V.; Karakurkchi, A. V.; Sakhnenko, N. D.

    2017-06-01

    Principles of plasma electrolytic oxidation of the AL25 aluminum alloy in diphosphate alkali solutions containing cobalt(2+) cations are discussed. It has been established that a variation in the concentration of the electrolyte components provides the formation of mixed-oxide coatings consisting of the basic matrix materials and the cobalt oxides of different content. An increase in the cobalt oxide content in the coating is achieved by the variation in electrolysis current density as well as the treatment time due to both the electrochemical and thermo-chemical reactions at substrate surface and in spark region. Current density intervals that provide micro-globular surface formation and uniform cobalt distribution in the coating are determined. The composition and morphology of the surface causes high catalytic properties of synthesized materials, which confirmed the results of testing in model reaction CO and benzene oxidation as well as fuel combustion for various modes of engine operation.

  10. Segregation of Fischer-Tropsch reactants on cobalt nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E A; Le, D; Jewell, A D; Murphy, C J; Rahman, T S; Sykes, E C H

    2014-06-21

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy, we have visualized the segregation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, the two reactants in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, on cobalt nanoparticles at catalytically relevant coverages. Density functional theory was used to interrogate the relevant energetics.

  11. C-188 cobalt-60 sealed source integrity: Source monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defalco, G. M.; Shah, V.

    1995-02-01

    The integrity of C-188 cobalt-60 sealed sources used for radiation processing will be a key factor in the continued industrial acceptance and growth of gamma irradiation technology. Given the public's relatively poor understanding of most nuclear topics and the news media's tendency to sensationalize events, it is appropriate for suppliers and users of gamma technology to be vigilant and conservative regarding the application of cobalt-60 sources to industrial purposes. Nordion's recent decision to extend the optionl warranty on its C-188 cobalt-60 sealed source from 15 years to 20 years is based on over 30 years of data generated from its on-going SOURCE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM. This paper presents an overview of the C-188 SOURCE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM and in particular discusses: the environmental and design factors which are most influential with respect to C-188 cobalt-60 source integrity the key components of the SOURCE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM; and the key findings of the SOURCE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

  12. Magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaedini, Ghazaleh; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Aminayi, Payam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite synthesized via the hydrothermal method have been investigated. The structural properties of the produced powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The observed XRD pattern confirmed the spinel/cubic structure of the prepared cobalt ferrite. The SEM pictures show that the simple hydrothermal method produces uniform sphere-shaped nanopowders. Moreover, infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of cobalt ferrite particles. Magnetic hysteresis was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer in a maximum field of 10 kOe. The magnetization of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated, and the saturation magnetization ( M s), remanence ( M r), and coercivity ( H c) were derived from the hysteresis loops. The results revealed that the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via the simple hydrothermal method exhibit superior magnetic properties.

  13. Magnetoelastic properties of terbium substituted cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhame, Shekhar D.; Joy, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic properties of terbium substituted cobalt ferrites CoFe2-xTbxO4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) prepared by conventional solid state method are studied. The coercivity showed marked increase up to x = 0.1 and saturation magnetization decreased with increasing terbium content. Magnetostriction measurements did not show much decrease in the maximum value of strain but significant increase in the slope of magnetostriction was observed for x = 0.15 with moderate magnetostriction of around 144 ppm. The observed magnetic and magnetostrictive properties can be explained on the basis of structural and microstructural changes arising because of terbium substitution.

  14. Annealing effects on microstrain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Deotale, Anjali Jain Nandedkar, R. V.; Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Upadhyay, Anuj

    2014-04-24

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticles in different phases have been synthesized using ash supported method. The effect of isochronal annealing on micro-strain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles has been studied. The lattice strain contribution to the x-ray diffraction line broadening in the nanoparticles was analyzed using Williamson Hall (W-H) plot. It is observed that micro-strain was released at higher annealing temperature.

  15. Use of phosphate for separation of cobalt from iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    North, V.; Wells, R.C.

    1942-01-01

    The well-known tendency of cobalt to be retained by the iron-alumina precipitate produced by ammonia has generally been ascribed to a specific adsorption by the large surface of this gelatinous precipitate. Whatever its cause, it can be overcome by precipitating the iron as phosphate at a pH of 3.5. The precipitate is easily filterable and practically all the cobalt passes into the filtrate.

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asha, Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl2.6H2O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Asha; Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  18. Coordination tuning of cobalt phosphates towards efficient water oxidation catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunah; Park, Jimin; Park, Inchul; Jin, Kyoungsuk; Jerng, Sung Eun; Kim, Sun Hee; Nam, Ki Tae; Kang, Kisuk

    2015-01-01

    The development of efficient and stable water oxidation catalysts is necessary for the realization of practically viable water-splitting systems. Although extensive studies have focused on the metal-oxide catalysts, the effect of metal coordination on the catalytic ability remains still elusive. Here we select four cobalt-based phosphate catalysts with various cobalt- and phosphate-group coordination as a platform to better understand the catalytic activity of cobalt-based materials. Although they exhibit various catalytic activities and stabilities during water oxidation, Na2CoP2O7 with distorted cobalt tetrahedral geometry shows high activity comparable to that of amorphous cobalt phosphate under neutral conditions, along with high structural stability. First-principles calculations suggest that the surface reorganization by the pyrophosphate ligand induces a highly distorted tetrahedral geometry, where water molecules can favourably bind, resulting in a low overpotential (∼0.42 eV). Our findings emphasize the importance of local cobalt coordination in the catalysis and suggest the possible effect of polyanions on the water oxidation chemistry. PMID:26365091

  19. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  20. Cobalt silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites by modified sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Serena; Turco, Maria; Ramis, Gianguido; Bagnasco, Giovanni; Pernice, Pasquale; Pagliuca, Concetta; Bevilacqua, Maria; Aronne, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide materials (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were synthesised starting from Co(NO 3) 2·6H 2O and Si(OC 2H 5) 4 using a modified sol-gel method. Structural, textural and surface chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption at -196 °C. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix were strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All dried gels were amorphous and contained Co 2+ ions forming both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes with the siloxane matrix. After treatment at 400 °C, the sample with lowest Co content appeared amorphous and contained only Co 2+ tetrahedral complexes, while at higher cobalt loading Co 3O 4 was present as the only crystalline phase, besides Co 2+ ions strongly interacting with siloxane matrix. At 850 °C, in all samples crystalline Co 2SiO 4 was formed and was the only crystallising phase for the nanocomposite with the lowest cobalt content. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 °C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity, due to cationic sites. The presence of cobalt affected the textural properties of the siloxane matrix decreasing microporosity and increasing mesoporosity.

  1. Pulsed Laser Synthesized Magnetic Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Hari; Gupta, Ram; Ghosh, Kartik; Kahol, Pawan; Delong, Robert; Wanekawa, Adam

    2011-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Biocompatible and chemically stable magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication of magnetic cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a safe, cost effective, and easy to handle technique that is capable of producing nanoparticles free of any contamination. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized at room temperature using cobalt foil by pulsed laser ablation technique. These cobalt oxide nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS). The magnetic cobalt oxides nanoparticles were stabilized in glucose solutions of various concentrations in deionized water. The presence of UV-Vis absorption peak at 270 nm validates the nature of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The DLLS size distributions of nanoparticles are in the range of 110 to 300 nm, which further confirms the presence nanoparticles. This work is partially supported by National Science Foundation (DMR- 0907037).

  2. Biologic effects of cobalt chrome in cell and animal models.

    PubMed

    Howie, D W; Rogers, S D; McGee, M A; Haynes, D R

    1996-08-01

    The literature on animal and cellular models used to study the response to cobalt chrome alloy implants and wear and corrosion products is reviewed. Animal studies show that in solid form cobalt chrome alloy is relatively well tolerated. Injections of large numbers of particles in a single bolus lead to acute inflammation and necrosis, followed by a chronic inflammatory response. Macrophages are the predominant cell type and may persist in the tissues for years. Long term studies have failed to confirm the induction of tumors. In vitro studies confirm the toxic effects of cobalt chrome alloy corrosion products and wear particles, especially cobalt, and show that intracellular corrosion is an important mechanism for early release of cobalt ions. In vitro studies show that cobalt chrome alloy particles induce the release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages before causing cell death. These mediators have significant effects on osteoblastlike cells, as well as inducing bone resorption. Variations in the cell types, implantation site, and characteristics of the particles used in experimental models make interpretation of the results difficult. Standardized methods to control for size, shape, and number of particles for testing are proposed. It is important that in vitro and in vivo findings not be taken in isolation, but be compared with the results of human studies.

  3. The biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in the human body.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R W

    2008-01-25

    This paper reviews information on the biological behavior of inorganic cobalt in humans and laboratory animals and proposes a model of the systemic biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in adult humans. The model was developed as part of an effort to update the models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for addressing intakes of radionuclides by workers but is also applicable to environmental or medical exposures to inorganic forms of radiocobalt. The model can be used in conjunction with any respiratory, gastrointestinal, or wound model that provides predictions of the time-dependent feed of cobalt to blood. In contrast to the ICRP's current systemic model for cobalt, which is a simple open catenary system, the proposed model is constructed within a physiologically realistic framework that depicts recycling of cobalt between blood and tissues and transfer from blood to excretion pathways. Compared with the ICRP's current model, the proposed model yields similar predictions of whole-body retention but substantially different predictions of the systemic distribution of cobalt as a function of time after uptake to blood.

  4. Correlation between AC and DC transport properties of Mn substituted cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Sweety; Kumar, Sunil; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-12-01

    The CoFe2-xMnxO4 compound is prepared by following the sol gel technique. The structural analysis through XRD and Rietveld has been confirmed for the single cubic phase having F d 3 ¯ m space group for CoFe2-xMnxO4 and also verified it through Raman spectroscopy measurements. The tetrahedral site observed to be red shifted with increase in Mn concentration in cobalt ferrite. All the XRD patterns have been analyzed by employing the Rietveld refinement technique. The particle size was found to be in the range of 30-40 nm. The electrical properties of polycrystalline CoFe2-xMnxO4 for x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.2, spinel ferrite was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The influence of doping, frequency and temperature on the electrical transport properties of the CoFe2-xMnxO4 for x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were investigated. The magnitude of Z' and Z″ decreases with increase in temperature. Only one semicircle is observed in each Cole Cole plot which reveals that ac conductivity is dominated by grains. The grain resistance and grain boundary resistance both were found to decrease as a function of temperature. Temperature variation of DC electrical conductivity follows the Arrhenius relationship. A detailed analysis of electrical parameters provides assistance in connecting information regarding the conduction mechanism as well as determination of both dielectric and magnetic transition temperatures in the substituted cobalt ferrite. Detailed analysis of ac impedance and DC resistivity measurement reveals that, the magnetic ordering temperature in the Mn substituted cobalt ferrite does not respond to the frequency of ac electrical signal; however, it responds to the DC resistivity. The correlation between ac impedance and DC resistivity has been established.

  5. Two cobalt(III) mono-dimethylglyoximates isolated from one reaction.

    PubMed

    Czapik, Agnieszka; Gdaniec, Maria

    2010-09-01

    The reaction of cobalt(II) nitrate hexahydrate with dimethylglyoxime (DMGH(2)) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in a 1:1:2 molar ratio results in two Co(III) mono-dimethylglyoximates having two chelating phen ligands in cis positions and the Co(III) atom coordinated by six N atoms in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The isolated products differ in the deprotonation state of the DMGH(2) ligand. In [mu-hydrogen bis(N,N'-dioxidobutane-2,3-diimine)]tetrakis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) trinitrate ethanol disolvate 1.87-hydrate, [Co(2)(C(4)H(6)N(2)O(2))(C(4)H(7)N(2)O(2))(C(12)H(8)N(2))(4)](NO(3))(3).2C(2)H(6)O.1.87H(2)O, (I), the C(2)-symmetric cation is formed with the coordination [Co(DMG)(phen)(2)](+) cations aggregating via a very strong O(-)...H(+)...O(-) hydrogen bond with an O...O distance of 2.409 (4) A. Crystals of (I) exhibit extensive disorder of the solvent molecules, the nitrate anions and one of the phen ligands. Compound (I) is a kinetic product, not isolated previously from similar systems, that transforms slowly into (N-hydroxy-N'-oxidobutane-2,3-diimine)bis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) dinitrate ethanol monosolvate 0.4-hydrate, [Co(C(4)H(7)N(2)O(2))(C(12)H(8)N(2))(2)](NO(3))(2).C(2)H(6)O.0.40H(2)O, (II), with the DMGH(-) ligand hydrogen bonded to one of the nitrate anions. In (II), the solvent molecules and one of the nitrate anions are disordered.

