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Sample records for cobalt compounds

  1. Bioaccessibility testing of cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Stopford, Woodhall; Turner, John; Cappellini, Danielle; Brock, Tom

    2003-08-01

    Testing of metal compounds for solubility in artificial fluids has been used for many years to assist determining human health risk from exposure to specific compounds of concern. In lieu of obtaining bioavailability data from samples of urine, blood, or other tissues, these studies measured solubility of compounds in various artificial fluids as a surrogate for bioavailability. In this context, the measurement of metal "bioaccessibility" can be used as an in vitro substitute for measuring metal bioavailability. Bioaccessibility can be defined as a value representing the availability of metal for absorption when dissolved in in vitro surrogates of body fluids or juices. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the bioaccessibility of selected cobalt compounds in artificial human tissue fluids and human serum. A second aim was to initiate studies to experimentally validate an in vitro methodology that would provide a conservative estimate of cobalt bioavailability in the assessment of dose from human exposure to various species of cobalt compounds. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of cobalt(II) from 11 selected cobalt compounds and an alloy in 2 physical forms in 5 surrogate human tissue fluids and human serum. Four (4) separate extraction times were used up to 72 hours. The effect of variables such as pH, dissolution time, and mass-ion effect on cobalt bioaccessibility were assessed as well. We found that the species of cobalt compound as well as the physico-chemical properties of the surrogate fluids, especially pH, had a major impact on cobalt solubility. Cobalt salts such as cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate were highly soluble, whereas cobalt alloys used in medical implants and cobalt aluminate spinels used as pigments, showed minimal dissolution over the period of the assay.

  2. COBALT COMPOUNDS AS ANTIDOTES FOR HYDROCYANIC ACID.

    PubMed

    EVANS, C L

    1964-12-01

    The antidotal potency of a cobalt salt (acetate), of dicobalt edetate, of hydroxocobalamin and of cobinamide against hydrocyanic acid was examined mainly on mice and rabbits. All the compounds were active antidotes for up to twice the LD50; under some conditions for larger doses. The most successful was cobalt acetate for rabbits (5xLD50), which was effective at a molar cyanide/cobalt (CN/Co) ratio of 5, but had as a side-effect intense purgation. Hydroxocobalamin was irregular in action, but on the whole was most effective for mice (4.5xLD50 at a molar ratio of 1), and had no apparent side effects. Dicobalt edetate, at molar ratios of up to 2, was more effective for rabbits (3xLD50) than for mice (2xLD50), but had fewer side effects than cobalt acetate. The effect of thiosulphate was to augment the efficacy of dicobalt edetate and, in mice, that of hydroxocobalamin; but, apparently, in rabbits, to reduce that of hydroxocobalamin. Cobinamide, at a molar ratio of 1, was slightly more effective than hydroxocobalamin on rabbits and also less irregular in its action. Cobalt acetate by mouth was effective against orally administered hydrocyanic acid. The oxygen uptake of the body, reduced by cyanide, is rapidly reinstated when one of the cobalt antidotes has been successfully administered.

  3. Update on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lison, D; De Boeck, M; Verougstraete, V; Kirsch-Volders, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To integrate recent understandings of the mechanisms of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the different cobalt compounds.
METHOD—A narrative review of the studies published since the last IARC assessment in 1991 (genotoxicity, experimental carcinogenesis, and epidemiology).
RESULTS—Two different mechanisms of genotoxicity, DNA breakage induced by cobalt metal and especially hard metal particles, and inhibition of DNA repair by cobalt (II) ions contribute to the carcinogenic potential of cobalt compounds. There is evidence that soluble cobalt (II) cations exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental systems but evidence in humans is lacking. Experimental data indicate some evidence of a genotoxic potential for cobalt metal in vitro in human lymphocytes but there is no evidence available of a carcinogenic potential. There is evidence that hard metal particles exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in human studies, respectively. There is insufficient information for cobalt oxides and other compounds.
CONCLUSION—Although many areas of uncertainty remain, an assessment of the carcinogenicity of cobalt and its compounds requires a clear distinction between the different compounds of the element and needs to take into account the different mechanisms involved.


Keywords: cobalt; DNA breakage; inhibition of DNA repair PMID:11555681

  4. Cobalt(II) and Cobalt(III) Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment which illustrates the formation of tris(phenanthroline)cobalt complexes in the 2+ and 3+ oxidation states, the effect of coordination on reactions of the ligand, and the use of a ligand displacement reaction in recovering the transformed ligand. Uses IR, UV-VIS, conductivity, and NMR. (MVL)

  5. Alterations of histone modifications by cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Ke, Qingdong; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of CoCl2 on multiple histone modifications at the global level. We found that in both human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells, exposure to CoCl2 (≥200 μM) for 24 h increased H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, uH2A and uH2B but decreased acetylation at histone H4 (AcH4). Further investigation demonstrated that in A549 cells, the increase in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by cobalt ions exposure was probably through enhancing histone methylation processes, as methionine-deficient medium blocked the induction of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by cobalt ions, whereas cobalt ions increased H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 by directly inhibiting JMJD2A demethylase activity in vitro, which was probably due to the competition of cobalt ions with iron for binding to the active site of JMJD2A. Furthermore, in vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays revealed that the cobalt-induced histone H2A and H2B ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of deubiquitinating enzyme activity. Microarray data showed that exposed to 200 μM of CoCl2 for 24 h, A549 cells not only increased but also decreased expression of hundreds of genes involved in different cellular functions, including tumorigenesis. This study is the first to demonstrate that cobalt ions altered epigenetic homeostasis in cells. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in cobalt-induced alteration of histone modifications, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis since cobalt at higher concentrations is a known carcinogen. PMID:19376846

  6. Cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving compound.

    PubMed

    Kanan, Matthew W; Surendranath, Yogesh; Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy on a large scale requires efficient storage. Solar-to-fuels has the capacity to meet large scale storage needs as demonstrated by natural photosynthesis. This process uses sunlight to rearrange the bonds of water to furnish O2 and an H2-equivalent. We present a tutorial review of our efforts to develop an amorphous cobalt-phosphate catalyst that oxidizes water to O2. The use of earth-abundant materials, operation in water at neutral pH, and the formation of the catalyst in situ captures functional elements of the oxygen evolving complex of Photosystem II.

  7. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  8. Cobalt.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt has been a recognized allergen capable of causing contact dermatitis for decades. Why, therefore, has it been named 2016 "Allergen of the Year"? Simply put, new information has come to light in the last few years regarding potential sources of exposure to this metallic substance. In addition to reviewing some background on our previous understanding of cobalt exposures, this article will highlight the recently recognized need to consider leather as a major site of cobalt and the visual cues suggesting the presence of cobalt in jewelry. In addition, a chemical spot test for cobalt now allows us to better identify its presence in suspect materials.

  9. Cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    1993-02-01

    Cobalt is typical a by- or co-product with copper or nickel. The average crustal abundance of cobalt is 23 pans per million. Cobalt-containing minerals include cobaltite, skutterudite, and linnaeite. Due to the diversity of cobalt deposits, several techniques are used to extract the ore. The copper/cobalt-bearing ores of Zaire are extracted by open pit and underground methods. In Zambia, similar deposits are mined using modified sublevel, and cut-and-fill underground stoping methods. The sulfide and oxide ore concentrates mined in Zaire are roasted and leached in sulfuric acid. Copper is subsequently recovered by electrolysis, and cobalt is precipitated in the form of a hydrate. Finally, the hydrate is dissolved in acid and cobalt is recovered by electrolysis.

  10. Exposure to cobalt in the production of cobalt and cobalt compounds and its effect on the heart

    PubMed Central

    Linna, A; Oksa, P; Groundstroem, K; Halkosaari, M; Palmroos, P; Huikko, S; Uitti, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether exposure to cobalt in cobalt plants has any measurable effect on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Occupational, cross sectional study, using a self administered questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests in which 203 male workers with at least one year of exposure to cobalt and 94 unexposed controls participated. Echocardiography was performed on a subset of 122 most highly exposed cobalt workers, of which 109 were analysed, and on 60 controls, of which 57 were analysed. Analysis of covariance and a multiple regression analysis were used to evaluate the data. Results: Two of the echocardiography parameters measured were associated with cobalt exposure. In the higher exposure group the left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (mean 53.3, 49.1, and 49.7 ms in the high exposure, low exposure, and control groups respectively) and the deceleration time of the velocity of the early rapid filling wave (mean 194.3, 180.5, and 171.7 ms for those in the high exposure, low exposure, and control groups respectively) were prolonged, indicating altered left ventricular relaxation and early filling. Conclusion: Cumulative exposure to cobalt was found to be associated with the results of Doppler echocardiography measurements, indicating altered diastole. This finding supports the hypothesis that cobalt accumulation in the myocardium could affect myocardial function. Whether this finding has clinical implications remains to be evaluated. PMID:15477280

  11. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-03

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure.

  12. Cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, cobalt has been well-known for its chemical uses, including pigments used in ceramic glazes that create the popular cobalt blue color derived from cobalt aluminate. Because of its diverse physical properties, the element is linked to many other applications, including superalloys, permanent magnets, and chemical catalysts. Cobalt 60, a radioisotope of cobalt, continues to be a contributor to the success of high-technology advancements, including innovations in medical treatments. Typically a by-product of copper and nickel production, significant cobalt reserves are found in only a few countries. The African countries of Zaire and Zambia, as well as Canada, are leading cobalt producers. Although the USA is the world's largest consumer, accounting for about one-third of total consumption, it has no domestic production and relies solely upon foreign imports to satisfy demand. The world market has been plagued with the effects of economic and political factors throughout the years, and consequently, price instability has been common. Presently, supply and demand are moving toward a closer balance, and lower market prices are expected within the next year.

  13. Hydroformylation of olefinic compounds in the presence of a cobalt catalyst and an organic nitrile promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Virnig, M.J.

    1986-09-16

    A process for preparing a formylated olefinic fatty compound is described comprising reacting an olefinic fatty compound having at least 9 carbon atoms with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalytic amount of a soluble cobalt salt catalyst and a promoter comprised of an organic nitrile selected from the group consisting of cyano-substituted alkanes having from 2 to 44 carbon atoms and cyano-substituted alkanes having from 4 to 22 carbon atoms containing no substituent other than cyano.

  14. New investigations into the genotoxicity of cobalt compounds and their impact on overall assessment of genotoxic risk.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Brock, Tom; Haddouk, Hasnaà; Hargeaves, Victoria; Lloyd, Melvyn; Mc Garry, Sarah; Proudlock, Raymond; Sarlang, Séverine; Sewald, Katherina; Sire, Guillaume; Sokolowski, Andrea; Ziemann, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of cobalt metal and cobalt compounds has been widely studied. Several publications show induction of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei or DNA damage in mammalian cells in vitro in the absence of S9. Mixed results were seen in gene mutation studies in bacteria and mammalian cells in vitro, and in chromosomal aberration or micronucleus assays in vivo. To resolve these inconsistencies, new studies were performed with soluble and poorly soluble cobalt compounds according to OECD-recommended protocols. Induction of chromosomal damage was confirmed in vitro, but data suggest this may be due to oxidative stress. No biologically significant mutagenic responses were obtained in bacteria, Tk(+/-) or Hprt mutation tests. Negative results were also obtained for chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow and spermatogonia) and micronuclei at maximum tolerated doses in vivo. Poorly soluble cobalt compounds do not appear to be genotoxic. Soluble compounds do induce some DNA and chromosomal damage in vitro, probably due to reactive oxygen. The absence of chromosome damage in robust GLP studies in vivo suggests that effective protective processes are sufficient to prevent oxidative DNA damage in whole mammals. Overall, there is no evidence of genetic toxicity with relevance for humans of cobalt substances and cobalt metal.

  15. Synthesis and hydride transfer reactions of cobalt and nickel hydride complexes to BX3 compounds.

    PubMed

    Mock, Michael T; Potter, Robert G; O'Hagan, Molly J; Camaioni, Donald M; Dougherty, William G; Kassel, W Scott; DuBois, Daniel L

    2011-12-05

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H(2) gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe)(2) (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane)) was capable of reducing a variety of BX(3) compounds having a hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to the HA of BEt(3). This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, HCo(dmpe)(2) and [HNi(dmpe)(2)](+), to form B-H bonds. The hydride donor abilities (ΔG(H(-))°) of HCo(dmpe)(2) and [HNi(dmpe)(2)](+) were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX(3) compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX(3) compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe)(2) was observed to transfer H(-) to BX(3) compounds with X = H, OC(6)F(5), and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh)(3) is accompanied by the formation of dmpe-(BH(3))(2) and dmpe-(BH(2)(SPh))(2) products that follow from a reduction of multiple B-SPh bonds and a loss of dmpe ligands from cobalt. Reactions between HCo(dmpe)(2) and B(SPh)(3) in the presence of triethylamine result in the formation of Et(3)N-BH(2)SPh and Et(3)N-BH(3) with no loss of a dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe)(2)](+) with B(SPh)(3) under analogous conditions give Et(3)N-BH(2)SPh as the final product along with the nickel-thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe)(2)(SPh)](+). The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe)(2) (dedpe = Et(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PPh(2)) from H(2) and a base is also discussed, including the formation of an uncommon trans dihydride species, trans-[(H)(2)Co(dedpe)(2)][BF(4)].

  16. Synthesis and Hydride Transfer Reactions of Cobalt and Nickel Hydride Complexes to BX₃ Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; O'Hagan, Molly; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-10-31

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H₂ gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe)₂ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane)) was capable of reducing a variety of BX₃ compounds having a hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to the HA of BEt₃. This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, HCo(dmpe)₂ and [HNi(dmpe)₂]+, to form B–H bonds. The hydride donor abilities (ΔGH °) of HCo(dmpe)₂ and [HNi(dmpe)₂]+ were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX₃ compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX₃ compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe)₂ was observed to transfer H to BX₃ compounds with X = H, OC₆F₅, and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh)₃ is accompanied by the formation of dmpe-(BH₃)₂ and dmpe-(BH₂(SPh))₂ products that follow from a reduction of multiple B–SPh bonds and a loss of dmpe ligands from cobalt. Reactions between HCo(dmpe)₂ and B(SPh)₃ in the presence of triethylamine result in the formation of Et₃N–BH₂SPh and Et₃N–BH₃ with no loss of a dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe)₂]+ with B(SPh)₃ under analogous conditions give Et₃N–BH₂SPh as the final product along with the nickel–thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe)₂(SPh)]+. The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe)₂ (dedpe = Et₂PCH₂CH₂PPh₂) from H₂ and a base is also discussed, including the formation of an uncommon trans dihydride species, trans-[(H)₂Co(dedpe)₂][BF₄].

  17. Cobalt-Catalyzed Reductive Multicomponent Synthesis of β-Hydroxy- and β-Aminocarbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jérôme; Presset, Marc; Cantagrel, Frédéric; Le Gall, Erwan; Léonel, Eric

    2017-01-05

    The cobalt-catalyzed multicomponent reaction between sp(2) -hybridized organic halides, Michael acceptors, and unsaturated electrophiles has been developed. The reaction proceeds through a formal conjugate addition/aldol or aza-aldol (Mannich) tandem reaction initiated by the in situ metalation of the organic halide by cobalt catalysis. The essentially new reaction conditions that have been developed are very mild and atom-economic. Under these conditions, a broad range of β-hydroxy- and β-aminocarbonyl compounds are obtained in good to high yields.

  18. Synthesis and Hydride Transfer Reactions of Cobalt and Nickel Hydride Complexes to BX3 Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-12-05

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H{sub 2} gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe){sub 2}, dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane) was capable of reducing a variety of BX{sub 3} compounds having hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to HA of BEt{sub 3}. This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, (HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +}), to form B-H bonds. The hydride donor abilities ({Delta}G{sub H{sup -}}{sup o}) of HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX{sub 3} compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX{sub 3} compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe){sub 2} was observed to transfer H{sup -} to BX{sub 3} compounds with X = H, OC{sub 6}F{sub 5} and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh){sub 3} is accompanied by formation of (BH{sub 3}){sub 2}-dmpe and (BH{sub 2}SPh){sub 2}-dmpe products that follow from reduction of multiple BSPh bonds and loss of a dmpe ligand from Co. Reactions between HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and B(SPh){sub 3} in the presence of triethylamine result in formation of Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh and Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3} with no loss of dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} with B(SPh){sub 3} under analogous conditions give Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh as the final product along with the nickel-thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe){sub 2}(SPh)]{sup +}. The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe){sub 2} (dedpe = diethyldiphenyl(phosphino)ethane) from H{sub 2} and a base is also discussed; including the formation of an uncommon trans

  19. Solution for Depositing an Electroless Cobalt Alloy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOLUTIONS(MIXTURES), *ELECTROLESS PLATING), (*PATENTS, ELECTROLESS PLATING), (*COBALT ALLOYS, ELECTROLESS PLATING), ADDITIVES, SODIUM COMPOUNDS... TUNGSTATES , POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL COMPOUNDS, SULFATES, THIOUREA, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

  20. Molecular and thin film properties of cobalt half-sandwich compounds for optoelectronic application.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Maxwell; Dalgleish, Simon; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Reissig, Louisa; Matsushita, Michio M; Crain, Jason; Awaga, Kunio; Robertson, Neil

    2017-03-01

    The structure and electronic properties of a novel cobalt half sandwich complex of cyclopentadiene (Cp) and diaminonaphthalene (DAnap) [CpCo(DAnap)] are described and compared to the previously reported diaminobenzene derivative [CpCo(DAbnz)] in view of their potential for (opto)electronic device application. Both complexes show stable redox processes, tunable through the diaminoacene ligand, and show strong absorption in the visible region, with additional transitions stretching into the near infrared (NIR). CpCo(DAnap) crystallises with a particularly large unit cell (9301 Å(3)), comprising 32 molecules, with a gradual rotation over 8 molecules along the long c-axis. In the solid state the balance of the optical transitions in both complexes is reversed, with a suppression of the visible band and an enhancement of the NIR band, attributed to extensive intermolecular electronic interaction. In the case of CpCo(DAnap), highly crystalline thin films could be formed under physical vapor deposition, which show a photocurrent response stretching into the NIR, and p-type semiconductor behavior in field effect transistors with mobility values of the order 1 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The device performance is understood through investigation of the morphology of the grown films.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Some Gadolinium, Erbium, Dysprosium, Manganese Substituted Samarium-2 Cobalt-17 Intermetallic Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    that excellent temperature compensation could be achieved in these compounds in the teinper~ture (cont’d) ~‘ DD I ? ) 1Q3 L°’TI°M °’ INOV BI...following prop— erties: energy products in excess of 30 MGOe, low reversible tem- perature coefficients of magnetization , c~, and linear demagnetiza...Sm2(Co,Fe) i7 compounds significantly enhances their coercivities and energy products. Thus, we have been investigating the magnetic properties of these

  2. Combined use of HPLC-ICP-MS and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of cobalt compounds in nutritive supplements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2014-03-15

    Speciation analysis of cobalt in nutritive supplements has been carried out using HPLC and ICP-MS equipped with a membrane desolvation sample introduction system as detector. In this study, cobalt containing compounds, namely Co(II), cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) and hydroxylcobalamin (OH-Cbl), were well separated by reversed phase HPLC with a C8-HPLC column as the stationary phase and 8 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate in 22%v/v methanol solution (pH 4) as the mobile phase using isocratic elution. Detection limit was in the range of 0.008-0.014 μg CoL(-1) for various Co species. Over 98% of the total cobalt species was extracted in nutritive supplements using a 0.5%v/v HNO3 solution in a microwave field; and the spike recovery was in the range of 92-108% for various species. The HPLC-ICP-MS results showed a satisfactory agreement with the total cobalt concentrations obtained by ICP-MS analysis of completely dissolved samples.

  3. Magnetization, Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy and Magnetostriction in Some Rare-Earth-Cobalt Compounds, R2 C017.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    AlP Conference Proceedings, 18, 1212—1216, (1973). 0 _~ £ i 16. Steven K.W .H., Matrix Elements and Operator Equiva—t O 0.9 0.0 07 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2...constant K2 and the meg— the rare earth i~n in compounds with transition metals netostriction Constant ÀY of single crystals of and in pure elements ...of the Tb3 ~~o1, and Ho;Co27 are both easy basal plane and R;Co1, compound is positive whereas the contribution Er;Co17 is easy C axis. The field

  4. Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, F; Miyamoto, E; Nakano, Y

    2001-11-01

    Spirulina platensis NIES-39 was grown under open culture system in the presence or absence of CoSO(4) (12 microg/L) and/or vitamin B(12) (10 microg/L) to confirm whether CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) stimulate or are essential for growth of the algal cells and for accumulation of vitamin B(12). The addition of CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) could not affect both cell growth and cell yield of the alga. The amount of corrinoid-compound was increased significantly by the addition of CoSO(4) but not by vitamin B(12). A C18 reversed-phase HPLC pattern of the Spirulina corrinoid-compound increased by the addition of CoSO(4) was identical to that of authentic pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive for human. These results indicate that the algal cells grown in the absence of CoSO(4) are suitable for use of human health foods because the inactive corrinoid-compound can be reduced significantly.

  5. Cytotoxic activity, X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic characterization of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds with 2-substituted benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guadarrama, Obdulia; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Höpfl, Herbert; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2009-09-01

    Herein we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with 2-methylbenzimidazole (2mbz), 2-phenylbenzimidazole (2phbz), 2-chlorobenzimidazole (2cbz), 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (2cmbz) and 2-guanidinobenzimidazole (2gbz). Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated using human cancer cell lines, PC3 (prostate), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-15 (colon), HeLa (cervic-uterine), SKLU-1 (lung) and U373 (glioblastoma), showing that the zinc(II) and copper(II) compounds [Zn(2mbz)(2)Cl(2)].0.5H(2)O, [Zn(2cmbz)(2)Cl(2)].EtOH, [Cu(2cmbz)Br(2)].0.7H(2)O and [Cu(2gbz)Br(2)] had significant cytotoxic activity. The isostructural cobalt(II) complexes showed not significant activity. The cytotoxic activity is related to the presence of halides in the coordination sphere of the metal ion. Recuperation experiments with HeLa cells, showed that the cells recuperated after removing the copper(II) compounds and, on the contrary, the cells treated with the zinc(II) compounds did not. These results indicate that the mode of action of the coordination compounds is different.

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, Isacco; Scavetta, Erika; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica

    2011-03-15

    In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(III)/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that Co(IV) centers act as the oxidant. The CV investigation demonstrates that the process is controlled both by mass and charge transfer and that the Co(IV) centers involved in the oxidation are two for each SA molecule. The estimated value of the catalytic constant is 4×10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The determination of salicylic acid was performed both by DPV and chronoamperometry. The linearity ranges and the LOD values resulted 1×10(-5) to 5×10(-4), 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-4), 6×10(-6) and 2×10(-7) M, respectively. The Co/Al HTLC electrode has been used for SA determination in BAYER Aspirina® and the obtained results are consistent with an independent HPLC analysis.

  7. Rates of water exchange for two cobalt(II) heteropoly-oxotungstate compounds in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlin, C. Andre; Harley, Stephen J.; McAlpin, J. Gregory; Hocking, Rosalie K.; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Johnson, Rene L.; Villa, Eric M.; Fidler, Mary Kate; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Spiccia, Leone; Britt, R. David; Casey, William H.

    2011-03-17

    Polyoxometalate ions are used as ligands in water-oxidation processes related to solar energy production. An important step in these reactions is the association and dissociation of water from the catalytic sites, the rates of which are unknown. Here we report the exchange rates of water ligated to CoII atoms in two polyoxotungstate sandwich molecules using the 17O-NMR-based Swift–Connick method. The compounds were the [Co4(H2O)2(B-α-W9O34)2]-10 and the larger αββα-[Co4(H2O)2(P2W15O56)2]-16 ions, each with two water molecules bound trans to one another in a CoII sandwich between the tungstate ligands. The clusters, in both solid and solution state, were characterized by a range of methods, including NMR, EPR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and EXAFS spectroscopy, ESI-MS, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and potentiometry. For [Co4(H2O)2(B-α-PW9O34)2]-10 at pH 5.4, we estimate: k 298=1.5(5)±0.3×106 s-1, ΔH=39.8±0.4 kJ mol-1, ΔS=+7.1±1.2 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔV=5.6 ±1.6 cm3 mol-1. For the Wells–Dawson sandwich cluster (αββα-[Co4(H2O)2(P2W15O56)2]-16) at pH 5.54, we find: k298=1.6(2)±0.3×106 s-1, ΔH=27.6±0.4 kJ mol-1 ΔS=-33±1.3 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔV=2.2±1.4 cm3mol-1 at pH 5.2. The molecules are clearly stable and monospecific in slightly acidic solutions, but dissociate in strongly acidic solutions. This dissociation is detectable by EPR

  8. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Zheng, Tongzhang; Pierce Wise, John

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt is a toxic metal used in various industrial applications leading to adverse lung effects by inhalation. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells, especially normal lung epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in normal primary human lung epithelial cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble and particulate cobalt induced similar cytotoxicity while soluble cobalt was more genotoxic than particulate cobalt. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung epithelial cells.

  9. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity.

  10. Two new hybrid compounds assembled from Keggin phosphotungstates, cobalt/zinc cations and V-shaped imidazole ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Kun; Ma, Huiyuan; Pang, Haijun; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Zhuanfang; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid compounds, [Co(H2O)2(bimb)2]2[PWVWVI11O40] (1) and [Zn3(H2O)4(bimb)4][PWV3WVI9O40] (2) (bimb = 1,3-bis(1-imidazoly)benzene) have been obtained and characterized by routine methods. Compounds 1 and 2 are synthesized under the same hydrothermal conditions except for alternation of the metal cations, however, their eventual structures are different. Compound 1 exhibits a 1D chain, whereas 2 shows a complicated 3D framework. The distinct structural features of the two compounds indicate that metal cations should have great effects on the structures of POM-based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. The electrochemical properties of 1 and 2 have been also investigated, and the results show that 1 has a good electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) molecules ascribed to W-centers.

  11. Cobalt poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wear and tear of some cobalt/chromium metal-on-metal hip implants. This type of implant is an ... hip socket that is created by fitting a metal ball into a metal cup. Sometimes, metal particles ( ...

  12. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L.; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  13. Characteristics of polyaniline cobalt supported catalysts for epoxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established.

  14. Characteristics of Polyaniline Cobalt Supported Catalysts for Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established. PMID:24701183

  15. Cobalt superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, P.

    1983-11-15

    Disclosed is a cobalt-base superalloy containing about 32% cobalt, 8% nickel, 26.5% chromium, 2.5% tungsten, 5% niobium, about 1% each manganese and silicon, about 0.4% carbon, and the balance about 23% iron plus incidental impurities and modifiers normally found in alloys of this class. The alloy is readily processed in the form of wrought products, castings, metal powder and all forms of welding and hardfacing materials. The outstanding characteristics of the new alloy include the resistance to cavitation erosion and galling, low cost and minimal use of strategic metals.

  16. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment.

  17. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  18. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, P.G.; Xiang, X.; Goldwasser, I.

    1998-07-07

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties. 58 figs.

  19. The Study of a Cobalt Complex--A Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehlin, James H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an 8-week project involving the synthesis of cobalt compounds. Once synthesized, compounds are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Background information, laboratory procedures, and results/discussion are provided for three project experiments. (Author/JN)

  20. Advances in cobalt complexes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Catherine R; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan

    2015-08-21

    The evolution of resistance to traditional platinum-based anticancer drugs has compelled researchers to investigate the cytostatic properties of alternative transition metal-based compounds. The anticancer potential of cobalt complexes has been extensively studied over the last three decades, and much time has been devoted to understanding their mechanisms of action. This perspective catalogues the development of antiproliferative cobalt complexes, and provides an in depth analysis of their mode of action. Early studies on simple cobalt coordination complexes, Schiff base complexes, and cobalt-carbonyl clusters will be documented. The physiologically relevant redox properties of cobalt will be highlighted and the role this plays in the preparation of hypoxia selective prodrugs and imaging agents will be discussed. The use of cobalt-containing cobalamin as a cancer specific delivery agent for cytotoxins will also be described. The work summarised in this perspective shows that the biochemical and biophysical properties of cobalt-containing compounds can be fine-tuned to produce new generations of anticancer agents with clinically relevant efficacies.

  1. 2,6-Bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II): synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray study and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bulit, Pablo; Garza-Ortíz, Ariadna; Mijangos, Edgar; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Contreras, Rosalinda; Reedijk, Jan; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) and the ligand 2,6-bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (L) were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray diffraction for two representative cases. These novel compounds were designed to study their activity as anti-proliferative drugs against different human cancer cell lines. The tridentate ligand forms heptacoordinated compounds from nitrate metallic salts, where the nitrate acts in a chelating form to complete the seven coordination positions. In vitro cell growth inhibition was measured for Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, as well as for the free ligand. Upon coordination, the IC50 value of the transition-metal compounds is improved compared to the free ligand. The copper(II) and zinc(II) compounds are the most promising candidates for further in vitro and in vivo studies. The activity against colon and prostate cell lines merits further research, in views of the limited therapeutic options for such cancer types.

  2. The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Particulate and Soluble Cobalt in Human Urothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Speer, Rachel M; The, Therry; Xie, Hong; Liou, Louis; Adam, Rosalyn M; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-03-21

    Cobalt use is increasing particularly due to its use as one of the primary metals in cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) metal-on-metal prosthetics. CoCrMo is a high-strength, wear-resistant alloy with reduced risk for prosthetic loosening and device fracture. More than 500,000 people receive hip implants each year in the USA which puts them at potential risk for exposure to metal ions and particles released by the prosthetic implants. Data show cobalt ions released from prosthetics reach the bloodstream and accumulate in the bladder. As patients with failed hip implants show increased urinary and blood cobalt levels, no studies have considered the effects of cobalt on human urothelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate and soluble cobalt in urothelial cells. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ions. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found, when compared to particulate cobalt, soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic, but induced similar levels of genotoxicity. Interestingly, at similar intracellular cobalt ion concentrations, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by a lack of metaphases not observed after particulate cobalt treatment. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human urothelial cells and solubility may play a key role in cobalt-induced toxicity.

  3. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  4. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  5. Metal-Based Biologically Active Compounds: Synthesis, Spectral, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes of Triazole-Derived Schiff Bases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kiran; Kumar, Yogender; Puri, Parvesh; Sharma, Chetan; Aneja, Kamal Rai

    2011-01-01

    A series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/ethyl-1,2,4-triazole with 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, magnetic moment measurements, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was supported by infrared and thermal gravimetric studies. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis) and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus). The metal complexes exhibited significantly enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activity as compared to their simple Schiff bases. PMID:22216017

  6. Structure Evolution and Multiferroic Properties in Cobalt Doped Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ Intergrowth Aurivillius Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. L.; Huang, W. C.; Chen, Z. W.; Zhao, W. B.; Feng, L.; Li, M.; Yin, Y. W.; Dong, S. N.; Li, X. G.

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the structure evolution, magnetic and ferroelectric properties in Co-doped 4- and 3-layered intergrowth Aurivillius compounds Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ. The compounds suffer a structure evolution from the parent 4-layered phase (Bi4NdTi3FeO15) to 3-layered phase (Bi3NdTi2CoO12-δ) with increasing cobalt doping level from 0 to 1. Meanwhile the remanent magnetization and polarization show opposite variation tendencies against the doping level, and the sample with x = 0.3 has the largest remanent magnetization and the smallest polarization. It is believed that the Co concentration dependent magnetic properties are related to the population of the Fe3+ -O-Co3+ bonds, while the suppressed ferroelectric polarization is due to the enhanced leakage current caused by the increasing Co concentration. Furthermore, the samples (x = 0.1–0.7) with ferromagnetism show magnetoelectric coupling effects at room temperature. The results indicate that it is an effective method to create new multiferroic materials through modifying natural superlattices.