  6. Cobalt ferrite based magnetostrictive materials for magnetic stress sensor and actuator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiles, David C. (Inventor); Paulsen, Jason A. (Inventor); Snyder, John E. (Inventor); Lo, Chester C. H. (Inventor); Ring, Andrew P. (Inventor); Bormann, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetostrictive material based on cobalt ferrite is described. The cobalt ferrite is substituted with transition metals (such manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) or mixtures thereof) by substituting the transition metals for iron or cobalt to form substituted cobalt ferrite that provides mechanical properties that make the substituted cobalt ferrite material effective for use as sensors and actuators. The substitution of transition metals lowers the Curie temperature of the material (as compared to cobalt ferrite) while maintaining a suitable magnetostriction for stress sensing applications.

  7. Cobalt mineral exploration and supply from 1995 through 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The global mining industry has invested a large amount of capital in mineral exploration and development over the past 15 years in an effort to ensure that sufficient resources are available to meet future increases in demand for minerals. Exploration data have been used to identify specific sites where this investment has led to a significant contribution in global mineral supply of cobalt or where a significant increase in cobalt production capacity is anticipated in the next 5 years. This report provides an overview of the cobalt industry, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances surrounding the development, or lack thereof, of key mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 48 sites with an effective production capacity of at least 1,000 metric tons per year of cobalt considered for this study, 3 producing sites underwent significant expansion during the study period, 10 exploration sites commenced production from 1995 through 2008, and 16 sites were expected to begin production by 2013 if planned development schedules are met. Cobalt supply is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and production of copper, nickel, and other metals as well as factors affecting the cobalt industry. Cobalt-rich nickel laterite deposits were discovered and developed in Australia and the South Pacific and improvements in laterite processing technology took place during the 1990s and early in the first decade of the 21st century when mining of copper-cobalt deposits in Congo (Kinshasa) was restricted because of regional conflict and lack of investment in that country's mining sector. There was also increased exploration for and greater importance placed on cobalt as a byproduct of nickel mining in Australia and Canada. The emergence of China as a major refined cobalt producer and consumer since 2007 has changed the pattern of demand for cobalt, particularly from Africa and

  8. Nickel-cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Jolagah, Ali; Afrasiabi, Hasan-ali

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anionic layered material, nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel-cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel-cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel-cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of 2:17-type rare-earth transition-metal magnetic compounds samarium(2)iron(17)M(x) (M = aluminum, silicon) and R(2)iron(17-x)T(x) (R = yttrium, neodymium, gadolinium; T = indium, cobalt, silicon, gallium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyuan

    Our aim is to develop new RE-TM intermetallic compounds of the 2:17-type that have high Curie temperature Tc, large saturation magnetization Ms, and strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). The new off-stoichiometric compound Sm2Fe17ALx formed the rhombohedral Th2Zn17-type structure when x was less than 6. The addition of Al increased its Tc due to the change of distance between the Fe-Fe pairs that were responsible for the exchange coupling. When Co, or Ni was used to substitute the Fe atoms in Sm2Fe17Al x, the substitution further enhanced Tc whereas Ms increased first and then decreased. A differential thermal analysis was made on the carbides of these samples, the results showed that Sm2Fe 16MnAl2C1.5 was stable even near 950°C. In the second part of the work, the effects of Co substitution on the exchange coupling and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Sm2Fe 17-xCox were studied. The result was explained by the Mean Field Theory and the Sucksmith Model. It was found that the MCA constant K1 and the coupling constant JFe-Fe increased monotonously with Co concentration which indicated the weakening of the easy axis anisotropy. This result was consistent with the observed fact that the easy magnetization direction did not change with Co concentration as verified by the x-ray diffraction spectra of the aligned samples. Lastly, the electronic structure of the 2:17-type RE-TM compounds were studied by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increment of density of state near the Fermi energy level (EF) had been observed on the Y2Fe17-xInx and Nd2Fe17-xMx (M = Ga, Si) compound as the substitution concentration increased, but it was not found in the Gd 2Fe17-xTx (T = Ga, Ti; x = 2). The XPS of the valence band of the Y2Fe17-xInx exhibited a one-peak structure, whereas those of the Nd2Fe 17-xTx and Gd2Fe17-xT x had a two-peak structure. It was evident that the formation of the two-peak structure was due to the presence of the 4f electrons, because the 4f

  10. Bis[bis­(penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(III)] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate(II) di­chloro­methane disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Joseph S.; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra­hydro­furan. There are two deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di­chloro­methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di­chloro­methane mol­ecules display significant C—H⋯Cl inter­actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4]−2 ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis. PMID:24426998

  11. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  12. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J; Jones, Michael G; Wertsching, Alan K; Luther, Thomas A; Trowbridge, Tammy L

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  13. Three cobalt(II)-linked {P8W48} network assemblies: syntheses, structures, and magnetic and photocatalysis properties.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan-Qing; Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Wang, Chun-Gang; Sun, Chun-Yi; Wang, Hai-Ning; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min

    2014-02-01

    Three cobalt(II)-containing tungstophosphate compounds, Na8Li8Co5[Co5.5(H2O)19P8W48.5O184]⋅60 H2O (1), K2Na4Li11Co5[Co7(H2O)28P8W48O184]Cl⋅ 59 H2O (2), and K2Na4LiCo11[Co8(H2O)32P8W48O184](CH3COO)4Cl⋅47 H2O (3), have been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analyses, and magnetic measurements. The pH value impacts the formation of distinct cobalt-linked frameworks. The cyclic cavity of the polyanion accommodates 5.5, 7, and 8 cobalt ions in 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In compounds 1 and 2, each {Co5.5P8W48} and {Co7P8W48} fragment links to four others through multiple {Co-O-W} coordination bonds to generate a two-dimensional network. Compound 3 can be considered as a 3D network based on the {Co-O-W} coordination bonds and the {Co3(CH3COO)2(H2O)10} linkers between the {P8W48} fragments. Interestingly, acetate ligands have been employed to form the {Co3(CH3COO)2(H2O)10} unit, thereby inducing the construction of a 12-connected framework. To the best of our knowledge, compound 3 contains the largest-ever number of cobalt ions in a {P8W48}-based polyoxometalate when counterions are taken into account and the {P8W48} unit shows the highest number of connections thanks to the carboxyl bridges. The UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of these powder samples indicate that the corresponding well-defined optical absorption associated with Eg can be assessed at 2.58, 2.48, and 2.73 eV and reveal the presence of an optical band gap. The photocatalytic H2 evolution activities of these {P8W48}-based compounds are evaluated.

  14. Mixed-Valent Dicobalt and Iron-Cobalt Complexes with High-Spin Configurations and Short Metal-Metal Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Zall, Christopher M.; Clouston, Laura J.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Ding, Keying; Kim, Hyun Jung; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Bill, Eckhard; Gagliardi, Laura; Lu, Connie C.

    2013-09-23

    Cobalt–cobalt and iron–cobalt bonds are investigated in coordination complexes with formally mixed-valent [M2]3+ cores. The trigonal dicobalt tris(diphenylformamidinate) compound, Co2(DPhF)3, which was previously reported by Cotton, Murillo, and co-workers (Inorg. Chim. Acta 1996, 249, 9), is shown to have an energetically isolated, high-spin sextet ground-state by magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. A new tris(amidinato)amine ligand platform is introduced. By tethering three amidinate donors to an apical amine, this platform offers two distinct metal-binding sites. Using the phenyl-substituted variant (abbreviated as LPh), the isolation of a dicobalt homobimetallic and an iron–cobalt heterobimetallic are demonstrated. The new [Co2]3+ and [FeCo]3+ cores have high-spin sextet and septet ground states, respectively. Their solid-state structures reveal short metal–metal bond distances of 2.29 Å for Co–Co and 2.18 Å for Fe–Co; the latter is the shortest distance for an iron–cobalt bond to date. To assign the positions of iron and cobalt atoms as well as to determine if Fe/Co mixing is occurring, X-ray anomalous scattering experiments were performed, spanning the Fe and Co absorption energies. These studies show only a minor amount of metal-site mixing in this complex, and that FeCoLPh is more precisely described as (Fe0.94(1)Co0.06(1))(Co0.95(1)Fe0.05(1))LPh. The iron–cobalt heterobimetallic has been further characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Its isomer shift of 0.65 mm/s and quadrupole splitting of 0.64 mm/s are comparable to the related diiron complex, Fe2(DPhF)3. On the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the formal [M2]3+ cores are fully delocalized.

  15. Tuning of magnetic parameters in cobalt-polystyrene nanocomposites by reduction cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Swapna S.; Sunny, Vijutha; Anantharaman, M.R.

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Cobalt nanoparticles were prepared by a reduction process inside polymer pores. A porous polymer network (polystyrene) was chosen as the template for the synthesis of elementary cobalt as high surface area cobalt nanoparticles are prone to oxidation. The preliminary studies reveal that the cobalt is first formed with an oxide protective layer outside and upon repeating the reduction cycles, inner pores of the polymers are opened which enhanced the yield of metallic cobalt. These high surface area cobalt nanoparticles embedded in a polymer are ideal for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes as cobalt can act as a catalyst for the nanotube synthesis. The concentration of cobalt can be tuned in this technique by repeating the cycling process. Highlights: {yields} Elementary cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized inside polystyrene by a novel process. {yields} The self protection is achieved by the auto-shelling with the metal oxide. {yields} The magnetisation and coercivity could be tuned by repeating the cycles. {yields} Tuning of magnetic properties (both coercivity and magnetisation) could be achieved by the repetition of reduction cycles. {yields} Synthesized nanocomposite can act as a catalyst for carbon nanotube synthesis. -- Abstract: Cobalt nanoparticles were prepared by a reduction process inside polymer pores using CoSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and NaBH{sub 4}. A porous polymer network (sulphonated polystyrene) was chosen, as the template for the synthesis of elementary cobalt as high surface area cobalt nanoparticles are prone to oxidation. The preliminary studies reveal that the cobalt is first formed with an oxide protective layer outside and upon repeating the reduction cycles, inner pores of the polymers are opened which enhanced the yield of metallic cobalt. These high surface area cobalt nanoparticles embedded in a polymer are ideal for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes as cobalt can act as a catalyst for the nanotube synthesis. The

  16. A dissolved cobalt plume in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawco, Nicholas J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Resing, Joseph A.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Saito, Mak A.

    2016-10-01

    Cobalt is a nutrient to phytoplankton, but knowledge about its biogeochemical cycling is limited, especially in the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report sections of dissolved cobalt and labile dissolved cobalt from the US GEOTRACES GP16 transect in the South Pacific. The cobalt distribution is closely tied to the extent and intensity of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific with highest concentrations measured at the oxycline near the Peru margin. Below 200 m, remineralization and circulation produce an inverse relationship between cobalt and dissolved oxygen that extends throughout the basin. Within the oxygen minimum zone, elevated concentrations of labile cobalt are generated by input from coastal sources and reduced scavenging at low O2. As these high cobalt waters are upwelled and advected offshore, phytoplankton export returns cobalt to low-oxygen water masses underneath. West of the Peru upwelling region, dissolved cobalt is less than 10 pM in the euphotic zone and strongly bound by organic ligands. Because the cobalt nutricline within the South Pacific gyre is deeper than in oligotrophic regions in the North and South Atlantic, cobalt involved in sustaining phytoplankton productivity in the gyre is heavily recycled and ultimately arrives from lateral transport of upwelled waters from the eastern margin. In contrast to large coastal inputs, atmospheric deposition and hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise appear to be minor sources of cobalt. Overall, these results demonstrate that oxygen biogeochemistry exerts a strong influence on cobalt cycling.

  17. RESEARCH ON THE DEPOSITION OF MAGNETIC INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN THIN FILMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A process for the vacuum deposition of thin films of intermetallic compounds of cobalt and yttrium, samarium, or neodymium, was developed. The...of the evaporation rates. Thin films of the desired stoichiometric compositions, Co5R, were produced in an extensive series of sequential experiments

  18. Tris(3-nitro-pentane-2,4-dionato-κO,O')-cobalt(III).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Dean H; Brangham, Jack T; Rapp, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Co(C(5)H(6)NO(4))(3)], consists of a Co(III) ion octahedrally coordinated by three bidentate 3-nitro-pentane-2,4-dionate ligands. The complex was prepared via the nitration of tris-(2,4-penta-nedionato-κ(2)O,O')cobalt(III) with a solution of copper(II) nitrate in glacial acetic acid. The central C atom and the nitro group of one 3-nitro-pentane-2,4-dionate ligand are disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.848 (4):0.152 (4). A second nitro group is also disordered over two orientations with an occupancy ratio of 0.892 (7):0.108 (7). Two of the ligand methyl groups form C-H⋯O inter-actions with two different nitro groups to form chains running along the c axis. Additional C-H⋯O inter-actions are found between ligand methyl groups and the cobalt-bound O atoms, also resulting in the formation of chains along the c axis.

  19. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Dose dependent relationship was found. Highest DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations were noticed at 2XLD50. The results concluded that CoCl2 induced DNA damage, cytokinesis failure and chromosomal aberrations in E. hortensis earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The first lead cobalt phosphite, PbCo2(HPO3)3.

    PubMed

    Kovrugin, Vadim M; Colmont, Marie; Siidra, Oleg I; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Colis, Silviu; Mentré, Olivier

    2017-09-26

    Single crystals of a new lead cobalt phosphite, PbCo2(HPO3)3, have been synthesized using mild hydrothermal techniques and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, SQUID magnetic measurements, IR spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. PbCo2(HPO3)3 crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric (NCS) R3m space group, a = 5.3145(15) Å, c = 25.494(7) Å, V = 623.6(4) Å(3). The crystal structure of PbCo2(HPO3)3 is based upon 2D heteropolyhedral blocks built up from Co2O9 octahedral dimers and HPO3 pseudo-tetrahedra. Lead cations reside in the interlayer space of the structure. Here, the NCS character results reasonably from the cooperative Pb(2+) lone electron pair arrangements, by analogy to the centrosymmetric compound (NH4)2Co2(HPO3)3 with similar but disordered blocks. A local twisting of specific HPO3 groups arises due to unreasonably short HH contacts between two phosphite oxoanions. In terms of the magnetic behavior, the new PbCo2(HPO3)3 phase demonstrates weak antiferromagnetic interactions inside the Co2O9 dimers between cobalt ions as expected from the phosphite μ-O bridges.

  1. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Zr-Mg cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Iqbal, Muhammad; Rukh Siddiquah, Mah

    Spinel cobalt ferrite, CoFe 2-xM xO 4 has been synthesized by substitution of the combination of metallic elements M=Zr-Mg by the microemulsion method using polyethylene glycol as a surfactant. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the substitution results in shrinkage of the unit cell of cobalt ferrite due to higher binding energy of the synthesized samples. The energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis confirms the stoichiometric ratios of the elements present. The thermogravimetric analysis shows that the minimum temperature required for the synthesis of these substituted compounds is 700 °C. A two-point probe method was employed for the measurement of the electrical resistivity in a temperature range of 293±5 to 673±5 K. It appears that there is a decrease in the number of Fe 2+/Fe 3+ pairs at the octahedral sites due to the substitution and corresponding migration of some of the Fe 3+ ions to tetrahedral sites, consequently increasing the resistivity and the activation energy of hopping of electron at the octahedral sites. The susceptibility data also suggest migration of Fe 3+ to tetrahedral site in the initial stage, which results in an increase in A-B interactions leading to large increase in the blocking temperature ( TB) as observed in samples having dopant content x=0.1.

  2. Efficient hydrogen evolution catalysis using ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; Stone, Michael L.; Schmidt, J. R.; Thomas, Joseph G.; Ding, Qi; Chang, Hung-Chih; Tsai, Meng-Lin; He-Hau, Jr.; Jin, Song

    2015-12-01

    The scalable and sustainable production of hydrogen fuel through water splitting demands efficient and robust Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Building on promising metal compounds with high HER catalytic activity, such as pyrite structure cobalt disulphide (CoS2), and substituting non-metal elements to tune the hydrogen adsorption free energy could lead to further improvements in catalytic activity. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental study to establish ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide (CoPS) as a high-performance Earth-abundant catalyst for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Nanostructured CoPS electrodes achieved a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm-2 at overpotentials as low as 48 mV, with outstanding long-term operational stability. Integrated photocathodes of CoPS on n+-p-p+ silicon micropyramids achieved photocurrents up to 35 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), onset photovoltages as high as 450 mV versus RHE, and the most efficient solar-driven hydrogen generation from Earth-abundant systems.

  3. Hydrogen Storage Studies of Palladium-Cobalt alloy nanoparticles dispersed Nitrogen Doped Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullamsetty, Ashok; Sundara, Ramaprabhu

    Solid state hydrogen storage has significant importance in the present scenario of depleting conventional energy sources. Recent studies reveal that nanomaterials can play a significant role in the performance enhancement of energy conversion and storage device. Carbon based nanomaterials are considered as suitable candidates for hydrogen storage due to their high porosity, large surface area and high chemical stability. The two dimensional graphene, which has been discovered recently, consists of a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, exhibits surface area. In the present work, we have been studied the hydrogen storage properties of Palladium-Cobalt alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped graphene (Pd3Co/NG). Graphitic oxide was prepared by Hummers method and mixed with Palladium Cobalt and melamine precursors. The compound was reduced in hydrogen atmosphere at 500 °C for 5 h. Structural and micro-structural characterization of these samples has been carried out by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo electro spectroscopy (XPS). The hydrogen adsorption measurements were carried out for NG as well as Pd3Co/NG at different temperatures (25-100 °C) and pressures (5-40 bar) using a high pressure Sieverts apparatus. The material Pd3Co/NG exhibits high storage capacity compared to NG due to spillover mechanism and the results have been discussed.

  4. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benila, B. S.; Bright, K. C.; Delphine, S. Mary; Shabu, R.

    2017-03-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co2+) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co2+ ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices.

  5. Electromagnetic containerless reaction of samarium with cobalt for the formation of samarium-cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. W.; Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic levitation technique has been used to obtain nearly stoichiometric SmCo5, with the reaction temperature controlled by a gas jet. The results of several experiments carried out at a 450 kHz, 25 kw RF power levitation facility using different reaction times and cooling rates are presented. It is shown that reaction rates achieved with the levitation technique are larger than the expected diffusion rate in the system liquid samarium-solid cobalt. It is also shown that substantial mixing occurs in the RF-levitated melt.

  6. Electromagnetic containerless reaction of samarium with cobalt for the formation of samarium-cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. W.; Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic levitation technique has been used to obtain nearly stoichiometric SmCo5, with the reaction temperature controlled by a gas jet. The results of several experiments carried out at a 450 kHz, 25 kw RF power levitation facility using different reaction times and cooling rates are presented. It is shown that reaction rates achieved with the levitation technique are larger than the expected diffusion rate in the system liquid samarium-solid cobalt. It is also shown that substantial mixing occurs in the RF-levitated melt.

  7. [Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants].

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, U; Thomas, P; Kachler, W; Göske, J; Schuh, A

    2005-10-01

    Cobalt Chromium alloys are used in cemented total hip or knee arthroplasty as well as in metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty. An increasing number of publications report about (allergic) reactions to wear particles of Cobalt Chromium alloys. Reactions to nickel are more frequent in comparison to Cobalt or Chromium particles. It is well known that different kinds of Cobalt Chromium alloys contain different amounts of alloying elements; nevertheless. The aim of the current work was to compare the different Cobalt Chromium alloys according to ASTM F or ISO standards in respect to the different alloying elements. Co28Cr6Mo casting alloys according to ASTM F 75 or ISO 5832-4 as well as forging alloy types according to ASTM F 799 and ISO 5832 such as Co20Cr15W10Ni, Co35Ni20Cr, Fe40Co20Cr10Ni, Co20Cr20Ni, and Co28Cr6Mo were analyzed in respect to their element content of Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Fe, W, and Mn. In 1935 the Cobalt based alloy "Vitallium" Co30Cr5Mo basically used in the aircraft industry was introduced into medicine. The chemical composition of this alloy based on Cobalt showed 30 wt.% Chromium and 5 wt.% Molybdenum. The differentiation using alloy names showed no Nickel information in single alloy names. The information given about different alloys can lead to an unprecise evaluation of histopathological findings in respect to alloys or alloying constituents. Therefore, implant manufacturers should give the exact information about the alloys used and adhere to European law, Euronorm 93/42/EWG.

  8. Chronic cobalt treatment decreases hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Harish; McNeill, John H

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Although conventional treatments such as insulin and other drugs reduce blood glucose, there is still a therapeutic need for effective orally administered drugs. Trace elements like vanadium and tungstate have been successfully demonstrated to reduce blood glucose in experimental diabetes with minimal chronic complications. We investigated the anti-hyperglycemic effects of cobalt in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Normal and diabetic rats were provided with drinking water containing 3.5 mM cobalt chloride for three weeks followed by 4 mM for four weeks. Body weights and fluid consumption were monitored on a daily basis, while food intake was recorded twice every week. Prior to termination, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed on the animals. Diabetic rats lost significant body weight (357 +/- 2 gm) compared to controls (482 +/- 3 gm). Body weight was further reduced by cobalt treatment (290 +/- 2 gm). Although it was difficult to establish a dosing regimen without weight loss, food and fluid consumption in cobalt-treated diabetic rats improved significantly compared to untreated diabetics. Plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced with reference to diabetic controls (29.3 +/- 0.9 mM) by the fourth week to a lower but still hyperglycemic level (13.6 +/- 3.4 mM). Cobalt-treated diabetic rats demonstrated an enhanced ability to clear a glucose load compared to untreated diabetics. Cobalt treatment neither affected the feeding and drinking patterns nor plasma glucose in normoglycemic animals although body weights decreased compared to untreated controls. We conclude that chronic cobalt treatment decreases plasma glucose levels in STZ-diabetic rats and improves tolerance to glucose.

  9. Cobalt monolayer islands on Ag(111) for ORR catalysis.

    PubMed

    Loglio, Francesca; Lastraioli, Elisa; Bianchini, Claudio; Fontanesi, Claudio; Innocenti, Massimo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco; Foresti, Maria Luisa

    2011-08-22

    The design of a catalyst for one of the most important electrocatalytic reactions, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), was done following the most recent guidelines of theoretical studies on this topic. Aim of this work was to achieve a synergic effect of two different metals acting on different steps of the ORR. The catalytic activity of Ag, already known and characterized, was enhanced by the presence of a monolayer of cobalt subdivided into nanosized islands. To obtain such a controlled nanostructure, a novel method utilizing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as templates was employed. In a recent study, we were able to perform a confined electrodeposition of cobalt onto Ag(111) in a template formed by selectively desorbing a short-chain thiol (3-mercaptopropionic acid, MPA) from binary SAMs using 1-dodecanthiols (DDT). This method allows for an excellent control of the morphology of the deposit by varying the molar ratio of the two thiols. Because cobalt does not deposit on silver at an underpotential, the alternative approach of surface limited redox replacement (SLRR) was used. This method, recently developed by Adžić et al., consists of the use of a monolayer of a third metal, which can be deposited at an underpotential, as a template for the spontaneous deposition of a more noble metal. Herein, we choose zinc as template for the deposition of cobalt. Ag(111) crystals were covered by monolayer islands consisting of cobalt, with the surface atomic ratios ranging from 12 to 39% for cobalt. The catalytic activity of such samples towards ORR was evaluated and the best improvement in activity was found to be that of the sample with a cobalt percentage of approximately 30% with respect to the bare silver, which is in good agreement with theoretical hypotheses.

  10. [Study on the interaction of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase with cobalt (II)-histidine by spectral analysis. II. Effects of pH, interaction time].