  7. Structure Evolution and Multiferroic Properties in Cobalt Doped Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ Intergrowth Aurivillius Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D. L.; Huang, W. C.; Chen, Z. W.; Zhao, W. B.; Feng, L.; Li, M.; Yin, Y. W.; Dong, S. N.; Li, X. G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the structure evolution, magnetic and ferroelectric properties in Co-doped 4- and 3-layered intergrowth Aurivillius compounds Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ. The compounds suffer a structure evolution from the parent 4-layered phase (Bi4NdTi3FeO15) to 3-layered phase (Bi3NdTi2CoO12-δ) with increasing cobalt doping level from 0 to 1. Meanwhile the remanent magnetization and polarization show opposite variation tendencies against the doping level, and the sample with x = 0.3 has the largest remanent magnetization and the smallest polarization. It is believed that the Co concentration dependent magnetic properties are related to the population of the Fe3+ -O-Co3+ bonds, while the suppressed ferroelectric polarization is due to the enhanced leakage current caused by the increasing Co concentration. Furthermore, the samples (x = 0.1–0.7) with ferromagnetism show magnetoelectric coupling effects at room temperature. The results indicate that it is an effective method to create new multiferroic materials through modifying natural superlattices. PMID:28272495

  8. Nickel-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: efficient catalysts for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds and photo-oxidative degradation of toxic dyes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjit; Goyal, Ankita; Singhal, Sonal

    2014-07-21

    This study deals with the exploration of NixCo₁-xFe₂O₄ (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) ferrite nanoparticles as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B. The ferrite samples with uniform size distribution were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique. The structural investigation was performed using powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy. The spherical particles with ordered cubic spinel structure were found to have the crystallite size of 4-6 nm. Diffused UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the optical properties of the synthesized ferrite nanoparticles. The surface area calculated using BET method was found to be highest for Co₀.₄Ni₀.₆Fe₂O₄ (154.02 m(2) g(-1)). Co₀.₄Ni₀.₆Fe₂O₄ showed the best catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as reducing agent, whereas CoFe₂O₄ was found to be catalytically inactive. The reduction reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The effect of varying the concentration of catalyst and NaBH₄ on the reaction rates was also scrutinized. The photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B, enhanced oxidation efficacy was observed with the introduction of Ni(2+) in to the cobalt ferrite lattice due to octahedral site preference of Ni(2+). Almost 99% degradation was achieved in 20 min using NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles as catalyst.

  9. Marine cobalt resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    Ferromanganese oxides in the open oceans are more enriched in cobalt than any other widely distributed sediments or rocks. Concentrations of cobalt exceed 1 percent in ferromanganese crusts on seamounts, ocean ridges, and other raised areas of the ocean. The cobalt-rich crusts may be the slowest growing of any earth material, accumulating one molecular layer every 1 to 3 months. Attention has been drawn to crusts as potential resources because they contain cobalt, manganese, and platinum, three of the four priority strategic metals for the United States. Moreover, unlike abyssal nodules, whose recovery is complicated by their dominant location in international waters, some of the most cobalt-rich crusts occur within the exclusive economic zone of the United States and other nations. Environmental impact statements for crust exploitation are under current development by the Department of the Interior.

  10. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  11. The azide-bridged mixed-valent cobalt(II,III) compound [(CH(3))(3)NH](2)[CoCo(2)(N(3))(10)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Li, Yu-Xian; Xu, Min; Wang, Xia

    2010-12-04

    The crystal structure of the title compound, poly[bis-(tri-methyl-ammonium) hexa-μ(1,1)-azido-tetra-azido-tricobalt-ate(II,III)], [(CH(3))(3)NH](2)[Co(II)Co(III) (2)(N(3))(10)], consists of anionic chains [Co(II)Co(III) (2)(N(3))(10)](2-) extending parallel to the c axis and [(CH(3))(3)NH](+) counter-cations situated between the chains. In the anionic chain, one tetra-hedrally coordinated Co(II) atom (site symmetry 2) and two octa-hedrally coordinated Co(III) atoms are arranged alternately and are linked by μ(1,1)-azide bridges. The anionic chains and cations are connected via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonding into a three-dimensional structure.

  12. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  13. Mercury-based cobalt magnetic fluids and cobalt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massart, R.; Rasolonjatovo, B.; Neveu, S.; Cabuil, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a magnetic and conducting liquid consisting of cobalt nanoparticles dispersed in mercury. The magnetic nanoparticles are obtained in one step by the electroreduction of a cobalt(II) solution on mercury. These particles are then extracted using an organic solution of surfactant in order to obtain a ferrofluid based on cobalt nanoparticles.

  14. Catalysis: Cobalt gets in shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Solid cobalt-based catalysts are used commercially to convert carbon monoxide and hydrogen into synthetic fuels. It emerges that much more valuable chemicals can be produced by using a different form of cobalt catalyst. See Letter p.84

  15. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AGING(MATERIALS), AGING(MATERIALS), INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, VANADIUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, TEMPERATURE, TIME ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, HARDNESS, TRANSFORMATIONS, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, MEASUREMENT, MICROSCOPY, ALLOYS, METALLOGRAPHY, X RAY DIFFRACTION.

  16. Cobalt(II) complexes with hydroxypyridines and halogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojer, Brina; Pevec, Andrej; Jagličić, Zvonko; Kristl, Matjaž

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized two new cobalt(II) complexes: difluoridotetrakis(3-hydroxypyridine-κN)cobalt(II), [CoF2(C5H5NO)4] (1) and hexa(2-pyridone-κO)cobalt(II) tetrachloridocobaltate(II), [Co(C5H5NO)6][CoCl4] (2). The complexes were prepared by solvothermal synthesis. A methanol solution of hydroxypyridine was added to water solution of cobalt(II) acetate dihydrate followed by a few drops of concentrated hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid into the mixture. The crystals of the compounds 1 and 2 are stable on air. The compounds were characterized structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, spectrally by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermally. Thermal analysis showed that the final product of both complexes after heating to 900 °C is elemental cobalt. The interactions between building units in the crystal structures include intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in both compounds and π-π interactions in compound 2.

  17. Determination of traces of cobalt in soils: A field method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almond, H.

    1953-01-01

    The growing use of geochemical prospecting methods in the search for ore deposits has led to the development of a field method for the determination of cobalt in soils. The determination is based on the fact that cobalt reacts with 2-nitroso-1-naphthol to yield a pink compound that is soluble in carbon tetrachloride. The carbon tetrachloride extract is shaken with dilute cyanide to complex interfering elements and to remove excess reagent. The cobalt content is estimated by comparing the pink color in the carbon tetrachloride with a standard series prepared from standard solutions. The cobalt 2-nitroso-1-naphtholate system in carbon tetrachloride follows Beer's law. As little as 1 p.p.m. can be determined in a 0.1-gram sample. The method is simple and fast and requires only simple equipment. More than 40 samples can be analyzed per man-day with an accuracy within 30% or better.

  18. Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A

    1966-07-01

    The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper.

  19. Cyanidotetra-kis-(trimethyl-phosphine)cobalt(I).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-01

    The title compound, [Co(CN)(C(3)H(9)P)(4)], was obtained as a product of the reaction of [Co(PMe(3))(4)] with a molar equivalent of 2,6-difluoro-benzonitrile in diethyl ether. This compound is stable in the air for several hours, but rapidly decomposes at room temperature in solution. The cobalt(I) atom has s trigonal-bipyramidal coordination enviroment in which the cyano group and one of the PMe(3) groups are in the axial positions.

  20. Cobalt toxicity: chemical and radiological combined effects on HaCaT keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Gault, N; Sandre, C; Poncy, J-L; Moulin, C; Lefaix, J-L; Bresson, C

    2010-02-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element well known as a constituent of vitamin B(12), but different compounds of Co are also described as highly toxic and/or radiotoxic for individuals or the environment. In nuclear power plants, (58)Co and (60)Co are radioactive isotopes of cobalt present as activation products of stable Co and Ni used in alloys. Skin exposure is a current occupational risk in the hard metal and nuclear industries. As biochemical and molecular cobalt-induced toxicological mechanisms are not fully identified, we investigated cobalt toxicity in a model human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. In this study, we propose a model to determine the in vitro chemical impact on cell viability of a soluble form of cobalt (CoCl(2)) with or without gamma-ray doses to mimic contamination by (60)Co, to elucidate the mechanisms of cobalt intracellular chemical and radiological toxicity. Intracellular cobalt concentration was determined after HaCaT cell contamination and chemical toxicity was evaluated in terms of cellular viability and clonogenic survival. We investigated damage to DNA in HaCaT cells by combined treatment with chemical cobalt and a moderate gamma-ray dose. Additive effects of cobalt and irradiation were demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of cobalt toxicity is not clearly established, but our results seem to indicate that the toxicity of Co(II) and of irradiation arises from production of reactive oxygen species.

  1. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  2. Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide

    DOEpatents

    Hurlburt, P.K.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-05-20

    A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10{prime} positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron. 1 fig.

  3. Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide

    DOEpatents

    Hurlburt, Paul K.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10' positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron.

  4. OMCVD of cobalt and cobalt silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormans, G. J. M.; Meekes, G. J. B. M.; Staring, E. G. J.

    1991-11-01

    Cobalt and cobalt silicide layers were deposited by OMCVD using the Co precursors Co(C 5H 5) 2, Co 2(CO) 8, Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 and CoCF 3(CO) 4, and the Si precursors SiH 4 and Si 2H 6. Strongly textured (111)-β Co layers were grown from Co(C 5H 5) 2, Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 and CoCF 3(CO) 4 at temperatures above 300°C in H 2 at atmospheric pressure. Growth from Co(C 5H 5) 2 is inhibited on Si substrates. For temperatures ≥600°C the Co layers deposited from Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 react with the Si(100) substrate to form CoSi 2(00 l) aligned with the substrate orientation. Co 2(CO) 8 gives amorphous Co between 200 and 300°C. The upper temperature is set by the occurrence of homogeneous gas-phase reactions at atmospheric reactor pressure. Cobalt silicide layers can be grown from CO 2(CO) 8 and (di)silane at temperatures between 200 and 400°C. The Co/Si ratio in the layers decreases with increasing temperature and is independent of the gas-phase Co/Si ratio. Stoichiometric CoSi 2 is obtained at ~ 300°C. Both Co(C 5H 5) 2 and Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 react with (di)silane, leading to the incorporation of carbon in the layer. The Co/Si ration and the carbon content in the layers are practically independent of the deposition conditions. With CoCF 3(CO) 4 no contamination-free silicide could be grown. The carbon incorporation with Co(C 5H 5) 2 and Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 can be avoided by a pulsed growth method in which the Co precursor and the Si precursor are introduced alternately into the reactor. With Co(C 5H 5) 2 the growth is then inhibited on Si substrates.

  5. Cobalt sorption in silica-pillared clays.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, A; Fetter, G; Bosch, P; Bulbulian, S

    2006-01-03

    Silicon pillared samples were prepared following conventional and microwave irradiation methods. The samples were characterized and tested in cobalt sorption. Ethylenediammine was added before cobalt addition to improve the amount of cobalt retained. The amount of cobalt introduced in the original clay in the presence of ethylenediammine was the highest. In calcined pillared clays the cobalt retention with ethylenediammine was lower (ca. 40%). In all cases the presence of ethylenediammine increased twice the amount of cobalt sorption measured for aqueous solutions.

  6. Cobalt ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Varying concentrations of an organometallic cobalt complex were added to an epoxy system currently used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin. Methods for combining cobalt (III) acetylacetonate with a tetraglycidyl 4,4 prime - diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy were investigated. The effects of increasing cobalt ion concentration on the epoxy cure were demonstrated by epoxy gel times and differential scanning calorimetry cure exotherms. Analysis on cured cobalt-containing epoxy castings included determination of glass transition temperatures by thermomechanical analysis, thermooxidative stabilities by thermogravimetric analysis, and densities in a density gradient column. Flexural strength and stiffness were also measured on the neat resin castings.

  7. Cobalt chloride speciation, mechanisms of cytotoxicity on human pulmonary cells, and synergistic toxicity with zinc.

    PubMed

    Bresson, Carole; Darolles, Carine; Carmona, Asuncion; Gautier, Céline; Sage, Nicole; Roudeau, Stéphane; Ortega, Richard; Ansoborlo, Eric; Malard, Véronique

    2013-02-01

    Cobalt is used in numerous industrial sectors, leading to occupational diseases, particularly by inhalation. Cobalt-associated mechanisms of toxicity are far from being understood and information that could improve knowledge in this area is required. We investigated the impact of a soluble cobalt compound, CoCl(2)·6H(2)O, on the BEAS-2B lung epithelial cell line, as well as its impact on metal homeostasis. Cobalt speciation in different culture media, in particular soluble and precipitated cobalt species, was investigated via theoretical and analytical approaches. The cytotoxic effects of cobalt on the cells were assessed. Upon exposure of BEAS-2B cells to cobalt, intracellular accumulation of cobalt and zinc was demonstrated using direct in situ microchemical analysis based on ion micro-beam techniques and analysis after cell lysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Microchemical imaging revealed that cobalt was rather homogeneously distributed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm whereas zinc was more abundant in the nucleus. The modulation of zinc homeostasis led to the evaluation of the effect of combined cobalt and zinc exposure. In this case, a clear synergistic increase in toxicity was observed as well as a substantial increase in zinc content within cells. Western blots performed under the same coexposure conditions revealed a decrease in ZnT1 expression, suggesting that cobalt could inhibit zinc release through the modulation of ZnT1. Overall, this study highlights the potential hazard to lung function, of combined exposure to cobalt and zinc.

  8. Synthesis of lithium cobaltate in halide melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modenov, D. V.; Dokutovich, V. N.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Antonov, B. D.; Kochedykov, V. A.; Zakir'yanova, I. D.

    2013-02-01

    A new method for the synthesis of lithium cobaltate LiCoo2 in salt melts is proposed and tested. The method is based on the oxidation of halide ions with molecular oxygen in Li X-CoCl2 mixtures ( X = Cl, Br, I). The chemical and phase compositions of the prepared powders and the crystal structure of the synthesized compound are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The average size of LiCoO2 crystallites is estimated from the X-ray diffraction data.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of α-cobalt hydroxide nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Zhu, J. L.; Chen, L.; An, B.; Liu, Q. Q.; Huang, K. L.

    2011-08-01

    α-Cobalt hydroxide was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process from Co(Ac)2 and NH3·H2O in the presence of 1,3-propanediol. The large-scale-prepared cobalt hydroxide has a uniform nanobelt morphology with a considerably high aspect-ratio more than 20 which may be advantageous for exploration of their physicochemical properties. This synthetic method is convenient, economical, and controllable. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, CHN element analysis, thermogravimetric and differential-thermogravimetric analysis, which revealed the compound is lamellar structural cobalt organic-inorganic hybrid with the chemical formula of Co(OH)1.49(NH3)0.01(CO3 2-)0.22(Ac-)0.07(H2O)0.11 and single-crystalline.

  10. Energetic co-ordination compounds: synthesis, characterization and thermolysis studies on bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(III) perchlorate (BNCP) and its new transition metal (Ni/Cu/Zn) perchlorate analogues.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Agrawal, A P; Asthana, S N

    2005-04-11

    Bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine[cobalt(III)/nickel(III)] perchlorates (BNCP/BNNP) and mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine [copper(II)/zinc(II)] perchlorates (MNCuP/MNZnP) have been synthesized during this work. The synthesis was carried out by addition of carbonato tetraammine metal [Co/Ni/Cu/Zn] nitrate [CTCN/CTNN/CTCuN/CTZnN] to the aqueous solution of sodium salt of 5-nitrotetrazole followed by reaction with perchloric acid. The precursors were synthesized by the reaction of aqueous solution of their respective nitrates with ammonium carbonate at 70 degrees C. The complexes and their precursors were characterized by determining metal and perchlorate content as well as infrared (IR), electron spectra for chemical analysis (ESCA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The TG profiles indicated that BNCP, BNNP and MNCuP are thermally stable up to the temperature of 260-278 degrees C unlike MNZnP (150 degrees C). Sudden exothermic decomposition was observed in case of bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(III) perchlorate, bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine nickel(III) perchlorate and mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine zinc(II) perchlorate resulting in the severe damage of the sample cup. Sensitivity data indicated that the Co/Ni/Cu complexes are more friction sensitive (3-4.8 kg) than mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine zinc(II) perchlorate (14 kg). The impact sensitivity results of the complexes corresponded to h50% of 30-36 cm.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrochemistry of sigma-Bonded Cobalt Corroles in High Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Will, Stefan; Lex, Johann; Vogel, Emanuel; Adamian, Victor A.; Van Caemelbecke, Eric; Kadish, Karl M.

    1996-09-11

    The synthesis, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and structural characterization of two high-valent phenyl sigma-bonded cobalt corroles containing a central cobalt ion in formal +IV and +V oxidation states is presented. The characterized compounds are represented as phenyl sigma-bonded cobalt corroles, (OEC)Co(C(6)H(5)) and [(OEC)Co(C(6)H(5))]ClO(4), where OEC is the trianion of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylcorrole. The electronic distribution in both molecules is discussed in terms of their NMR and EPR spectroscopic data, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry.

  12. Splitting water with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Artero, Vincent; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Fontecave, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The future of energy supply depends on innovative breakthroughs regarding the design of cheap, sustainable, and efficient systems for the conversion and storage of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. The production of hydrogen, a fuel with remarkable properties, through sunlight-driven water splitting appears to be a promising and appealing solution. While the active sites of enzymes involved in the overall water-splitting process in natural systems, namely hydrogenases and photosystem II, use iron, nickel, and manganese ions, cobalt has emerged in the past five years as the most versatile non-noble metal for the development of synthetic H(2)- and O(2)-evolving catalysts. Such catalysts can be further coupled with photosensitizers to generate photocatalytic systems for light-induced hydrogen evolution from water.

  13. Cobalt: for strength and color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  14. Carbene radicals in cobalt(II)-porphyrin-catalysed carbene carbonylation reactions; a catalytic approach to ketenes.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nanda D; Chirila, Andrei; Lu, Hongjian; Zhang, X Peter; de Bruin, Bas

    2013-09-23

    One-pot radicals: Cobalt(III)-carbene radicals, generated by metallo-radical activation of diazo compounds and N-tosylhydrazone sodium salts with cobalt(II) complexes of porphyrins, readily undergo radical addition to carbon monoxide, allowing the catalytic production of ketenes. These ketenes subsequently react with various amines, alcohols and imines in one-pot tandem transformations to produce differently substituted amides, esters and β-lactams in good isolated yields.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of cobalt following a single intravenous administration to horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Mitchell, M M; Holser, I; Poppenga, R; Smith, L L; Helm, M N; Sams, R A; Gaskill, C L

    2015-07-01

    Cobalt has been used by human athletes due to its purported performance-enhancing effects. It has been suggested that cobalt administration results in enhanced erythropoiesis, secondary to increased circulating erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations leading to improvements in athletic performance. Anecdotal reports of illicit administration of cobalt to horses for its suspected performance enhancing effects have led us to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of this compound when administered in horses, so as to better regulate its use. In the current study, 18 horses were administered a single intravenous dose of cobalt chloride or cobalt gluconate and serum and urine samples collected for up to 10 days post administration. Cobalt concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pharmacokinetic parameters determined. Additional blood samples were collected for measurement of equine EPO concentrations as well as to assess any effects on red blood cell parameters. Horses were observed for adverse effects and heart rate monitored for the first 4 h post administration. Cobalt was characterized by a large volume of distribution (0.939 L/kg) and a prolonged gamma half-life (156.4 h). Cobalt serum concentrations were still above baseline values at 10 days post administration. A single administration of cobalt had no effect on EPO concentrations, red blood cell parameters or heart rate in any of the horses studied and no adverse effects were noted. Based on the prolonged gamma half-life and prolonged residence time, regulators should be able to detect administration of a single dose of cobalt to horses.

  16. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  17. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Pignon, Antoine; Le Gall, Erwan; Martens, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed.

  18. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Pignon, Antoine; Martens, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of (diarylmethyl)sulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed. PMID:24605162

  19. Structural features of macrocyclic cobalt complexes - catalysts of chain transfer to a monomer in radical polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Gridnev, A.A.; Lampeka, Ya.D.; Smirnov, B.R.; Yatsimirskii, K.B.

    1987-11-01

    Data are given on the catalytic activity of a series of cobalt coordination compounds with macrocyclic and acyclic ligsnds of different structures in radical polymerization reactions of methacrylic monomers. The influence of various factors (especially the structure of the ligand) on the manifestation of catalytic properties of the compounds studied is discussed.

  20. Electronic structure of icosahedral cobalt-sulfur clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.G.; Bashkin, J.K.; Karplus, M. )

    1990-11-21

    This paper uses the multiple scattering (MS)-X{alpha} method to calculate the electronic structure of several clusters that contain an octahedral Co{sub 8}S{sub 6} core. Two of the cluster are analogous to compounds that have been previously synthesized, and the results of these calculations are consistent with the experimentally observed spin states, absorption spectra, and structural similarity of these compounds. These clusters are of particular interest because they are related to the component structures of the mineral cobalt pentlandite. To obtain information that can be extended to cobalt pentlandite, the effects of oxidation state and added ligands to the core structure of the clusters are studied. An extended Hueckel theory (EHT) study of similar clusters has been performed by Burdett and Miller. The spectra from the two types of calculations correspond in general and the central conclusions of Burdett and Miller are supported by the MS-X{alpha} results.

  1. Stereoselective Alkane Oxidation with meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid (MCPBA) Catalyzed by Organometallic Cobalt Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B; Loginov, Dmitriy A; Shul'pina, Lidia S; Ikonnikov, Nikolay S; Idrisov, Vladislav O; Vinogradov, Mikhail M; Osipov, Sergey N; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Tyubaeva, Polina M

    2016-11-22

    Cobalt pi-complexes, previously described in the literature and specially synthesized and characterized in this work, were used as catalysts in homogeneous oxidation of organic compounds with peroxides. These complexes contain pi-butadienyl and pi-cyclopentadienyl ligands: [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(benzene)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(C₆H₆)]PF₆ (1); diiodo(carbonyl)(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt, Cp*Co(CO)I₂ (2); diiodo(carbonyl)(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, CpCo(CO)I₂ (3); (tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(dicarbonyl)(iodo)cobalt, (C₄Me₄)Co(CO)₂I (4); [(tetramethylcyclobutadiene)(acetonitrile)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [(C₄Me₄)Co(bipy)(MeCN)]PF₆ (5); bis[dicarbonyl(B-cyclohexylborole)]cobalt, [(C₄H₄BCy)Co(CO)₂]₂ (6); [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(phen)I]PF₆ (7); diiodo(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt, [CpCoI₂]₂ (8); [(cyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [CpCo(bipy)I]PF₆ (9); and [(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(iodo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt] hexafluorophosphate, [Cp*Co(bipy)I]PF₆ (10). Complexes 1 and 2 catalyze very efficient and stereoselective oxygenation of tertiary C-H bonds in isomeric dimethylcyclohexanes with MCBA: cyclohexanols are produced in 39 and 53% yields and with the trans/cis ratio (of isomers with mutual trans- or cis-configuration of two methyl groups) 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. Addition of nitric acid as co-catalyst dramatically enhances both the yield of oxygenates and stereoselectivity parameter. In contrast to compounds 1 and 2, complexes 9 and 10 turned out to be very poor catalysts (the yields of oxygenates in the reaction with cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane were only 5%-7% and trans/cis ratio 0.8 indicated that the oxidation is not stereoselective). The chromatograms of the reaction mixture obtained before and after reduction with PPh₃ are very similar, which testifies that alkyl

  2. Cobalt-catalysed site-selective intra- and intermolecular dehydrogenative amination of unactivated sp3 carbons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuesong; Yang, Ke; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Ge, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-catalysed sp2 C–H bond functionalization has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of the low cost of cobalt complexes and interesting modes of action in the process. In comparison, much less efforts have been devoted to the sp3 carbons. Here we report the cobalt-catalysed site-selective dehydrogenative cyclization of aliphatic amides via a C–H bond functionalization process on unactivated sp3 carbons with the assistance of a bidentate directing group. This method provides a straightforward synthesis of monocyclic and spiro β- or γ-lactams with good to excellent stereoselectivity and functional group tolerance. In addition, a new procedure has been developed to selectively remove the directing group, which enables the synthesis of free β- or γ-lactam compounds. Furthermore, the first cobalt-catalysed intermolecular dehydrogenative amination of unactivated sp3 carbons is also realized. PMID:25753366

  3. Controlling the misuse of cobalt in horses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Chan, George H M; Wan, Terence S M; Curl, Peter; Riggs, Christopher M; Hurley, Michael J; Sykes, David

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is a well-established inducer of hypoxia-like responses, which can cause gene modulation at the hypoxia inducible factor pathway to induce erythropoietin transcription. Cobalt salts are orally active, inexpensive, and easily accessible. It is an attractive blood doping agent for enhancing aerobic performance. Indeed, recent intelligence and investigations have confirmed cobalt was being abused in equine sports. In this paper, population surveys of total cobalt in raceday samples were conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary threshold of 75 ng/mL and plasma threshold of 2 ng/mL could be proposed for the control of cobalt misuse in raceday or in-competition samples. Results from administration trials with cobalt-containing supplements showed that common supplements could elevate urinary and plasma cobalt levels above the proposed thresholds within 24 h of administration. It would therefore be necessary to ban the use of cobalt-containing supplements on raceday as well as on the day before racing in order to implement and enforce the proposed thresholds. Since the abuse with huge quantities of cobalt salts can be done during training while the use of legitimate cobalt-containing supplements are also allowed, different urinary and plasma cobalt thresholds would be required to control cobalt abuse in non-raceday or out-of-competition samples. This could be achieved by setting the thresholds above the maximum urinary and plasma cobalt concentrations observed or anticipated from the normal use of legitimate cobalt-containing supplements. Urinary threshold of 2000 ng/mL and plasma threshold of 10 ng/mL were thus proposed for the control of cobalt abuse in non-raceday or out-of-competition samples.

  4. Analysis of a case of internal contamination with cobalt radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Vrba, T; Malatova, I; Jurochova, B

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by compounds of cobalt radioisotopes occurs time to time at nuclear power plants. Intakes and committed effective doses are estimated by biokinetic models described in ICRP publications. The paper deals with a case of internal contamination of a worker engaged in a maintenance task at NPP Dukovany. In this case significant discrepancy was observed between intakes based on various datasets (whole body counting, analysis of urine and faeces) when default model setting was used. The reason of this phenomenon was searched for. Three different least square methods of fits were used to find out possible effect of a fitting method. The measured data were fitted by set of biokinetic functions, which covered all intake ways (ingestion and inhalation) and types (M, S, different AMADs and different f1) of the contaminant. The biokinetic model of cobalt needs further improvements as to find better agreement between data fit from direct measurements and bioassay.

  5. Cosine (Cobalt Silicide Growth Through Nitrogen-Induced Epitaxy) Process For Epitaxial Cobalt Silicide Formation For High Performance Sha

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Chong Wee; Shin, Chan Soo; Gall, Daniel; Petrov, Ivan Georgiev; Greene, Joseph E.

    2004-09-28

    A method for forming an epitaxial cobalt silicide layer on a MOS device includes sputter depositing cobalt in an ambient to form a first layer of cobalt suicide on a gate and source/drain regions of the MOS device. Subsequently, cobalt is sputter deposited again in an ambient of argon to increase the thickness of the cobalt silicide layer to a second thickness.

  6. Insight into Transmetalation Enables Cobalt-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross Coupling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the fundamental transformations that comprise a catalytic cycle for cross coupling, transmetalation from the nucleophile to the metal catalyst is perhaps the least understood. Optimizing this elementary step has enabled the first example of a cobalt-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling between aryl triflate electrophiles and heteroaryl boron nucleophiles. Key to this discovery was the preparation and characterization of a new class of tetrahedral, high-spin bis(phosphino)pyridine cobalt(I) alkoxide and aryloxide complexes, (iPrPNP)CoOR, and optimizing their reactivity with 2-benzofuranylBPin (Pin = pinacolate). Cobalt compounds with small alkoxide substituents such as R = methyl and ethyl underwent swift transmetalation at 23 °C but also proved kinetically unstable toward β–H elimination. Secondary alkoxides such as R = iPr or CH(Ph)Me balanced stability and reactivity. Isolation and structural characterization of the product following transmetalation, (iPrPNP)Co(2-benzofuranyl), established a planar, diamagnetic cobalt(I) complex, demonstrating the high- and low-spin states of cobalt(I) rapidly interconvert during this reaction. The insights from the studies in this elementary step guided selection of appropriate reaction conditions to enable the first examples of cobalt-catalyzed C–C bond formation between neutral boron nucleophiles and aryl triflate electrophiles, and a model for the successful transmetalation reactivity is proposed. PMID:28058283

  7. Polytypic transformations during the thermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2010-06-15

    The isothermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature leads to the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The phase evolution during the decomposition process was monitored using powder X-ray diffraction. The transformation of cobalt hydroxide to cobalt oxide occurs via three phase mixture while cobalt hydroxynitrate to cobalt oxide occurs through a two phase mixture. The nature of the sample and its preparation method controls the decomposition mechanism. The comparison of topotactical relationship between the precursors to the decomposed product has been reported in relation to polytypism. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal thermal decomposition studies of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature show the metastable phase formed prior to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase.

  8. On the cobalt and cobalt oxide electrodeposition from a glyceline deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Sakita, Alan M P; Della Noce, Rodrigo; Fugivara, Cecílio S; Benedetti, Assis V

    2016-09-14

    The electrodeposition of cobalt and cobalt oxides from a glyceline deep eutectic solvent is reported. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are employed to study the Co deposition processes. Surface analysis reveals that metallic cobalt is deposited at potentials less negative than the current peak potential whereas cobalt oxides are detected and electrochemically observed when the deposition is done at more negative potentials. i-t transients are analyzed by applying the Scharifker and Hills (SH) theoretical model. It is concluded that cobalt deposition occurs via a progressive nucleation and growth mechanism for concentrations higher than 0.05 mol L(-1) cobalt ions. For concentrations ≤0.025 mol L(-1) cobalt ions and low overpotentials, the mechanism changes to instantaneous nucleation. The im-tm relationships of the SH model are used to determine the values of the kinetic parameters and the cobalt ion diffusion coefficient.

  9. Late First-Row Transition-Metal Complexes Containing a 2-Pyridylmethyl Pendant-Armed 15-Membered Macrocyclic Ligand. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Seven-Coordinate Cobalt(II) Compound.

    PubMed

    Antal, Peter; Drahoš, Bohuslav; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2016-06-20

    The 2-pyridylmethyl N-pendant-armed heptadentate macrocyclic ligand {3,12-bis(2-methylpyridine)-3,12,18-triaza-6,9-dioxabicyclo[12.3.1]octadeca-1,14,16-triene = L} and [M(L)](ClO4)2 complexes, where M = Mn(II) (1), Fe(II) (2), Co(II) (3), Ni(II) (4), and Cu(II) (5), were prepared and thoroughly characterized, including elucidation of X-ray structures of all the compounds studied. The complexes 1-5 crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Sohncke space groups as racemic compounds. The coordination numbers of 7, 6 + 1, and 5 were found in complexes 1-3, 4, and 5, respectively, with a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal (1-4) or square pyramidal (5) geometry. On the basis of the magnetic susceptibility experiments, a large axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) was found for 2, 3, and 4 (D(Fe) = -7.4(2) cm(-1), D(Co) = 34(1) cm(-1), and D(Ni) = -12.8(1) cm(-1), respectively) together with a rhombic ZFS (E/D = 0.136(3)) for 4. Despite the easy plane anisotropy (D > 0, E/D = 0) in 3, the slow relaxation of the magnetization below 8 K was observed and analyzed either with Orbach relaxation mechanism (the relaxation time τ0 = 9.90 × 10(-10) s and spin reversal barrier Ueff = 24.3 K (16.9 cm(-1))) or with Raman relaxation mechanism (C = 2.12 × 10(-5) and n = 2.84). Therefore, compound 3 enlarges the small family of field-induced single-molecule magnets with pentagonal-bipyramidal chromophore. The cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in 1-3 and 5, except for the Ni(II) complex 4, where a quasi-reversible process was dominantly observed. Presence of the two 2-pyridylmethyl pendant arms in L with a stronger σ-donor/π-acceptor ability had a great impact on the properties of all the complexes (1-5), concretely: (i) strong pyridine-metal bonds provided slight axial compression of the coordination sphere, (ii) substantial changes in magnetic anisotropy, and (iii) stabilization of lower oxidation states.

  10. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) July 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Reprint 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October–November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cobalt -Base Alloy

  11. Mineral resource of the month: cobalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt is a metal used in numerous commercial, industrial and military applications. On a global basis, the leading use of cobalt is in rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride battery electrodes. Cobalt use has grown rapidly since the early 1990s, with the development of new battery technologies and an increase in demand for portable electronics such as cell phones, laptop computers and cordless power tools.

  12. [Neurotoxic effects of cobalt: an open question].

    PubMed

    Catalani, S; Apostoli, P

    2011-01-01

    Increased cobalt levels have been associated with neurological diseases (hand tremor, incoordination, cognitive decline, depression, vertigo, hearing loss and visual changes) in addition to "classic" and known cardiac diseases (arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies) and allergic or endocrine symptoms. Cobalt neurotoxicity is reported in isolated cases: old occupational or iatrogenic exposures and more recent releases of metallic ions by prosthesis. The studies of these cases have revealed a typical symptomatology of cobalt probably due to its ability to induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.

  13. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H borylation.

    PubMed

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J

    2014-03-19

    A family of pincer-ligated cobalt complexes has been synthesized and are active for the catalytic C-H borylation of heterocycles and arenes. The cobalt catalysts operate with high activity and under mild conditions and do not require excess borane reagents. Up to 5000 turnovers for methyl furan-2-carboxylate have been observed at ambient temperature with 0.02 mol % catalyst loadings. A catalytic cycle that relies on a cobalt(I)-(III) redox couple is proposed.