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Hu, J; Cheng, G; Xu, Y; Zhao, Y; Liu, M

    1999-12-01

    The direct interaction of Cu2Zn2SOD with organic metal compound (Cobalt (II)-Histidine) was studied by ICP, VIS and the measurement of enzyme activity, and also investigated the effect of pH values and different interaction times for this interaction. The results showed that with the increased in pH values and the more longer interaction times, the intensity of interaction were increased and the corresponding catalytic activity of enzyme were affected.

  11. Assessment of nickel and cobalt release from jewelry from a non-nickel directive country.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Maneeprasopchoke, Pitchaya; Suiwongsa, Bordeesuda; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2015-01-01

    A directive restricting nickel release from jewelry and other skin-contact products has not been initiated in Thailand or in the United States. The prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergies is increasing, and the main cause of sensitization seems to be jewelry. We aimed to investigate nickel and cobalt release from jewelry available in Thai marketplaces and to study the factors associated with nickel and cobalt release. Used costume jewelry items were collected from volunteers. They were tested with the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt tests. Five hundred fifty-one items, including belt buckles, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, rings, and watches, were tested; 216 (39.2%) gave positive dimethylglyoxime tests, and 206 (37.4%) gave positive cobalt tests. The factors that determined nickel or cobalt release were shopping location and jewelry price. Cobalt-containing jewelry could be identified by its dark color. A large proportion of the jewelry sold in Thai markets release nickel or cobalt.

  12. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; ...

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unitymore » were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.« less

  13. Cobalt(II) chloride adducts with acetonitrile, propan-2-ol and tetrahydrofuran: considerations on nuclearity, reactivity and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Stinghen, Danilo; Rüdiger, André Luis; Giese, Siddhartha O K; Nunes, Giovana G; Soares, Jaísa F; Hughes, David L

    2017-02-01

    High-spin cobalt(II) complexes are considered useful building blocks for the synthesis of single-molecule magnets (SMM) because of their intrinsic magnetic anisotropy. In this work, three new cobalt(II) chloride adducts with labile ligands have been synthesized from anhydrous CoCl2, to be subsequently employed as starting materials for heterobimetallic compounds. The products were characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (EPR and FT-IR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. trans-Tetrakis(acetonitrile-κN)bis(tetrahydrofuran-κO)cobalt(II) bis[(acetonitrile-κN)trichloridocobaltate(II)], [Co(C2H3N)4(C4H8O)2][CoCl3(C2H3N)]2, (1), comprises mononuclear ions and contains both acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran (thf) ligands, The coordination polymer catena-poly[[tetrakis(propan-2-ol-κO)cobalt(II)]-μ-chlorido-[dichloridocobalt(II)]-μ-chlorido], [Co2Cl4(C3H8O)4], (2'), was prepared by direct reaction between anhydrous CoCl2 and propan-2-ol in an attempt to rationalize the formation of the CoCl2-alcohol adduct (2), probably CoCl2(HO(i)Pr)m. The binuclear complex di-μ-chlorido-1:2κ(4)Cl:Cl-dichlorido-2κ(2)Cl-tetrakis(tetrahydrofuran-1κO)dicobalt(II), [Co2Cl4(C4H8O)4], (3), was obtained from (2) after recrystallization from tetrahydrofuran. All three products present cobalt(II) centres in both octahedral and tetrahedral environments, the former usually less distorted than the latter, regardless of the nature of the neutral ligand. Product (2') is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen-bond network that appears to favour a trans arrangement of the chloride ligands in the octahedral moiety; this differs from the cis disposition found in (3). The expected easy displacement of the bound solvent molecules from the metal coordination sphere makes the three compounds good candidates for suitable starting materials in a number of synthetic applications.

  14. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: Molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, S.; Dhananjay, S.; Anju, B. Lilly, G.; Sai Ram, M.

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NF{kappa}B inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NF{kappa}B in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NF{kappa}B. The lower levels of NF{kappa}B observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NF{kappa}B DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  15. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, S; Dhananjay, S; Anju, B; Lilly, G; Sai Ram, M

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor kappaB (NFkappaB) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NFkappaB inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NFkappaB in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NFkappaB. The lower levels of NFkappaB observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NFkappaB DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  16. Second sphere coordination in anion binding: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structure of cis-diazidobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) mesitylenesulphonate hemihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Sharma, Rajni; Bala, Ritu; Singh, Kamal Nain; Pretto, Loretta; Ferretti, Valeria

    2006-02-01

    cis-diazidobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) mesitylenesulphonate hemihydrate, [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2]C 9H 11SO 3·0.5H 2O was crystallized from a solution of cis-diazidobis(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) nitrate and sodium mesitylenesulphonate in aqueous medium in 1:1 molar ratio. Elemental analysis, spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/visible, 1H and 13C NMR) and conductance studies were undertaken for characterizing the complex salt. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.15220(10), b=14.5218(3), c=20.6925(5), V=2058.48(7), Z=4. X-ray structure determination revealed an ionic structure consisting of [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2] + cation, mesitylenesulphonate anion and half water molecule. In the complex cation [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2] +, the cobalt(III) is bonded to six nitrogen atoms, originating from two ethylenediamines, and two azide groups showing an octahedral geometry around cobalt. The crystal lattice is stabilized by electrostatic forces of attraction and hydrogen bonding interactions predominantly N-H…O -, suggesting that [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2] + is a promising anion receptor for the mesitylenesulphonate ion. This is the first report of a sulphonate salt containing the present cationic cobaltammine.

  17. Impact of Hydrogenolysis on the Selectivity of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Diesel Fuel Production over Mesoporous Zeolite-Y-Supported Cobalt Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaobo; Cheng, Kang; Kang, Jincan; Gu, Bang; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2015-04-07

    Selectivity control is a challenging goal in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Hydrogenolysis is known to occur during FT synthesis, but its impact on product selectivity has been overlooked. Demonstrated herein is that effective control of hydrogenolysis by using mesoporous zeolite Y-supported cobalt nanoparticles can enhance the diesel fuel selectivity while keeping methane selectivity low. The sizes of the cobalt particles and mesopores are key factors which determine the selectivity both in FT synthesis and in hydrogenolysis of n-hexadecane, a model compound of heavier hydrocarbons. The diesel fuel selectivity in FT synthesis can reach 60 % with a CH4 selectivity of 5 % over a Na-type mesoporous Y-supported cobalt catalyst with medium mean sizes of 8.4 nm (Co particles) and 15 nm (mesopores). These findings offer a new strategy to tune the product selectivity and possible interpretations of the effect of cobalt particle size and the effect of support pore size in FT synthesis.

  18. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  19. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  20. Physiological Remediation of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Volatron, Jeanne; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Vuong, Quoc Lam; Gossuin, Yves; Neveu, Sophie; Luciani, Nathalie; Hémadi, Miryana; Carn, Florent; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been increasingly suggested as prospective therapeutic nanoplatforms, yet their long-term fate and cellular processing in the body is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of an endogenous iron storage protein – namely the ferritin – in the remediation of biodegradable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Structural and elemental analysis of ferritins close to exogenous nanoparticles within spleens and livers of mice injected in vivo with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suggests the intracellular transfer of degradation-derived cobalt and iron, entrapped within endogenous protein cages. In addition, the capacity of ferritin cages to accommodate and store the degradation products of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated in vitro in the acidic environment mimicking the physiological conditions that are present within the lysosomes. The magnetic, colloidal and structural follow-up of nanoparticles and proteins in the lysosome-like medium confirmed the efficient remediation of nanoparticle-released cobalt and iron ions by ferritins in solution. Metal transfer into ferritins could represent a quintessential process in which biomolecules and homeostasis regulate the local degradation of nanoparticles and recycle their by-products. PMID:28067263

  1. Physiological Remediation of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Ferritin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volatron, Jeanne; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Vuong, Quoc Lam; Gossuin, Yves; Neveu, Sophie; Luciani, Nathalie; Hémadi, Miryana; Carn, Florent; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been increasingly suggested as prospective therapeutic nanoplatforms, yet their long-term fate and cellular processing in the body is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of an endogenous iron storage protein - namely the ferritin - in the remediation of biodegradable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Structural and elemental analysis of ferritins close to exogenous nanoparticles within spleens and livers of mice injected in vivo with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suggests the intracellular transfer of degradation-derived cobalt and iron, entrapped within endogenous protein cages. In addition, the capacity of ferritin cages to accommodate and store the degradation products of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated in vitro in the acidic environment mimicking the physiological conditions that are present within the lysosomes. The magnetic, colloidal and structural follow-up of nanoparticles and proteins in the lysosome-like medium confirmed the efficient remediation of nanoparticle-released cobalt and iron ions by ferritins in solution. Metal transfer into ferritins could represent a quintessential process in which biomolecules and homeostasis regulate the local degradation of nanoparticles and recycle their by-products.

  2. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Cobalt Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, Md S; Taylor, B. J.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Thompson, James R; Sinclair, J.

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt films were electrodeposited onto both iron and copper substrates from an aqueous solution containing a mixture of cobalt sulfate, boric acid, sodium citrate, and vanadyl sulfate. The structural, intermetallic diffusion and magnetic properties of the electrodeposited films were studied. Cobalt electrodeposition was carried out in a passively divided cell aided by addition of vanadyl sulfate to keep the counter electrode clean. The divided electrolytic cell with very negative current densities cause the electrodeposited Co to adopt a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, which is more magnetically reversible than the hexagonally close-packed (hcp) structured Co. The coercive field is also significantly less in the fcc-electrodeposited cobalt than in the hcp. SEM images show dense, uniform Co films without any cracks or porosity. Beside the deposition current, thickness of the film was also found to affect the crystal orientation particularly on iron substrates. Diffusion of cobalt film into the iron substrate was studied under reduced environment and a fast process was observed.

  3. Synthesis and properties of precipitated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko; Reissner, Michael; Jean, Malick; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Musić, Svetozar

    2017-07-01

    The formation and properties of cobalt ferrite were investigated with XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, Mössbauer and magnetometry. Cobalt ferrite samples were prepared (a) by combining coprecipitation Co(OH)2/2Fe(OH)3, using NaOH between pH 5.2 and 11.4 and autoclaving, and (b) by autoclaving the Co(OH)2/2Fe(OH)3 coprecipitate in a very strong alkaline medium. XRD and FE SEM showed that both CoFe2O4 crystallites and particles were in the nanosize range. The FT-IR spectra were typical of spinel ferrites. Cobalt ferrite precipitated at pH 7.2 and at 11.4 contained a small fraction of α-Fe2O3, whereas in the sample precipitated at pH 11.4 a very small amount (traces) of α-FeOOH were detected by FT-IR, additionally. Parameters obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy suggested a structural migration of cobalt and iron ions in prepared cobalt ferrite spinels with the prolonged time of autoclaving. Magnetic measurements showed the magnetic behaviour typical of spinel ferrite nanoparticles.

  4. Contact dermatitis to cobalt chloride with an unusual mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Aksan, Serkan; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. A suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Therefore, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance because the patch testing is important to find out which allergen/material causes the complaints. Metallic allergens such as cobalt are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different skin areas. Here, we report an unusual case of cobalt allergy on the skin contact with the prosthetic leg of a 30-year-old female patient. The patient developed maculopapular and vesicular lesions on her contact region of residual limb to prosthetic leg. She underwent standard patch testing, which resulted in a strong positive reaction to cobalt chloride. This case report may serve to remind doctors to be aware of potential allergic reactions to prostheses and to enable them to recognize a metal allergy if it appears. Prosthetists should also be reminded of potential allergic reactions. Cobalt can be used as an accelerator in making a prosthetic socket. Several cases have been reported concerning allergies to components of the prosthetic socket. This is the first report of sensitization to cobalt which is used in making a prosthetic leg. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  5. Graphene/cobalt nanocarrier for hyperthermia therapy and MRI diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Shadie; Ahadian, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghiass, Mohammad Adel; Iraji Zad, Azam; Saber, Reza; Parseh, Benyamin; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Graphene/cobalt nanocomposites are promising materials for theranostic nanomedicine applications, which are defined as the ability to diagnose, provide targeted therapy and monitor the response to the therapy. In this study, the composites were synthesized via chemical method, using graphene oxide as the source material and assembling cobalt nanoparticles of 15nm over the surface of graphene sheets. Various characterization techniques were then employed to reveal the morphology, size and structure of the nanocomposites, such as X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. Using ion-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, cobalt concentration in the nanocomposites was found to be 80%. In addition, cytotoxicity of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites were evaluated using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assay. MTT viability assay exhibited biocompatibility to L929 mouse fibroblasts cells, under a high dose of 100μg/mL over 24h. Hyperthermia results showed the superior conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat at 350kHz frequency for 0.01 and 0.005g/L of the nanocomposites solution. The measured heat generation and energy transfer results were anticipated by the finite element analysis, conducted for the 3D structure. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics also showed that negatively charge graphene/cobalt nanocomposites are suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Allergy risks with laptop computers - nickel and cobalt release.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; Hurtig, Anna; Borg Tornberg, Anette; Julander, Anneli

    2016-06-01

    Laptop computers may release nickel and cobalt when they come into contact with skin. Few computer brands have been studied. To evaluate nickel and cobalt release from laptop computers belonging to several brands by using spot tests, and to quantify the release from one new computer by using artificial sweat solution. Nickel and cobalt spot tests were used on the lid and wrist supports of 31 laptop computers representing five brands. The same surfaces were tested on all computers. In addition, one new computer was bought and dismantled for release tests in artificial sweat according to the standard method described in EN1811. Thirty-nine per cent of the laptop computers were nickel spot test-positive, and 6% were positive for cobalt. The nickel on the surface could be worn off by consecutive spot testing of the same surface. The release test in artificial sweat of one computer showed that nickel and cobalt were released, although in low concentrations. As they constitute a potential source of skin exposure to metals, laptop computers should qualify as objects to be included within the restriction of nickel in REACH, following the definition of 'prolonged skin contact'. Skin contact resulting from laptop use may contribute to an accumulated skin dose of nickel that can be problematic for sensitized individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Enhancement of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Naoko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2011-03-09

    The effects of cobalt chloride on the production of trichothecene and ergosterol in Fusarium graminearum were examined. Incorporation experiments with (13)C-labeled acetate and leucine confirmed that both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and ergosterol were biosynthesized via a mevalonate pathway by the fungus, although hydroxymethyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) from intact leucine was able to be partially used for ergosterol production. Addition of cobalt chloride at concentrations of 3-30 μM into liquid culture strongly enhanced 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by the fungus, whereas the amount of ergosterol and the mycelial weight of the fungus did not change. The mRNA levels of genes encoding trichothecene biosynthetic proteins (TRI4 and TRI6), ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes (ERG3 and ERG25), and enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway (HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR)) were all strongly up-regulated in the presence of cobalt chloride. Precocene II, a specific trichothecene production inhibitor, suppressed the effects of cobalt chloride on Tri4, Tri6, HMGS, and HMGR, but did not affect erg3 and erg25. These results indicate that cobalt chloride is useful for investigating regulatory mechanisms of trichothecene and ergosterol production in F. graminearum.

  8. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti B.; Nayak, Nadiya Bihary; Mallik, Rahul Kumar; Mondal, Aparna

    Different morphologies (spherical, flake and rod) of cobalt ferrite were synthesized using cobalt salt, iron salts, hydrazine hydrate (as a precipitating agent) and CTAB (surfactant) in water as well as ethylene glycol solvents. Four different synthesis ways (HIS, SIH, HISCO and HISG) were adopted to synthesize cobalt ferrite nanopowders using precipitation method. The as-prepared powders obtained after different synthesis ways were calcined at 800°C and structure, microstructure as well as magnetic properties are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and magnetization studies using pulsed field loop tracer were employed to characterize these cobalt ferrite powders, prepared using different precipitation ways. All the samples are identified with single phase cobalt ferrite and the crystallite size was found to be around 40 nm. Nearly spherical (multifaceted), rod with flake-like, nearly spherical and rod-like morphologies are obtained while synthesizing using HIS, SIH, HISCO and HISG ways, respectively. Rod with flake-like (SIH sample) and rod-like morphologies (HISG sample) show higher coercivity, than the spherical-like (SIH and HISCO smaples) morphology. The highest coericivty was found to be around 925 Oe for HISG sample and highest magnetization is 67 emu/g for HISCO sample.

  9. Physiological Remediation of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Volatron, Jeanne; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Vuong, Quoc Lam; Gossuin, Yves; Neveu, Sophie; Luciani, Nathalie; Hémadi, Miryana; Carn, Florent; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-09

    Metallic nanoparticles have been increasingly suggested as prospective therapeutic nanoplatforms, yet their long-term fate and cellular processing in the body is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of an endogenous iron storage protein - namely the ferritin - in the remediation of biodegradable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Structural and elemental analysis of ferritins close to exogenous nanoparticles within spleens and livers of mice injected in vivo with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suggests the intracellular transfer of degradation-derived cobalt and iron, entrapped within endogenous protein cages. In addition, the capacity of ferritin cages to accommodate and store the degradation products of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated in vitro in the acidic environment mimicking the physiological conditions that are present within the lysosomes. The magnetic, colloidal and structural follow-up of nanoparticles and proteins in the lysosome-like medium confirmed the efficient remediation of nanoparticle-released cobalt and iron ions by ferritins in solution. Metal transfer into ferritins could represent a quintessential process in which biomolecules and homeostasis regulate the local degradation of nanoparticles and recycle their by-products.

  10. Analysis of cobalt(II) in 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaammine cobalt(III) perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.J.; Brown, N.E.; Deutsch, E.A.

    1985-10-30

    A new method of analysis is described for cobalt(II) complexes in 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaammine cobalt(III) perchlorate. The color reagent is 2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridyl hydrazone (DPPH), which complexes with the Co(II) and is oxidized to a substitution inert Co(III) (DPPH)/sub 2/ complex. Interferences from other ions is not a problem because the complex is stable at pH 2 - where complexes formed between DPPH and other ions are not stable. The usual air oxidant in this type of analysis has been replaced with ammonium peroxydisulfate improving both the precision and accuracy. The Sandell sensitivity is 0.0015 ..mu..g Co(II)/cm/sup 2/. The system obeys Beer's Law up to 4 ..mu..g in Co(II)mL of solution and has a molar absorptivity of 3.9 x 10/sup 4/ L/mole cm at 514 nm. The procedure was used to determine the degree of decomposition in samples that had undergone partial thermal decomposition. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Electrosynthesis of highly transparent cobalt oxide water oxidation catalyst films from cobalt aminopolycarboxylate complexes.

    PubMed

    Bonke, Shannon A; Wiechen, Mathias; Hocking, Rosalie K; Fang, Xi-Ya; Lupton, David W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Spiccia, Leone

    2015-04-24

    Efficient catalysis of water oxidation represents one of the major challenges en route to efficient sunlight-driven water splitting. Cobalt oxides (CoOx ) have been widely investigated as water oxidation catalysts, although the incorporation of these materials into photoelectrochemical devices has been hindered by a lack of transparency. Herein, the electrosynthesis of transparent CoOx catalyst films is described by utilizing cobalt(II) aminopolycarboxylate complexes as precursors to the oxide. These complexes allow control over the deposition rate and morphology to enable the production of thin, catalytic CoOx films on a conductive substrate, which can be exploited in integrated photoelectrochemical devices. Notably, under a bias of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the film deposited from [Co(NTA)(OH2 )2 ](-) (NTA=nitrilotriacetate) decreased the transmission by only 10 % at λ=500 nm, but still generated >80 % of the water oxidation current produced by a [Co(OH2 )6 ](2+) -derived oxide film whose transmission was only 40 % at λ=500 nm.

  12. Cobalt tyrosinase: replacement of the binuclear copper of Neurospora tyrosinase by cobalt.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, C; Lerch, K

    1981-03-03

    The antiferromagnetically spin-coupled copper(II) pair in Neurospora tyrosinase was substituted by cobalt, yielding a stoichiometry of 2 mol of Co/mol of protein. The low magnitude of the high-spin Co(II) EPR signal indicates spin coupling of the two Co(II) ions similar to that observed in the native enzyme. The absorption spectrum with four transitions in the visible region of intermediate intensity (epsilon 607(670), epsilon 564(630), epsilon 526(465)), a shoulder at 635 nm, and the near-infrared bands at 1180 (epsilon 30) and 960 nm (epsilon 15) indicate tetrahedral coordination around the Co(II) center. The cobalt(II) tyrosinase is enzymatically inactive, and there is no evidence that it binds molecular oxygen. Upon addition of cyanide or the competitive tyrosinase inhibitors L-mimosine, benzoic acid, or benzhydroxamic acid te absorption spectrum changes in a characteristic manner. This optical perturbation shows that binding of these inhibitors (and presumably of the substrates) occurs at or near the metal site. One Co(II) ion can be removed preferentially by incubation with KCN at high pH, indicating the two ions not to be in an identical environment.

  13. Cobalt chloride induces apoptosis and zinc chloride suppresses cobalt-induced apoptosis by Bcl-2 expression in human submandibular gland HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kazumi; Okamura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Kaya; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ogawa-Iyehara, Hiroaki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effects of cobalt chloride on human submandibular gland cells, HSG cells were exposed to various concentrations of cobalt chloride. Cobalt chloride induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HSG cells as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and WST-1 cell viability assay. By using the Hoechst 33342 staining, marked nuclear condensation and fragmentation of chromatin were observed in cobalt chloride-treated cells. Cobalt chloride induced DNA ladder formation in HSG cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner with maximal effect at a concentration of 0.5 mM and 48 h, respectively. Cobalt chloride inhibited the expression of both Bcl-2 protein and mRNA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Zinc chloride recovered the cobalt-suppressed Bcl-2 expression and protected against cobalt-induced apoptosis in HSG cells. Our results show that the pathway of the apoptosis in HSG cells is regulated by cobalt chloride and zinc chloride. Our results also indicate that cobalt-induced apoptotic steps in HSG cells are related to the production of Bcl-2 protein.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid... substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (PMN P-12-35) is...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10599 - Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10599 Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical... cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10599 - Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10599 Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical... cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1) is subject to reporting...

  2. 75 FR 70583 - Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Withdrawal of Significant New Use Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Withdrawal of... Control Act (TSCA) for the chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (CAS No... cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN P-04-269; CAS No. 182442-95-1) at 40 CFR 721.10201 because the...

  3. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  4. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  5. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  6. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  7. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  8. Cobalt allergy: suitable test concentration, and concomitant reactivity to nickel and chromium.

    PubMed

    Lidén, Carola; Andersson, Niklas; Julander, Anneli; Matura, Mihály

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt allergy is frequent, but knowledge about exposure is limited. The patch test concentration and relevance of positive reactions are sometimes questioned. To assess the suitability of cobalt 1% versus 0.5% for patch testing, and to analyse the co-occurrence of allergy to cobalt, chromium, and nickel. Consecutive dermatitis patients (n = 656) were patch tested with cobalt chloride 0.5% and 1%, potassium dichromate 0.5%, and nickel sulfate 5%, all in petrolatum. Reactions were assessed on day (D)3, and on D6 or D7, and the reactivity and development of reactions were analysed. Allergy to any metal was shown in 31% of patients, allergy to cobalt in 14%, allergy to chromium in 7%, and allergy to nickel in 20%. A significant proportion (37%) of cobalt allergy cases were missed by cobalt 0.5% versus 1%, whereas the reactivity profiles were similar. Cobalt allergy was solitary, without concomitant allergy to chromium or nickel, in 50% of patients. Cobalt chloride 1% pet. is more suitable for patch testing than 0.5%. Solitary cobalt allergy is as frequent as concomitant allergy to cobalt and nickel or chromium. Sources of skin exposure to metals need to be identified for prevention of contact allergy. This is, owing to large knowledge gaps, particularly demanding for cobalt. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to...

  10. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to...

  11. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  12. The effect of cobalt content in U-700 type alloys on degradation of aluminide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of cobalt content in U-700 type alloys on the behavior of aluminide coatings is studied in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1100C. It is determined that aluminide coatings on alloys with higher cobalt offer better oxidation protection than the same coatings on alloys containing less cobalt.

  13. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to...

  14. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  15. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  16. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  17. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  18. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  19. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10600 - Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10600 Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide. (a... calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10600 - Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10600 Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide. (a... calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0) is subject to...