  14. Size dependent stability of cobalt nanoparticles on silica under high conversion Fischer-Tropsch environment.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Moritz; Kotzé, Hendrik; Fischer, Nico; Claeys, Michael

    2017-02-15

    metal-support compounds is in accordance with conducted thermodynamic predictions. None of the extreme Fischer-Tropsch conditions initiated hydrothermal sintering. Seemingly, the formation of metal-support compounds stabilised the metallic crystallites and/or higher partial pressures of CO are required to increase the concentration of mobile, cobalt oxide-type species on the metallic surface.

  15. Low Temperature VOC Combustion Over Manganese, Cobalt and Zinc AlPO{sub 4} Molecular Sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Szostak, R.

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project is to prepare manganese, cobalt and zinc containing AlPO{sub 4} molecular sieves and evaluate their catalytic activities for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. This report highlights our research activities for period October 1,1996 to March 31, 1997.

  16. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Near infrared spectroscopy of divalent cobalt in polycrystalline magnesium and zinc gallate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosman, L. P.; Dias Tavares, A., Jr.; Abritta, T.

    2000-01-01

    Infrared luminescence of MgGa2 O4 :Co2+ and ZnGa2 O4 :Co2+ polycrystalline samples is presented. The bands observed in these cobalt compounds are assigned to the 4 T1 (4 P)icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 4 T1 (4 F) transition of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions.

  17. Oxidation of low cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Four high temperature alloys: U-700, Mar M-247, Waspaloy and PM/HIP U-700 were modified with various cobalt levels ranging from 0 percent to their nominal commercial levels. The alloys were then tested in cyclic oxidation in static air at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1150 C at times from 500 to 100 1 hour cycles. Specific weight change with time and X-ray diffraction analyses of the oxidized samples were used to evaluate the alloys. The alloys tend to be either Al2O3/aluminate spinel or Cr2O3/chromite spinel formers depending on the Cr/Al ratio in the alloy. Waspaloy with a ratio of 15:1 is a strong Cr2O3 former while this U-700 with a ratio of 3.33:1 tends to form mostly Cr2O3 while Mar M-247 with a ratio of 1.53:1 is a strong Al2O3 former. The best cyclic oxidation resistance is associated with the Al2O3 formers. The cobalt levels appear to have little effect on the oxidation resistance of the Al2O3/aluminate spinel formers while any tendency to form Cr2O3 is accelerated with increased cobalt levels and leads to increased oxidation attack.

  18. Crystal structure, solvothermal synthesis, thermogravimetric studies and DFT calculations of a five-coordinate cobalt(II) compound based on the N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine anion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; Liu, Xianrong; Wang, Qijun; Wang, Lisheng; Song, Baoling

    2016-10-01

    The reaction of CoCl2·6H2O, N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in ethanol solution under solvothermal conditions produced crystals of [N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycinato]chloridocobalt(II), [Co(C6H12NO4)Cl]. The Co(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal-bipyramidal environment which is defined by three O atoms occupying the equatorial plane and the N and Cl atoms in the apical sites. In the crystal, two types of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). The mol-ecular structure of the title compound confirms the findings of FTIR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS analysis and TG analysis. By using the density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, the molecular structure has been calculated and optimized.

  19. Origin of electron disproportionation in metallic sodium cobaltates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysogorskiy, Y. V.; Krivenko, S. A.; Mukhamedshin, I. R.; Nedopekin, O. V.; Tayurskii, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    Recently, an unusual metallic state with a substantially nonuniform distribution of the charge and magnetic density in CoO2 planes was found experimentally in the NaxCoO2 compound with x >0.6 . We have investigated the origin of such an electron disproportionation in the lamellar sodium cobaltates by calculating the ion states as a function of the strength of the electron correlations in the d (Co) shells within the GGA+U approximation for a system with a realistic crystal structure. It was found that the nonuniformity of spin and charge densities are induced by an ordering of the sodium cations and enhanced correlations. Two important magnetic states of cobalt lattice competing with each other at realistic values of the correlation parameter were found—low-spin hexagons lattice (LS) and higher-spin kagome lattice (HS-KSL). In the heterogeneous metallic HS-KSL phase, magnetic Co ions form a kagome structure. In LS phase, the kagome pattern is decomposed into hexagons and the Co ions possess the minimal values of their spin. Coexistence of these states could explain the emergence of the disproportionation with the peculiar kagome structure experimentally revealed in previous studies of the cobaltates.

  20. β-diketone-cobalt complexes inhibit DNA synthesis and induce S-phase arrest in rat C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaizhi; Zhao, Xingli; Liu, Junzhi; Fang, Xiangyang; Wang, Xuepeng; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Rui

    2014-03-01

    β-diketone-cobalt complexes, a family of newly synthesized non-platinum metal compounds, exhibit potential antitumor activity; however, the antitumor mechanism is unclear. The current study investigated the mechanism by which β-diketone-cobalt complexes inhibit rat C6 glioma cell proliferation. It was found that β-diketone-cobalt complexes suppress rat C6 glioma cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (3.125-100 μg/ml). In rat C6 glioma cells, the IC50 value of β-diketone-cobalt complexes was 24.7±3.395 μg/ml and the IC10 value was 4.37±1.53 μg/ml, indicating a strong inhibitory effect. Further investigation suggested that β-diketone-cobalt complexes inhibit rat C6 glioma cell proliferation, which is associated with S-phase arrest and DNA synthesis inhibition. During this process, β-diketone-cobalt complexes decreased cyclin A expression and increased cyclin E and p21 expression. In addition, β-diketone-cobalt complexes exhibit a stronger antitumor capability than the antineoplastic agent, 5-fluorouracil.

  1. LOW TEMPERATURE VOC COMBUSTION OVER MANGANESE, COBALT AND ZINC ALPO4 MOLECULAR SIEVES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosemarie Szostak

    2003-03-06

    The objective of this project was to prepare microporous aluminophosphates containing magnesium, manganese, cobalt and zinc (MeAPOs) and to evaluate their performance as oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods for metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework; (2) To characterize these materials for crystallinity, phase purity, the location and nature of the incorporated metal in the framework; and (3) To evaluate the materials for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of volatile organic environmental pollutants.

  2. Study of the influence of the bridge on the magnetic coupling in cobalt(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Oscar; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pasán, Jorge; Delgado, Fernando S; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2009-12-07

    Two new cobalt(II) complexes of formula [Co(2)(bta)(H(2)O)(6)](n) x 2nH(2)O (1) and [Co(phda)(H(2)O)](n) x nH(2)O (2) [H(4)bta = 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, H(2)phda = 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid] have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional compound where the bta(4-) ligand acts as 2-fold connector between the cobalt(II) ions through two carboxylate groups in para-conformation. Triply bridged dicobalt(II) units occur within each chain, a water molecule, a carboxylate group in the syn-syn conformation, and an oxo-carboxylate with the mu(2)O(1);kappa(2)O(1),O(2) coordination mode acting as bridges. Compound 2 is a three-dimensional compound, where the phda(2-) group acts as a bridge through its two carboxylate groups, one of them adopting the mu-O,O' coordination mode in the syn-syn conformation and the other exhibiting the single mu(2)-O'' bridging mode. As in 1, chains of cobalt(II) ions occur in 2 with a water molecule, a syn-syn carboxylate group, and an oxo-carboxylate constitute the triply intrachain bridging skeleton. Each chain is linked to other four ones through the phda(2-) ligand, giving rise to the three-dimensional structure. The values of the intrachain cobalt-cobalt separation are 3.1691(4) (1) and 3.11499(2) A (2) whereas those across the phenyl ring of the extended bta(4-) (1) and phda(2-) (2) groups are 10.1120(6) and 11.4805(69 A, respectively. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K, and their analysis has revealed the occurrence of moderate intrachain ferromagnetic couplings [J = +5.4 (1) and +2.16 cm(-1) (2), J being the isotropic magnetic coupling parameter], the magnetic coupling through the extended bta(4-) and phda(2-) with cobalt-cobalt separations larger than 10 A being negligible. The nature and magnitude of the magnetic interactions between the high-spin cobalt(II) ions in 1 and 2 are compared to those of related systems and

  3. High cycle life, cobalt free, AB{5} metal hydride electrodes [Revised 11/10/98

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Tom; Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Adzic, G.D.; Ticianelli, E.A.; Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.

    1998-11-10

    Cobalt-free La(Ni,Sn)5+x alloys have been identified as low cost, corrosion resistant electrodes for nickel-metal-hydride batteries. The structure of theses alloys are similar to non-stoichiometric La(Ni,Cu)5+x compounds; i.e., they retain the P6/mmm space group while Ni dumbbells occupy La sites. Electrodes fabricated from some of these novel alloys have capacities and cycle lives equivalent to those made from commercial, battery grade, AB5 alloys with cobalt.

  4. A Raney Cobalt Mediated Reductive Cyclization Route to the Uleine Alkaloid Gilbertine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-11-04

    Reductive cyclization of the 2,4,5-trisubstituted cyclohexenone 16 using dihydogen in the presence of Raney cobalt afforded compound 17 (60%) that could be elaborated over a further five steps, including one involving a cationic cyclization process, into the racemic modification of the unusual uleine alkaloid gilbertine. Single-crystal X-ray analyses of compounds (±)-1, 16, and a derivative of 17 are reported.

  5. Effects of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride on oxidative stress-related parameters and drug metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjit; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride has been advocated as a potential anticarcinogenic compound. There is no information on the effects of this compound on oxidative stress-related parameters in animals. In the present study the effects of administration of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride in drinking water to balb/c male mice at doses of 25, 50, and 100 ppm for 14 weeks were examined. The tissue distribution of the compound was seen in liver, kidney, lung, intestine, blood, and spleen. The effects of the compound were monitored on levels of lipid peroxidation, GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase, GST, and Cyt P450, along with the liver and kidney function tests. The results show that the cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney followed by liver, intestine, blood, spleen, and lung in decreasing order, in a dose-dependent manner. GSH and GST also showed increase in a dose-dependent manner while SOD and catalase showed increase with the highest dose only. Liver and kidney function tests showed no untoward change with any dose at the end of the study. The results suggest an antioxidant potentiating effect of the hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride besides nontoxicity to liver and kidney. Since the ability to induce an increase of GSH and GST along with other detoxifying enzymes by anticarcinogenic agents has been reported to correlate with the inhibition of tumorigenesis, the cobalt complex might qualify as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent.

  6. Cobalt Reduction Guidelines, Revision 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report, which updates and supersedes an earlier report (EPRI NP-6737) on the same subject, describes methods for establishing a program to identify nuclear power plant valves with high-cobalt hardfacing that are potential significant contributors to the cobalt inventory that is irradiated in the reactor core. The resulting radioactive cobalt isotope, cobalt-60, is a major contributor to plant radiation levels and therefore occupational doses received by plant operational and maintenance personnel. A methodology to determine whether hardfacing is actually required on specific valves is also described as is the physical, mechanical and wear properties of high-cobalt and potential replacement cobalt-free hardfacing and trim alloys. Discussions are presented of the general and specific design requirements for valve hardfacing in nuclear service. Current world-wide nuclear utility experience with cobalt-free hardfacing alloys is described. The regulatory and industry code issues related to replacing and/or changing valve hardfacing materials are discussed. The actions and responsibilities of utility management in implementing an effective cobalt-reduction program are also delineated.

  7. Serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, G; Angelova, M; Christova, I; Nikolov, A; Alexiev, A

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the cardiovascular system is one of many aspects of cobalt metabolism in humans. Elastin and collagen are the main proteins of the vascular wall. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine serum cobalt concentrations in children with hypertension; and 2) to study the correlation between serum cobalt and some biological markers of the extracellular matrix of the vascular wall, i.e., anti-elastin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Patients showed statistically significant higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significantly lower serum cobalt concentrations, than controls. Children with hypertension showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.0003) and collagen type IV IgM (P = 0.04). Collagen type IV IgG levels (P = 0.027) were lower than in controls. Serum cobalt in patients showed a correlation with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.44, P = 0.05), elastin IgM (r = 0.60, P = 0.007), and collagen type IV IgG (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). Our data suggest the existence of a correlation between changes in levels of serum cobalt, total cholesterol, anti-collagen type IV antibodies, and essential hypertension in children. This is the first study of serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

  8. Modification of Wide-Band-Gap Oxide Semiconductors with Cobalt Hydroxide Nanoclusters for Visible-Light Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiko; Ishimaki, Koki; Tokunaga, Yuki; Lu, Daling; Eguchi, Miharu

    2016-07-11

    Cobalt-based compounds, such as cobalt(II) hydroxide, are known to be good catalysts for water oxidation. Herein, we report that such cobalt species can also activate wide-band-gap semiconductors towards visible-light water oxidation. Rutile TiO2 powder, a well-known wide-band-gap semiconductor, was capable of harvesting visible light with wavelengths of up to 850 nm, and thus catalyzed water oxidation to produce molecular oxygen, when decorated with cobalt(II) hydroxide nanoclusters. To the best of our knowledge, this system constitutes the first example that a particulate photocatalytic material that is capable of water oxidation upon excitation by visible light can also operate at such long wavelengths, even when it is based on earth-abundant elements only.

  9. Cobalt Derivatives as Promising Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Heffern, Marie C.; Yamamoto, Natsuho; Holbrook, Robert J.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic complexes are versatile platforms for the development of potent and selective pharmaceutical agents. Cobalt possesses a diverse array of properties that can be manipulated to yield promising drug candidates. Investigations into the mechanism of cobalt therapeutic agents can provide valuable insight into the physicochemical properties that can be harnessed for drug development. This review presents examples of bioactive cobalt complexes with special attention to their mechanisms of action. Specifically, cobalt complexes that elicit biological effects through protein inhibition, modification of drug activity, and bioreductive activation are discussed. Insights gained from these examples reveal features of cobalt that can be rationally tuned to produce therapeutics with high specificity and improved efficacy for the biomolecule or pathway of interest. PMID:23270779

  10. Tungsten- and cobalt-dominated heavy metal contamination of mangrove sediments in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Songjun; Lin, Chuxia; Qiu, Penghua; Song, Yan; Yang, Wenhuai; Xu, Guanchang; Feng, Xiaodan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Xiu; Niu, Anyi

    2015-11-15

    A baseline investigation into heavy metal status in the mangrove sediments was conducted in Shenzhen, China where rapid urban development has caused severe environmental contamination. It is found that heavy metal contamination in this mangrove wetland is characterized by the dominant presence of tungsten and cobalt, which is markedly different from the neighboring Hong Kong and other parts of the world. The vertical variation pattern of these two metals along the sediment profile differed from other heavy metals, suggesting an increasing influx of tungsten and cobalt into the investigated mangrove habitat, as a result of uncontrolled discharge of industrial wastewater from factories that produce or use chemical compounds or alloys containing these two heavy metals. Laboratory simulation experiment indicated that seawater had a stronger capacity to mobilize sediment-borne tungsten and cobalt, as compared to deionized water, diluted acetic, sulfuric and nitric acids.

  11. Monomeric square-planar cobalt(II) acetylacetonate: mystery or mistake?

    PubMed

    Vreshch, Volodimir D; Yang, Jen-Hsien; Zhang, Haitao; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2010-09-20

    No evidence was found for the existence of a previously reported mononuclear square-planar form of unsolvated cobalt(II) acetylacetonate, Co(acac)(2), in all samples that have been obtained by using a variety of preparative techniques and crystallization conditions. It was confirmed that the structure of tetramer Co(4)(acac)(8), reported back in 1964 by Cotton and Elder, is correct, the synthesis is reproducible, and the bulk material corresponds to single-crystal data. Additionally, the title compound can be isolated in tetranuclear form by reducing cobalt(III) acetylacetonate with cobalt metal in solvent-free conditions or by crystallization from a hexanes solution. At the same time, from noncoordinating halogenated solvents, Co(acac)(2) crystallizes as a trinuclear core molecule, in which all Co atoms also exhibit octahedral coordination. From coordinating solvents such as ethanol, cobalt(II) acetylacetonate was found to appear in the form of its bis-adduct Co(acac)(2)(EtOH)(2). On the basis of observations made in this work and the details presented in the original paper, we suggest that the reported mononuclear structure of square-planar acetylacetonate should likely contain copper instead of cobalt.

  12. Cobalt - poly(amido amine) superparamagnetic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Atwater, James E; Akse, James R; Holtsnider, John T

    2008-06-30

    Metallic cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were prepared using generation 5 Poly(amido amine) dendrimers with primary amino termini. Cobalt loading of ~38 atoms per dendrimer was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Magnetic properties of the cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were investigated across the temperature range from 2-300 K by SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization as a function of temperature and applied field strength was studied in zero field cooled samples. Magnetization-demagnetization curves (hysteresis loops) were also acquired at temperatures between 10 - 300 K. These results clearly indicate superparamagnetism for the nanocomposites with a characteristic blocking temperature of ~50 K.

  13. Cobalt - poly(amido amine) superparamagnetic nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were prepared using generation 5 Poly(amido amine) dendrimers with primary amino termini. Cobalt loading of ~38 atoms per dendrimer was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Magnetic properties of the cobalt-dendrimer nanocomposites were investigated across the temperature range from 2–300 K by SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization as a function of temperature and applied field strength was studied in zero field cooled samples. Magnetization-demagnetization curves (hysteresis loops) were also acquired at temperatures between 10 – 300 K. These results clearly indicate superparamagnetism for the nanocomposites with a characteristic blocking temperature of ~50 K. PMID:20352068

  14. Cobalt-related defects in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, T. M.; Backlund, D. J.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Transition metals from the 3d series are unavoidable and unwanted contaminants in Si-based devices. Cobalt is one of the most poorly understood impurities with incomplete experimental information and few theoretical studies. In this contribution, the properties of interstitial cobalt (Coi) in Si and its interactions with the vacancy, self-interstitial, hydrogen, and substitutional boron are calculated using the first-principles tools. The stable configurations, gap levels, and binding energies are predicted. The activation energy for diffusing Coi is calculated with the nudged-elastic-band method and found to be slightly lower than that of interstitial copper and nickel. The binding energies and gap levels of the substitutional cobalt (Cos) and of the {Cos,H} and {Cos,H,H} complexes are close to the experimental data. The properties of the cobalt-boron pair are calculated.

  15. Bioextraction of cobalt from complex metal sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.; Noah, K.S.; Wichlacz, P.L.; Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    The present study has investigated the bioleachability of naturally occurring cobaltite and synthetic cobalt sulfides using 29 pedigree and ``wild type`` strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. On the basis of a screening test, five strains of bacteria were selected for assessing the effects of leach parameters (pH, ferrous and ferric sulfates, ammonium sulfate, bipotassium hydrogen phosphate, and substrate concentrations) on cobalt extraction from Blackbird Mine ore and concentrate. The mechanisms of cobalt extraction were explained in terms of direct and indirect modes of bacterial activity, and the chemistry involved in these processes was identified. Using various size fractions of a high-grade cobaltite, the kinetic parameters of cobalt extraction were derived for the effect of specific surface area to be V{sub m} = 376 mg dm{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1} and K 1.27 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1}.

  16. Bioextraction of cobalt from complex metal sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.; Noah, K.S.; Wichlacz, P.L.; Torma, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The present study has investigated the bioleachability of naturally occurring cobaltite and synthetic cobalt sulfides using 29 pedigree and wild type'' strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. On the basis of a screening test, five strains of bacteria were selected for assessing the effects of leach parameters (pH, ferrous and ferric sulfates, ammonium sulfate, bipotassium hydrogen phosphate, and substrate concentrations) on cobalt extraction from Blackbird Mine ore and concentrate. The mechanisms of cobalt extraction were explained in terms of direct and indirect modes of bacterial activity, and the chemistry involved in these processes was identified. Using various size fractions of a high-grade cobaltite, the kinetic parameters of cobalt extraction were derived for the effect of specific surface area to be V[sub m] = 376 mg dm[sup [minus]3] h[sup [minus]1] and K 1.27 m[sup 2] g[sup [minus]1].

  17. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  18. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  19. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  20. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  1. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  2. Role of cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R.; Barefoot, J.; Tien, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt or substituting for cobalt on the mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys is discussed. Waspaloy, UDIMET 700, and NIMONIC 115, which are representative of Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Ti-Mo superalloys having different gamma prime contents which are strengthened by a heavily alloyed matrix, coherent gamma prime precipitates, and carbides at the grain boundaries. Microstructure and in situ and extracted phase STEM micro-analysis were used to evaluate the three alloys.

  3. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization.

    PubMed

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Geisler, Carsten; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-03-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses in the draining lymph nodes compared to mice sensitized with cobalt alone. In contrast, the presence of cobalt during nickel sensitization only induced an increased CD8(+) T cell proliferation during challenge to nickel. Thus, the presence of nickel during cobalt sensitization potentiated the challenge response against cobalt more than the presence of cobalt during sensitization to nickel affected the challenge response against nickel. Taken together, our study demonstrates that sensitization with a mixture of nickel and cobalt leads to an increased immune response to both nickel and cobalt, especially to cobalt, and furthermore that the adjuvant effect appears to correlate with the inflammatory properties of the allergen.

  4. Intolerability of cobalt salt as erythropoietic agent.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Bastian; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Unfair athletes seek ways to stimulate erythropoiesis, because the mass of haemoglobin is a critical factor in aerobic sports. Here, the potential misuse of cobalt deserves special attention. Cobalt ions (Co(2+) ) stabilize the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that increase the expression of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene. Co(2+) is orally active, easy to obtain, and inexpensive. However, its intake can bear risks to health. To elaborate this issue, a review of the pertinent literature was retrieved by a search with the keywords 'anaemia', 'cobalt', 'cobalt chloride', 'erythropoiesis', 'erythropoietin', 'Epo', 'side-effects' and 'treatment', amongst others. In earlier years, cobalt chloride was administered at daily doses of 25 to 300 mg for use as an anti-anaemic agent. Co(2+) therapy proved effective in stimulating erythropoiesis in both non-renal and renal anaemia, yet there were also serious medical adverse effects. The intake of inorganic cobalt can cause severe organ damage, concerning primarily the gastrointestinal tract, the thyroid, the heart and the sensory systems. These insights should keep athletes off taking Co(2+) to stimulate erythropoiesis.

  5. The role of HIF in cobalt-induced ischemic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Novak, A E; Elliott, J P

    2013-11-12

    Understanding the endogenous survival pathways induced by ischemic tolerance may yield targets for neuroprotection from stroke. One well-studied pathway reported to be evoked by preconditioning stimuli is the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor). However, whether HIF induction by ischemic insults is neuroprotective or toxic is still unclear. We examined the ability of three prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors, which induce HIF, to protect hippocampal cultures from oxygen-glucose deprivation. Hippocampal cultures were exposed to ischemic preconditioning or various concentrations of cobalt chloride, deferoxamine (DFO) or dimethyloxylalyglycine (DMOG), prior to lethal oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cell survival of neurons and astrocytes was determined with dual-label immunocytochemistry. The induction of HIF targets was assessed in mixed as well as astrocyte-enriched cultures. Ischemic preconditioning, as well as low concentrations of cobalt and DFO, enhanced the survival of neurons following OGD. However, DMOG exacerbates OGD-induced neuronal death. At low concentrations, all three prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors increased the survival of astrocytes. Neuroprotective concentrations of cobalt induced the transcription of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) in astrocyte cultures. In addition, pretreatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rH-EPO) also protected neurons from OGD. Our data suggest that HIF-induced EPO, released from astrocytes, protects neurons from OGD. However, the three PHD inhibitors each exhibited different neuroprotective profiles at low concentrations, suggesting that not all PHD inhibitors are created equal. The protective effects at low doses is reminiscent of HIF involvement in ischemic tolerance, in which sub-lethal insults induce HIF pathways resulting in neuroprotection, whereas the high-dose toxicity suggests that over-activation of HIF is not always protective. Therefore, the choice of inhibitor and dose may determine

  6. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-02-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB.

  7. Cobalt-Catalyzed [2π + 2π] Cycloadditions of Alkenes: Scope, Mechanism, and Elucidation of Electronic Structure of Catalytic Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Valerie A; Hoyt, Jordan M; Margulieux, Grant W; Chirik, Paul J

    2015-06-24

    Aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine cobalt dinitrogen compounds, ((R)PDI)CoN2, are effective precatalysts for the intramolecular [2π + 2π] cycloaddition of α,ω-dienes to yield the corresponding bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane derivatives. The reactions proceed under mild thermal conditions with unactivated alkenes, tolerating both amine and ether functional groups. The overall second order rate law for the reaction, first order with respect to both the cobalt precatalyst and the substrate, in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies established the catalyst resting state as dependent on the identity of the precatalyst and diene substrate. Planar S = ½ κ(3)-bis(imino)pyridine cobalt alkene and tetrahedral κ(2)-bis(imino)pyridine cobalt diene complexes were observed by EPR spectroscopy and in the latter case structurally characterized. The hemilabile chelate facilitates conversion of a principally ligand-based singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) in the cobalt dinitrogen and alkene compounds to a metal-based SOMO in the diene intermediates, promoting C-C bond-forming oxidative cyclization. Structure-activity relationships on bis(imino)pyridine substitution were also established with 2,4,6-tricyclopentyl-substituted aryl groups, resulting in optimized catalytic [2π + 2π] cycloaddition. The cyclopentyl groups provide a sufficiently open metal coordination sphere that encourages substrate coordination while remaining large enough to promote a challenging, turnover-limiting C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination.

  8. Calcium-assisted reduction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for nanostructured iron cobalt with enhanced magnetic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, B.; Andrew, J. S.; Arnold, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of a calcium-assisted reduction process for synthesizing fine-grain ( 100 nm) metal alloys from metal oxide nanoparticles. To demonstrate the process, an iron cobalt alloy (Fe66Co34) is obtained by hydrogen annealing 7-nm cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles in the presence of calcium granules. The calcium serves as a strong reducing agent, promoting the phase transition from cobalt ferrite to a metallic iron cobalt alloy, while maintaining high crystallinity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate the annealing temperature is the dominant factor of tuning the grain size and magnetic properties. Annealing at 700 °C for 1 h maximizes the magnetic saturation, up to 2.4 T (235 emu/g), which matches that of bulk iron cobalt.

  9. Synergetic interactions improve cobalt leaching from lithium cobalt oxide in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Li, Tianchi; Liu, Chuan; Quan, Xie; Chen, Lijie; Wang, Aijie; Chen, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt leaching from lithium cobalt oxide is a promising reduction process for recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries, but suffers from consumption of large amount of reductants and energy, and generation of excess secondary polluted sludge. Thus, effective and environmental friendly processes are needed to improve the existing process limitations. Here we reported microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to effectively reduce Co(III) in lithium cobalt oxide with concomitant energy generation. There was a synergetic interaction in MFCs, leading to a more rapid Co(III) leaching at a rate 3.4 times the sum of rates by conventional chemical processes and no-acid controls. External resistor, solid/liquid ratio, solution conductivity, pH and temperature affected system performance. This study provides a new process for recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries with concomitant energy generation from MFCs.

  10. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  11. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  12. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Effect of ammonia on supported cobalt catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Pendyala, Venkat Ramana Rao; Jacobs, Gary; Bertaux, Clement; ...

    2016-02-22

    The effect of ammonia in syngas on the performance of various supported cobalt catalysts (i.e., Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2) was investigated during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The addition of ammonia (10 ppmv NH3) caused a significant deactivation for all supported cobalt catalysts, but the rate of deactivation was higher for the silica-supported catalysts relative to the alumina and titania-supported catalysts used in this work. Ammonia addition had a positive effect on product selectivity (i.e., lower light gas products and higher C5+) for alumina and titania-supported catalysts compared to ammonia free conditions, whereas, the additionmore » of ammonia increased lighter hydrocarbon (C1-C4) products and decreased higher hydrocarbon (C5+) selectivity compared to ammonia-free synthesis conditions for the silica-supported catalyst. For alumina and titania-supported catalysts, the activity almost recovered with mild in-situ hydrogen treatment of the ammonia exposed catalysts. For the silica-supported catalyst, the loss of activity is somewhat irreversible (i.e., cannot be regained after the mild hydrogen treatment). Addition of ammonia led to a significant loss in BET surface area and changes in pore diameter (consistent with pore collapse of a fraction of pores into the microporous range as described in the literature), as well as formation of catalytically inactive cobalt support compounds for the silica-supported catalyst. On the other hand, the pore characteristics of alumina and titania-supported catalysts were not significantly changed. In conclusion, XANES results of the ammonia exposed silica-supported catalysts further confirm the formation of cobalt-support compounds (cobalt silicates).« less

  13. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Effect of ammonia on supported cobalt catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pendyala, Venkat Ramana Rao; Jacobs, Gary; Bertaux, Clement; Khalid, Syed; Davis, Burtron H.

    2016-02-22

    The effect of ammonia in syngas on the performance of various supported cobalt catalysts (i.e., Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2) was investigated during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The addition of ammonia (10 ppmv NH3) caused a significant deactivation for all supported cobalt catalysts, but the rate of deactivation was higher for the silica-supported catalysts relative to the alumina and titania-supported catalysts used in this work. Ammonia addition had a positive effect on product selectivity (i.e., lower light gas products and higher C5+) for alumina and titania-supported catalysts compared to ammonia free conditions, whereas, the addition of ammonia increased lighter hydrocarbon (C1-C4) products and decreased higher hydrocarbon (C5+) selectivity compared to ammonia-free synthesis conditions for the silica-supported catalyst. For alumina and titania-supported catalysts, the activity almost recovered with mild in-situ hydrogen treatment of the ammonia exposed catalysts. For the silica-supported catalyst, the loss of activity is somewhat irreversible (i.e., cannot be regained after the mild hydrogen treatment). Addition of ammonia led to a significant loss in BET surface area and changes in pore diameter (consistent with pore collapse of a fraction of pores into the microporous range as described in the literature), as well as formation of catalytically inactive cobalt support compounds for the silica-supported catalyst. On the other hand, the pore characteristics of alumina and titania-supported catalysts were not significantly changed. In conclusion, XANES results of the ammonia exposed silica-supported catalysts further confirm the formation of cobalt-support compounds (cobalt silicates).

  14. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  15. Cobalt complex of cinchonine: intermolecular interactions in two crystalline modifications.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Agnieszka; Oleksyn, Barbara J; Sliwiński, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Two crystalline modifications of cinchonine cobalt complex, C19H23Cl3CoN2O, were obtained from mixture of saturated alcohol solutions of CoCl3 x 6H2O and cinchonine. The X-ray structure analysis revealed that the asymmetric unit of one modification, CoCn1, contains only zwitterionic molecules of the complex. In the asymmetric unit of the other, CoCn2, there are two molecules of the title compound and two molecules of ethanol. The influence of the absolute configuration, the CoCl3 coordination with quinoline, and the presence of alcohol molecules on the studied structures was established by comparison of the crystal and molecular structures of both cobalt complexes with the analogous quinine complex and zinc complex of cinchonine. The interactions that dominate in the packing of the molecules in both structures are intermolecular hydrogen bonds. They form characteristic ring systems, depending on the presence of the alcohol molecules. The ring features are also related to the absolute configuration of the alkaloid.

  16. Catalytic Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Nitrogen Heterocycles Using Heterogeneous Cobalt Oxide Supported on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon.

    PubMed

    Iosub, Andrei V; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-09-18

    Dehydrogenation of (partially) saturated heterocycles provides an important route to heteroaromatic compounds. A heterogeneous cobalt oxide catalyst, previously employed for aerobic oxidation of alcohols and amines, is shown to be effective for aerobic dehydrogenation of various 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines to the corresponding quinolines. The reactions proceed in good yields under mild conditions. Other N-heterocycles are also successfully oxidized to their aromatic counterparts.

  17. Facile heterogenization of a cobalt catalyst via graphene adsorption: robust and versatile dihydrogen production systems.

    PubMed

    Eady, Shawn C; Peczonczyk, Sabrina L; Maldonado, Stephen; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2014-07-28

    A heterogeneous dihydrogen (H2) production system has been attained by simply soaking electrodes made from electro-deposited graphene on FTO plated glass in solutions of a cobalt bis(dithiolate) compound. The resulting electrodes are active in weakly acidic aqueous solutions (pH > 3), have relatively low overpotentials (0.37 V versus platinum), show high catalytic rates (TOF > 1000 s(-1)), and are resistant to degradation by dioxygen.

  18. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  19. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    SciTech Connect

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt(II) complexes with pyridinecarboxamide ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojer, Brina; Pevec, Andrej; Belaj, Ferdinand; Jagličić, Zvonko; Kristl, Matjaž; Drofenik, Miha

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new cobalt(II) coordination compounds with nicotinamide (nia) and isonicotinamide (isn) are reported. The products were characterized magnetically, structurally by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and spectrally by FT-IR spectroscopy. Using the reaction of cobalt(II) acetate tetrahydrate and nicotinamide in methanol we obtained light-red crystals of the mononuclear complex [Co(nia)2(H2O)4](CH3COO)2·2H2O (1). The synthesis in a system cobalt(II) acetate dihydrathe, isonicotinamide and dimethylformamide-methanol mixture gave a new dinuclear coordination compound with the formula [Co2(CH3COO)4(isn)4]·2C3H7NO (2). In both compounds a trans arrangement of pyridinecarboxamide ligands was found. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal structures of both complexes are discussed. The magnetic properties were studied between 2 K and 300 K giving the result μeff = 4.6 BM for 1 and μeff = 4.7 BM for 2 in the paramagnetic region.