  2. Effect of cobalt on parameters of the cardiovascular system in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Svyatova, N V; Sitdikov, F G; Egerev, E S

    2013-07-01

    High incidence of cobalt deficiency (89%) was found in 7-8-year-old girls residents of the Republic of Tatarstan. Significant correlations were revealed between parameters of physical development and cardiovascular system and hair cobalt content. These data suggest that positive balance of cobalt is essential for normal growth and development of child's body and function of the cardiovascular system.

  3. Comparison of different supplemental cobalt forms on fiber digestion and cobalamin levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cobalt (Co) is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B*12, which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if Co form (cobalt carbonate vs cobalt glucoheptona...

  4. Comparison of different supplemental cobalt forms on digestion and cobalamin levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cobalt (Co) is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B12, which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if Co form (cobalt carbonate vs cobalt glucoheptonat...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. Toxicity of cobalt. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity effects of cobalt. Citations include cobalt fetotoxicity, renal toxicity, bioaccumulation, contact dermatitis, carcinogencity, and respiratory disorders. Toxicology assays and industrial sources of cobalt poisoning are considered. In vivo and in vitro human and animal studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  12. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  13. Magnetic behavior of Co and Ni in pseudoternary boron compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzo, E.; Tetean, R.; Chioncel, L.; Pop, V.

    2007-09-01

    The magnetic properties of YA 4-xM xB with A=cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni) and M=Al or Cu were analyzed. Solid solutions are formed for x⩽1.5 when M=Cu and x⩽2 for M=Al. The magnetizations and Curie temperatures decrease as result of substitutions. The YCo 2Al 2B compound is paramagnetic. Band structure calculations were performed on the above systems. Finally, the magnetic behaviors of Co and Ni in YA 4-xM xB compounds is analyzed.

  14. Cobalt-doped Bi26Mo10O69: Crystal structure and conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailovskaya, Z. A.; Buyanova, E. S.; Petrova, S. A.; Morozova, M. V.; Zhukovskiy, V. M.; Zakharov, R. G.; Tarakina, N. V.; Berger, I. F.

    2013-08-01

    A series of cobalt-doped bismuth molybdates were synthesized and investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The ranges of solid solution were determined. Two new compounds, Bi1-xCox[Bi12O14]Mo5O34.5±δ (x=0.2) and Bi[Bi12O14]Mo5-yCoyO34.5±δ (y=0.2), which crystallise in monoclinic unit cells have been examined in detail by diffraction methods. Impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the studied materials are good ionic conductors with conductivity values about 5×10-3 S×cm-1 at 973 K and 1.7×10-4 S×cm-1 at 623 K, which are similar to conductivity values of yttrium substituted zirconia and (YSZ) gadolinium doped ceria (CGO).

  15. Sequential Cobalt Magnetization Collapse in ErCo2: Beyond the Limits of Itinerant Electron Metamagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Burzo, E.; Vlaic, P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Savenko, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    The itinerant electron metamagnetism (IEM) is an essential physical concept, describing magnetic properties of rare earth – transition metal (R-TM) intermetallics, demonstrating technologically important giant magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effects. It considers an appearance of TM magnetization induced by spontaneous magnetization of surrounding R atoms, which provides significant response of the magnetic and transport properties on variation of external parameters (temperature, pressure, magnetic field) due to strong coupling between magnetic sublattices. The RCo2 compounds were generally considered as model systems for understanding of basic properties of IEM intermetallics. However, microscopic nature of magnetic properties still remains unclear. In our experimental and theoretical study of ErCo2 in a wide range of thermodynamic parameters a sequential collapse of cobalt sublattice magnetization in the background of nearly unchanged Er sublattice magnetization was revealed. The uncoupled magnetizations behavior challenges the IEM concept applicability and evidences more complex nature of magnetism in ErCo2 and related RCo2 systems. PMID:25727134

  16. Enhancing Electrocatalytic Performance of Bifunctional Cobalt-Manganese-Oxynitride Nanocatalysts on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Fujita, Etsuko; Adzic, Radoslav R; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2017-01-10

    We report the synthesis and characterization of graphenesupported cobalt-manganese-oxynitride nanocatalysts (CoMnON/G) as bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). A nitriding treatment of spinel compound CoMnO increased the ORR activity considerably, and the most active material catalyzed the ORR with only a 30 mV half-wave potential difference from the commercial carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) in alkaline media. In addition to high activity, the catalyst also exhibited an intrinsic stability that outperformed Pt/C. An appropriately designed nitridation thus facilitates new directions for developing active and durable non-precious-metal oxynitride electocatalysts.

  17. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures. PMID:26153533

  18. A cobalt polypyrrole composite catalyzed cathode for the direct borohydride fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Yin, W. X.; Zhu, J. K.; Li, Z. P.

    A cobalt polypyrrole carbon (Co-PPY-C) composite has been attempted for use as a cathode catalyst in a direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC). A Co-PPY-C composite has been fabricated in laboratory and characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Fabricated Co-PPY-C catalyst demonstrates good short-term durability and activity which are comparable to those obtained from the Pt/C catalyst. A maximum power density of 65 mW cm -2 has been achieved at ambient conditions. This research concludes that metallo-organic coordination compounds would be potential candidates for use as cathode catalysts in the DBFC.

  19. Cobalt-chromium spinel catalyst of exhaustive oxidation of ethyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, V.M.; Feshchenko, L.F.; Chernobrivets, V.L.

    1992-05-10

    Ethyl chloride is formed as a by-product in many plants for organochlorine synthesis and is emitted into the atmosphere with gaseous wastes, polluting the environment. Due to the toxicity of ethyl chloride, it is necessary to create methods for scrubbing this substance from waste gases. The catalytic method based on the reaction of exhaustive oxidation of the removed contaminant to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride or chlorine, which can either be removed or used for production purposes in some cases, is a relatively effective and economical method of scrubbing toxic organochlorine contaminants from gases. Catalytic oxidation of organochlorine compounds usually takes place on catalysts containing noble metals. The shortage of catalysts resistant to aggressive media has prevented the wide use of this method. The authors present a synthesis method for a cobalt-chromium catalyst for this purpose. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures.

  1. Modeling of the liquid-phase n-octane oxidation catalyzed by cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Querol, J.; Romero, A. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports on n-octane liquid-phase oxidation with oxygen-nitrogen mixtures homogeneously catalyzed by cobalt palmitate that has been studied. Molecular schemes of four and five reactions with two possibilities of kinetic equations used for lumping compounds are tested. Apparent rate constants are calculated by a multiresponse linear method, and discrimination among kinetic models is carried out by applying both statistical and physical criteria. Relationships of the apparent rate constants with temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and catalyst concentration are established, and parameters are optimized by nonlinear regression. The selected models are the same for catalytic and noncatalytic oxidation and describe in a suitable way the influence of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and catalyst concentration on conversion and product selectivity. Finally, a discussion about lumping of different products based on experimental data is included.

  2. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-11-30

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  3. Core chemistry influences the toxicity of multicomponent metal oxide nanomaterials, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, and lithium cobalt oxide to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bozich, Jared; Hang, Mimi; Hamers, Robert; Klaper, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    Lithium intercalation compounds such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) are used extensively in lithium batteries. Because there is currently little economic incentive for recycling, chances are greater that batteries will end up in landfills or waste in the environment. In addition, the toxicity of these battery materials traditionally has not been part of the design process. Therefore, to determine the environmental impact and the possibility of alternative battery materials, representative complex battery nanomaterials, LCO and NMC, were synthesized, and toxicity was assessed in Daphnia magna. Toxicity was determined by assessing LCO and NMC at concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 25 mg/L. Acute studies (48 h) showed no effect to daphnid survival at 25 mg/L, whereas chronic studies (21 d) show significant impacts to daphnid reproduction and survival at concentrations of 0.25 mg/L for LCO and 1.0 mg/L for NMC. Dissolved metal exposures showed no effect at the amounts measured in suspension, and supernatant controls could not reproduce the effects of the particles, indicating a nanomaterial-specific impact. Genes explored in the present study were actin, glutathione-s-transferase, catalase, 18s, metallothionein, heat shock protein, and vitellogenin. Down-regulation of genes important in metal detoxification, metabolism, and cell maintenance was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The results show that battery material chemical composition can be altered to minimize environmental impacts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2493-2502. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Sulphur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous carbon hybrid coupling with graphite coated cobalt and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles: Rational synthesis and advanced multifunctional electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Anquan; Tan, Pengfei; Qiao, Lulu; Liu, Yi; Ma, Yongjin; Pan, Jun

    2017-09-08

    Doping-type carbon matrixes not only play a vital role on their electrochemical properties, but also are capable of suppressing the crush and aggregation phenomenon in the electrode reaction process for pristine metallic compound. Herein, graphite coated cobalt and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles decorating on sulphur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous carbon (Co@Co9S8/S-N-C) was fabricated by a combined hydrothermal reaction with pyrolysis method. Benefited from g-C3N4 template and original synthetic route, as-obtained Co@Co9S8/S-N-C possessed high specific surface area (751.7m(2)g(-1)), large pore volume (1.304cm(3)g(-1)), S and N dual-doped component and relative integrated graphite skeleton, as results it was developed as decent oxygen reduction electro-catalyst and ultra-long-life Li-ion battery anode. Surprisingly, compared with commercial Pt/C, it displayed a higher half-wave potential (0.015V positive) and lower Tafel slop (66mVs(-1)), indicating its superior ORR activities. Moreover, the ultra-long-life cyclic performances were revealed for lithium ion battery, exhibiting the retention capacities of 652.1mAhg(-1) after 610 cycles at 0.2Ag(-1), 432.1 and 405.7mAhg(-1) at 5 and 10Ag(-1) after 1000 cycles, respectively. We propose that the synergistic effect of structure and chemical component superiorities should be responsible for the remarkable electrochemical behaviors of the Co@Co9S8/S-N-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resonance Raman Spectra of Cobalt-Substituted Hemoglobin: Cooperativity and Displacement of the Cobalt Atom upon Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, William H.; Spiro, Thomas G.; Yonetani, Takashi

    1974-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of oxy and deoxy cobalt-substituted hemoglobin (CoHb) are reported. Comparison of these spectra to those of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, cytochrome c, and model cobalt porphyrin complexes suggests that the displacement of the cobalt atom upon oxygenation of CoHb is no greater than the out-of-plane distance in five-coordinate Co(II) porphyrins, 0.15 Å. Combining this distance with the expected contraction of the cobalt-histidine bond, Ibers has estimated a maximum displacement of 0.37 Å for the proximal histidine with respect to the heme plane upon oxygenation, about one-third the corresponding distance estimated for iron hemoglobin. The free energy of cooperativity for cobalt hemoglobin is also estimated to be one-third that of iron hemoglobin. These results are therefore consistent with Hopfield's distributed energy model, which predicts proportionality between proximal histidine displacement and the free energy of cooperativity. By implication they support Perutz's trigger mechanism for cooperativity. PMID:4524615

  6. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  7. Tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy and method of producing same

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, James M.; Riley, Robert E.

    1977-03-15

    An improved tungsten alloy having a tungsten content of approximately 95 weight percent, a nickel content of about 3 weight percent, and the balance being cobalt of about 2 weight percent is described. A method for producing said tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy is further described and comprises (a) coating the tungsten particles with a nickel-cobalt alloy, (b) pressing the coated particles into a compact shape, (c) heating said compact in hydrogen to a temperature in the range of 1400.degree. C and holding at this elevated temperature for a period of about 2 hours, (d) increasing this elevated temperature to about 1500.degree. C and holding for 1 hour at this temperature, (e) cooling to about 1200.degree. C and replacing the hydrogen atmosphere with an inert argon atmosphere while maintaining this elevated temperature for a period of about 1/2 hour, and (f) cooling the resulting alloy to room temperature in this argon atmosphere.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of low cobalt wear materials for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shiels, S.A.; Wilson, W.L.; Rosengarth, K.W.; Wire, G.L.

    1994-09-01

    Laboratory wear and corrosion screening tests were conducted on several commercially available, low-cobalt and cobalt-free hardsurfacing alloys to evaluate their relative wear and corrosion performance under simulated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary heat transport circuit conditions. Wear tests were performed under reciprocating, sliding contact. Corrosion performance was evaluated in both steady state and off-normal chemistry conditions. The wear behavior of the candidate hardsurfacing alloys was generally comparable to or better than that of Stellite 6, a material of proven wear performance under PWR operating conditions. With the exception of Tristelle 5183, the iron base alloys exhibited unacceptable corrosion behavior under wet layup conditions. The Tristelle 5183 experienced minor corrosion attack in primary coolant having elevated oxygen levels. The twelve percent cobalt alloy, Tristelle TS-2, performed well but exhibited some attack after a simulated decontamination treatment.