  1. Equilibrium phase boundary between hcp-cobalt and fcc-cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynn, Hyunchae; Lipp, Magnus J.; Evans, William J.; Baer, Bruce J.

    In 2000 (Yoo et al., PRL), fcc-cobalt was reported as a new high pressure phase transforming from ambient hcp-cobalt starting at around 105 GPa and 300 K. Both cobalts coexist up to 150 GPa and thereafter only fcc-cobalt was found to be the only stable phase to 200 GPa. Our recent synchrotron x-ray diffraction data on cobalt are at odds with the previous interpretation. We will present our new finding and elaborate on our understanding in terms of the equilibrium phase boundary of cobalt. We will also compare our previous work on xenon (Cynn et al., 2001, PRL) with our new results on cobalt. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Portions of this work were performed at HPCAT (Sector 16), APS, Argonne National Laboratory. HPCAT operations are supported by DOE-NNSA under Award No. DENA0001974 and DOE-BES under Award No. DE-FG02-99ER45775. The Advanced Photon Source is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  5. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Huang, Tao

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  6. [Suppression of activity of Candida albicans proteinases by cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kutyreva, M P; Mukhametzianova, A R; Ulakhovich, N A

    2012-01-01

    Influence of cobalt (II) chloride on the system of Candida albicans proteinase (SAP C. alb.) (both in solution and immobilized on a surface of nitrocellulose membranes) has been investigated. In solution cobalt chloride inactivated inducible but not constitute enzyme. In the heterogenous sytem proteolitical effect of the cobalt ion on inductible proteinase was also observed.

  7. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, J. M.; Coker, V. S.; Moise, S.; Wincott, P. L.; Vaughan, D. J.; Tuna, F.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Lloyd, J. R.; Telling, N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 −xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt–iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe2+ site with Co2+, with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

  8. Nickel cobalt phosphorous low stress electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolytic plating process is provided for electrodepositing a nickel or nickel cobalt alloy which contains at least about 2% to 25% by atomic volume of phosphorous. The process solutions contains nickel and optionally cobalt sulfate, hypophosphorous acid or a salt thereof, boric acid or a salt thereof, a monodentate organic acid or a salt thereof, and a multidentate organic acid or a salt thereof. The pH of the plating bath is from about 3.0 to about 4.5. An electroplating process is also provided which includes electroplating from the bath a nickel or nickel cobalt phosphorous alloy. This process can achieve a deposit with high microyield of at least about 84 kg/mm.sup.2 (120 ksi) and a density lower than pure nickel of about 8.0 gm/cc. This process can be used to plate a deposit of essentially zero stress at plating temperatures from ambient to 70.degree. C.

  9. Rapid phase synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavel, T.; Raj, S. Gokul; Rajarajan, G.; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    Synthesis of single phase nanocrystalline Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was achieved by single step autocombustion technique with the use of citric acid as a chelating agent in mono proportion with metal. Specimens prepared with this method showed significantly higher initial permeability's than with the conventional process. Single phase nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites were formed at very low temperature. Surface morphology identification were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The average grain size and density at low temperature increased gradually with increasing the temperature. The single phase formation is confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Magnetization measurements were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), which showed that the calcined samples exhibited typical magnetic behaviors. Temperature dependent magnetization results showed improved behavior for the nanocrystalline form of cobalt ferrite when compared to the bulk nature of materials synthesized by other methods.

  10. Syntheses and Properties of Cobalt and Nickel Hydroxide Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashina, Masashi; Eguchi, Akio; Kanezaki, Eiji; Shiga, Takuya; Oshio, Hiroki

    Nanosheets of cobalt and nickel hydroxides nanosheets were prepared by delamination of layered compounds, CoII(OH)1.73(DBS)0.27·0.87H2O (Co-DBS, DBS = dodecylbenzene sulfonate) and NiII(OH)1.63(DBS)0.37·1.24H2O (Ni-DBS), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses of the layered compounds revealed lattice parameters of a0 = 3.07 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Co-DBS) and a0 = 3.09 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Ni-DBS) in the hexagonal system. Dispersions of Co-DBS and Ni-DBS in 1-butanol produced colloidal solutions of nanosheets, [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam, respectively. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam and the mixtures were dried to yield Co-PVP and Ni-PVP, respectively. These nanosheets measured 150-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 135-400 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam by means of dynamic light scattering. Atomic force microscopy images showed lateral dimensions of 100-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 50-100 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam. In the former image, the cobalt hydroxide nanosheets had a fairly flat terrace structure with thickness of 3.1-3.6 nm and with aspect ratios of 30-150, whereas in the latter image dome-like nanosheets of nickel hydroxide with height of 2.2-2.3 nm were confirmed. These nanosheets were regarded as monolayer. Magnetization experiments at 1.8 K showed hysteresis loops for Co-DBS, Co-PVP, Ni-DBS, and Ni-PVP.

  11. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  12. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; cobalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crockett, R.N.; Chapman, G.R.; Forrest, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Major world resources of cobalt are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of cobalt on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  13. Effect of cobalt on the primary productivity of Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.M.; Panigrahi, S.; Azeez, P.A.

    1987-10-01

    Cobalt, a micronutrient for biological organisms, is a metal of wide use. Main sources of Co to the environment are combustion of fossil fuels, smelters, cobalt processing facilities, sewage and industrial wastes. Atomic power plants and nuclear weapon detonations form an important source of radioisotopes of this metal to the environment. Cobalt has been included in the 14 toxic trace elements of critical importance from the point of view of environmental pollution and health hazards. Cobalt deficiency leads to diseases like stunted growth. At toxic level, Co inhibits heme biosynthesis and enzyme activities. The present study reports the effect of cobalt on biomass productivity of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.

  14. Preparation of cobalt nanoparticles by hydrogen reduction of cobalt chloride in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hee Dong; Hwang, Dae Won; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Heon Chang; Lee, Byung Yoon; Jeong, In Bum

    2004-01-03

    Cobalt nanoparticles were produced by the hydrogen reduction of cobalt chloride vapor in a multistage tubular aerosol flow reactor. Reaction zone temperature, preheating temperature, mole fractions of CoCl{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and residence time were considered as key process variables for the control of particle size and size distribution. Ranging from 50 to 78 nm in average diameter, cobalt nanoparticles with narrow size distributions were synthesized throughout our experiments. All of the considered process variables affected the particle size and size distribution in the synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles. As the reaction zone temperature and the CoCl{sub 2} mole fraction increased, the average particle diameter increased. But the average particle diameter decreased as the residence time of reactants increased.

  15. Synthesis, Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization, and Reactivities of Mononuclear Cobalt(III)-Peroxo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaeheung; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Kang, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jung Yoon; Kubo, Minoru; Ogura, Takashi; Solomon, Edward I.; Nam, Wonwoo

    2010-01-01

    Metal-dioxygen adducts are key intermediates detected in the catalytic cycles of dioxygen activation by metalloenzymes and biomimetic compounds. In this study, mononuclear cobalt(III)- peroxo complexes bearing tetraazamacrocyclic ligands, [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+ and [Co(13-TMC)(O2)]+, were synthesized by reacting [Co(12-TMC)(CH3CN)]2+ and [Co(13-TMC)(CH3CN)]2+, respectively, with H2O2 in the presence of triethylamine. The mononuclear cobalt(III)-peroxo intermediates were isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography, and the structural and spectroscopic characterization demonstrated unambiguously that the peroxo ligand is bound in a side-on η2 fashion. The O-O bond stretching frequency of [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+ and [Co(13- TMC)(O2)]+ was determined to be 902 cm−1 by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The structural properties of the CoO2 core in both complexes are nearly identical; the O-O bond distances of [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+ and [Co(13-TMC)(O2)]+ were 1.4389(17) Å and 1.438(6) Å, respectively. The cobalt(III)-peroxo complexes showed reactivities in the oxidation of aldehydes and O2-transfer reactions. In the aldehyde oxidation reactions, the nucleophilic reactivity of the cobalt-peroxo complexes was significantly dependent on the ring size of the macrocyclic ligands, with the reactivity of [Co(13-TMC)(O2)]+ > [Co(12-TMC)(O2)]+. In the O2-transfer reactions, the cobalt(III)-peroxo complexes transferred the bound peroxo group to a manganese(II) complex, affording the corresponding cobalt(II) and manganese(III)- peroxo complexes. The reactivity of the cobalt-peroxo complexes in O2-transfer was also significantly dependent on the ring size of tetraazamacrocycles, and the reactivity order in the O2-transfer reactions was the same as that observed in the aldehyde oxidation reactions. PMID:21062059

  16. Bis[bis-(penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt(III)] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate(II) di-chloro-methane disolvate.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph S; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra-hydro-furan. There are two deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di-chloro-methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di-chloro-methane mol-ecules display significant C-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4](-2) ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis.

  17. Toxic effects of hexaammine cobalt(III) chloride on liver and kidney in mice: Implication of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Naura, Amarjit S; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2009-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride is a trivalent complex cation of Co(III) and amine that has previously been shown to act as an inhibitor of insulin secretion, radiosensitizing agent, and an antiviral agent. We have recently reported the anticancer potential of the compound against diethylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in mice. However, there is no report on the potential toxicity of the compound. The present study was conducted to evaluate the tissue distribution of the compound and its potential toxicity following acute administration of the compound through intraperitoneal route in Balb/c mice. Our results showed that cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney, followed by liver, spleen, blood, and lung in a decreasing order and in a dose-dependent manner. Evaluation of liver and kidney function tests revealed that the compound exerted a relatively higher toxicity in kidney, as compared to liver, as evidenced by the sharp enhancement in the serum levels of urea and creatinine in a dose-dependent manner. Examination of levels of lipid peroxidation and selected oxidative stress-related parameters in kidney, liver, and lung suggest that higher accumulation of cobalt in kidney may promote higher oxidative stress in the organ, as compared to liver and lung, which may eventually impair kidney function.

  18. Sintered diamond compacts using metallic cobalt binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, W. F.; Katzman, H.

    1972-01-01

    Method is developed for sintering diamond powder which uses metallic cobalt as binder. Present samples show maximum microhardness of over 3000 kg/sq mm on Knoop scale. Material may be used as hard surface coating or may compete with cubic boron nitride as abrasive grain.

  19. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1 nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  20. Evidence of Formation of Superdense Nonmagnetic Cobalt

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Satpati, B.; Roy, A.; Basu, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the presence of 3d transition metals in the Earth’s core, magnetism of these materials in their dense phases has been a topic of great interest. Theory predicts a dense face-centred-cubic phase of cobalt, which would be nonmagnetic. However, this dense nonmagnetic cobalt has not yet been observed. Recent investigations in thin film polycrystalline materials have shown the formation of compressive stress, which can increase the density of materials. We have discovered the existence of ultrathin superdense nonmagnetic cobalt layers in a polycrystalline cobalt thin film. The densities of these layers are about 1.2–1.4 times the normal density of Co. This has been revealed by X-ray reflectometry experiments, and corroborated by polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) experiments. Transmission electron microscopy provides further evidence. The magnetic depth profile, obtained by PNR, shows that the superdense Co layers near the top of the film and at the film-substrate interface are nonmagnetic. The major part of the Co film has the usual density and magnetic moment. These results indicate the possibility of existence of nonmagnetic Co in the earth’s core under high pressure. PMID:28157186

  1. Evidence of Formation of Superdense Nonmagnetic Cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Satpati, B.; Roy, A.; Basu, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-02-01

    Because of the presence of 3d transition metals in the Earth’s core, magnetism of these materials in their dense phases has been a topic of great interest. Theory predicts a dense face-centred-cubic phase of cobalt, which would be nonmagnetic. However, this dense nonmagnetic cobalt has not yet been observed. Recent investigations in thin film polycrystalline materials have shown the formation of compressive stress, which can increase the density of materials. We have discovered the existence of ultrathin superdense nonmagnetic cobalt layers in a polycrystalline cobalt thin film. The densities of these layers are about 1.2–1.4 times the normal density of Co. This has been revealed by X-ray reflectometry experiments, and corroborated by polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) experiments. Transmission electron microscopy provides further evidence. The magnetic depth profile, obtained by PNR, shows that the superdense Co layers near the top of the film and at the film-substrate interface are nonmagnetic. The major part of the Co film has the usual density and magnetic moment. These results indicate the possibility of existence of nonmagnetic Co in the earth’s core under high pressure.

  2. Localized comedo formation after cobalt irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Myskowski, P.L.; Safai, B.

    1981-10-01

    Following Cobalt-60 irradiation for a left frontotemporal tumor, a 61-year-old woman developed comedones on the forehead. These changes responded to conventional acne therapy with retinoic acid. Multiple acneigenic factors were implicated in the pathogenesis of her lesions.

  3. Hardfacing with cobalt and nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.B.C. ); Redman, J. , Los Angles, CA )

    1994-09-01

    The use of cobalt or nickel alloys for added wear resistance was initiated in the early 1900s with the development of the cobalt-chromium-tungsten family of alloys. The cobalt alloys were called the Stellite'' because of their bright, shiny, nontarnished appearance. Further development and characterization of this alloy system established its usage in unlubricated metal-to-metal contact or erosion by high-velocity fluid or solid particulate impingement. Initially, the alloys were used as solid castings but later were applied by welding to tougher or more ductile substrates, hence the birth of the hardfacing industry. Many of the original Stellite compositions are still in use, but many others, including the nickel and iron alloys, have been developed for special applications or for use by newer application procedures. Examining the microstructural features and wear properties of these families of hardfacing alloys can help in choosing the right alloy for the job. Various cobalt and nickel alloys, their available product forms and the corresponding hardfacing methods, are reviewed in this article.

  4. Water splitting: Taking cobalt in isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable production of hydrogen is key to the delivery of clean energy in a hydrogen economy; however, lower-cost alternatives to platinum electrocatalysts are needed. Now, isolated, earth-abundant cobalt atoms dispersed over nitrogen-doped graphene are shown to efficiently electrolyse water to generate hydrogen.

  5. Sol-gel entrapped cobalt complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Omar J. de; Papacidero, Andrea T.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Sacco, Herica C.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L

    2003-03-15

    This work describes optimized conditions for preparation of a cobalt complex entrapped in alumina amorphous materials in the form of powder. The hybrid materials, CoNHG, were obtained by a nonhydrolytic sol-gel route through condensation of aluminum chloride with diisopropylether in the presence of cobalt chloride. The materials were calcined at various temperatures. The presence of cobalt entrapped in the alumina matrix is confirmed by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analyses (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared alumina matrix materials are amorphous, even after heat treatment up to 750 deg. C. The XRD, TGA/DTA and TEM data support the increase of sample crystallization with increasing temperature. The specific surface area, pore size and pore diameter changed as a function of the heat treatment temperature employed. Different heat treatment temperatures result in materials with different compositions and structures, and influence their catalytic activity. The entrapped cobalt materials calcined at 750 deg. C efficiently catalyzed the epoxidation of (Z)-cyclooctene using iodozylbenzene as the oxygen donor.

  6. Phase equilibria in the iron oxide-cobalt oxide-phosphorus oxide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Prasanna, T. R. S.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel ternary compounds are noted in the present study of 1000 C solid-state equilibria in the Fe-Co-P-O system's Fe2O3-FePO4-Co3(Po4)2-CoO region: CoFe(PO4)O, which undergoes incongruent melting at 1130 C, and Co3Fe4(PO4)6, whose incongruent melting occurs at 1080 C. The liquidus behavior-related consequences of rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite formation from cobalt ferrite-phosphate melts are discussed with a view to spinel formation. It is suggested that quenching from within the spinel-plus-liquid region may furnish an alternative to quenching a homogeneous melt.

  7. Preparation of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts from cobalt/iron hydrotalcites

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.H.; Boff, J.J.; Zarochak, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Compounds with the (hydrotalcites) have properties that make them attractive as precursors for Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. A series of single-phase hydrotalcites with cobalt/iron atom ratios ranging from 75/25 to 25/75 has been synthesized. Mixed cobalt/iron oxides have been prepared from these hydrotalcites by controlled thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition at temperatures below 600 {degrees}C typically produced a single-phase mixed metal oxide with a spinel structure. The BET surface areas of the spinal samples have been found to be as high as about 150 m{sup 2}/g. Appropriate reducing pretreatments have been developed for several of these spinels and their activity, selectivity, and activity and selectivity maintenance have been examined at 13 MPa in a fixed-bed microreactor.

  8. Heteroatom-free arene-cobalt and arene-iron catalysts for hydrogenations.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Dominik; Welther, Alice; Rad, Babak Rezaei; Wolf, Robert; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel

    2014-04-01

    75 years after the discovery of hydroformylation, cobalt catalysts are now undergoing a renaissance in hydrogenation reactions. We have evaluated arene metalates in which the low-valent metal species is--conceptually different from heteroatom-based ligands--stabilized by π coordination to hydrocarbons. Potassium bis(anthracene)cobaltate 1 and -ferrate 2 can be viewed as synthetic precursors of quasi-"naked" anionic metal species; their aggregation is effectively impeded by (labile) coordination to the various π acceptors present in the hydrogenation reactions of unsaturated molecules (alkenes, arenes, carbonyl compounds). Kinetic studies, NMR spectroscopy, and poisoning studies of alkene hydrogenations support the formation of a homogeneous catalyst derived from 1 which is stabilized by the coordination of alkenes. This catalyst concept complements the use of complexes with heteroatom donor ligands for reductive processes.

  9. Aging effects on cobalt availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Laura A; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Aging processes in soils can significantly affect the potential biological availability of introduced metals via incorporation into crystal lattices, diffusion into micropores, or formation of metal precipitates on the surfaces of soil minerals. Over time, metals in contact with the soil solid phase are less freely exchangeable with the soil solution and, hence, less available to soil biota. In the present study, the effects of aging on the fate and behavior of added divalent cobalt (Co2+) in a range of soils with varying physicochemical characteristics was assessed using isotope-exchange techniques, chemical extraction, and plant growth. Following addition to soil, the Co2+ salt rapidly partitioned to the soil solid phase. Particularly in soils with neutral to alkaline pH, a large percentage of the surface-bound Co was fixed in forms no longer in equilibrium with soil solution cobalt through aging reactions. Using techniques commonly applied to estimate metal bioavailability in soil, the lability (E values), plant availability (L values), and extractability of added Co2+ salts with the mild chemical extractants calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) were observed to markedly decrease with time, particularly in soils with high pH or those containing appreciable quantities of iron/ manganese oxyhydroxide minerals. Results indicated rapid partitioning of added Co2+ into isotopically nonexchangeable pools, with more than 60% of the aging occurring within 15 d in most soils. Soil pH was the primary factor controlling the rate of cobalt aging and extent of exchangeability in the soils examined. Understanding the influence of long-term aging on cobalt availability in soils is necessary to accurately assess the potential risk associated with cobalt contamination of soil environments.

  10. Reducing the cobalt inventory in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ocken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Reducing the cobalt content of materials used in nuclear power plants is one approach to controlling the radiation fields responsible for occupational radiation exposure; corrosion of steam generator tubing is the primary source in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Wear of the cobalt-base alloys used to hardface valves (especially feedwater regulator valves) and as pins and rollers in control blades are the primary boiling water reactor (BWR) sources. Routine valve maintenance can also be a significant source of cobalt. Wear, mechanical property, and corrosion measurements led to the selection of Nitronic-60/CFA and PH 13-8 Mo/Inconel X-750 as low-cobalt alloys for use as pin/roller combinations. These alloys are currently being tested in two commercial BWRs. Measurements show that Type 440C stainless steel wears less than the cobalt-base alloys in BWR feedwater regulator valves. Sliding wear tests performed at room temperature in simulated PWR water showed that Colmonoy 74 and 84, Deloro 40, and Vertx 4776 are attractive low-cobalt hardfacing alloys if the applied loads are less than or equal to103 MPa. The cobalt-base alloys performed best at high loads (207 MPa). Ongoing laboratory studies address the development and evaluation of cobalt-free iron-base hardfacing alloys and seek to improve the wear resistance of cobalt-base alloys by using lasers. Reducing cobalt impurity levels in core components that are periodically discharged should also help reduce radiation fields and disposal costs.

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of the Linear-Chain Cobalt Oxide Sr 5Pb 3CoO 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, K.; Huang, Q.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2002-02-01

    The novel spin-chain cobalt oxide Sr5Pb3CoO12 [Poverline6×2m, a=10.1093(2) Å and c=3.562 51(9) Å at 295 K] is reported. A polycrystalline sample of the compound was studied by neutron diffraction (at 6 and 295 K) and magnetic susceptibility measurements (5 to 390 K). The cobalt oxide was found to be analogous to the copper oxide Sr5Pb3CuO12, which is comprised of magnetic-linear chains at an interchain distance of 10 Å. Although the cobalt oxide chains (μeff of 3.64 μB per Co) are substantially antiferromagnetic (θW=-38.8 K), neither low-dimensional magnetism nor long-range ordering has been found; a local-structure disorder in the chains might have an impact on the magnetism. This compound is highly electrically insulating.

  12. Physical and electrochemical study of cobalt oxide nano- and microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Alburquenque, D.; Vargas, E.; Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J.; Marco, J.F.; Gautier, J.L.

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt oxide nanocrystals of size 17–21 nm were synthesized by a simple reaction between cobalt acetate (II) and dodecylamine. On the other hand, micrometric Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared using the ceramic method. The structural examination of these materials was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). XRD studies showed that the oxides were pure, well-crystallized, spinel cubic phases with a-cell parameter of 0.8049 nm and 0.8069 nm for the nano and micro-oxide, respectively. The average particle size was 19 nm (nano-oxide) and 1250 μm (micro-oxide). Morphological studies carried out by SEM and TEM analyses have shown the presence of octahedral particles in both cases. Bulk and surface properties investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), point zero charge (pzc), FTIR and cyclic voltammetry indicated that there were no significant differences in the composition on both materials. The magnetic behavior of the samples was determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The compounds showed paramagnetic character and no coercivity and remanence in all cases. Galvanostatic measurements of electrodes formed with nanocrystals showed better performance than those built with micrometric particles. - Highlights: • Spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and microparticles with same structure but with different cell parameters, particle size and surface area were synthesized. • Oxide nanoparticles showed better electrochemical behavior than micrometric ones due to area effect.

  13. Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured Lanthanum Cobalt Ferrite Mixed Metal Oxides by Sol-Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresita, V. Mary; Jeseentharani, V.; Josephine, B. Avila; Antony, S. Arul

    2013-04-01

    Properties of nanoscale materials are very interesting and these are either comparable to or superior to those of bulk. These materials are interesting due to their exciting size dependent optical, electronic, magnetic, thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. Different mole ratios of nanostructured mixed metal oxides of LaCoxFe1-xO3-δ (x = 0 to 1) were prepared by the sol-gel method by varying the mole ratios of iron and cobalt substrates. The compounds were sintered for 700°C in the tubular furnace for 8 h. The purity of the compounds was analyzed by TG-DTA. The compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were employed to study the structural phases, vibrational frequencies, surface morphology of the highest humidity sensing compounds.

  14. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Yu. M. Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-15

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH){sub 2}]{sup +} cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network.

  15. Effects of cobalt precursor on pyrolyzed carbon-supported cobalt-polypyrrole as electrocatalyst toward oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A series of non-precious metal electrocatalysts, namely pyrolyzed carbon-supported cobalt-polypyrrole, Co-PPy-TsOH/C, are synthesized with various cobalt precursors, including cobalt acetate, cobalt nitrate, cobalt oxalate, and cobalt chloride. The catalytic performance towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is comparatively investigated with electrochemical techniques of cyclic voltammogram, rotating disk electrode and rotating ring-disk electrode. The results are analyzed and discussed employing physiochemical techniques of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, elemental analysis, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It shows that the cobalt precursor plays an essential role on the synthesis process as well as microstructure and performance of the Co-PPy-TsOH/C catalysts towards ORR. Among the studied Co-PPy-TsOH/C catalysts, that prepared with cobalt acetate exhibits the best ORR performance. The crystallite/particle size of cobalt and its distribution as well as the graphitization degree of carbon in the catalyst greatly affects the catalytic performance of Co-PPy-TsOH/C towards ORR. Metallic cobalt is the main component in the active site in Co-PPy-TsOH/C for catalyzing ORR, but some other elements such as nitrogen are probably involved, too. PMID:24229351

  16. RADIOLYSIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ADSORBED STATE

    DOEpatents

    Sutherland, J.W.; Allen, A.O.

    1961-10-01

    >A method of forming branch chained hydrocarbons by means of energetic penetrating radiation is described. A solid zeolite substrate is admixed with a cobalt ion and is irradiated with a hydrocarbon adsorbed therein. Upon irradiation with gamma rays, there is an increased yield of branched and lower molecular straight chain compounds. (AEC)

  17. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Nanoporous Cobalt Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunming; Nori, Sudhakar; Wei, Wei; Aggarwal, Ravi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Narayan, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous cobalt thin films were deposited on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes at room temperature using pulsed laser deposition. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoporous cobalt thin films retained the monodisperse pore size and high porosity of the anodized aluminum oxide substrates. Temperature- and field-dependent magnetic data obtained between 10 K and 350 K showed large hysteresis behavior in these materials. The increase of coercivity values was larger for nanoporous cobalt thin films than for multilayered cobalt/alumina thin films. The average diameter of the cobalt nanograins in the nanoporous cobalt thin films was estimated to be ~5 nm for blocking temperatures near room temperature. These results suggest that pulsed laser deposition may be used to fabricate nanoporous magnetic materials with unusual properties for biosensing, drug delivery, data storage, and other technological applications. PMID:19198344

  18. Reversible carbon-carbon bond formation induced by oxidation and reduction at a redox-active cobalt complex.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Crisita Carmen Hojilla; Milsmann, Carsten; Semproni, Scott P; Turner, Zoë R; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-05-06

    The electronic structure of the diamagnetic pyridine imine enamide cobalt dinitrogen complex, ((iPr)PIEA)CoN2 ((iPr)PIEA = 2-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3N═CMe)-6-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3NC═CH2)C5H3N), was determined and is best described as a low-spin cobalt(II) complex antiferromagnetically coupled to an imine radical anion. Addition of potential radical sources such as NO, PhSSPh, or Ph3Cl resulted in C-C coupling at the enamide positions to form bimetallic cobalt compounds. Treatment with the smaller halocarbon, PhCH2Cl, again induced C-C coupling to form a bimetallic bis(imino)pyridine cobalt chloride product but also yielded a monomeric cobalt chloride product where the benzyl group added to the enamide carbon. Similar cooperative metal-ligand addition was observed upon treatment of ((iPr)PIEA)CoN2 with CH2═CHCH2Br, which resulted in allylation of the enamide carbon. Reduction of Coupled-((iPr)PDI)CoCl (Coupled-((iPr)PDI)CoCl = [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3N═CMe)-C5H3N-6-(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3N═CCH2-)CoCl]2) with NaBEt3H led to quantitative formation of ((iPr)PIEA)CoN2, demonstrating the reversibility of the C-C bond forming reactions. The electronic structures of each of the bimetallic cobalt products were also elucidated by a combination of experimental and computational methods.

  19. Single-ion magnet behaviour in mononuclear and two-dimensional dicyanamide-containing cobalt(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Switlicka-Olszewska, Anna; Palion-Gazda, Joanna; Klemens, Tomasz; Machura, Barbara; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2016-06-21

    Three cobalt(ii) complexes of formulae [Co(dca)2(bim)4] (), [Co(dca)2(bim)2]n () and [Co(dca)2(bmim)2]n () [dca = dicyanamide, bim = 1-benzylimidazole and bmim = 1-benzyl-2-methylimidazole] were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound is a mononuclear species where the cobalt(ii) ion is six-coordinate with four bim molecules in the equatorial positions [Co-Nbim = 2.1546(15) and 2.1489(15) Å] and two trans-positioned dca ligands [Co-Ndca = 2.1575(18) Å] in the axial sites of a somewhat distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of and consist of two-dimensional grids of cobalt(ii) ions where each metal atom is linked to the other four metal centres by single dca bridges exhibiting the μ1,5-dca coordination mode [Co-Ndca = 2.190(3)-2.220(3) () and 2.127(3)-2.153(3) Å ()]. Two trans-coordinated bim ()/bmim () molecules achieve the six-coordination around each cobalt(ii) ion [Co-Nbim = 2.128(3)-2.134(4) Å () and Co-Nbmim = 2.156(3)-2.163(39) Å ()]. The values of the cobalt-cobalt separation through the single dca bridges are 8.927(2) and 8.968(2) Å in and 8.7110(5) and 8.7158(5) Å in . Magnetic susceptibility measurements for in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K reveal that these compounds behave as magnetically isolated high-spin cobalt(ii) ions with a significant orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements for show a frequency dependence of out-of-phase susceptibility under static applied fields in the range of 500-2500 G, a feature which is characteristic of the single-ion magnet behaviour (SIM) of the Co(ii) ion in them. The values of the energy barrier for the magnetic relaxation (Ea) are 5.45-7.74 (), 4.53-9.24 () and 11.48-15.44 cm(-1) (). They compare well with those previously reported for the analogous dca-bridged 2D compound [Co(dca)2(atz)2]n () (Ea = 5.1 cm(-1) under an applied static field of 1000 G), which was the subject of a

  20. Impedance spectroscopic characterization of gadolinium substituted cobalt ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md. T. Ramana, C. V.

    2014-10-28

    Gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFGO) with variable Gd content (x = 0.0–0.4) have been synthesized by solid state ceramic method. The crystal structure and impedance properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFGO crystallize in the inverse spinel phase. The CFGO compounds exhibit lattice expansion due to substitution of larger Gd ions into the crystal lattice. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was performed under a wide range of frequency (f = 20 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (T = 303–573 K). Electrical properties of Gd incorporated Co ferrite ceramics are enhanced compared to pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to the lattice distortion. Impedance spectroscopic analysis illustrates the variation of bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions towards the electrical resistance and capacitance of CFGO materials with temperature. A two-layer heterogeneous model consisting of moderately conducting grain interior (ferrite-phase) regions separated by insulating grain boundaries (resistive-phase) accurately account for the observed temperature and frequency dependent electrical characteristic of CFGO ceramics.

  1. Cobalt metabolism and toxicology--a brief update.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Harbak, Henrik; Bennekou, Poul

    2012-08-15

    Cobalt metabolism and toxicology are summarized. The biological functions of cobalt are updated in the light of recent understanding of cobalt interference with the sensing in almost all animal cells of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Cobalt (Co(2+)) stabilizes the transcriptional activator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and thus mimics hypoxia and stimulates erythropoietin (Epo) production, but probably also by the same mechanism induces a coordinated up-regulation of a number of adaptive responses to hypoxia, many with potential carcinogenic effects. This means on the other hand that cobalt (Co(2+)) also may have beneficial effects under conditions of tissue hypoxia, and possibly can represent an alternative to hypoxic preconditioning. Cobalt is acutely toxic in larger doses, and in mammalian in vitro test systems cobalt ions and cobalt metal are cytotoxic and induce apoptosis and at higher concentrations necrosis with inflammatory response. Cobalt metal and salts are also genotoxic, mainly caused by oxidative DNA damage by reactive oxygen species, perhaps combined with inhibition of DNA repair. Of note, the evidence for carcinogenicity of cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate is considered sufficient in experimental animals, but is as yet considered inadequate in humans. Interestingly, some of the toxic effects of cobalt (Co(2+)) have recently been proposed to be due to putative inhibition of Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+)-signaling and competition with Ca(2+) for intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins. The tissue partitioning of cobalt (Co(2+)) and its time-dependence after administration of a single dose have been studied in man, but mainly in laboratory animals. Cobalt is accumulated primarily in liver, kidney, pancreas, and heart, with the relative content in skeleton and skeletal muscle increasing with time after cobalt administration. In man the renal excretion is initially rapid but decreasing over the first days, followed by a second, slow phase lasting several weeks

  2. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  3. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  4. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  5. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4H6O4, CoCl2, and CoSO4.They have been used in...

  6. Creep-fatigue of low cobalt superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Testing for the low cycle fatigue and creep fatigue resistance of superalloys containing reduced amounts of cobalt is described. The test matrix employed involves a single high temperature appropriate for each alloy. A single total strain range, again appropriate to each alloy, is used in conducting strain controlled, low cycle, creep fatigue tests. The total strain range is based upon the level of straining that results in about 10,000 cycles to failure in a high frequency (0.5 Hz) continuous strain-cycling fatigue test. No creep is expected to occur in such a test. To bracket the influence of creep on the cyclic strain resistance, strain hold time tests with ore minute hold periods are introduced. One test per composition is conducted with the hold period in tension only, one in compression only, and one in both tension and compression. The test temperatures, alloys, and their cobalt compositions that are under study are given.

  7. Gamma europium- and cobalt-sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klochkov, E.P.; Risovany, V.D.; Ponomarenko, B.V.

    1993-12-31

    The double-purpose control rods of nuclear reactors were made in which the inserts containing cobalt and europium oxide with natural {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu content were used as an absorbing core. The mass content of europium oxide is to exceed 15% to provide for a necessary reactivity. Cobalt and europium radionuclides were shown to be accumulated during the reactor operation allowing the inserts to be used as gamma sources after unloading of control rods at large commercial plants for radiation processing of different materials. Shape, geometry and composition of inserts were optimized allowing their specific activity to be obtained above 2 x 10 Bq/g (about 60 Ci/g). The spectral activity and radiation resistance of gamma sources were studied.

  8. Cobalt contraction of vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Dominiczak, A.; Clyde, E.; Bohr, D. )

    1991-03-11

    Although it has been reported that cobalt causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism responsible for this contraction has not been defined. The authors studied these contractions in rat aortic rings. Concentration-response studies indicated that the threshold for contraction was 10{sup {minus}8}M, maximum contraction occurred at 3 {times} 10{sup 7}M and relaxation began at 10{sup {minus}6}M. No contraction occurred in a calcium-free physiological salt solution and the contraction was not inhibited by H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. The authors conclude the cobalt in low concentrations causes contraction by activating calcium channels and that in high concentrations it causes relaxation by inactivating these same channels.

  9. Are cobaltates conventional? An ARPES viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.Z. . E-mail: mzhasan@Princeton.edu; Qian, D.; Foo, M.L.; Cava, R.J.

    2006-07-15

    Recently discovered class of cobaltate superconductors (Na{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O) is a novel realization of interacting quantum electron system in a triangular network with low-energy degrees of freedom. We employ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the quasiparticle parameters in the parent superconductors. Results reveal a large hole-like Fermi surface generated by the crossing of heavy quasiparticles. The measured quasiparticle parameters collectively suggest two orders of magnitude departure from the conventional weak coupling (such as Al) Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer electron dynamics paradigm and unveils cobaltates as a rather hidden class of relatively high temperature superconductors. These parameters also form the basis for a microscopic Hamiltonian of the system.

  10. High-Spin Cobalt Hydrides for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Patrick L.

    2013-08-29

    Organometallic chemists have traditionally used catalysts with strong-field ligands that give low-spin complexes. However, complexes with a weak ligand field have weaker bonds and lower barriers to geometric changes, suggesting that they may lead to more rapid catalytic reactions. Developing our understanding of high-spin complexes requires the use of a broader range of spectroscopic techniques, but has the promise of changing the mechanism and/or selectivity of known catalytic reactions. These changes may enable the more efficient utilization of chemical resources. A special advantage of cobalt and iron catalysts is that the metals are more abundant and cheaper than those currently used for major industrial processes that convert unsaturated organic molecules and biofeedstocks into useful chemicals. This project specifically evaluated the potential of high-spin cobalt complexes for small-molecule reactions for bond rearrangement and cleavage reactions relevant to hydrocarbon transformations. We have learned that many of these reactions proceed through crossing to different spin states: for example, high-spin complexes can flip one electron spin to access a lower-energy reaction pathway for beta-hydride elimination. This reaction enables new, selective olefin isomerization catalysis. The high-spin cobalt complexes also cleave the C-O bond of CO2 and the C-F bonds of fluoroarenes. In each case, the detailed mechanism of the reaction has been determined. Importantly, we have discovered that the cobalt catalysts described here give distinctive selectivities that are better than known catalysts. These selectivities come from a synergy between supporting ligand design and electronic control of the spin-state crossing in the reactions.

  11. Cobalt Complexes as Antiviral and Antibacterial Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    keratitis, one of the major causes of blindness in industrial nations [9]. Studies using the CTC class of drugs were performed using a rabbit eye model...CTC-96 inhibits membrane fusion events preventing virus entry, CTC-96 inhibited plaque formation by VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus) and VZV...antibacterial properties of cobalt complexes have appeared in the literature, with Co(II) complexes being the most studied , presumably due to their

  12. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  13. Hot corrosion of low cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The hot corrosion attack susceptibility of various alloys as a function of strategic materials content are investigated. Preliminary results were obtained for two commercial alloys, UDIMET 700 and Mar-M 247, that were modified by varying the cobalt content. For both alloys the cobalt content was reduced in steps to zero. Nickel content was increased accordingly to make up for the reduced cobalt but all other constituents were held constant. Wedge bar test samples were produced by casting. The hot corrosion test consisted of cyclically exposing samples to the high velocity flow of combustion products from an air-fuel burner fueled with jet A-1 and seeded with a sodium chloride aqueous solution. The flow velocity was Mach 0.5 and the sodium level was maintained at 0.5 ppm in terms of fuel plus air. The test cycle consisted of holding the test samples at 900 C for 1 hour followed by 3 minutes in which the sample could cool to room temperature in an ambient temperature air stream.

  14. Influence of artificial gastric juice composition on bioaccessibility of cobalt- and tungsten-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Harvey, Christopher J; Sbarra, Deborah C; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    The dissolution of metal-containing particles in the gastric compartment is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of artificial gastric juice chemical composition on bioaccessibility of metals associated with ingestion-based health concerns. Dissolution rates were evaluated for well-characterized feedstock cobalt, tungsten metal, and tungsten carbide powders, chemically bonded pre-sintered (spray dryer material) and post-sintered (chamfer grinder) cemented tungsten carbide materials, and an admixture of pure cobalt and pure tungsten carbide, prepared by mechanically blending the two feedstock powders. Dissolution of each study material was evaluated in three different formulations of artificial gastric juice (from simplest to most chemically complex): American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Approximately 20% of cobalt dissolved in the first dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.02 days) and the remaining 80% was released in the second long-term dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.5 to 1 days). Artificial gastric juice chemical composition did not influence dissolution rate constant values (k, g/cm(2)day) of cobalt powder, either alone or as an admixture. Approximately 100% of the tungsten and tungsten carbide that dissolved was released in a single dissolution phase; k-values of each material differed significantly in the solvents: NIOSH > ASTM > USP (p<0.05). The k-values of cobalt and tungsten carbide in pre- and post-sintered cemented tungsten carbide powders were significantly different from values for the pure feedstock powders. Solvent composition had little influence on oral bioaccessibility of highly soluble cobalt and our data support consideration of the oral exposure route as a contributing pathway to total-body exposure. Solvent composition appeared to influence bioaccessibility of the low soluble tungsten compounds, though

  15. Amorphous cobalt potassium phosphate microclusters as efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Chunsong; Dai, Xuezeng; Lin, Hong; Cui, Bai; Li, Jianbao

    2013-12-01

    A novel amorphous cobalt potassium phosphate hydrate compound (KCoPO4·H2O) is identified to be active photocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to facilitate hydrogen generation from water photolysis. It has been synthesized through a facile and cost-effective solution-based precipitation method using earth-abundant materials. Its highly porous structure and large surface areas are found to be responsible for the excellent electrochemical performance featuring a low OER onset at ˜550 mVSCE and high current density in alkaline condition. Unlike traditional cobalt-based spinel oxides (Co3O4, NiCo2O4) and phosphate (Co-Pi, Co(PO3)2) electrocatalysts, with proper energy band alignment for light-assisted water oxidation, cobalt potassium phosphate hydrate also exhibits robust visible-light response, generating a photocurrent density of ˜200 μA cm-2 at 0.7 VSCE. This catalyst could thus be considered as a promising candidate to perform photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  16. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  17. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-02-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. -- Highlights: ► Decreased survival following simultaneous exposure to NiCl{sub 2} and CoCl{sub 2}. ► Enhanced caspase and PARP cleavage following co-exposure. ► Increased formation of ROS in dual exposed cells. ► N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment decreases Co and Ni toxicity. ► Co-exposure to Ni and Co enhances the formation of double

  18. Thermal properties of rare earth cobalt oxides and of La1- x Gd x CoO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yu. S.; Dudnikov, V. A.; Gorev, M. V.; Vereshchagin, S. N.; Solov'ev, L. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction data for the crystal structure, phase composition, and molar specific heat for La1‒ x Gd x CoO3 cobaltites in the temperature range of 300-1000 K have been analyzed. The behavior of the volume thermal expansion coefficient in cobaltites with isovalent doping in the temperature range of 100-1000 K is studied. It is found that the β( T) curve exhibits two peaks at some doping levels. The rate of the change in the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions is calculated for the compounds under study taking into account the spin-orbit interaction. With the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, it is demonstrated that the low-temperature peak in the thermal expansion shifts with the growth of the pressure toward higher temperatures and at pressure P ˜ 7 GPa coincides with the second peak. The similarity in the behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient in the La1- x Gd x CoO3 compounds with the isovalent substitution and the undoped LnCoO3 compound (Ln is a lanthanide) is considered. For the whole series of rare earth cobalt oxides, the nature of two specific features in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and thermal expansion is revealed and their relation to the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions and to the insulator-metal transition is established.

  19. Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kazantzis, G

    1981-01-01

    The possible carcinogenicity of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium is reviewed, taking into account epidemiological data, the results of animal experimental studies, data on mutagenic effects and on other in vitro test systems. Of the great variety of occupations where exposure to one of these metals may occur, only haematite mining has been clearly shown to involve an increased human cancer risk. While the possibility that haematite might in some way act as a carcinogen has to be taken into consideration it is more likely that other carcinogens are responsible. Certain platinum coordination complexes are used in cancer chemotherapy, are mutagenic, and likely to be carcinogenic. Cobalt, its oxide and sulfide, certain lead salts, one organomanganese, and one organotitanium compound have been shown to have a limited carcinogenic effect in experimental animal studies, and except for titanium appear to be mutagenic. Certain mercury compounds are mutagenic but none have been shown to be carcinogenic. The presently available data are inadequate to assess the possible carcinogenicity of selenium compounds, but a few observations suggest that selenium may suppress the effect of other carcinogens administered to experimental animals and may even be associated with lower cancer mortality rates in man. Epidemiological observations are essential for the assessment of a human cancer risk, but the difficulty in collecting past exposure data in occupational groups and the complexity of multiple occupational exposures with changes over time, limits the usefulness of retrospective epidemiological studies. PMID:7023929

  20. Complex materials for molecular spintronics applications: cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomers, from molecules to polymers.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Chen, Yifeng; Lewis, Geoffrey F; Dougherty, Daniel B; Shultz, David; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno

    2012-11-01

    Using first principles calculations, we predict a complex multifunctional behavior in cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomeric compounds. Molecular spin-state switching is shown to dramatically alter electronic properties and corresponding transport properties. This spin state dependence has been demonstrated for technologically relevant coordination polymers of valence tautomers as well as for novel conjugated polymers with valence tautomeric functionalization. As a result, these materials are proposed as promising candidates for spintronic devices that can couple magnetic bistability with novel electrical and spin conduction properties. Our findings pave the way to the fundamental understanding and future design of active multifunctional organic materials for spintronics applications.

  1. Cobalt(II) sheet-like systems based on diacetic ligands: from subtle structural variances to different magnetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Oscar; Pasán, Jorge; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Delgado, Fernando S; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2009-07-06

    The preparation, X-ray crystallography, and magnetic investigation of the compounds [Co(H(2)O)(2)(phda)](n) (1), [Co(phda)](n) (2), and [Co(chda)](n) (3) [H(2)phda = 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid and H(2)chda = 1,1-cyclohexanediacetic acid] are described herein. The cobalt atoms in this series are six- (1) and four-coordinated (2 and 3) in distorted octahedral (CoO(6)) and tetrahedral (CoO(4)) environments. The structures of 1-3 consists of rectangular-grids which are built up by sheets of cobalt atoms linked through anti-syn carboxylate bridges, giving rise to either a three-dimensional structure across the phenyl ring (1 and 2) or to regularly stacked layers with the cyclohexyl groups acting as organic separators (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 were investigated as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. Ferromagnetic coupling between the six-coordinate cobalt(II) ions across the anti-syn carboxylate bridge occurs in 1 (J = +1.2 cm(-1)) whereas antiferromagnetic coupling among the tetrahedral cobalt(II) centers within the sheets is observed in 2 and 3 [J = -1.63 (2) and -1.70 cm(-1) (3)] together with a spin-canted structure in 3 giving rise a long-range magnetic ordering (T(c) = 7.5 K).

  2. A Raney-cobalt-mediated tandem reductive cyclization route to the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole framework of the uleine and Strychnos alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Reekie, Tristan A; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2012-12-07

    The readily accessible enones 8, 17, and 18 undergo 2-fold reductive cyclization reactions upon exposure to hydrogen in the presence of Raney-cobalt and thereby afford compounds 11 (72%), 19 (47%), and 20 (84%), respectively. These products embody the ABCD-ring system associated with the title alkaloids, and compound 11 can be converted, over four steps and in 33% yield, into congener 24 incorporating the ABCDE-ring system of the Strychnos alkaloids.

  3. The role of cobalt on the creep of Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Chin, L.; Tien, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Cobalt was systematically replaced with nickel in Waspaloy (which normally contains 13% Co) to determine the effects of cobalt on the creep behavior of this alloy. Effects of cobalt were found to be minimal on tensile strengths and microstructure. The creep resistance and the stress rupture resistance determined in the range from 704 to 760 C (1300 to 1400 C) were found to decrease as cobalt was removed from the standard alloy at all stresses and temperatures. Roughly a ten-fold drop in rupture life and a corresponding increase in minimum creep rate were found under all test conditions. Both the apparent creep activation energy and the matrix contribution to creep resistance were found to increase with cobalt. These creep effects are attributed to cobalt lowering the stacking fault energy of the alloy matrix. The creep resistance loss due to the removal of cobalt is shown to be restored by slightly increasing the gamma' volume fraction. Results are compared to a previous study on Udimet 700, a higher strength, higher gamma' volume fraction alloy with similar phase chemistry, in which cobalt did not affect creep resistance. An explanation for this difference in behavior based on interparticle spacing and cross-slip is presented.

  4. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  5. Effect of cobalt on Escherichia coli metabolism and metalloporphyrin formation.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Tomas; Frerman, Frank E; Kraus, Jan P

    2011-04-01

    Toxicity in Escherichia coli resulting from high concentrations of cobalt has been explained by competition of cobalt with iron in various metabolic processes including Fe-S cluster assembly, sulfur assimilation, production of free radicals and reduction of free thiol pool. Here we present another aspect of increased cobalt concentrations in the culture medium resulting in the production of cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX), which was incorporated into heme proteins including membrane-bound cytochromes and an expressed human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). The presence of CoPPIX in cytochromes inhibited their electron transport capacity and resulted in a substantially decreased respiration. Bacterial cells adapted to the increased cobalt concentration by inducing a modified mixed acid fermentative pathway under aerobiosis. We capitalized on the ability of E. coli to insert cobalt into PPIX to carry out an expression of CoPPIX-substituted heme proteins. The level of CoPPIX-substitution increased with the number of passages of cells in a cobalt-containing medium. This approach is an inexpensive method to prepare cobalt-substituted heme proteins compared to in vitro enzyme reconstitution or in vivo replacement using metalloporphyrin heme analogs and seems to be especially suitable for complex heme proteins with an additional coenzyme, such as human CBS.

  6. Potential for cobalt recovery from lateritic ores in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cobalt is one of the 'critical metals' identified under the EU Raw Materials Initiative. Annually the global mine production of cobalt is around 55,000 tonnes,with Europe's industries consuming around 30% of that figure. Currently Europe produces around 27 tonnes of cobalt from mines in Finland although new capacity is planned. Co-bearing nickel laterite ores being mined in Greece, Macedonia and Kosovo where the cobalt is currently not being recovered (ores have typical analyses of 0.055% Co and >1% Ni,). These ores are currently treated directly in pyrometallurgical plants to recover the contained nickel and this process means there is no separate cobalt product produced. Hydrometallurgical treatment of mineralogically suitable laterite ores can recover the cobalt; for example Cuba recovers 3,500 tonnes of cobalt from its laterite mining operations, which are of a similar scale to the current European operations. Implementation of hydrometallurgical techniques is in its infancy in Europe with one deposit in Turkey planning to use atmospheric heap leaching to recover nickel and copper from oxide-dominated ores. More widespread implementation of these methods to mineralogically suitable ore types could unlock the highly significant undeveloped resources (with metal contents >0.04% Co and >1% Ni), which have been defined throughout the Balkans eastwards into Turkey. At a conservative estimate, this region has the potential to supply up to 30% of the EU cobalt requirements.

  7. Unconventional magnetisation texture in graphene/cobalt hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Vu, A. D.; Coraux, J.; Chen, G.; N’Diaye, A. T.; Schmid, A. K.; Rougemaille, N.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic domain structure and spin-dependent reflectivity measurements on cobalt thin films intercalated at the graphene/Ir(111) interface are investigated using spin-polarised low-energy electron microscopy. We find that graphene-covered cobalt films have surprising magnetic properties. Vectorial imaging of magnetic domains reveals an unusually gradual thickness-dependent spin reorientation transition, in which magnetisation rotates from out-of-the-film plane to the in-plane direction by less than 10° per cobalt monolayer. During this transition, cobalt films have a meandering spin texture, characterised by a complex, three-dimensional, wavy magnetisation pattern. In addition, spectroscopy measurements suggest that the electronic band structure of the unoccupied states is essentially spin-independent already a few electron-Volts above the vacuum level. These properties strikingly differ from those of pristine cobalt films and could open new prospects in surface magnetism. PMID:27114039

  8. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V.; Errandonea, D.

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  9. Microemulsion-mediated synthesis of cobalt (pure fcc and hexagonal phases) and cobalt-nickel alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Sharma, Shudhanshu; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Lofland, Samuel E; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2009-08-15

    By choosing appropriate microemulsion systems, hexagonal cobalt (Co) and cobalt-nickel (1:1) alloy nanoparticles have been obtained with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a cationic surfactant at 500 degrees C. This method thus stabilizes the hcp cobalt even at sizes (<10 nm) at which normally fcc cobalt is predicted to be stable. On annealing the hcp cobalt nanoparticles in H(2) at 700 degrees C we could transform them to fcc cobalt nanoparticles. Microscopy studies show the formation of spherical nanoparticles of hexagonal and cubic forms of cobalt and Co-Ni (1:1) alloy nanoparticles with the average size of 4, 8 and 20 nm, respectively. Electrochemical studies show that the catalytic property towards oxygen evolution is dependent on the applied voltage. At low voltage (less than 0.65 V) the Co (hexagonal) nanoparticles are superior to the alloy (Co-Ni) nanoparticles while above this voltage the alloy nanoparticles are more efficient catalysts. The nanoparticles of cobalt (hcp and fcc) and alloy (Co-Ni) nanoparticles show ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetization of Co-Ni nanoparticles is reduced compared to the bulk possibly due to surface oxidation.

  10. Immobilization of cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes on polystyrene resin and a study of their catalytic activity for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Jain, Suman; Reiser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed [3+2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition and the Staudinger ligation are readily applicable and highly efficient for the immobilization of cobalt Schiff base complexes onto polystyrene resins. Stepwise synthesis of polymer-bound Schiff bases followed by their subsequent complexation with metal ions were successfully carried out. Direct covalent attachment of preformed homogeneous cobalt Schiff base complexes to the resins was also possible. The catalytic efficiency of the so-prepared polystyrene-bound cobalt Schiff bases was studied for the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The immobilized complexes were highly efficient and even more reactive than the corresponding homogenous analogues, thus affording better yields of oxidized products within shorter reaction times. The supported catalysts could easily be recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reused for subsequent experiments with consistent catalytic activity.

  11. Assembly of two layered cobalt-molybdenum phosphates: Changing interlayer distances by tuning the lengths of amine ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yunan; Zhou Baibin; Sha Jingquan; Su Zhanhua; Cui, Ji-Wen

    2011-02-15

    By using amines with different lengths, two layered cobalt-molybdenum phosphates with different interlayer distances, (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 10}) [HCo(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}P{sub 2}MoO{sub 10}] (1), and (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 4{l_brace}}Co{sub 3} [P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}(OH){sub 5}]{sub 2{r_brace}}. 5H{sub 2}O (2), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. In compound 1, the H{sub 2}en direct the [CoMoP{sub 2}] clusters to form a layered framework. By changing the lengths of protonated organic amines (H{sub 2}en to 1, 3-H{sub 2}pn), compound 2 is obtained, in which the sandwich-shaped [Co (Mo{sub 6}P{sub 4}){sub 2}] clusters are linked by tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt into a layered framework. With the lengths of protonated organic amines increasing, the interlayer distances in compound 2 become larger. This work successfully demonstrates that tuning the lengths and conformation of the protonated organic amines can provide a facile route for the formation of organically templated inorganic open-framework materials. Additionally, susceptibility measurement shows that the two compounds both exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions. -- Graphical abstract: By using amines with different lengths, two layered cobalt-molybdenum phosphates with different interlayer distances have been hydrothermally synthesized. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Two layered compounds have been synthesized by utilizing amines with different lengths. {yields} The chain lengths of amines can influence the overall supramolecular framework of the PMo-TMCs. {yields} The conformation of amines may influence the stacking mode of the inorganic building blocks. {yields} Susceptibility measurement shows that the two compounds both exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions.

  12. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  13. Exafs data analysis of some cobalt complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A.; Vibhute, Vishakha; Jain, Garima; Ninama, Samrath

    2012-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has assumed great significance with its increasing application in the different fields of physics like solid state physics, chemical physics, atomic physics, Plasma Physics and Astro physics etc.in present paper we obtained bond lengths of cobalt metal complexes using Levy's, LSS and Lytle methods and are compared by FEFFIT (Fitting of EXAFS by Fast Fourier Inverse Transform) method. Bond length basically known as radial distance between ligand and metal complexes. FEFFIT is computer program for calculating bond length obtained theoretical data of EXAFS.

  14. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOEpatents

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  15. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Cast Alloys : NASA VIA, B-1900, 713C and 738X", Report NASA TN D-7682, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, August 1974. 36. Giggins, C.S. and...resistance of cobalt-base and nickel-base alloys . The contract was accomplished under the technical direction of Dr. H. C. Graham of the Aerospace Research...Interpretation of Results 3. SODIUM SULFATE INDUCED HOT CORROSION OF Co-25Al AND Co-35Cr ALLOYS a. Introduction b. Experimental Co-25Al c. Experimental

  16. Preconditioning with cobalt chloride modifies pain perception in mice.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Teodora; Luca, Andrei; Dondas, Andrei; Bohotin, Catalina Roxana

    2015-04-01

    Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) modifies mitochondrial permeability and has a hypoxic-mimetic effect; thus, the compound induces tolerance to ischemia and increases resistance to a number of injury types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CoCl2 hypoxic preconditioning for three weeks on thermonociception, somatic and visceral inflammatory pain, locomotor activity and coordination in mice. A significant pronociceptive effect was observed in the hot plate and tail flick tests after one and two weeks of CoCl2 administration, respectively (P<0.001). Thermal hyperalgesia (Plantar test) was present in the first week, but recovered by the end of the experiment. Contrary to the hyperalgesic effect on thermonociception, CoCl2 hypoxic preconditioning decreased the time spent grooming the affected area in the second phase of the formalin test on the orofacial and paw models. The first phase of formalin-induced pain and the writhing test were not affected by CoCl2 preconditioning. Thus, the present study demonstrated that CoCl2 preconditioning has a dual effect on pain, and these effects should be taken into account along with the better-known neuro-, cardio- and renoprotective effects of CoCl2.

  17. Kinetic phase evolution of spinel cobalt oxide during lithiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; He, Kai; Meng, Qingping; Li, Xin; Zhu, Yizhou; Hwang, Sooyeon; Sun, Ke; Gan, Hong; Zhu, Yimei; Mo, Yifei; Stach, Eric A.; Su, Dong

    2016-09-15

    Spinel cobalt oxide has been proposed to undergo a multiple-step reaction during the electrochemical lithiation process. Understanding the kinetics of the lithiation process in this compound is crucial to optimize its performance and cyclability. In this work, we have utilized a low-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy method to visualize the dynamic reaction process in real time and study the reaction kinetics at different rates. We show that the particles undergo a two-step reaction at the single-particle level, which includes an initial intercalation reaction followed by a conversion reaction. At low rates, the conversion reaction starts after the intercalation reaction has fully finished, consistent with the prediction of density functional theoretical calculations. At high rates, the intercalation reaction is overwhelmed by the subsequently nucleated conversion reaction, and the reaction speeds of both the intercalation and conversion reactions are increased. Phase-field simulations show the crucial role of surface diffusion rates of lithium ions in controlling this process. Furthermore, this work provides microscopic insights into the reaction dynamics in non-equilibrium conditions and highlights the effect of lithium diffusion rates on the overall reaction homogeneity as well as the performance.

  18. Kinetic phase evolution of spinel cobalt oxide during lithiation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jing; He, Kai; Meng, Qingping; ...

    2016-09-15

    Spinel cobalt oxide has been proposed to undergo a multiple-step reaction during the electrochemical lithiation process. Understanding the kinetics of the lithiation process in this compound is crucial to optimize its performance and cyclability. In this work, we have utilized a low-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy method to visualize the dynamic reaction process in real time and study the reaction kinetics at different rates. We show that the particles undergo a two-step reaction at the single-particle level, which includes an initial intercalation reaction followed by a conversion reaction. At low rates, the conversion reaction starts after the intercalationmore » reaction has fully finished, consistent with the prediction of density functional theoretical calculations. At high rates, the intercalation reaction is overwhelmed by the subsequently nucleated conversion reaction, and the reaction speeds of both the intercalation and conversion reactions are increased. Phase-field simulations show the crucial role of surface diffusion rates of lithium ions in controlling this process. Furthermore, this work provides microscopic insights into the reaction dynamics in non-equilibrium conditions and highlights the effect of lithium diffusion rates on the overall reaction homogeneity as well as the performance.« less

  19. Comparison of supplemental cobalt form on fibre digestion and cobalamin concentrations in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cobalt is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B12, which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if cobalt form (cobalt carbonate vs cobalt glucoheptonate...

  20. Cobalt Chloride Induces Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Line HK-2.

    PubMed

    Nishihashi, Katsuki; Kawashima, Kei; Nomura, Takami; Urakami-Takebayashi, Yumiko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Takano, Mikihisa; Nagai, Junya

    2017-01-01

    The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is a drug transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. The cis-regulatory elements in the BCRP promoter include a hypoxia response element, i.e., the DNA binding site for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In this study, we investigated the effect of cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1α, on the expression and function of BCRP in human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2. Cobalt chloride treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of not only glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), a typical HIF-1 target gene mRNA, but also ABCG2 mRNA in HK-2 cells. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143-sensitive accumulation of BCRP substrates such as Hoechst33342 and mitoxantrone was significantly enhanced by cobalt chloride treatment. In addition, treatment with cobalt chloride significantly increased the Ko143-sensitive accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled methotrexate in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, cobalt chloride treatment attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by mitoxantrone and methotrexate, which might be, at least in part, due to the increase in BCRP-mediated transport activity via HIF-1 activation. These findings indicate that HIF-1 activation protects renal proximal tubular cells against BCRP substrate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing the expression and function of BCRP in renal proximal tubular cells.

  1. C(sp(2))-H Borylation of Fluorinated Arenes Using an Air-Stable Cobalt Precatalyst: Electronically Enhanced Site Selectivity Enables Synthetic Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Bezdek, Máté J; Chirik, Paul J

    2017-02-22

    Cobalt catalysts with electronically enhanced site selectivity have been developed, as evidenced by the high ortho-to-fluorine selectivity observed in the C(sp(2))-H borylation of fluorinated arenes. Both the air-sensitive cobalt(III) dihydride boryl 4-Me-((iPr)PNP)Co(H)2BPin (1) and the air-stable cobalt(II) bis(pivalate) 4-Me-((iPr)PNP)Co(O2C(t)Bu)2 (2) compounds were effective and exhibited broad functional group tolerance across a wide range of fluoroarenes containing electronically diverse functional groups, regardless of the substitution pattern on the arene. The electronically enhanced ortho-to-fluorine selectivity observed with the cobalt catalysts was maintained in the presence of a benzylic dimethylamine and hydrosilanes, overriding the established directing-group effects observed with precious-metal catalysts. The synthetically useful selectivity observed with cobalt was applied to an efficient synthesis of the anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen.

  2. A new organically-templated cobalt borophosphate with a novel borophosphatic anionic partial structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Guo Xiangqin; Su Ge; Cao Lixin; Wang Yonggang; Duan Jingrui

    2011-09-15

    A novel cobalt borophosphate, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2})[Co{sub 2}B{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O with the mixed cations has been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (tetragonal, I4{sub 1}/a (no. 88), a=14.207(3) A, c=24.956(6) A, V=5037.09(2) A{sup 3}, Z=8). The crystal structure consists of a new type of three-dimensional borophosphatic anionic partial framework, which is built from the condensation of the fundamental building unit (FBU) [B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 14}(OH)]. The CoO{sub 6} octahedra are enchased in such borophosphate network to form a complex open framework with a three-dimensional intersecting channel system, the voids of which are occupied by ammonium, dipronated piperazine ions and water molecules, respectively. The magnetic measurement of the title compound has also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: A new organically-templated cobalt borophosphate, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2})[Co{sub 2}B{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O with a novel borophosphate 3D anionic partial framework has been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions. Highlights: > The first cobalt borophosphate with the 3D anionic partial borophosphate network. > A porous framework with an intersecting three-dimensional channel system. > The borophosphate compound with the mixed cations.

  3. Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. ); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. )

    1993-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Cobalt Monoboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H. F.; Ng, Y. W.; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectrum of cobalt monoboride (CoB) in the visible region between 465 and 560 nm has been observed. CoB molecule was produced by the reaction of laser ablated cobalt atom and diborane (B_2H_6) seeded in argon. Over twenty five vibronic bands have been recorded, and both Co10B and Co11B isotopic species have been observed and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of the rotational lines showed that the observed vibronic bands belong to two categories namely: the Ω' = 2 - Ω'' = 2 and the Ω' = 3 - Ω'' = 3 transitions, which indicated the ground state of CoB is consistent with an assignment of a ^3Δ_i state predicted from ab initio calculations. Unresolved hyperfine structure arising from the Co nucleus (I = 7/2) causes a broadening of spectral lines. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the spectrum of the CoB molecule. Financial support from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKU 701008P) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Irshad, M. I. Mohamed, N. M.; Ahmad, F. Abdullah, M. Z.

    2014-10-24

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl{sub 2}Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidified by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications.

  6. Adapting Ruthenium Sensitizers to Cobalt Electrolyte Systems.

    PubMed

    Amit Kumar, Sangeeta; Urbani, Maxence; Medel, María; Ince, Mine; González-Rodríguez, David; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Bhaskarwar, Ashok N; Torres, Tomás; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-02-06

    In this work, we report the use of bulky substitutions in a new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) bipyridine complex, Ru(NCS)2LL', coded TT-230 to obtain high open-circuit potential in a dye-sensitized solar cell (where L is a bipyridine ligand appended with two cyclopenta(2,1-b;3,4-bA)dithiophene moieties, and L' = 4,4,'-dicarboxylic acid 2,2'-bipyridine). The electrolytes based on cobalt complexes have shown significant advantages in terms of attainable open-circuit potential compared to the standard iodide/tri-iodide redox mediators. These merits of the cobalt complexes were previously realized with a porphyrin sensitizer, achieving a VOC greater than 1 V in DSC. However, with conventional Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes such as the C101 dye, similar increase in the VOC could not be attained due to the enhanced recombination. In this work, we have shown that the use of bulky substituents can prevent the back reaction of photogenerated electron and subsequently increase the open-circuit potential of the device. The recombination processes were investigated by transient photovoltage decay measurements.

  7. Nanocomposites of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles and cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkkalainen, K.; Leppänen, K.; Vainio, U.; Webb, M. A.; Elbra, T.; Kohout, T.; Nykänen, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Kotelnikova, N.; Serimaa, R.

    2008-10-01

    Polymeric matrices with stabilized metallic nanoparticles constitute an important class of nanostructured materials, because polymer technology allows fabrication of components with various electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties. The porous cellulose matrix has been shown to be a useful support material for platinum, palladium, silver, copper and nickel nanoparticles. In the present study, nanosized cobalt particles with enhanced magnetic properties were made by chemical reduction within a microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) matrix. Two different chemical reducers, NaBH4 and NaH2PO2, were used, and the so-formed nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These experimental techniques were used to gain insight into the effect of different synthesis routes on structural properties of the nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Particles made via the NaBH4 reduction were amorphous Co-B or Co oxide composites with diminished ferromagnetic behaviour and particles made via the NaH2PO2 reduction were well-ordered ferromagnetic hcp cobalt nanocrystals.