  9. Microstructure and abrasive wear of cobalt-based laser coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Mol van Otterloo, J.L.; De Hosson, J.T.M.

    1997-01-15

    Cobalt-based alloys are used as wear-resistant materials for hardfacing cheap steel substrates. A substantial enhancement in mechanical properties of cobalt-based superalloys is attributed to the martensitic fcc {yields} hcp phase transformation. Alloying elements can be classified as phase modifiers (Ni and Fe stabilize fcc whereas W and Cr stabilize hcp), solid-solution strengtheners (W and Mo), which affect only the matrix, and elements that form carbides (Cr-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M = metal). Of the different depositing techniques such as plasma spray, tungsten inert gas, oxyacetylene flame and laser cladding, the latter delivers coatings with a low dilution with the substrate material and no pores. Moreover, the laser cladding process has the advantage of being well controllable. This paper reports on the deposition of five different cobalt-based Stellite alloys on steel substrates by laser cladding.

  10. Thermal fatigue resistance of cobalt-modified UDIMET 700

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, P. T.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of comparative thermal fatigue resistances of five cobalt composition modifications of UDIMET 700 from fluidized bed tests is described. Cobalt compositional levels of 0.1, 4.3, 8.6, 12.8, 17.0 percent were being investigated in both the bare and coated (NiCrAlY overlay) conditions. Triplicate tests of each variation including duplicate tests of three control alloys are under investigation. Fluidized beds were maintained at 550 and 1850 F for the first 5500 cycles at which time the hot bed was increased to 1922 F. Immersion time in each bed is always 3 minutes. Upon the completion of 10,000 cycles, it appears that the 8.6 percent cobalt level gives the best thermal fatigue life. Considerable deformation of the test bars was observed.

  11. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III ); Brodzinski, R.L. ); Marcum, J. )

    1990-02-01

    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Cobalt toxicity after McKee hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A; Lucas, H K; O'Driscoll, M; Price, C H; Wibberley, B

    1975-08-01

    The significance of cobalt as a cause of symptoms after McKee hip arthroplasty is discussed. Seven patients are described in whom such arthroplasties. became unsatisfactory after periods varying from nine months to four years. Six of these patients were cobalt-positive but nickel- and chrome-negative on patch testing. Macroscopic and histological necrosis of bone, muscle and joint capsule around the prostheses was found in five patients whose hips were explored. The symptoms were progressive pain, a feeling of instability, and in two cases spontaneous dislocation. Radiological features included acetabular fracture, bone resorption, loosening and dislocation of the prosthesis. Increased cobalt concentrations (determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry) in the urine of four patients and in a variety of tissues in one patient are presented. Patch testing is recommended in the investigation of patients with troublesome McKee hip arthroplasties

  13. Hepatic cobalt and copper levels in lambs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, T; Plassen, C

    2004-01-01

    Cobalt and copper concentrations were measured in 599 lamb livers collected at slaughter from 58 sheep flocks in 6 different parts of Norway in 1993. Information about pasture, additional feeding and mineral supplements in the flocks was obtained through a questionnaire. Average hepatic levels of cobalt in the lamb flocks varied from < 0.003 to 0.22 microg/g ww, and of copper from 5 to 240 microg/g ww. Flocks with deficient or marginal cobalt status were found in all parts of southern Norway, but primarily in the west and south-west. Some flocks with marginal copper status were found in the south-west, while flocks with signs of excessive hepatic copper concentrations were found mainly in inner parts of central and northern Norway. Hepatic copper concentrations were significantly higher in lambs that had grazed mountain pastures than in those that had grazed lowland pastures in the summer.

  14. Biocompatibility of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Tharajak, Jirasak; Li, Yuncang; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2014-07-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, manganese, and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental compositions of the nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size of the nanoparticles was investigated using particle size analyzer, and the zeta potentials were measured using zeta potential analyzer. The phase components of the synthesized transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was assessed using osteoblast-like cells. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals strongly influences the physical, chemical properties, and biocompatibility of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  15. Thermal fatigue resistance of cobalt-modified UDIMET 700

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, P. T.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of comparative thermal fatigue resistances of five cobalt composition modifications of UDIMET 700 from fluidized bed tests is described. Cobalt compositional levels of 0.1, 4.3, 8.6, 12.8, 17.0 percent were being investigated in both the bare and coated (NiCrAlY overlay) conditions. Triplicate tests of each variation including duplicate tests of three control alloys are under investigation. Fluidized beds were maintained at 550 and 1850 F for the first 5500 cycles at which time the hot bed was increased to 1922 F. Immersion time in each bed is always 3 minutes. Upon the completion of 10,000 cycles, it appears that the 8.6 percent cobalt level gives the best thermal fatigue life. Considerable deformation of the test bars was observed.

  16. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy.

  17. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together.

  18. Transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2013-03-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analysis of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was performed via X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was measured using the water contact angle technique. The surface roughness of all nanoparticles was measured using profilometry. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to determine the temperature at which the decomposition and oxidation of the chelating agents took place. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals influences strongly the microstructure, crystal structure and antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  19. Genetically engineered synthesis and structural characterization of cobalt-precorrin 5A and -5B, two new intermediates on the anaerobic pathway to vitamin B12: definition of the roles of the CbiF and CbiG enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Santander, Patricio J; Roessner, Charles A; Pérez, Lisa M; Scott, A Ian

    2006-08-02

    Two new cobalt corrinoid intermediates, cobalt-precorrin 5A and cobalt-precorrin 5B, have been synthesized with the aid of overexpressed enzymes of the vitamin B(12) pathway of Salmonella entericaserovar typhimurium. These compounds were made in several regioselectively (13)C-labeled forms, and their structures have been established by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The addition of CbiF to the enzymes known to synthesize cobalt-precorrin 4 resulted in the formation of cobalt-precorrin 5A, and the inclusion of CbiG with CbiF produced cobalt-precorrin 5B, which has allowed us to define the role of these enzymes in the anaerobic biosynthetic pathway. CbiF is the C-11 methylase, and CbiG, an enzyme which shows homology with CobE of the aerobic pathway, is the gene product responsible for the opening of the ring A delta-lactone and extrusion of the "C(2)" unit. The discovery of these long-sought intermediates paves the way for defining the final stages of the anaerobic pathway. It is of considerable evolutionary interest that nature uses two distinct pathways to vitamin B(12), both conserved over several billion years and featuring completely different mechanisms for ring-contraction of the porphyrinoid to the corrinoid ring system. Thus the aerobic pathway utilizes molecular oxygen to trigger the events at C-20 leading to contraction and expulsion of the "C(2)" unit as acetic acid from a metal-free intermediate, whereas the anaerobic route features internal delivery of oxygen from a carboxylic acid terminus to C-20 followed by extrusion of the "C(2)" unit as acetaldehyde, using cobalt complexes as substrates.

  20. Cobalt(II) β-ketoaminato complexes as novel inhibitors of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jocelyn M; Beloukhina, Natalia; Boudreau, Kalun; Boettcher, Tyson A; Gurley, Lydia; Walker, Douglas G; McNeil, W Stephen; Klegeris, Andis

    2012-02-15

    Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders including stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as age-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs could be used to slow the progression of these diseases. We studied the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of four novel square planar cobalt(II) compounds bearing tetradentate β-ketoaminato ligands with variation in the number of CF(3) ligand substituents, as well as their corresponding unmetallated organic ligands. Cobalt (Co) complexes were consistently more active than their corresponding ligands. One of the complexes, L(3)Co at concentrations (1-10 μM) that were not toxic to cells, significantly reduced cytotoxic secretions by human monocytic THP-1 cells, astrocytoma U-373 MG cells, and primary human microglia. This anti-neurotoxic action of L(3)Co was reduced by SP600125 and PD98059, selective inhibitors of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)1/2 respectively. L(3)Co had no effect on secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by THP-1 cells, but it inhibited the NADPH oxidase-dependent respiratory burst activity of differentiated human HL-60 cells. L(3)Co upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HOX-1) expression by THP-1 cells, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties. Two of the Co compounds tested showed activity only at high concentrations (50 μM), but L(2)Co was highly toxic to all cell types used. Select Co complexes, such as L(3)Co, may exhibit pharmacological properties beneficial in human diseases involving neuroinflammatory processes. Further studies of the in vivo efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of L(3)Co are warranted.

  1. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    Physalis peruviana could attract great interest because of its nutritional and industrial properties. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and carotenoids. Physalis Peruviana is also known to have a positive impact on human health. Unfortunately, still little is known about trace elements present in Physalis Peruviana and their forms available for the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility and characterization of species of cobalt, copper and selenium in Physalis Peruviana fruits. Total and extractable contents of elements were determined by mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS). In order to separate the different types of metal complexes Physalis peruviana fruits were treated with the following solvents: Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH 7.4) and ammonium acetate (pH 5.5). The best efficiency of extraction of: cobalt was obtained for ammonium acetate (56%) and Tris-HCl (60%); for copper was obtained for SDS (66%), for selenium the best extraction efficiency was obtained after extraction with SDS (48%). To obtain information about bioaccessibility of investigated elements, enzymatic extraction based on in vitro simulation of gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion was performed. For copper and selenium the simulation of gastric digestion leads to the extraction yield above 90%, while both steps of digestion method were necessary to obtain satisfactory extraction yield in the case of cobalt. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to on-line ICP MS detection was used to investigate collected metal species. The main fraction of metal compounds was found in the 17 kDa region. Cobalt and copper create complexes mostly with compounds extracted by means of ammonium acetate and SDS, respectively. Cobalt, copper and selenium were found to be highly bioaccessible from Physalis Peruviana. Investigation of available standards of cobalt and selenium

  2. Genotoxicity of cobalt nanoparticles and ions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vales, Gerard; Demir, Eşref; Kaya, Bülent; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2013-06-01

    Nanogenotoxicology is an emergent area of research, relevant for estimating the potential carcinogenic risk of nanomaterials. Since most of the approaches use in vitro studies, and neglecting the whole organism limits the accuracy of the obtained results, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to study the possible genotoxic potential of cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs). The wing somatic mutation and recombination test has been the test of choice. This test is based on the principle that the loss of heterozygosis and the corresponding expression of the suitable recessive markers, multiple wing hairs and flare-3 can lead to the formation of mutant clone cells in growing up larvae, which are expressed as mutant spots on the wings of adult flies. Co NPs, as well as the ionic form cobalt chloride, were given to third instar larvae through the food, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM. The results obtained indicate that both cobalt forms are able to induce significant increases in the frequency of mutant clones. Although at low concentrations only Co NPs were genotoxic, the level of genetic damage obtained at the highest dose tested of cobalt chloride (10 mM) showed a significant higher increase in the frequency of total spots than those observed after the treatment with cobalt nanoparticles. As conclusion, our results indicate that Co NPs were able to induce genotoxic activity in the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster, mainly via the induction of somatic recombination. The differences observed in the behaviour of the two selected cobalt forms may result from differences in the uptake.

  3. Temporal Variability of Tungsten and Cobalt in Fallon, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paul R.; Speakman, Robert J.; Ridenour, Gary; Witten, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 1997, Fallon, Nevada, has experienced a cluster of childhood leukemia that has been declared “one of the most unique clusters of childhood cancer ever reported.” Multiple environmental studies have shown airborne tungsten and cobalt to be elevated within Fallon, but the question remains: Have these metals changed through time in correspondence with the onset of the leukemia cluster? Methods We used dendrochemistry, the study of element concentrations through time in tree rings, in Fallon to assess temporal variability of airborne tungsten and cobalt since the late 1980s. The techniques used in Fallon were also tested in a different town (Sweet Home, OR) that has airborne tungsten from a known source. Results The Sweet Home test case confirms the accuracy of dendrochemistry for showing temporal variability of environmental tungsten. Given that dendrochemistry works for tungsten, tree-ring chemistry shows that tungsten increased in Fallon relative to nearby comparison towns beginning by the mid-1990s, slightly before the onset of the cluster, and cobalt has been high throughout the last ~ 15 years. Other metals do not show trends through time in Fallon. Discussion Results in Fallon suggest a temporal correspondence between the onset of excessive childhood leukemia and elevated levels of tungsten and cobalt. Although environmental data alone cannot directly link childhood leukemia with exposure to metals, research by others has shown that combined exposure to tungsten and cobalt can be carcinogenic to humans. Conclusion Continued biomedical research is warranted to directly test for linkage between childhood leukemia and tungsten and cobalt. PMID:17520058

  4. Cobalt triarylcorroles containing one, two or three nitro groups. Effect of NO₂ substitution on electrochemical properties and catalytic activity for reduction of molecular oxygen in acid media.