  8. Azido- and chlorido-cobalt complex as carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pires, Bianca M; Giacomin, Letícia C; Castro, Frederico A V; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos S; Pereira, Marcos D; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Faria, Roberto B; Scarpellini, Marciela

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes are well-suited systems for cytotoxic drug release under hypoxic conditions. Here, we investigate the effect of cytotoxic azide release by cobalt-containing carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs. In addition, we study the species formed after reduction of Co(3+) → Co(2+) in the proposed models for these prodrugs. Three new complexes, [Co(III)(L)(N3)2]BF4(1), [{Co(II)(L)(N3)}2](ClO4)2(2), and [Co(II)(L)Cl]PF6(3), L=[(bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)methyl)(2-(pyridyl-2-yl)ethyl)amine], were synthesized and studied by several spectroscopic, spectrometric, electrochemical, and crystallographic methods. Reactivity and spectroscopic data reveal that complex 1 is able to release N3(-) either after reduction with ascorbic acid, or by ambient light irradiation, in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH6.2, 7.0 and 7.4) and acetonitrile solutions. The antitumoral activities of compounds 1-3 were tested in normoxia on MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate) and A-549 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial) cell lines, after 24h of exposure. Either complexes or NaN3 presented IC50 values higher than 200 μM, showing lower cytotoxicity than the clinical standard antitumoral complex cisplatin, under the same conditions. Complexes 1-3 were also evaluated in hypoxia on A-549 and results indicate high IC50 data (>200 μM) after 24h of exposure. However, an increase of cancer cell susceptibility to 1 and 2 was observed at 300 μM. Regarding complex 3, no cytotoxic activity was observed in the same conditions. The data presented here indicate that the tridentate ligand L is able to stabilize both oxidation states of cobalt (+3 and +2). In addition, the cobalt(III) complex generates the low cytotoxic cobalt(II) species after reduction, which supports their use as as carrier prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

  9. Iron- and Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkene Hydrogenation: Catalysis with Both Redox-Active and Strong Field Ligands.

    PubMed

    Chirik, Paul J

    2015-06-16

    The hydrogenation of alkenes is one of the most impactful reactions catalyzed by homogeneous transition metal complexes finding application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and commodity chemical industries. For decades, catalyst technology has relied on precious metal catalysts supported by strong field ligands to enable highly predictable two-electron redox chemistry that constitutes key bond breaking and forming steps during turnover. Alternative catalysts based on earth abundant transition metals such as iron and cobalt not only offer potential environmental and economic advantages but also provide an opportunity to explore catalysis in a new chemical space. The kinetically and thermodynamically accessible oxidation and spin states may enable new mechanistic pathways, unique substrate scope, or altogether new reactivity. This Account describes my group's efforts over the past decade to develop iron and cobalt catalysts for alkene hydrogenation. Particular emphasis is devoted to the interplay of the electronic structure of the base metal compounds and their catalytic performance. First generation, aryl-substituted pyridine(diimine) iron dinitrogen catalysts exhibited high turnover frequencies at low catalyst loadings and hydrogen pressures for the hydrogenation of unactivated terminal and disubstituted alkenes. Exploration of structure-reactivity relationships established smaller aryl substituents and more electron donating ligands resulted in improved performance. Second generation iron and cobalt catalysts where the imine donors were replaced by N-heterocyclic carbenes resulted in dramatically improved activity and enabled hydrogenation of more challenging unactivated, tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes. Optimized cobalt catalysts have been discovered that are among the most active homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts known. Synthesis of enantiopure, C1 symmetric pyridine(diimine) cobalt complexes have enabled rare examples of highly enantioselective

  10. Separation and Recovery of Cobalt from Copper Leach Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Significant amounts of cobalt, a strategic and critical metal, are present in readily accessible copper recycling leach solutions. However, cost-effective technology is not available to separate and recover the cobalt from this low-grade domestic source. The Bureau of Mines has developed a procedure using a chelating ion-exchange resin from Dow Chemical Co. to successfully extract cobalt from a pH 3.0 copper recycling solution containing only 30 mg/1 cobalt. Cyclic tests with the commercial resin XFS-4195 in 4-ft-high by 1-in.-diameter columns gave an average cobalt extraction of 95% when 65 bed volumes of solution were processed at a flow rate of 4 gpm/ft.2 Elution of the cobalt using a 50 g/l H2SO4 solution yielded an eluate containing 0.5 gli Co. Selective elution of the loaded resin and solvent extraction procedures using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and Cyanex 272 removed the impurities and produced a cobalt sulfate solution containing 25 g/l Co.

  11. Cobalt ions induce chemokine secretion in primary human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Queally, J M; Devitt, B M; Butler, J S; Malizia, A P; Murray, D; Doran, P P; O'Byrne, J M

    2009-07-01

    Chemokines are major regulators of the inflammatory response and have been shown to play an important role in periprosthetic osteolysis. Titanium particles have previously been shown to induce IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion in osteoblasts. These chemokines result in the chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Despite a resurgence in the use of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys in metal-on-metal arthroplasty, cobalt and chromium ion toxicity in the periprosthetic area has been insufficiently studied. In this study we investigate the in vitro effect of cobalt ions on primary human osteoblast activity. We demonstrate that cobalt ions rapidly induce the protein secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 in primary human osteoblasts. This elevated chemokine secretion is preceded by an increase in the transcription of the corresponding chemokine gene. Using a Transwell migration chemotaxis assay we also demonstrate that the chemokines secreted are capable of inducing neutrophil and macrophage migration. Furthermore, cobalt ions significantly inhibit osteoblast function as demonstrated by reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition. In aggregate these data demonstrate that cobalt ions can activate transcription of the chemokine genes IL-8 and MCP-1 in primary human osteoblasts. Cobalt ions are not benign and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteolysis by suppressing osteoblast function and stimulating the production and secretion of chemokines that attract inflammatory and osteoclastic cells to the periprosthetic area.

  12. Production of cobalt and nickel particles by hydrogen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsman, J.; Tapper, U.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2008-05-01

    Cobalt and nickel nanoparticles were produced by hydrogen reduction reaction from cobalt or nickel chloride precursor vapour in nitrogen carrier gas. This aerosol phase method to produce nanoparticles is a scalable one-step process. Two different setups were introduced in particle production: a batch type reactor and a continuously operated reactor. Common feature in these setups was hydrogen mixing in a vertical flow reactor. The process was monitored on-line for particle mass concentration and for gas phase chemical reactions. Tapered element oscillating microbalance measured the particle mass concentration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor relevant gas phase species. The produced cobalt and nickel particles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The produced cobalt and nickel particles were crystalline with cubic fcc structure. Twinning was often observed in cobalt particles while nickel particles were mostly single crystals. The cobalt particles formed typically long agglomerates. No significant neck growth between the primary particles was observed. The primary particle size for cobalt and nickel was below 100 nm.

  13. High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona; Zaghini, Anna; Mariotti, Andrea; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Vielmi, Valentina; Semeraro, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Padovani, Alessandro; Rizzetti, Maria Cristina; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-09-01

    The adverse biological effects of continuous exposure to cobalt and chromium have been well defined. In the past, this toxicity was largely an industrial issue concerning workers exposed in occupational setting. Nevertheless, recent reports have described a specific toxicity mediated by the high levels of cobalt and chromium released by metallic prostheses, particularly in patients who had received hip implants. Clinical symptoms, including blindness, deafness and peripheral neuropathy, suggest a specific neurotropism. However, little is known about the neuropathological basis of this process, and experimental evidence is still lacking. We have investigated this issue in an experimental setting using New Zealand White rabbits treated with repeated intravenous injections of cobalt and chromium, alone or in combination. No evident clinical or pathological alterations were associated after chromium administration alone, despite its high levels in blood and tissue while cobalt-chromium and cobalt-treated rabbits showed clinical signs indicative of auditory and optic system toxicity. On histopathological examination, the animals showed severe retinal and cochlear ganglion cell depletion along with optic nerve damage and loss of sensory cochlear hair cells. Interestingly, the severity of the alterations was related to dosages and time of exposure. These data confirmed our previous observation of severe auditory and optic nerve toxicity in patients exposed to an abnormal release of cobalt and chromium from damaged hip prostheses. Moreover, we have identified the major element mediating neurotoxicity to be cobalt, although the molecular mechanisms mediating this toxicity still have to be defined.

  14. Synthesis, structures and antibacterial activities of benzoylthiourea derivatives and their complexes with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Liu, Huanhuan; Li, Mengying; Wang, Fan; Zhou, Weiqun; Fan, Jianfen

    2012-11-01

    Four new thiocarbonyl fluorobenzamides and their complexes with cobalt have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, and (1)H NMR. Five crystal structures of the thioylbenzamides complexes of Co(PTCB)(3), Co(2FPTCB)(3), Co(4FPTCB)(3), Co(2FMTCB)(2) and Co(4FMTCB)(3) have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial properties of these compounds against the bacteria, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and Shewanella sp. were investigated. The experiments showed that both compounds and the complexes had the antibacterial activities against all of the studied bacteria. The thioylbenzamides had stronger controls for the bacteria of E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa than their corresponding cobalt complexes. There was the contrary result against the bacteria of Shewanella sp. The para-substitution of fluorine atom increased antibacterial activities, while fluorine atom was substituted on ortho-benzoyl, the antibacterial activity weakened. The thioylbenzamides linked to piperidine instead of a morpholine group may increase the antibacterial activities.

  15. TRIFLUOROMETHYL COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLUORIDES, *GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS, *HALIDES, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL BONDS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, HYDROLYSIS, IODIDES, METHYL RADICALS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, PYROLYSIS, STABILITY, SYNTHESIS, TIN COMPOUNDS.

  16. Genotoxicity and morphological transformation induced by cobalt nanoparticles and cobalt chloride: an in vitro study in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Jessica; Sabbioni, Enrico; Munaro, Barbara; Broggi, Francesca; Marmorato, Patrick; Franchini, Fabio; Colognato, Renato; Rossi, François

    2009-09-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field that involves the development, manufacture and measurement of materials and systems in the submicron to nanometer range. Its development is expected to have a large socio-economical impact in practically all fields of industrial activity. However, there is still a lack of information about the potential risks of manufactured nanoparticles for the environment and for human health. In this work, we studied the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and morphological transforming activity of cobalt nanoparticles (Co-nano) and cobalt ions (Co(2+)) in Balb/3T3 cells. We also evaluated Co-nano dissolution in culture medium and cellular uptake of both Co-nano and Co(2+). Our results indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity, assessed by colony-forming efficiency test, for both compounds. The toxicity was higher for Co-nano than for Co(2) after 2 and 24 h of exposure, while dose-effect relationships were overlapping after 72 h. Statistically significant results were observed for Co-nano with the micronucleus test and the comet assay, while for Co(2+) positive results were observed only with the latter. In addition, even when Co-nano was genotoxic (at >1 microM), no evident dose-dependent effect was observed. Concerning morphological transformation, we found a statistically significant increase in the formation of type III foci (morphologically transformed colonies) only for Co-nano. Furthermore, we observed a higher cellular uptake of Co-nano compared with Co(2+).

  17. Cobalt catalysis involving π components in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gandeepan, Parthasarathy; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2015-04-21

    Over the last three decades, transition-metal-catalyzed organic transformations have been shown to be extremely important in organic synthesis. However, most of the successful reactions are associated with noble metals, which are generally toxic, expensive, and less abundant. Therefore, we have focused on catalysis using the abundant first-row transition metals, specifically cobalt. In this Account, we demonstrate the potential of cobalt catalysis in organic synthesis as revealed by our research. We have developed many useful catalytic systems using cobalt complexes. Overall, they can be classified into several broad types of reactions, specifically [2 + 2 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloadditions; enyne reductive coupling; reductive [3 + 2] cycloaddition of alkynes/allenes with enones; reductive coupling of alkyl iodides with alkenes; addition of organoboronic acids to alkynes, alkenes, or aldehydes; carbocyclization of o-iodoaryl ketones/aldehydes with alkynes/electron-deficient alkenes; coupling of thiols with aryl and alkyl halides; enyne coupling; and C-H bond activation. Reactions relying on π components, specifically cycloaddition, reductive coupling, and enyne coupling, mostly afford products with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity and superior atom economy. We believe that these cobalt-catalyzed π-component coupling reactions proceed through five-membered cobaltacyclic intermediates formed by the oxidative cyclometalation of two coordinated π bonds of the substrates to the low-valent cobalt species. The high regio- and stereoselectivity of these reactions are achieved as a result of the electronic and steric effects of the π components. Mostly, electron-withdrawing groups and bulkier groups attached to the π bonds prefer to be placed near the cobalt center of the cobaltacycle. Most of these transformations proceed through low-valent cobalt complexes, which are conveniently generated in situ from air-stable Co(II) salts by Zn- or Mn-mediated reduction

  18. Divergent Reactivity via Cobalt Catalysis: An Epoxide Olefination.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Megan L; Hume, Paul A; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-02-05

    Cobalt salts exert an unexpected and profound influence on the reactivity of epoxides with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide. In the presence of a cobalt catalyst, conditions for epoxide to an oxetane ring expansion instead deliver homoallylic alcohol products, corresponding to a two-carbon epoxide homologation/ring-opening tandem process. The observed reactivity change appears to be specifically due to cobalt salts and is broadly applicable to a variety of epoxides, retaining the initial stereochemistry. This transformation also provides operationally simple access to enantiopure homoallylic alcohols from chiral epoxides without use of organometallic reagents. Tandem epoxidation-homologation of aldehydes in a single step is also demonstrated.

  19. Cobalt-based particles formed upon electrocatalytic hydrogen production by a cobalt pyridine oxime complex.

    PubMed

    Ghachtouli, Sanae El; Guillot, Regis; Brisset, Francois; Aukauloo, Ally

    2013-12-01

    An open-coordination-sphere cobalt(III) oximato-based complex was designed as a putative catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Electrochemical alteration in the presence of acid occurs, leading to the formation of cobalt-based particles that act as an efficient catalyst for HER at pH 7. The exact chemical nature of these particles is yet to be determined. This study thus raises interesting issues regarding the fate of molecular-based complexes designed for the HER, and points to the challenging task of identifying the real catalytic species. Moreover, understanding and rationalizing the alteration pathways can be seen as a new route to reach catalytic particulates.

  20. New misfit-layered cobalt oxide (CaOH) 1.14CoO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuya, Mitsuyuki; Isobe, Masaaki; Baba, Yuji; Nagai, Takuro; Osada, Minoru; Kosuda, Kosuke; Takenouchi, Satoshi; Matsui, Yoshio; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized a new cobalt oxide (CaOH) 1.14CoO 2 by utilizing a high-pressure technique. X-ray and electron diffraction studies revealed that the compound has a layered structure that consists of CdI 2-type CoO 2 layers and rock-salt-type double CaOH atomic layers. The two subcells have incommensurate periodicity along the a-axis, resulting in a misfit-layered structure. From resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements, we have shown that the two-dimensional (2-D) variable-range hopping (VRH) regime with hole conduction is dominant at low temperature for this compound. As temperature increases, the conduction mechanism undergoes crossover from the 2-D VRH regime to a thermal activation-energy-type regime.

  1. Cobalt Coordination and Clustering in [alpha]-Co(OH)[subscript 2] Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Total Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, James R.; Kurzman, Joshua A.; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E.

    2010-09-17

    Structures of layered metal hydroxides are not well described by traditional crystallography. Total scattering from a synthesis-controlled subset of these materials, as described here, reveals that different cobalt coordination polyhedra cluster within each layer on short length scales, offering new insights and approaches for understanding the properties of these and related layered materials. Structures related to that of brucite [Mg(OH){sub 2}] are ubiquitous in the mineral world and offer a variety of useful functions ranging from catalysis and ion-exchange to sequestration and energy transduction, including applications in batteries. However, it has been difficult to resolve the atomic structure of these layered compounds because interlayer disorder disrupts the long-range periodicity necessary for diffraction-based structure determination. For this reason, traditional unit-cell-based descriptions have remained inaccurate. Here we apply, for the first time to such layered hydroxides, synchrotron X-ray total scattering methods - analyzing both the Bragg and diffuse components - to resolve the intralayer structure of three different {alpha}-cobalt hydroxides, revealing the nature and distribution of metal site coordination. The different compounds with incorporated chloride ions have been prepared with kinetic control of hydrolysis to yield different ratios of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt ions within the layers, as confirmed by total scattering. Real-space analyses indicate local clustering of polyhedra within the layers, manifested in the weighted average of different ordered phases with fixed fractions of tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt sites. These results, hidden from an averaged unit-cell description, reveal new structural characteristics that are essential to understanding the origin of fundamental material properties such as color, anion exchange capacity, and magnetic behavior. Our results also provide further insights into the

  2. Cobalt and nickel macrocycles anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: Sensitization, catalysis, and ligand association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Darren Craig

    The global demand for renewable, clean electricity and fuel has compelled efforts to utilize the immense power incident upon the Earth from the Sun. Photovoltaic systems could power the planet's electrical demands with only moderate efficiencies. However, mitigation of fossil fuels used for transportation and night-time electricity requires the storage of photon energy, for example, in the form of chemical bonds. Mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films provide a manifold for anchoring molecular species that absorb and utilize photons to catalyze fuel-generating reactions. The overarching theme of this thesis is to improve understanding of the semiconductor/molecule interface utilizing earth abundant first-row transition metal coordination compounds. Chapter 2 presents the non-ideal redox behavior of cobalt porphyrins anchored to semiconductor surfaces. Additionally, CoI porphyrins were utilized as photocatalysts for the 2e- reduction of organobromides to yield a CoIII-R intermediate. The cobalt-carbon bond of CoIII-R was photodissociated with visible light to yield Co II and R·. The organic radical dimerized to form R-R. Light excitation of CoI compounds was found to result in electron transfer to TiO2, Chapter 3. Cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, glyoximes, and corrins were all observed to exhibit this behavior. Electron transfer was demonstrated to primarily occur via excitation into the large extinction coefficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption bands of CoI complexes. Chapter 4 focuses on the unique coordination chemistry of cobalt porphyrins anchored to a TiO2 thin film. Notably, pyridine axially ligated a CoII porphyrin following excited-state electron transfer of the CoI porphyrin to the TiO2. The rate constant for recombination of an electron in the TiO2 with CoII was observed to decrease with increasing pyridine concentration, behavior attributed primarily to a negative shift of the CoII/I potential in the presence of pyridine. Finally

  3. Studies of the Codeposition of Cobalt Hydroxide and Nickel Hydroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. H.; Murthy, M.; VanZee, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: chemistry, experimental measurements, planar film model development, impregnation model development, results and conclusion. Also included: effect of cobalt concentration on deposition/loading; effect of current density on loading distribution.

  4. Cobalt Oxide Hollow Nanoparticles Derived by Bio-Templating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.

    2005-01-01

    We present here the first fabrication of hollow cobalt oxide nanoparticles produced by a protein-regulated site-specific reconstitution process in aqueous solution and describe the metal growth mechanism in the ferritin interior.

  5. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheric at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting.

  6. Recovery of Silver and Cobalt from Laboratory Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Donald F.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for recovering silver and cobalt from laboratory wastes (including those resulting from student experiments) are presented. The procedures are generally applicable since only common, inexpensive laboratory reagents are needed. (JN)

  7. Battery related cobalt and REE flows in WEEE treatment.

    PubMed

    Sommer, P; Rotter, V S; Ueberschaar, M

    2015-11-01

    In batteries associated with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), battery systems can be found with a higher content of valuable and critical raw materials like cobalt and rare earth elements (REE) relative to the general mix of portable batteries. Based on a material flow model, this study estimates the flows of REE and cobalt associated to WEEE and the fate of these metals in the end-of-life systems. In 2011, approximately 40 Mg REE and 325 Mg cobalt were disposed of with WEEE-batteries. The end-of-life recycling rate for cobalt was 14%, for REE 0%. The volume of waste batteries can be expected to grow, but variation in the battery composition makes it difficult to forecast the future secondary raw material potential. Nevertheless, product specific treatment strategies ought to be implemented throughout the stages of the value chain.

  8. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C, a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C, the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled; values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35104

  9. Exposure to cobalt in the welding process with stellite.

    PubMed

    Ferri, F; Candela, S; Bedogni, L; Piccinini, R; Sala, O

    1994-06-30

    In some small factories producing moulds for ceramic tiles using a cobalt alloy (stellite), environmental and biological (CoU) monitoring was conducted for eight workers employed in gas-shielded arc (MAG) and oxy-acetylene welding processes. During oxy-acetylene braze-welding, the exposure to cobalt is very low as are urinary cobalt concentrations. On the other hand, during the MAG welding process, the exposure levels can exceed the TLV-TWA levels and correlated well with CoU at the end of a working shift. Two MAG welders followed for two consecutive weeks, showed different patterns of urinary cobalt excretion: under the same environmental conditions, the higher CoU was found in the worker with greater past exposure. This aspect needs further evaluation before adopting CoU as a current indicator of occupational exposure to the metal.

  10. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), not more than 30 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 3 parts per million. Total oxides of aluminum, chromium, and cobalt not less than 97 percent. Lead and arsenic shall be determined...

  11. Segregation of Fischer-Tropsch reactants on cobalt nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E A; Le, D; Jewell, A D; Murphy, C J; Rahman, T S; Sykes, E C H

    2014-06-21

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy, we have visualized the segregation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, the two reactants in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, on cobalt nanoparticles at catalytically relevant coverages. Density functional theory was used to interrogate the relevant energetics.

  12. Magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaedini, Ghazaleh; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Aminayi, Payam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite synthesized via the hydrothermal method have been investigated. The structural properties of the produced powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The observed XRD pattern confirmed the spinel/cubic structure of the prepared cobalt ferrite. The SEM pictures show that the simple hydrothermal method produces uniform sphere-shaped nanopowders. Moreover, infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of cobalt ferrite particles. Magnetic hysteresis was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer in a maximum field of 10 kOe. The magnetization of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated, and the saturation magnetization ( M s), remanence ( M r), and coercivity ( H c) were derived from the hysteresis loops. The results revealed that the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via the simple hydrothermal method exhibit superior magnetic properties.

  13. Use of phosphate for separation of cobalt from iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    North, V.; Wells, R.C.

    1942-01-01

    The well-known tendency of cobalt to be retained by the iron-alumina precipitate produced by ammonia has generally been ascribed to a specific adsorption by the large surface of this gelatinous precipitate. Whatever its cause, it can be overcome by precipitating the iron as phosphate at a pH of 3.5. The precipitate is easily filterable and practically all the cobalt passes into the filtrate.

  14. Annealing effects on microstrain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Deotale, Anjali Jain Nandedkar, R. V.; Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Upadhyay, Anuj

    2014-04-24

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticles in different phases have been synthesized using ash supported method. The effect of isochronal annealing on micro-strain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles has been studied. The lattice strain contribution to the x-ray diffraction line broadening in the nanoparticles was analyzed using Williamson Hall (W-H) plot. It is observed that micro-strain was released at higher annealing temperature.

  15. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asha, Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl2.6H2O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  16. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  17. The biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in the human body.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R W

    2008-01-25

    This paper reviews information on the biological behavior of inorganic cobalt in humans and laboratory animals and proposes a model of the systemic biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in adult humans. The model was developed as part of an effort to update the models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for addressing intakes of radionuclides by workers but is also applicable to environmental or medical exposures to inorganic forms of radiocobalt. The model can be used in conjunction with any respiratory, gastrointestinal, or wound model that provides predictions of the time-dependent feed of cobalt to blood. In contrast to the ICRP's current systemic model for cobalt, which is a simple open catenary system, the proposed model is constructed within a physiologically realistic framework that depicts recycling of cobalt between blood and tissues and transfer from blood to excretion pathways. Compared with the ICRP's current model, the proposed model yields similar predictions of whole-body retention but substantially different predictions of the systemic distribution of cobalt as a function of time after uptake to blood.

  18. Coordination tuning of cobalt phosphates towards efficient water oxidation catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunah; Park, Jimin; Park, Inchul; Jin, Kyoungsuk; Jerng, Sung Eun; Kim, Sun Hee; Nam, Ki Tae; Kang, Kisuk

    2015-01-01

    The development of efficient and stable water oxidation catalysts is necessary for the realization of practically viable water-splitting systems. Although extensive studies have focused on the metal-oxide catalysts, the effect of metal coordination on the catalytic ability remains still elusive. Here we select four cobalt-based phosphate catalysts with various cobalt- and phosphate-group coordination as a platform to better understand the catalytic activity of cobalt-based materials. Although they exhibit various catalytic activities and stabilities during water oxidation, Na2CoP2O7 with distorted cobalt tetrahedral geometry shows high activity comparable to that of amorphous cobalt phosphate under neutral conditions, along with high structural stability. First-principles calculations suggest that the surface reorganization by the pyrophosphate ligand induces a highly distorted tetrahedral geometry, where water molecules can favourably bind, resulting in a low overpotential (∼0.42 eV). Our findings emphasize the importance of local cobalt coordination in the catalysis and suggest the possible effect of polyanions on the water oxidation chemistry. PMID:26365091

  19. Cobalt silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites by modified sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Serena; Turco, Maria; Ramis, Gianguido; Bagnasco, Giovanni; Pernice, Pasquale; Pagliuca, Concetta; Bevilacqua, Maria; Aronne, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide materials (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were synthesised starting from Co(NO 3) 2·6H 2O and Si(OC 2H 5) 4 using a modified sol-gel method. Structural, textural and surface chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption at -196 °C. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix were strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All dried gels were amorphous and contained Co 2+ ions forming both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes with the siloxane matrix. After treatment at 400 °C, the sample with lowest Co content appeared amorphous and contained only Co 2+ tetrahedral complexes, while at higher cobalt loading Co 3O 4 was present as the only crystalline phase, besides Co 2+ ions strongly interacting with siloxane matrix. At 850 °C, in all samples crystalline Co 2SiO 4 was formed and was the only crystallising phase for the nanocomposite with the lowest cobalt content. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 °C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity, due to cationic sites. The presence of cobalt affected the textural properties of the siloxane matrix decreasing microporosity and increasing mesoporosity.

  20. Two cobalt(III) mono-dimethylglyoximates isolated from one reaction.

    PubMed

    Czapik, Agnieszka; Gdaniec, Maria

    2010-09-01

    The reaction of cobalt(II) nitrate hexahydrate with dimethylglyoxime (DMGH(2)) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in a 1:1:2 molar ratio results in two Co(III) mono-dimethylglyoximates having two chelating phen ligands in cis positions and the Co(III) atom coordinated by six N atoms in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The isolated products differ in the deprotonation state of the DMGH(2) ligand. In [mu-hydrogen bis(N,N'-dioxidobutane-2,3-diimine)]tetrakis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) trinitrate ethanol disolvate 1.87-hydrate, [Co(2)(C(4)H(6)N(2)O(2))(C(4)H(7)N(2)O(2))(C(12)H(8)N(2))(4)](NO(3))(3).2C(2)H(6)O.1.87H(2)O, (I), the C(2)-symmetric cation is formed with the coordination [Co(DMG)(phen)(2)](+) cations aggregating via a very strong O(-)...H(+)...O(-) hydrogen bond with an O...O distance of 2.409 (4) A. Crystals of (I) exhibit extensive disorder of the solvent molecules, the nitrate anions and one of the phen ligands. Compound (I) is a kinetic product, not isolated previously from similar systems, that transforms slowly into (N-hydroxy-N'-oxidobutane-2,3-diimine)bis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) dinitrate ethanol monosolvate 0.4-hydrate, [Co(C(4)H(7)N(2)O(2))(C(12)H(8)N(2))(2)](NO(3))(2).C(2)H(6)O.0.40H(2)O, (II), with the DMGH(-) ligand hydrogen bonded to one of the nitrate anions. In (II), the solvent molecules and one of the nitrate anions are disordered.

  1. Correlation between AC and DC transport properties of Mn substituted cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Sweety; Kumar, Sunil; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-12-01

    The CoFe2-xMnxO4 compound is prepared by following the sol gel technique. The structural analysis through XRD and Rietveld has been confirmed for the single cubic phase having F d 3 ¯ m space group for CoFe2-xMnxO4 and also verified it through Raman spectroscopy measurements. The tetrahedral site observed to be red shifted with increase in Mn concentration in cobalt ferrite. All the XRD patterns have been analyzed by employing the Rietveld refinement technique. The particle size was found to be in the range of 30-40 nm. The electrical properties of polycrystalline CoFe2-xMnxO4 for x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.2, spinel ferrite was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The influence of doping, frequency and temperature on the electrical transport properties of the CoFe2-xMnxO4 for x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were investigated. The magnitude of Z' and Z″ decreases with increase in temperature. Only one semicircle is observed in each Cole Cole plot which reveals that ac conductivity is dominated by grains. The grain resistance and grain boundary resistance both were found to decrease as a function of temperature. Temperature variation of DC electrical conductivity follows the Arrhenius relationship. A detailed analysis of electrical parameters provides assistance in connecting information regarding the conduction mechanism as well as determination of both dielectric and magnetic transition temperatures in the substituted cobalt ferrite. Detailed analysis of ac impedance and DC resistivity measurement reveals that, the magnetic ordering temperature in the Mn substituted cobalt ferrite does not respond to the frequency of ac electrical signal; however, it responds to the DC resistivity. The correlation between ac impedance and DC resistivity has been established.

  2. Cobalt mineral exploration and supply from 1995 through 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The global mining industry has invested a large amount of capital in mineral exploration and development over the past 15 years in an effort to ensure that sufficient resources are available to meet future increases in demand for minerals. Exploration data have been used to identify specific sites where this investment has led to a significant contribution in global mineral supply of cobalt or where a significant increase in cobalt production capacity is anticipated in the next 5 years. This report provides an overview of the cobalt industry, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances surrounding the development, or lack thereof, of key mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 48 sites with an effective production capacity of at least 1,000 metric tons per year of cobalt considered for this study, 3 producing sites underwent significant expansion during the study period, 10 exploration sites commenced production from 1995 through 2008, and 16 sites were expected to begin production by 2013 if planned development schedules are met. Cobalt supply is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and production of copper, nickel, and other metals as well as factors affecting the cobalt industry. Cobalt-rich nickel laterite deposits were discovered and developed in Australia and the South Pacific and improvements in laterite processing technology took place during the 1990s and early in the first decade of the 21st century when mining of copper-cobalt deposits in Congo (Kinshasa) was restricted because of regional conflict and lack of investment in that country's mining sector. There was also increased exploration for and greater importance placed on cobalt as a byproduct of nickel mining in Australia and Canada. The emergence of China as a major refined cobalt producer and consumer since 2007 has changed the pattern of demand for cobalt, particularly from Africa and

  3. Cobalt ferrite based magnetostrictive materials for magnetic stress sensor and actuator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiles, David C. (Inventor); Paulsen, Jason A. (Inventor); Snyder, John E. (Inventor); Lo, Chester C. H. (Inventor); Ring, Andrew P. (Inventor); Bormann, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetostrictive material based on cobalt ferrite is described. The cobalt ferrite is substituted with transition metals (such manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) or mixtures thereof) by substituting the transition metals for iron or cobalt to form substituted cobalt ferrite that provides mechanical properties that make the substituted cobalt ferrite material effective for use as sensors and actuators. The substitution of transition metals lowers the Curie temperature of the material (as compared to cobalt ferrite) while maintaining a suitable magnetostriction for stress sensing applications.

  4. Nickel-cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Jolagah, Ali; Afrasiabi, Hasan-ali

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anionic layered material, nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel-cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel-cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel-cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of 2:17-type rare-earth transition-metal magnetic compounds samarium(2)iron(17)M(x) (M = aluminum, silicon) and R(2)iron(17-x)T(x) (R = yttrium, neodymium, gadolinium; T = indium, cobalt, silicon, gallium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyuan

    Our aim is to develop new RE-TM intermetallic compounds of the 2:17-type that have high Curie temperature Tc, large saturation magnetization Ms, and strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). The new off-stoichiometric compound Sm2Fe17ALx formed the rhombohedral Th2Zn17-type structure when x was less than 6. The addition of Al increased its Tc due to the change of distance between the Fe-Fe pairs that were responsible for the exchange coupling. When Co, or Ni was used to substitute the Fe atoms in Sm2Fe17Al x, the substitution further enhanced Tc whereas Ms increased first and then decreased. A differential thermal analysis was made on the carbides of these samples, the results showed that Sm2Fe 16MnAl2C1.5 was stable even near 950°C. In the second part of the work, the effects of Co substitution on the exchange coupling and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Sm2Fe 17-xCox were studied. The result was explained by the Mean Field Theory and the Sucksmith Model. It was found that the MCA constant K1 and the coupling constant JFe-Fe increased monotonously with Co concentration which indicated the weakening of the easy axis anisotropy. This result was consistent with the observed fact that the easy magnetization direction did not change with Co concentration as verified by the x-ray diffraction spectra of the aligned samples. Lastly, the electronic structure of the 2:17-type RE-TM compounds were studied by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increment of density of state near the Fermi energy level (EF) had been observed on the Y2Fe17-xInx and Nd2Fe17-xMx (M = Ga, Si) compound as the substitution concentration increased, but it was not found in the Gd 2Fe17-xTx (T = Ga, Ti; x = 2). The XPS of the valence band of the Y2Fe17-xInx exhibited a one-peak structure, whereas those of the Nd2Fe 17-xTx and Gd2Fe17-xT x had a two-peak structure. It was evident that the formation of the two-peak structure was due to the presence of the 4f electrons, because the 4f

  6. Bis[bis­(penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(III)] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate(II) di­chloro­methane disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Joseph S.; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra­hydro­furan. There are two deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di­chloro­methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di­chloro­methane mol­ecules display significant C—H⋯Cl inter­actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4]−2 ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis. PMID:24426998

  7. Three cobalt(II)-linked {P8W48} network assemblies: syntheses, structures, and magnetic and photocatalysis properties.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan-Qing; Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Wang, Chun-Gang; Sun, Chun-Yi; Wang, Hai-Ning; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min

    2014-02-01

    Three cobalt(II)-containing tungstophosphate compounds, Na8Li8Co5[Co5.5(H2O)19P8W48.5O184]⋅60 H2O (1), K2Na4Li11Co5[Co7(H2O)28P8W48O184]Cl⋅ 59 H2O (2), and K2Na4LiCo11[Co8(H2O)32P8W48O184](CH3COO)4Cl⋅47 H2O (3), have been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analyses, and magnetic measurements. The pH value impacts the formation of distinct cobalt-linked frameworks. The cyclic cavity of the polyanion accommodates 5.5, 7, and 8 cobalt ions in 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In compounds 1 and 2, each {Co5.5P8W48} and {Co7P8W48} fragment links to four others through multiple {Co-O-W} coordination bonds to generate a two-dimensional network. Compound 3 can be considered as a 3D network based on the {Co-O-W} coordination bonds and the {Co3(CH3COO)2(H2O)10} linkers between the {P8W48} fragments. Interestingly, acetate ligands have been employed to form the {Co3(CH3COO)2(H2O)10} unit, thereby inducing the construction of a 12-connected framework. To the best of our knowledge, compound 3 contains the largest-ever number of cobalt ions in a {P8W48}-based polyoxometalate when counterions are taken into account and the {P8W48} unit shows the highest number of connections thanks to the carboxyl bridges. The UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of these powder samples indicate that the corresponding well-defined optical absorption associated with Eg can be assessed at 2.58, 2.48, and 2.73 eV and reveal the presence of an optical band gap. The photocatalytic H2 evolution activities of these {P8W48}-based compounds are evaluated.

  8. Mixed-Valent Dicobalt and Iron-Cobalt Complexes with High-Spin Configurations and Short Metal-Metal Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Zall, Christopher M.; Clouston, Laura J.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Ding, Keying; Kim, Hyun Jung; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Bill, Eckhard; Gagliardi, Laura; Lu, Connie C.

    2013-09-23

    Cobalt–cobalt and iron–cobalt bonds are investigated in coordination complexes with formally mixed-valent [M2]3+ cores. The trigonal dicobalt tris(diphenylformamidinate) compound, Co2(DPhF)3, which was previously reported by Cotton, Murillo, and co-workers (Inorg. Chim. Acta 1996, 249, 9), is shown to have an energetically isolated, high-spin sextet ground-state by magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. A new tris(amidinato)amine ligand platform is introduced. By tethering three amidinate donors to an apical amine, this platform offers two distinct metal-binding sites. Using the phenyl-substituted variant (abbreviated as LPh), the isolation of a dicobalt homobimetallic and an iron–cobalt heterobimetallic are demonstrated. The new [Co2]3+ and [FeCo]3+ cores have high-spin sextet and septet ground states, respectively. Their solid-state structures reveal short metal–metal bond distances of 2.29 Å for Co–Co and 2.18 Å for Fe–Co; the latter is the shortest distance for an iron–cobalt bond to date. To assign the positions of iron and cobalt atoms as well as to determine if Fe/Co mixing is occurring, X-ray anomalous scattering experiments were performed, spanning the Fe and Co absorption energies. These studies show only a minor amount of metal-site mixing in this complex, and that FeCoLPh is more precisely described as (Fe0.94(1)Co0.06(1))(Co0.95(1)Fe0.05(1))LPh. The iron–cobalt heterobimetallic has been further characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Its isomer shift of 0.65 mm/s and quadrupole splitting of 0.64 mm/s are comparable to the related diiron complex, Fe2(DPhF)3. On the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the formal [M2]3+ cores are fully delocalized.

  9. Tuning of magnetic parameters in cobalt-polystyrene nanocomposites by reduction cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Swapna S.; Sunny, Vijutha; Anantharaman, M.R.

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Cobalt nanoparticles were prepared by a reduction process inside polymer pores. A porous polymer network (polystyrene) was chosen as the template for the synthesis of elementary cobalt as high surface area cobalt nanoparticles are prone to oxidation. The preliminary studies reveal that the cobalt is first formed with an oxide protective layer outside and upon repeating the reduction cycles, inner pores of the polymers are opened which enhanced the yield of metallic cobalt. These high surface area cobalt nanoparticles embedded in a polymer are ideal for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes as cobalt can act as a catalyst for the nanotube synthesis. The concentration of cobalt can be tuned in this technique by repeating the cycling process. Highlights: {yields} Elementary cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized inside polystyrene by a novel process. {yields} The self protection is achieved by the auto-shelling with the metal oxide. {yields} The magnetisation and coercivity could be tuned by repeating the cycles. {yields} Tuning of magnetic properties (both coercivity and magnetisation) could be achieved by the repetition of reduction cycles. {yields} Synthesized nanocomposite can act as a catalyst for carbon nanotube synthesis. -- Abstract: Cobalt nanoparticles were prepared by a reduction process inside polymer pores using CoSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and NaBH{sub 4}. A porous polymer network (sulphonated polystyrene) was chosen, as the template for the synthesis of elementary cobalt as high surface area cobalt nanoparticles are prone to oxidation. The preliminary studies reveal that the cobalt is first formed with an oxide protective layer outside and upon repeating the reduction cycles, inner pores of the polymers are opened which enhanced the yield of metallic cobalt. These high surface area cobalt nanoparticles embedded in a polymer are ideal for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes as cobalt can act as a catalyst for the nanotube synthesis. The

  10. A dissolved cobalt plume in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawco, Nicholas J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Resing, Joseph A.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Saito, Mak A.

    2016-10-01

    Cobalt is a nutrient to phytoplankton, but knowledge about its biogeochemical cycling is limited, especially in the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report sections of dissolved cobalt and labile dissolved cobalt from the US GEOTRACES GP16 transect in the South Pacific. The cobalt distribution is closely tied to the extent and intensity of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific with highest concentrations measured at the oxycline near the Peru margin. Below 200 m, remineralization and circulation produce an inverse relationship between cobalt and dissolved oxygen that extends throughout the basin. Within the oxygen minimum zone, elevated concentrations of labile cobalt are generated by input from coastal sources and reduced scavenging at low O2. As these high cobalt waters are upwelled and advected offshore, phytoplankton export returns cobalt to low-oxygen water masses underneath. West of the Peru upwelling region, dissolved cobalt is less than 10 pM in the euphotic zone and strongly bound by organic ligands. Because the cobalt nutricline within the South Pacific gyre is deeper than in oligotrophic regions in the North and South Atlantic, cobalt involved in sustaining phytoplankton productivity in the gyre is heavily recycled and ultimately arrives from lateral transport of upwelled waters from the eastern margin. In contrast to large coastal inputs, atmospheric deposition and hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise appear to be minor sources of cobalt. Overall, these results demonstrate that oxygen biogeochemistry exerts a strong influence on cobalt cycling.

  11. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Jones, Michael G [Chubbuck, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Trowbridge, Tammy L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  12. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  13. Electromagnetic containerless reaction of samarium with cobalt for the formation of samarium-cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. W.; Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic levitation technique has been used to obtain nearly stoichiometric SmCo5, with the reaction temperature controlled by a gas jet. The results of several experiments carried out at a 450 kHz, 25 kw RF power levitation facility using different reaction times and cooling rates are presented. It is shown that reaction rates achieved with the levitation technique are larger than the expected diffusion rate in the system liquid samarium-solid cobalt. It is also shown that substantial mixing occurs in the RF-levitated melt.

  14. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benila, B. S.; Bright, K. C.; Delphine, S. Mary; Shabu, R.

    2017-03-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co2+) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co2+ ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices.

  15. Efficient hydrogen evolution catalysis using ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; Stone, Michael L.; Schmidt, J. R.; Thomas, Joseph G.; Ding, Qi; Chang, Hung-Chih; Tsai, Meng-Lin; He-Hau, Jr.; Jin, Song

    2015-12-01

    The scalable and sustainable production of hydrogen fuel through water splitting demands efficient and robust Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Building on promising metal compounds with high HER catalytic activity, such as pyrite structure cobalt disulphide (CoS2), and substituting non-metal elements to tune the hydrogen adsorption free energy could lead to further improvements in catalytic activity. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental study to establish ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide (CoPS) as a high-performance Earth-abundant catalyst for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Nanostructured CoPS electrodes achieved a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm-2 at overpotentials as low as 48 mV, with outstanding long-term operational stability. Integrated photocathodes of CoPS on n+-p-p+ silicon micropyramids achieved photocurrents up to 35 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), onset photovoltages as high as 450 mV versus RHE, and the most efficient solar-driven hydrogen generation from Earth-abundant systems.

  16. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Dose dependent relationship was found. Highest DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations were noticed at 2XLD50. The results concluded that CoCl2 induced DNA damage, cytokinesis failure and chromosomal aberrations in E. hortensis earthworms.

  17. Cobalt monolayer islands on Ag(111) for ORR catalysis.

    PubMed

    Loglio, Francesca; Lastraioli, Elisa; Bianchini, Claudio; Fontanesi, Claudio; Innocenti, Massimo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco; Foresti, Maria Luisa

    2011-08-22

    The design of a catalyst for one of the most important electrocatalytic reactions, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), was done following the most recent guidelines of theoretical studies on this topic. Aim of this work was to achieve a synergic effect of two different metals acting on different steps of the ORR. The catalytic activity of Ag, already known and characterized, was enhanced by the presence of a monolayer of cobalt subdivided into nanosized islands. To obtain such a controlled nanostructure, a novel method utilizing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as templates was employed. In a recent study, we were able to perform a confined electrodeposition of cobalt onto Ag(111) in a template formed by selectively desorbing a short-chain thiol (3-mercaptopropionic acid, MPA) from binary SAMs using 1-dodecanthiols (DDT). This method allows for an excellent control of the morphology of the deposit by varying the molar ratio of the two thiols. Because cobalt does not deposit on silver at an underpotential, the alternative approach of surface limited redox replacement (SLRR) was used. This method, recently developed by Adžić et al., consists of the use of a monolayer of a third metal, which can be deposited at an underpotential, as a template for the spontaneous deposition of a more noble metal. Herein, we choose zinc as template for the deposition of cobalt. Ag(111) crystals were covered by monolayer islands consisting of cobalt, with the surface atomic ratios ranging from 12 to 39% for cobalt. The catalytic activity of such samples towards ORR was evaluated and the best improvement in activity was found to be that of the sample with a cobalt percentage of approximately 30% with respect to the bare silver, which is in good agreement with theoretical hypotheses.

  18. Chronic cobalt treatment decreases hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Harish; McNeill, John H

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Although conventional treatments such as insulin and other drugs reduce blood glucose, there is still a therapeutic need for effective orally administered drugs. Trace elements like vanadium and tungstate have been successfully demonstrated to reduce blood glucose in experimental diabetes with minimal chronic complications. We investigated the anti-hyperglycemic effects of cobalt in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Normal and diabetic rats were provided with drinking water containing 3.5 mM cobalt chloride for three weeks followed by 4 mM for four weeks. Body weights and fluid consumption were monitored on a daily basis, while food intake was recorded twice every week. Prior to termination, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed on the animals. Diabetic rats lost significant body weight (357 +/- 2 gm) compared to controls (482 +/- 3 gm). Body weight was further reduced by cobalt treatment (290 +/- 2 gm). Although it was difficult to establish a dosing regimen without weight loss, food and fluid consumption in cobalt-treated diabetic rats improved significantly compared to untreated diabetics. Plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced with reference to diabetic controls (29.3 +/- 0.9 mM) by the fourth week to a lower but still hyperglycemic level (13.6 +/- 3.4 mM). Cobalt-treated diabetic rats demonstrated an enhanced ability to clear a glucose load compared to untreated diabetics. Cobalt treatment neither affected the feeding and drinking patterns nor plasma glucose in normoglycemic animals although body weights decreased compared to untreated controls. We conclude that chronic cobalt treatment decreases plasma glucose levels in STZ-diabetic rats and improves tolerance to glucose.

  19. RESEARCH ON THE DEPOSITION OF MAGNETIC INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN THIN FILMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A process for the vacuum deposition of thin films of intermetallic compounds of cobalt and yttrium, samarium, or neodymium, was developed. The...of the evaporation rates. Thin films of the desired stoichiometric compositions, Co5R, were produced in an extensive series of sequential experiments

  20. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; ...

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unitymore » were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.« less

  1. Cobalt(II) chloride adducts with acetonitrile, propan-2-ol and tetrahydrofuran: considerations on nuclearity, reactivity and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Stinghen, Danilo; Rüdiger, André Luis; Giese, Siddhartha O K; Nunes, Giovana G; Soares, Jaísa F; Hughes, David L

    2017-02-01

    High-spin cobalt(II) complexes are considered useful building blocks for the synthesis of single-molecule magnets (SMM) because of their intrinsic magnetic anisotropy. In this work, three new cobalt(II) chloride adducts with labile ligands have been synthesized from anhydrous CoCl2, to be subsequently employed as starting materials for heterobimetallic compounds. The products were characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (EPR and FT-IR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. trans-Tetrakis(acetonitrile-κN)bis(tetrahydrofuran-κO)cobalt(II) bis[(acetonitrile-κN)trichloridocobaltate(II)], [Co(C2H3N)4(C4H8O)2][CoCl3(C2H3N)]2, (1), comprises mononuclear ions and contains both acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran (thf) ligands, The coordination polymer catena-poly[[tetrakis(propan-2-ol-κO)cobalt(II)]-μ-chlorido-[dichloridocobalt(II)]-μ-chlorido], [Co2Cl4(C3H8O)4], (2'), was prepared by direct reaction between anhydrous CoCl2 and propan-2-ol in an attempt to rationalize the formation of the CoCl2-alcohol adduct (2), probably CoCl2(HO(i)Pr)m. The binuclear complex di-μ-chlorido-1:2κ(4)Cl:Cl-dichlorido-2κ(2)Cl-tetrakis(tetrahydrofuran-1κO)dicobalt(II), [Co2Cl4(C4H8O)4], (3), was obtained from (2) after recrystallization from tetrahydrofuran. All three products present cobalt(II) centres in both octahedral and tetrahedral environments, the former usually less distorted than the latter, regardless of the nature of the neutral ligand. Product (2') is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen-bond network that appears to favour a trans arrangement of the chloride ligands in the octahedral moiety; this differs from the cis disposition found in (3). The expected easy displacement of the bound solvent molecules from the metal coordination sphere makes the three compounds good candidates for suitable starting materials in a number of synthetic applications.

  2. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  3. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, S; Dhananjay, S; Anju, B; Lilly, G; Sai Ram, M

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor kappaB (NFkappaB) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NFkappaB inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NFkappaB in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NFkappaB. The lower levels of NFkappaB observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NFkappaB DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  4. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: Molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, S.; Dhananjay, S.; Anju, B. Lilly, G.; Sai Ram, M.

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NF{kappa}B inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NF{kappa}B in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NF{kappa}B. The lower levels of NF{kappa}B observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NF{kappa}B DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  5. Second sphere coordination in anion binding: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structure of cis-diazidobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) mesitylenesulphonate hemihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Sharma, Rajni; Bala, Ritu; Singh, Kamal Nain; Pretto, Loretta; Ferretti, Valeria

    2006-02-01

    cis-diazidobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) mesitylenesulphonate hemihydrate, [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2]C 9H 11SO 3·0.5H 2O was crystallized from a solution of cis-diazidobis(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) nitrate and sodium mesitylenesulphonate in aqueous medium in 1:1 molar ratio. Elemental analysis, spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/visible, 1H and 13C NMR) and conductance studies were undertaken for characterizing the complex salt. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.15220(10), b=14.5218(3), c=20.6925(5), V=2058.48(7), Z=4. X-ray structure determination revealed an ionic structure consisting of [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2] + cation, mesitylenesulphonate anion and half water molecule. In the complex cation [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2] +, the cobalt(III) is bonded to six nitrogen atoms, originating from two ethylenediamines, and two azide groups showing an octahedral geometry around cobalt. The crystal lattice is stabilized by electrostatic forces of attraction and hydrogen bonding interactions predominantly N-H…O -, suggesting that [ cis-Co(en) 2(N 3) 2] + is a promising anion receptor for the mesitylenesulphonate ion. This is the first report of a sulphonate salt containing the present cationic cobaltammine.

  6. Impact of Hydrogenolysis on the Selectivity of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Diesel Fuel Production over Mesoporous Zeolite-Y-Supported Cobalt Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaobo; Cheng, Kang; Kang, Jincan; Gu, Bang; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2015-04-07

    Selectivity control is a challenging goal in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Hydrogenolysis is known to occur during FT synthesis, but its impact on product selectivity has been overlooked. Demonstrated herein is that effective control of hydrogenolysis by using mesoporous zeolite Y-supported cobalt nanoparticles can enhance the diesel fuel selectivity while keeping methane selectivity low. The sizes of the cobalt particles and mesopores are key factors which determine the selectivity both in FT synthesis and in hydrogenolysis of n-hexadecane, a model compound of heavier hydrocarbons. The diesel fuel selectivity in FT synthesis can reach 60 % with a CH4 selectivity of 5 % over a Na-type mesoporous Y-supported cobalt catalyst with medium mean sizes of 8.4 nm (Co particles) and 15 nm (mesopores). These findings offer a new strategy to tune the product selectivity and possible interpretations of the effect of cobalt particle size and the effect of support pore size in FT synthesis.

  7. Electrosynthesis of highly transparent cobalt oxide water oxidation catalyst films from cobalt aminopolycarboxylate complexes.

    PubMed

    Bonke, Shannon A; Wiechen, Mathias; Hocking, Rosalie K; Fang, Xi-Ya; Lupton, David W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Spiccia, Leone

    2015-04-24

    Efficient catalysis of water oxidation represents one of the major challenges en route to efficient sunlight-driven water splitting. Cobalt oxides (CoOx ) have been widely investigated as water oxidation catalysts, although the incorporation of these materials into photoelectrochemical devices has been hindered by a lack of transparency. Herein, the electrosynthesis of transparent CoOx catalyst films is described by utilizing cobalt(II) aminopolycarboxylate complexes as precursors to the oxide. These complexes allow control over the deposition rate and morphology to enable the production of thin, catalytic CoOx films on a conductive substrate, which can be exploited in integrated photoelectrochemical devices. Notably, under a bias of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the film deposited from [Co(NTA)(OH2 )2 ](-) (NTA=nitrilotriacetate) decreased the transmission by only 10 % at λ=500 nm, but still generated >80 % of the water oxidation current produced by a [Co(OH2 )6 ](2+) -derived oxide film whose transmission was only 40 % at λ=500 nm.

  8. Analysis of cobalt(II) in 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaammine cobalt(III) perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.J.; Brown, N.E.; Deutsch, E.A.

    1985-10-30

    A new method of analysis is described for cobalt(II) complexes in 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaammine cobalt(III) perchlorate. The color reagent is 2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridyl hydrazone (DPPH), which complexes with the Co(II) and is oxidized to a substitution inert Co(III) (DPPH)/sub 2/ complex. Interferences from other ions is not a problem because the complex is stable at pH 2 - where complexes formed between DPPH and other ions are not stable. The usual air oxidant in this type of analysis has been replaced with ammonium peroxydisulfate improving both the precision and accuracy. The Sandell sensitivity is 0.0015 ..mu..g Co(II)/cm/sup 2/. The system obeys Beer's Law up to 4 ..mu..g in Co(II)mL of solution and has a molar absorptivity of 3.9 x 10/sup 4/ L/mole cm at 514 nm. The procedure was used to determine the degree of decomposition in samples that had undergone partial thermal decomposition. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Graphene/cobalt nanocarrier for hyperthermia therapy and MRI diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Shadie; Ahadian, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghiass, Mohammad Adel; Iraji Zad, Azam; Saber, Reza; Parseh, Benyamin; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Graphene/cobalt nanocomposites are promising materials for theranostic nanomedicine applications, which are defined as the ability to diagnose, provide targeted therapy and monitor the response to the therapy. In this study, the composites were synthesized via chemical method, using graphene oxide as the source material and assembling cobalt nanoparticles of 15nm over the surface of graphene sheets. Various characterization techniques were then employed to reveal the morphology, size and structure of the nanocomposites, such as X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. Using ion-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, cobalt concentration in the nanocomposites was found to be 80%. In addition, cytotoxicity of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites were evaluated using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assay. MTT viability assay exhibited biocompatibility to L929 mouse fibroblasts cells, under a high dose of 100μg/mL over 24h. Hyperthermia results showed the superior conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat at 350kHz frequency for 0.01 and 0.005g/L of the nanocomposites solution. The measured heat generation and energy transfer results were anticipated by the finite element analysis, conducted for the 3D structure. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics also showed that negatively charge graphene/cobalt nanocomposites are suitable for T1-weighted imaging.

  10. Physiological Remediation of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Volatron, Jeanne; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Vuong, Quoc Lam; Gossuin, Yves; Neveu, Sophie; Luciani, Nathalie; Hémadi, Miryana; Carn, Florent; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been increasingly suggested as prospective therapeutic nanoplatforms, yet their long-term fate and cellular processing in the body is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of an endogenous iron storage protein – namely the ferritin – in the remediation of biodegradable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Structural and elemental analysis of ferritins close to exogenous nanoparticles within spleens and livers of mice injected in vivo with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suggests the intracellular transfer of degradation-derived cobalt and iron, entrapped within endogenous protein cages. In addition, the capacity of ferritin cages to accommodate and store the degradation products of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated in vitro in the acidic environment mimicking the physiological conditions that are present within the lysosomes. The magnetic, colloidal and structural follow-up of nanoparticles and proteins in the lysosome-like medium confirmed the efficient remediation of nanoparticle-released cobalt and iron ions by ferritins in solution. Metal transfer into ferritins could represent a quintessential process in which biomolecules and homeostasis regulate the local degradation of nanoparticles and recycle their by-products. PMID:28067263

  11. Physiological Remediation of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Ferritin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volatron, Jeanne; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Vuong, Quoc Lam; Gossuin, Yves; Neveu, Sophie; Luciani, Nathalie; Hémadi, Miryana; Carn, Florent; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been increasingly suggested as prospective therapeutic nanoplatforms, yet their long-term fate and cellular processing in the body is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of an endogenous iron storage protein – namely the ferritin – in the remediation of biodegradable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Structural and elemental analysis of ferritins close to exogenous nanoparticles within spleens and livers of mice injected in vivo with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suggests the intracellular transfer of degradation-derived cobalt and iron, entrapped within endogenous protein cages. In addition, the capacity of ferritin cages to accommodate and store the degradation products of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated in vitro in the acidic environment mimicking the physiological conditions that are present within the lysosomes. The magnetic, colloidal and structural follow-up of nanoparticles and proteins in the lysosome-like medium confirmed the efficient remediation of nanoparticle-released cobalt and iron ions by ferritins in solution. Metal transfer into ferritins could represent a quintessential process in which biomolecules and homeostasis regulate the local degradation of nanoparticles and recycle their by-products.

  12. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Cobalt Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, Md S; Taylor, B. J.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Thompson, James R; Sinclair, J.

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt films were electrodeposited onto both iron and copper substrates from an aqueous solution containing a mixture of cobalt sulfate, boric acid, sodium citrate, and vanadyl sulfate. The structural, intermetallic diffusion and magnetic properties of the electrodeposited films were studied. Cobalt electrodeposition was carried out in a passively divided cell aided by addition of vanadyl sulfate to keep the counter electrode clean. The divided electrolytic cell with very negative current densities cause the electrodeposited Co to adopt a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, which is more magnetically reversible than the hexagonally close-packed (hcp) structured Co. The coercive field is also significantly less in the fcc-electrodeposited cobalt than in the hcp. SEM images show dense, uniform Co films without any cracks or porosity. Beside the deposition current, thickness of the film was also found to affect the crystal orientation particularly on iron substrates. Diffusion of cobalt film into the iron substrate was studied under reduced environment and a fast process was observed.

  13. Enhancement of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Naoko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2011-03-09

    The effects of cobalt chloride on the production of trichothecene and ergosterol in Fusarium graminearum were examined. Incorporation experiments with (13)C-labeled acetate and leucine confirmed that both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and ergosterol were biosynthesized via a mevalonate pathway by the fungus, although hydroxymethyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) from intact leucine was able to be partially used for ergosterol production. Addition of cobalt chloride at concentrations of 3-30 μM into liquid culture strongly enhanced 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by the fungus, whereas the amount of ergosterol and the mycelial weight of the fungus did not change. The mRNA levels of genes encoding trichothecene biosynthetic proteins (TRI4 and TRI6), ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes (ERG3 and ERG25), and enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway (HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR)) were all strongly up-regulated in the presence of cobalt chloride. Precocene II, a specific trichothecene production inhibitor, suppressed the effects of cobalt chloride on Tri4, Tri6, HMGS, and HMGR, but did not affect erg3 and erg25. These results indicate that cobalt chloride is useful for investigating regulatory mechanisms of trichothecene and ergosterol production in F. graminearum.

  14. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti B.; Nayak, Nadiya Bihary; Mallik, Rahul Kumar; Mondal, Aparna

    Different morphologies (spherical, flake and rod) of cobalt ferrite were synthesized using cobalt salt, iron salts, hydrazine hydrate (as a precipitating agent) and CTAB (surfactant) in water as well as ethylene glycol solvents. Four different synthesis ways (HIS, SIH, HISCO and HISG) were adopted to synthesize cobalt ferrite nanopowders using precipitation method. The as-prepared powders obtained after different synthesis ways were calcined at 800°C and structure, microstructure as well as magnetic properties are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and magnetization studies using pulsed field loop tracer were employed to characterize these cobalt ferrite powders, prepared using different precipitation ways. All the samples are identified with single phase cobalt ferrite and the crystallite size was found to be around 40 nm. Nearly spherical (multifaceted), rod with flake-like, nearly spherical and rod-like morphologies are obtained while synthesizing using HIS, SIH, HISCO and HISG ways, respectively. Rod with flake-like (SIH sample) and rod-like morphologies (HISG sample) show higher coercivity, than the spherical-like (SIH and HISCO smaples) morphology. The highest coericivty was found to be around 925 Oe for HISG sample and highest magnetization is 67 emu/g for HISCO sample.

  15. Physiological Remediation of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Volatron, Jeanne; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Vuong, Quoc Lam; Gossuin, Yves; Neveu, Sophie; Luciani, Nathalie; Hémadi, Miryana; Carn, Florent; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-09

    Metallic nanoparticles have been increasingly suggested as prospective therapeutic nanoplatforms, yet their long-term fate and cellular processing in the body is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of an endogenous iron storage protein - namely the ferritin - in the remediation of biodegradable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Structural and elemental analysis of ferritins close to exogenous nanoparticles within spleens and livers of mice injected in vivo with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suggests the intracellular transfer of degradation-derived cobalt and iron, entrapped within endogenous protein cages. In addition, the capacity of ferritin cages to accommodate and store the degradation products of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated in vitro in the acidic environment mimicking the physiological conditions that are present within the lysosomes. The magnetic, colloidal and structural follow-up of nanoparticles and proteins in the lysosome-like medium confirmed the efficient remediation of nanoparticle-released cobalt and iron ions by ferritins in solution. Metal transfer into ferritins could represent a quintessential process in which biomolecules and homeostasis regulate the local degradation of nanoparticles and recycle their by-products.

  16. Cobalt chloride induces apoptosis and zinc chloride suppresses cobalt-induced apoptosis by Bcl-2 expression in human submandibular gland HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kazumi; Okamura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Kaya; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ogawa-Iyehara, Hiroaki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effects of cobalt chloride on human submandibular gland cells, HSG cells were exposed to various concentrations of cobalt chloride. Cobalt chloride induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HSG cells as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and WST-1 cell viability assay. By using the Hoechst 33342 staining, marked nuclear condensation and fragmentation of chromatin were observed in cobalt chloride-treated cells. Cobalt chloride induced DNA ladder formation in HSG cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner with maximal effect at a concentration of 0.5 mM and 48 h, respectively. Cobalt chloride inhibited the expression of both Bcl-2 protein and mRNA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Zinc chloride recovered the cobalt-suppressed Bcl-2 expression and protected against cobalt-induced apoptosis in HSG cells. Our results show that the pathway of the apoptosis in HSG cells is regulated by cobalt chloride and zinc chloride. Our results also indicate that cobalt-induced apoptotic steps in HSG cells are related to the production of Bcl-2 protein.

  17. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid... substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (PMN P-12-35)...

  19. The effect of cobalt content in U-700 type alloys on degradation of aluminide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of cobalt content in U-700 type alloys on the behavior of aluminide coatings is studied in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1100C. It is determined that aluminide coatings on alloys with higher cobalt offer better oxidation protection than the same coatings on alloys containing less cobalt.

  20. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid... substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (PMN P-12-35)...

  2. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  3. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  4. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  5. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  6. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  7. 75 FR 70583 - Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Withdrawal of Significant New Use Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Withdrawal of... Control Act (TSCA) for the chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (CAS No... cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN P-04-269; CAS No. 182442-95-1) at 40 CFR 721.10201 because...

  8. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  9. 40 CFR 421.230 - Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. 421.230 Section 421.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.230 Applicability: Description of the primary nickel and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  10. 40 CFR 471.30 - Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. 471.30 Section 471.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.30 Applicability; description of the nickel-cobalt forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  11. Comparison of different supplemental cobalt forms on fiber digestion and cobalamin levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cobalt (Co) is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B*12, which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if Co form (cobalt carbonate vs cobalt glucoheptona...

  12. Comparison of different supplemental cobalt forms on digestion and cobalamin levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cobalt (Co) is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B12, which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if Co form (cobalt carbonate vs cobalt glucoheptonat...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10599 - Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10599 Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical... cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10599 - Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10599 Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical... cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1) is subject to reporting...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  16. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  17. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  18. 40 CFR 721.10600 - Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10600 Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide. (a... calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10600 - Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10600 Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide. (a... calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  1. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  2. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  3. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  4. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  5. Toxicity of cobalt. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity effects of cobalt. Citations include cobalt fetotoxicity, renal toxicity, bioaccumulation, contact dermatitis, carcinogencity, and respiratory disorders. Toxicology assays and industrial sources of cobalt poisoning are considered. In vivo and in vitro human and animal studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  12. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures.

  13. Cobalt-chromium spinel catalyst of exhaustive oxidation of ethyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, V.M.; Feshchenko, L.F.; Chernobrivets, V.L.

    1992-05-10

    Ethyl chloride is formed as a by-product in many plants for organochlorine synthesis and is emitted into the atmosphere with gaseous wastes, polluting the environment. Due to the toxicity of ethyl chloride, it is necessary to create methods for scrubbing this substance from waste gases. The catalytic method based on the reaction of exhaustive oxidation of the removed contaminant to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride or chlorine, which can either be removed or used for production purposes in some cases, is a relatively effective and economical method of scrubbing toxic organochlorine contaminants from gases. Catalytic oxidation of organochlorine compounds usually takes place on catalysts containing noble metals. The shortage of catalysts resistant to aggressive media has prevented the wide use of this method. The authors present a synthesis method for a cobalt-chromium catalyst for this purpose. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Sequential Cobalt Magnetization Collapse in ErCo2: Beyond the Limits of Itinerant Electron Metamagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Burzo, E.; Vlaic, P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Savenko, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    The itinerant electron metamagnetism (IEM) is an essential physical concept, describing magnetic properties of rare earth – transition metal (R-TM) intermetallics, demonstrating technologically important giant magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effects. It considers an appearance of TM magnetization induced by spontaneous magnetization of surrounding R atoms, which provides significant response of the magnetic and transport properties on variation of external parameters (temperature, pressure, magnetic field) due to strong coupling between magnetic sublattices. The RCo2 compounds were generally considered as model systems for understanding of basic properties of IEM intermetallics. However, microscopic nature of magnetic properties still remains unclear. In our experimental and theoretical study of ErCo2 in a wide range of thermodynamic parameters a sequential collapse of cobalt sublattice magnetization in the background of nearly unchanged Er sublattice magnetization was revealed. The uncoupled magnetizations behavior challenges the IEM concept applicability and evidences more complex nature of magnetism in ErCo2 and related RCo2 systems. PMID:25727134

  15. Enhancing Electrocatalytic Performance of Bifunctional Cobalt-Manganese-Oxynitride Nanocatalysts on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Fujita, Etsuko; Adzic, Radoslav R; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2017-01-10

    We report the synthesis and characterization of graphenesupported cobalt-manganese-oxynitride nanocatalysts (CoMnON/G) as bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). A nitriding treatment of spinel compound CoMnO increased the ORR activity considerably, and the most active material catalyzed the ORR with only a 30 mV half-wave potential difference from the commercial carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) in alkaline media. In addition to high activity, the catalyst also exhibited an intrinsic stability that outperformed Pt/C. An appropriately designed nitridation thus facilitates new directions for developing active and durable non-precious-metal oxynitride electocatalysts.