    PubMed

    Li, Bihong; Ou, Zhongping; Meng, Deying; Tang, Jijun; Fang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Rui; Kadish, Karl M

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt(III) triarylcorroles containing 0-3 nitro groups on the para-position of the three meso-phenyl rings of the macrocycle were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, (UV-vis) and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The examined compounds are represented as (NO2Ph)(n)Ph(3-n)CorCo(PPh3), where n varies from 0 to 3 and Cor represents the core of the corrole. Each compound can undergo two metal-centered one-electron reductions leading to formation of Co(II) and Co(I) derivatives in CH2Cl2 or pyridine containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP). A stepwise two electron reduction of each NO2Ph group of the compound is also observed. The first is reversible and occurs in a single overlapping step at the same potential which involves an overall one-, two- or three-electron transfer process for compounds 2-4, respectively. This indicates the lack of an interaction between these redox active sites on the corroles. The second reduction of the NO2Ph groups is irreversible and located at a potential which overlaps the Co(II)/Co(I) process of the compounds. Thin-layer UV-visible spectroelectrochemical measurements in CH2Cl2, 0.1 M TBAP demonstrate the occurrence of an equilibrium between a Co(III) π-anion radical and a Co(II) derivative with an uncharged macrocycle after the first controlled potential reduction of the nitro-substituted corroles. All four cobalt corroles were also examined as catalysts for the electroreduction of O2 when coated on an edge-plane pyrrolytic graphite electrode in 1.0 M HClO4. This study indicates that the larger the number of nitro-substituents on the cobalt corrole, the better the compound acts as a catalyst.

  5. Pairing symmetry of the hydrated cobaltate superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2008-03-01

    We report NMR/NQR measurements on the hydrated cobaltate superconductor NaxCoO2*1.3H2O at elevated pressures. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) decreases below Tc with no coherence peak [1], and is in proportion to T^3 down to T˜Tc/10, which provides compelling evidence for the existence of line nodes in the gap function [2,3]. The spin susceptibility obtained from the Knight shift measurement in a single crystal decreases below Tc along all crystal-axis directions [4]. These results indicate anisotropic, spin-singlet pairing, and are most consistent with a d-wave gap. The electron correlations in the normal state are antiferromagnetic-like, which increases with decreasing Na-content [1,2]. The phase diagrams of Tc and various physical properties as functions of Na-content [2], and pressure [3] will be presented, and the inter-relation between the superconductivity and the spin correlations will be discussed. References: [1] T. Fujimoto, G. - q. Zheng, Y. Kitaoka, R.L. Meng, J. Cmaidalka, and C.W. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047004 (2004). [2] G. - q. Zheng, K. Matano, R.L. Meng, J. Cmaidalka, and C.W. Chu, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, L63 (2006). [3] E. Kusano, S. Kawasaki, K. Matano, G. - q. Zheng, R.L. Meng, J. Cmaidalka, and C.W. Chu, Phys. Rev. B 76, 100506 (R) (2007). [4] G. - q. Zheng, K. Matano, D.P. Chen and C.T. Lin, Phys. Rev. B73, 180503 (R) (2006).

  6. Hydrogen Evolution Catalyzed by Cobalt Diimine-Dioxime Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kaeffer, Nicolas; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Artero, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Mimicking photosynthesis and producing solar fuels is an appealing way to store the huge amount of renewable energy from the sun in a durable and sustainable way. Hydrogen production through water splitting has been set as a first-ranking target for artificial photosynthesis. Pursuing that goal requires the development of efficient and stable catalytic systems, only based on earth abundant elements, for the reduction of protons from water to molecular hydrogen. Cobalt complexes based on glyoxime ligands, called cobaloximes, emerged ten years ago as a first generation of such catalysts. They are now widely utilized for the construction of photocatalytic systems for hydrogen evolution. In this Account, we describe our contribution to the development of a second generation of catalysts, cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes. While displaying similar catalytic activities as cobaloximes, these catalysts prove more stable against hydrolysis under strongly acidic conditions thanks to the tetradentate nature of the diimine-dioxime ligand. Importantly, H2 evolution proceeds via proton-coupled electron transfer steps involving the oxime bridge as a protonation site, reproducing the mechanism at play in the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes. This feature allows H2 to be evolved at modest overpotentials, i.e. close to the thermodynamic equilibrium over a wide range of acid-base conditions in non-aqueous solutions. Derivatization of the diimine-dioxime ligand at the hydrocarbon chain linking the two imine functions enables the covalent grafting of the complex onto electrode surfaces in a more convenient manner than for the parent bis-bidentate cobaloximes. Accordingly we attached diimine-dioxime cobalt catalysts onto carbon nanotubes and demonstrated the catalytic activity of the resulting molecular-based electrode for hydrogen evolution from aqueous acetate buffer. The stability of immobilized catalysts was found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of catalysts

  7. Low energy sputtering of cobalt by cesium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handoo, A.; Ray, Pradosh K.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental facility to investigate low energy (less than 500 eV) sputtering of metal surfaces with ions produced by an ion gun is described. Results are reported on the sputtering yield of cobalt by cesium ions in the 100 to 500 eV energy range at a pressure of 1 times 10(exp -6) Torr. The target was electroplated on a copper substrate. The sputtered atoms were collected on a cobalt foil surrounding the target. Co-57 was used as a tracer to determine the sputtering yield.

  8. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  9. Structural changes in iron-cobalt oxide nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishchev, K. N.; Golub'ev, M. A.; Maksimov, Yu. V.; Beglov, V. I.; Kyashkin, V. M.; Panov, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The structure of binary iron-cobalt oxide nanosystems—precursors of bimetallic catalysts—is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The oxide system under study represents a promising material for creating new metallic nanocatalysts for ammonia synthesis. The structural evolution in the composition range 100Fe/0Co-5Fe/95Co is found to correspond to the transition from fine-grained α-Fe2O3 to mixed iron-cobalt spinels of various compositions and degrees of dispersity.

  10. Terahertz magneto-plasmonics using cobalt subwavelength aperture arrays.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Barun; Pandey, Shashank; Nahata, Anjali; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Guruswamy, Sivaraman; Nahata, Ajay

    2017-09-20

    We characterize the terahertz (THz) magneto-plasmonic response of a cobalt-based periodic aperture array. The bare cobalt surface allows for low loss propagation of surface plasmon-polaritons, as evidenced by comparing the reflection from aperture arrays coated with Au and with Co. When an external magnetic field is applied in a polar Kerr geometry, we observe a maximum polarization rotation of ~0.6° and an ellipticity of ~0.35° from the Co-based array. These values are larger than expected based on existing models that include only interband transitions in ferromagnetic metals. We discuss possible reasons for the difference between experiment and theory.

  11. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  12. Hydrogen evolution catalyzed by cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes.

    PubMed

    Kaeffer, Nicolas; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Artero, Vincent

    2015-05-19

    Mimicking photosynthesis and producing solar fuels is an appealing way to store the huge amount of renewable energy from the sun in a durable and sustainable way. Hydrogen production through water splitting has been set as a first-ranking target for artificial photosynthesis. Pursuing that goal requires the development of efficient and stable catalytic systems, only based on earth abundant elements, for the reduction of protons from water to molecular hydrogen. Cobalt complexes based on glyoxime ligands, called cobaloximes, emerged 10 years ago as a first generation of such catalysts. They are now widely utilized for the construction of photocatalytic systems for hydrogen evolution. In this Account, we describe our contribution to the development of a second generation of catalysts, cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes. While displaying similar catalytic activities as cobaloximes, these catalysts prove more stable against hydrolysis under strongly acidic conditions thanks to the tetradentate nature of the diimine-dioxime ligand. Importantly, H2 evolution proceeds via proton-coupled electron transfer steps involving the oxime bridge as a protonation site, reproducing the mechanism at play in the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes. This feature allows H2 to be evolved at modest overpotentials, that is, close to the thermodynamic equilibrium over a wide range of acid-base conditions in nonaqueous solutions. Derivatization of the diimine-dioxime ligand at the hydrocarbon chain linking the two imine functions enables the covalent grafting of the complex onto electrode surfaces in a more convenient manner than for the parent bis-bidentate cobaloximes. Accordingly, we attached diimine-dioxime cobalt catalysts onto carbon nanotubes and demonstrated the catalytic activity of the resulting molecular-based electrode for hydrogen evolution from aqueous acetate buffer. The stability of immobilized catalysts was found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of catalysts in the

  13. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-05-13

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  14. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  15. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-04-29

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  18. Cobalt(II) Porphyrin-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclopropanation of N-Alkyl Indoles/Pyrroles with Alkylcarbene: Efficient Synthesis of Polycyclic N-Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Hao, Fei; Wu, Kai; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-26

    A protocol on chemoselective cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of N-alkyl indoles/pyrroles with alkylcarbenes has been developed. The reaction enables the rapid construction of a range of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds in moderate to high yields from readily accessible materials. These N-containing polycyclic compounds can be converted into a variety of N-heterocycles with potential synthetic and biological interest. Compared to their N-tosylhydrazone counterparts, the use of bulky N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl hydrazones as carbene precursors allows cyclopropanation to occur under milder reaction conditions.

  19. Deprotonation or protonation: The coordination properties, crystal structures and spectra of cobalt (II) complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Liang; Sun, Hong-Wen; Yin, Dong-Hong; Li, Yan-Ling; Tuo, Su-Xing; Xu, Ya-Hui; Yan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The reaction of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol (PAAL) with cobalt acetate in CHCl3 gave the complex of Co(PAAL-H)2 (1), and (PAAL + H)2[CoCl4]·2H2O (2) was isolated in the same system with ultraviolet light irradiation. Structures of both compounds were determined by X-Ray diffraction. The PAAL ligand was deprotonated in 1, but it further protonated on N position at pyridine group in 2 and form cations. The spectra of these two compounds were also studied, as well as the fluorescence properties. Also, the redox property of 1 was preliminary investigated by cyclic voltammogram.

  20. In situ cobalt-cobalt oxide/N-doped carbon hybrids as superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiyan; Wang, Jing; Su, Diefeng; Wei, Zhongzhe; Pang, Zhenfeng; Wang, Yong

    2015-02-25

    Remarkable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or superior oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst has been applied in water splitting, however, utilizing a bifunctional catalyst for simultaneously generating H2 and O2 is still a challenging issue, which is crucial for improving the overall efficiency of water electrolysis. Herein, inspired by the superiority of carbon conductivity, the propitious H atom binding energy of metallic cobalt, and better OER activity of cobalt oxide, we synthesized cobalt-cobalt oxide/N-doped carbon hybrids (CoOx@CN) composed of Co(0), CoO, Co3O4 applied to HER and OER by simple one-pot thermal treatment method. CoOx@CN exhibited a small onset potential of 85 mV, low charge-transfer resistance (41 Ω), and considerable stability for HER. Electrocatalytic experiments further indicated the better performance of CoOx@CN for HER can be attributed to the high conductivity of carbon, the synergistic effect of metallic cobalt and cobalt oxide, the stability of carbon-encapsulated Co nanoparticles, and the introduction of electron-rich nitrogen. In addition, when used as catalysts of OER, the CoOx@CN hybrids required 0.26 V overpotential for a current density of 10 mA cm(-2), which is comparable even superior to many other non-noble metal catalysts. More importantly, an alkaline electrolyzer that approached ∼20 mA cm(-2) at a voltage of 1.55 V was fabricated by applying CoOx@CN as cathode and anode electrocatalyst, which opened new possibilities for exploring overall water splitting catalysts.