  16. A cobalt polypyrrole composite catalyzed cathode for the direct borohydride fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Yin, W. X.; Zhu, J. K.; Li, Z. P.

    A cobalt polypyrrole carbon (Co-PPY-C) composite has been attempted for use as a cathode catalyst in a direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC). A Co-PPY-C composite has been fabricated in laboratory and characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Fabricated Co-PPY-C catalyst demonstrates good short-term durability and activity which are comparable to those obtained from the Pt/C catalyst. A maximum power density of 65 mW cm -2 has been achieved at ambient conditions. This research concludes that metallo-organic coordination compounds would be potential candidates for use as cathode catalysts in the DBFC.

  17. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures. PMID:26153533

  18. Core chemistry influences the toxicity of multi-component metal oxide nanomaterials, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide and lithium cobalt oxide to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bozich, Jared; Hang, Mimi; Hamers, Robert; Klaper, Rebecca

    2017-03-11

    Lithium intercalation compounds such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) are used extensively in lithium batteries. Because there is currently little economic incentive for recycling, chances are greater that batteries will end up in landfills or waste in the environment. In addition, the toxicity of these battery materials has not been traditionally part of the design process. Therefore, to determine the environmental impact and the possibility of alternative battery materials, representative complex battery nanomaterials, LCO and NMC, were synthesized and toxicity was assessed in Daphnia magna. Toxicity was determined by assessing LCO and NMC at concentrations in the range of 0.1-25 mg/L. Acute studies (48-hours) showed no effect to daphnid survival at 25 mg/L whereas chronic studies (21-days) show significant impacts to daphnid reproduction and survival at concentrations of 0.25 mg/L for LCO and 1.0 mg/L for NMC. Dissolved metal exposures showed no effect at the amounts measured in suspension and supernatant controls could not reproduce the effects of the particles, indicating a nanomaterial-specific impact. Genes explored in the present study were actin, glutathione-s-transferase, catalase, 18s, metallothionein, heat shock protein and vitellogenin, Down regulation of genes important in metal detoxification, metabolism and cell maintenance was observed in a dose dependent manner. This study demonstrated battery material chemical composition could be altered to minimize environmental impacts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal fatigue resistance of cobalt-modified UDIMET 700

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, P. T.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of comparative thermal fatigue resistances of five cobalt composition modifications of UDIMET 700 from fluidized bed tests is described. Cobalt compositional levels of 0.1, 4.3, 8.6, 12.8, 17.0 percent were being investigated in both the bare and coated (NiCrAlY overlay) conditions. Triplicate tests of each variation including duplicate tests of three control alloys are under investigation. Fluidized beds were maintained at 550 and 1850 F for the first 5500 cycles at which time the hot bed was increased to 1922 F. Immersion time in each bed is always 3 minutes. Upon the completion of 10,000 cycles, it appears that the 8.6 percent cobalt level gives the best thermal fatigue life. Considerable deformation of the test bars was observed.

  20. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  1. Biocompatibility of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Tharajak, Jirasak; Li, Yuncang; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2014-07-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, manganese, and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental compositions of the nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size of the nanoparticles was investigated using particle size analyzer, and the zeta potentials were measured using zeta potential analyzer. The phase components of the synthesized transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was assessed using osteoblast-like cells. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals strongly influences the physical, chemical properties, and biocompatibility of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  2. Hepatic cobalt and copper levels in lambs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, T; Plassen, C

    2004-01-01

    Cobalt and copper concentrations were measured in 599 lamb livers collected at slaughter from 58 sheep flocks in 6 different parts of Norway in 1993. Information about pasture, additional feeding and mineral supplements in the flocks was obtained through a questionnaire. Average hepatic levels of cobalt in the lamb flocks varied from < 0.003 to 0.22 microg/g ww, and of copper from 5 to 240 microg/g ww. Flocks with deficient or marginal cobalt status were found in all parts of southern Norway, but primarily in the west and south-west. Some flocks with marginal copper status were found in the south-west, while flocks with signs of excessive hepatic copper concentrations were found mainly in inner parts of central and northern Norway. Hepatic copper concentrations were significantly higher in lambs that had grazed mountain pastures than in those that had grazed lowland pastures in the summer.

  3. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III ); Brodzinski, R.L. ); Marcum, J. )

    1990-02-01

    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of low cobalt wear materials for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shiels, S.A.; Wilson, W.L.; Rosengarth, K.W.; Wire, G.L.

    1994-09-01

    Laboratory wear and corrosion screening tests were conducted on several commercially available, low-cobalt and cobalt-free hardsurfacing alloys to evaluate their relative wear and corrosion performance under simulated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary heat transport circuit conditions. Wear tests were performed under reciprocating, sliding contact. Corrosion performance was evaluated in both steady state and off-normal chemistry conditions. The wear behavior of the candidate hardsurfacing alloys was generally comparable to or better than that of Stellite 6, a material of proven wear performance under PWR operating conditions. With the exception of Tristelle 5183, the iron base alloys exhibited unacceptable corrosion behavior under wet layup conditions. The Tristelle 5183 experienced minor corrosion attack in primary coolant having elevated oxygen levels. The twelve percent cobalt alloy, Tristelle TS-2, performed well but exhibited some attack after a simulated decontamination treatment.

  5. Microstructure and abrasive wear of cobalt-based laser coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Mol van Otterloo, J.L.; De Hosson, J.T.M.

    1997-01-15

    Cobalt-based alloys are used as wear-resistant materials for hardfacing cheap steel substrates. A substantial enhancement in mechanical properties of cobalt-based superalloys is attributed to the martensitic fcc {yields} hcp phase transformation. Alloying elements can be classified as phase modifiers (Ni and Fe stabilize fcc whereas W and Cr stabilize hcp), solid-solution strengtheners (W and Mo), which affect only the matrix, and elements that form carbides (Cr-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M = metal). Of the different depositing techniques such as plasma spray, tungsten inert gas, oxyacetylene flame and laser cladding, the latter delivers coatings with a low dilution with the substrate material and no pores. Moreover, the laser cladding process has the advantage of being well controllable. This paper reports on the deposition of five different cobalt-based Stellite alloys on steel substrates by laser cladding.

  6. Tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy and method of producing same

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, James M.; Riley, Robert E.

    1977-03-15

    An improved tungsten alloy having a tungsten content of approximately 95 weight percent, a nickel content of about 3 weight percent, and the balance being cobalt of about 2 weight percent is described. A method for producing said tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy is further described and comprises (a) coating the tungsten particles with a nickel-cobalt alloy, (b) pressing the coated particles into a compact shape, (c) heating said compact in hydrogen to a temperature in the range of 1400.degree. C and holding at this elevated temperature for a period of about 2 hours, (d) increasing this elevated temperature to about 1500.degree. C and holding for 1 hour at this temperature, (e) cooling to about 1200.degree. C and replacing the hydrogen atmosphere with an inert argon atmosphere while maintaining this elevated temperature for a period of about 1/2 hour, and (f) cooling the resulting alloy to room temperature in this argon atmosphere.

  7. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together.

  8. Transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2013-03-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analysis of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was performed via X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was measured using the water contact angle technique. The surface roughness of all nanoparticles was measured using profilometry. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to determine the temperature at which the decomposition and oxidation of the chelating agents took place. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals influences strongly the microstructure, crystal structure and antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  9. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  10. Magnetic behavior of Co and Ni in pseudoternary boron compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzo, E.; Tetean, R.; Chioncel, L.; Pop, V.

    2007-09-01

    The magnetic properties of YA 4-xM xB with A=cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni) and M=Al or Cu were analyzed. Solid solutions are formed for x⩽1.5 when M=Cu and x⩽2 for M=Al. The magnetizations and Curie temperatures decrease as result of substitutions. The YCo 2Al 2B compound is paramagnetic. Band structure calculations were performed on the above systems. Finally, the magnetic behaviors of Co and Ni in YA 4-xM xB compounds is analyzed.

  11. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-11-30

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  12. Cobalt(II) β-ketoaminato complexes as novel inhibitors of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jocelyn M; Beloukhina, Natalia; Boudreau, Kalun; Boettcher, Tyson A; Gurley, Lydia; Walker, Douglas G; McNeil, W Stephen; Klegeris, Andis

    2012-02-15

    Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders including stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as age-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs could be used to slow the progression of these diseases. We studied the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of four novel square planar cobalt(II) compounds bearing tetradentate β-ketoaminato ligands with variation in the number of CF(3) ligand substituents, as well as their corresponding unmetallated organic ligands. Cobalt (Co) complexes were consistently more active than their corresponding ligands. One of the complexes, L(3)Co at concentrations (1-10 μM) that were not toxic to cells, significantly reduced cytotoxic secretions by human monocytic THP-1 cells, astrocytoma U-373 MG cells, and primary human microglia. This anti-neurotoxic action of L(3)Co was reduced by SP600125 and PD98059, selective inhibitors of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)1/2 respectively. L(3)Co had no effect on secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by THP-1 cells, but it inhibited the NADPH oxidase-dependent respiratory burst activity of differentiated human HL-60 cells. L(3)Co upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HOX-1) expression by THP-1 cells, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties. Two of the Co compounds tested showed activity only at high concentrations (50 μM), but L(2)Co was highly toxic to all cell types used. Select Co complexes, such as L(3)Co, may exhibit pharmacological properties beneficial in human diseases involving neuroinflammatory processes. Further studies of the in vivo efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of L(3)Co are warranted.

  13. Genotoxicity of cobalt nanoparticles and ions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vales, Gerard; Demir, Eşref; Kaya, Bülent; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2013-06-01

    Nanogenotoxicology is an emergent area of research, relevant for estimating the potential carcinogenic risk of nanomaterials. Since most of the approaches use in vitro studies, and neglecting the whole organism limits the accuracy of the obtained results, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to study the possible genotoxic potential of cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs). The wing somatic mutation and recombination test has been the test of choice. This test is based on the principle that the loss of heterozygosis and the corresponding expression of the suitable recessive markers, multiple wing hairs and flare-3 can lead to the formation of mutant clone cells in growing up larvae, which are expressed as mutant spots on the wings of adult flies. Co NPs, as well as the ionic form cobalt chloride, were given to third instar larvae through the food, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM. The results obtained indicate that both cobalt forms are able to induce significant increases in the frequency of mutant clones. Although at low concentrations only Co NPs were genotoxic, the level of genetic damage obtained at the highest dose tested of cobalt chloride (10 mM) showed a significant higher increase in the frequency of total spots than those observed after the treatment with cobalt nanoparticles. As conclusion, our results indicate that Co NPs were able to induce genotoxic activity in the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster, mainly via the induction of somatic recombination. The differences observed in the behaviour of the two selected cobalt forms may result from differences in the uptake.

  14. Temporal Variability of Tungsten and Cobalt in Fallon, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paul R.; Speakman, Robert J.; Ridenour, Gary; Witten, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 1997, Fallon, Nevada, has experienced a cluster of childhood leukemia that has been declared “one of the most unique clusters of childhood cancer ever reported.” Multiple environmental studies have shown airborne tungsten and cobalt to be elevated within Fallon, but the question remains: Have these metals changed through time in correspondence with the onset of the leukemia cluster? Methods We used dendrochemistry, the study of element concentrations through time in tree rings, in Fallon to assess temporal variability of airborne tungsten and cobalt since the late 1980s. The techniques used in Fallon were also tested in a different town (Sweet Home, OR) that has airborne tungsten from a known source. Results The Sweet Home test case confirms the accuracy of dendrochemistry for showing temporal variability of environmental tungsten. Given that dendrochemistry works for tungsten, tree-ring chemistry shows that tungsten increased in Fallon relative to nearby comparison towns beginning by the mid-1990s, slightly before the onset of the cluster, and cobalt has been high throughout the last ~ 15 years. Other metals do not show trends through time in Fallon. Discussion Results in Fallon suggest a temporal correspondence between the onset of excessive childhood leukemia and elevated levels of tungsten and cobalt. Although environmental data alone cannot directly link childhood leukemia with exposure to metals, research by others has shown that combined exposure to tungsten and cobalt can be carcinogenic to humans. Conclusion Continued biomedical research is warranted to directly test for linkage between childhood leukemia and tungsten and cobalt. PMID:17520058

  15. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    Physalis peruviana could attract great interest because of its nutritional and industrial properties. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and carotenoids. Physalis Peruviana is also known to have a positive impact on human health. Unfortunately, still little is known about trace elements present in Physalis Peruviana and their forms available for the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility and characterization of species of cobalt, copper and selenium in Physalis Peruviana fruits. Total and extractable contents of elements were determined by mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS). In order to separate the different types of metal complexes Physalis peruviana fruits were treated with the following solvents: Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH 7.4) and ammonium acetate (pH 5.5). The best efficiency of extraction of: cobalt was obtained for ammonium acetate (56%) and Tris-HCl (60%); for copper was obtained for SDS (66%), for selenium the best extraction efficiency was obtained after extraction with SDS (48%). To obtain information about bioaccessibility of investigated elements, enzymatic extraction based on in vitro simulation of gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion was performed. For copper and selenium the simulation of gastric digestion leads to the extraction yield above 90%, while both steps of digestion method were necessary to obtain satisfactory extraction yield in the case of cobalt. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to on-line ICP MS detection was used to investigate collected metal species. The main fraction of metal compounds was found in the 17 kDa region. Cobalt and copper create complexes mostly with compounds extracted by means of ammonium acetate and SDS, respectively. Cobalt, copper and selenium were found to be highly bioaccessible from Physalis Peruviana. Investigation of available standards of cobalt and selenium

  16. Pairing symmetry of the hydrated cobaltate superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2008-03-01

    We report NMR/NQR measurements on the hydrated cobaltate superconductor NaxCoO2*1.3H2O at elevated pressures. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) decreases below Tc with no coherence peak [1], and is in proportion to T^3 down to T˜Tc/10, which provides compelling evidence for the existence of line nodes in the gap function [2,3]. The spin susceptibility obtained from the Knight shift measurement in a single crystal decreases below Tc along all crystal-axis directions [4]. These results indicate anisotropic, spin-singlet pairing, and are most consistent with a d-wave gap. The electron correlations in the normal state are antiferromagnetic-like, which increases with decreasing Na-content [1,2]. The phase diagrams of Tc and various physical properties as functions of Na-content [2], and pressure [3] will be presented, and the inter-relation between the superconductivity and the spin correlations will be discussed. References: [1] T. Fujimoto, G. - q. Zheng, Y. Kitaoka, R.L. Meng, J. Cmaidalka, and C.W. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047004 (2004). [2] G. - q. Zheng, K. Matano, R.L. Meng, J. Cmaidalka, and C.W. Chu, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, L63 (2006). [3] E. Kusano, S. Kawasaki, K. Matano, G. - q. Zheng, R.L. Meng, J. Cmaidalka, and C.W. Chu, Phys. Rev. B 76, 100506 (R) (2007). [4] G. - q. Zheng, K. Matano, D.P. Chen and C.T. Lin, Phys. Rev. B73, 180503 (R) (2006).

  17. Cobalt triarylcorroles containing one, two or three nitro groups. Effect of NO₂ substitution on electrochemical properties and catalytic activity for reduction of molecular oxygen in acid media.

    PubMed

    Li, Bihong; Ou, Zhongping; Meng, Deying; Tang, Jijun; Fang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Rui; Kadish, Karl M

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt(III) triarylcorroles containing 0-3 nitro groups on the para-position of the three meso-phenyl rings of the macrocycle were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, (UV-vis) and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The examined compounds are represented as (NO2Ph)(n)Ph(3-n)CorCo(PPh3), where n varies from 0 to 3 and Cor represents the core of the corrole. Each compound can undergo two metal-centered one-electron reductions leading to formation of Co(II) and Co(I) derivatives in CH2Cl2 or pyridine containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP). A stepwise two electron reduction of each NO2Ph group of the compound is also observed. The first is reversible and occurs in a single overlapping step at the same potential which involves an overall one-, two- or three-electron transfer process for compounds 2-4, respectively. This indicates the lack of an interaction between these redox active sites on the corroles. The second reduction of the NO2Ph groups is irreversible and located at a potential which overlaps the Co(II)/Co(I) process of the compounds. Thin-layer UV-visible spectroelectrochemical measurements in CH2Cl2, 0.1 M TBAP demonstrate the occurrence of an equilibrium between a Co(III) π-anion radical and a Co(II) derivative with an uncharged macrocycle after the first controlled potential reduction of the nitro-substituted corroles. All four cobalt corroles were also examined as catalysts for the electroreduction of O2 when coated on an edge-plane pyrrolytic graphite electrode in 1.0 M HClO4. This study indicates that the larger the number of nitro-substituents on the cobalt corrole, the better the compound acts as a catalyst.

  18. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  19. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  20. Hydrogen evolution catalyzed by cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes.

    PubMed

    Kaeffer, Nicolas; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Artero, Vincent

    2015-05-19

    Mimicking photosynthesis and producing solar fuels is an appealing way to store the huge amount of renewable energy from the sun in a durable and sustainable way. Hydrogen production through water splitting has been set as a first-ranking target for artificial photosynthesis. Pursuing that goal requires the development of efficient and stable catalytic systems, only based on earth abundant elements, for the reduction of protons from water to molecular hydrogen. Cobalt complexes based on glyoxime ligands, called cobaloximes, emerged 10 years ago as a first generation of such catalysts. They are now widely utilized for the construction of photocatalytic systems for hydrogen evolution. In this Account, we describe our contribution to the development of a second generation of catalysts, cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes. While displaying similar catalytic activities as cobaloximes, these catalysts prove more stable against hydrolysis under strongly acidic conditions thanks to the tetradentate nature of the diimine-dioxime ligand. Importantly, H2 evolution proceeds via proton-coupled electron transfer steps involving the oxime bridge as a protonation site, reproducing the mechanism at play in the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes. This feature allows H2 to be evolved at modest overpotentials, that is, close to the thermodynamic equilibrium over a wide range of acid-base conditions in nonaqueous solutions. Derivatization of the diimine-dioxime ligand at the hydrocarbon chain linking the two imine functions enables the covalent grafting of the complex onto electrode surfaces in a more convenient manner than for the parent bis-bidentate cobaloximes. Accordingly, we attached diimine-dioxime cobalt catalysts onto carbon nanotubes and demonstrated the catalytic activity of the resulting molecular-based electrode for hydrogen evolution from aqueous acetate buffer. The stability of immobilized catalysts was found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of catalysts in the

  1. Hydrogen Evolution Catalyzed by Cobalt Diimine-Dioxime Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kaeffer, Nicolas; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Artero, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Mimicking photosynthesis and producing solar fuels is an appealing way to store the huge amount of renewable energy from the sun in a durable and sustainable way. Hydrogen production through water splitting has been set as a first-ranking target for artificial photosynthesis. Pursuing that goal requires the development of efficient and stable catalytic systems, only based on earth abundant elements, for the reduction of protons from water to molecular hydrogen. Cobalt complexes based on glyoxime ligands, called cobaloximes, emerged ten years ago as a first generation of such catalysts. They are now widely utilized for the construction of photocatalytic systems for hydrogen evolution. In this Account, we describe our contribution to the development of a second generation of catalysts, cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes. While displaying similar catalytic activities as cobaloximes, these catalysts prove more stable against hydrolysis under strongly acidic conditions thanks to the tetradentate nature of the diimine-dioxime ligand. Importantly, H2 evolution proceeds via proton-coupled electron transfer steps involving the oxime bridge as a protonation site, reproducing the mechanism at play in the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes. This feature allows H2 to be evolved at modest overpotentials, i.e. close to the thermodynamic equilibrium over a wide range of acid-base conditions in non-aqueous solutions. Derivatization of the diimine-dioxime ligand at the hydrocarbon chain linking the two imine functions enables the covalent grafting of the complex onto electrode surfaces in a more convenient manner than for the parent bis-bidentate cobaloximes. Accordingly we attached diimine-dioxime cobalt catalysts onto carbon nanotubes and demonstrated the catalytic activity of the resulting molecular-based electrode for hydrogen evolution from aqueous acetate buffer. The stability of immobilized catalysts was found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of catalysts

  2. Structural changes in iron-cobalt oxide nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishchev, K. N.; Golub'ev, M. A.; Maksimov, Yu. V.; Beglov, V. I.; Kyashkin, V. M.; Panov, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The structure of binary iron-cobalt oxide nanosystems—precursors of bimetallic catalysts—is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The oxide system under study represents a promising material for creating new metallic nanocatalysts for ammonia synthesis. The structural evolution in the composition range 100Fe/0Co-5Fe/95Co is found to correspond to the transition from fine-grained α-Fe2O3 to mixed iron-cobalt spinels of various compositions and degrees of dispersity.

  3. Low energy sputtering of cobalt by cesium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handoo, A.; Ray, Pradosh K.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental facility to investigate low energy (less than 500 eV) sputtering of metal surfaces with ions produced by an ion gun is described. Results are reported on the sputtering yield of cobalt by cesium ions in the 100 to 500 eV energy range at a pressure of 1 times 10(exp -6) Torr. The target was electroplated on a copper substrate. The sputtered atoms were collected on a cobalt foil surrounding the target. Co-57 was used as a tracer to determine the sputtering yield.

  4. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  5. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-04-29

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  6. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-05-13

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  7. In situ cobalt-cobalt oxide/N-doped carbon hybrids as superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiyan; Wang, Jing; Su, Diefeng; Wei, Zhongzhe; Pang, Zhenfeng; Wang, Yong

    2015-02-25

    Remarkable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or superior oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst has been applied in water splitting, however, utilizing a bifunctional catalyst for simultaneously generating H2 and O2 is still a challenging issue, which is crucial for improving the overall efficiency of water electrolysis. Herein, inspired by the superiority of carbon conductivity, the propitious H atom binding energy of metallic cobalt, and better OER activity of cobalt oxide, we synthesized cobalt-cobalt oxide/N-doped carbon hybrids (CoOx@CN) composed of Co(0), CoO, Co3O4 applied to HER and OER by simple one-pot thermal treatment method. CoOx@CN exhibited a small onset potential of 85 mV, low charge-transfer resistance (41 Ω), and considerable stability for HER. Electrocatalytic experiments further indicated the better performance of CoOx@CN for HER can be attributed to the high conductivity of carbon, the synergistic effect of metallic cobalt and cobalt oxide, the stability of carbon-encapsulated Co nanoparticles, and the introduction of electron-rich nitrogen. In addition, when used as catalysts of OER, the CoOx@CN hybrids required 0.26 V overpotential for a current density of 10 mA cm(-2), which is comparable even superior to many other non-noble metal catalysts. More importantly, an alkaline electrolyzer that approached ∼20 mA cm(-2) at a voltage of 1.55 V was fabricated by applying CoOx@CN as cathode and anode electrocatalyst, which opened new possibilities for exploring overall water splitting catalysts.

  8. Cobalt(II) Porphyrin-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclopropanation of N-Alkyl Indoles/Pyrroles with Alkylcarbene: Efficient Synthesis of Polycyclic N-Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Hao, Fei; Wu, Kai; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-26

    A protocol on chemoselective cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of N-alkyl indoles/pyrroles with alkylcarbenes has been developed. The reaction enables the rapid construction of a range of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds in moderate to high yields from readily accessible materials. These N-containing polycyclic compounds can be converted into a variety of N-heterocycles with potential synthetic and biological interest. Compared to their N-tosylhydrazone counterparts, the use of bulky N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl hydrazones as carbene precursors allows cyclopropanation to occur under milder reaction conditions.

  9. Deprotonation or protonation: The coordination properties, crystal structures and spectra of cobalt (II) complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Liang; Sun, Hong-Wen; Yin, Dong-Hong; Li, Yan-Ling; Tuo, Su-Xing; Xu, Ya-Hui; Yan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The reaction of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol (PAAL) with cobalt acetate in CHCl3 gave the complex of Co(PAAL-H)2 (1), and (PAAL + H)2[CoCl4]·2H2O (2) was isolated in the same system with ultraviolet light irradiation. Structures of both compounds were determined by X-Ray diffraction. The PAAL ligand was deprotonated in 1, but it further protonated on N position at pyridine group in 2 and form cations. The spectra of these two compounds were also studied, as well as the fluorescence properties. Also, the redox property of 1 was preliminary investigated by cyclic voltammogram.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  12. Magneto-structural correlations in rare-earth cobalt pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Corey Mitchell

    Magnetic materials are used in many applications such as credit cards, hard drives, electric motors, sensors, etc. Although a vast range of magnetic solids is available for these purposes, our ability to improve their efficiency and discover new materials remains paramount to the sustainable progress and economic profitability in many technological areas. The search for magnetic solids with improved performance requires fundamental understanding of correlations between the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of existing materials, as well as active exploratory synthesis that targets the development of new magnets. Some of the strongest permanent magnets, Nd 2Fe14B, SmCo5, and Sm2Co17, combine transition and rare-earth metals, benefiting from the strong exchange between the 4f and 3d magnetic sublattices. Although these materials have been studied in great detail, the development of novel magnets requires thorough investigation of other 3d-4 f intermetallics, in order to gain further insights into correlations between their crystal structures and magnetic properties. Among many types of intermetallic materials, ternary pnictides RCo 2Pn2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd; Pn = P, As) are of interest because, despite their simple crystal structures, they contain two magnetic sublattices, exchange interactions between which may lead to rich and unprecedented magnetic behavior. Nevertheless, magnetism of these materials was studied only to a limited extent, especially as compared to the extensive studies of their silicide and germanide analogues. The ThCr2Si2 structure type, to which these ternary pnictides belong, is one of the most ubiquitous atomic arrangements encountered among intermetallic compounds. It accounts for over 1000 known intermetallics and has received increased attention due to the recently discovered FeAs-based superconductors. This dissertation is devoted to the investigation of

  13. Gas phase catalytic hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzene over cobalt phosphide catalysts with different P contents.

    PubMed

    Cecilia, J A; Infantes-Molina, A; Rodríguez-Castellón, E; Jiménez-López, A

    2013-09-15

    The gas phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of chlorobenzene (CB) at atmospheric pressure was investigated over silica-supported cobalt and cobalt phosphide catalysts containing different P loading and a fixed amount of cobalt (5 wt.%). The effect of the initial P/Co molar ratio on the stoichiometry of the cobalt phosphide phase, the acidity and the hydrogen activation capability were discussed and these properties correlated with the catalytic activity. Catalytic results indicated that the cobalt phosphide phase is much more active than the monometallic cobalt one. The activity raised with the P content present in the sample due to the formation of the CoP phase instead of the Co₂P one, which favored the formation of hydrogen spillover species, increased the amount of weak acid sites and the number of exposed superficial cobalt atoms probably related to a better dispersion of the active phase. All the catalysts gave rise benzene as the main reaction product.

  14. Development of hierarchically porous cobalt oxide for enhanced photo-oxidation of indoor pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J. P.; Shereef, Anas; Gray, Kimberly A.; Wu, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    Porous cobalt oxide was successfully prepared by precipitation of cobalt hydroxide followed by low temperature thermal decomposition. The morphologies of the resultant oxides remained as the corresponding hydroxides, although the morphology of cobalt hydroxides was greatly influenced by the precursor salts. The cobalt oxides with average crystal size less than 20 nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, BET surface area, and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the various cobalt oxides morphologies were investigated by comparing the photo-degradation of acetaldehyde under simulated solar illumination. Relative to their low order structures and reference titania samples, the hierarchical nanostructures of cobalt oxide showed excellent abilities to rapidly degrade acetaldehyde, a model air pollutant. This was attributed to the unique nature of these hierarchical cobalt oxide nanoassemblies, which contained many catalytically active reaction sites and open pores.

  15. Porphyrin Cobalt(III) "Nitrene Radical" Reactivity; Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Ortho-YH Substituents to the Nitrene Moiety of Cobalt-Bound Aryl Nitrene Intermediates (Y = O, NH).

    PubMed

    Goswami, Monalisa; Rebreyend, Christophe; de Bruin, Bas

    2016-02-20

    In the field of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed metallo-radical reactions, organic azides have emerged as successful nitrene transfer reagents. In the pursuit of employing ortho-YH substituted (Y = O, NH) aryl azides in Co(II) porphyrin-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions, unexpected hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the OH or NH₂ group in the ortho-position to the nitrene moiety of the key radical-intermediate was observed. This leads to formation of reactive ortho-iminoquinonoid (Y = O) and phenylene diimine (Y = NH) species. These intermediates convert to subsequent products in non-catalyzed reactions, as is typical for these free organic compounds. As such, the observed reactions prevent the anticipated cobalt-mediated catalytic radical-type coupling of the nitrene radical intermediates to alkynes or alkenes. Nonetheless, the observed reactions provide valuable insights into the reactivity of transition metal nitrene-radical intermediates, and give access to ortho-iminoquinonoid and phenylene diimine intermediates from ortho-YH substituted aryl azides in a catalytic manner. The latter can be employed as intermediates in one-pot catalytic transformations. From the ortho-hydroxy aryl azide substrates both phenoxizinones and benzoxazines could be synthesized in high yields. From the ortho-amino aryl azide substrates azabenzene compounds were obtained as the main products. Computational studies support these observations, and reveal that HAT from the neighboring OH and NH₂ moiety to the nitrene radical moiety has a low energy barrier.

  16. Cobalt Kβ valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy: a study of low-spin octahedral cobalt(iii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Schwalenstocker, Katarina; Paudel, Jaya; Kohn, Alexander W; Dong, Chao; Van Heuvelen, Katherine M; Farquhar, Erik R; Li, Feifei

    2016-09-28

    Kβ valence-to-core (V2C) X-emission spectroscopy (XES) has gained prominence as a tool for molecular inorganic chemists to probe the occupied valence orbitals of coordination complexes, as illustrated by recent evaluation of Kβ V2C XES ranging from titanium to iron. However, cobalt Kβ V2C XES has not been studied in detail, limiting the application of this technique to probe cobalt coordination in molecular catalysts and bioinorganic systems. In addition, the community still lacks a complete understanding of all factors that dictate the V2C peak area. In this manuscript, we report experimental cobalt Kβ V2C XES spectra of low-spin octahedral Co(iii) complexes with different ligand donors, in conjunction with DFT calculations. Cobalt Kβ V2C XES was demonstrated to be sensitive to cobalt-ligand coordination environments. Notably, we recognize here for the first time that there is a linear correlation between the V2C area and the spectrochemical series for low-spin octahedral cobalt(iii) complexes, with strong field π acceptor ligands giving rise to the largest V2C area. This unprecedented correlation is explained by invoking different levels of π-interaction between cobalt p orbitals and ligand orbitals that modulate the percentage of cobalt p orbital character in donor MOs, in combination with changes in the average cobalt-ligand distance.

  17. Thin film Heusler compounds manganese nickel gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    Multiferroic Heusler compounds Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) have a tetragonal unit cell that can variously be used for magneto-mechanically coupled shape memory ( x=1,2) and spin-mechanical applications (x=0). The first fabrication of fully epitaxial thin films of these and electronically related compounds by sputtering is discussed. Traditional and custom lab characterization of the magnetic and temperature driven multiferroic behavior is augmented by more detailed synchrotron-based high energy photoemission spectroscopic techniques to describe the atomic and electronic structure. Integration of the MnNi2Ga magnetic shape memory compound in microwave patch antennas and active free-standing structures represents a fraction of the available and promising applications for these compounds. Prototype magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated by Mn3Ga electrodes with perpendicular anisotropy for spin torque transfer memory structures. The main body of the work concentrates on the definition and exploration of the material series Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) and the relevant multiferroic phenomena exhibited as a function of preparation and external stimuli. Engineering results on each x=0,1,2 are presented with device prototypes where relevant. In the appendices the process of the materials design undertaken with the goal of developing new ternary intermetallics with enhanced properties is presented with a full exploration of the road from band structure calculations to device implementation. Cobalt based compounds in single crystal and nanoparticle form are fabricated with an eye to developing the production methods for new cobalt- and iron-based magnetic shape memory compounds for device applications in different forms. Mn2CoSn, a compound isolectronic and with similar atomic ordering to Mn2NiGa is experimentally determined to be a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet in contrast to the metallic ferrimagnetism in the parent compound. High energy photoemission spectroscopy is shown to

  18. Photo-catalytic Degradation and Sorption of Radio-cobalt from EDTA-Co Complexes Using Manganese Oxide Materials - 12220

    SciTech Connect

    Koivula, Risto; Harjula, Risto; Tusa, Esko

    2012-07-01

    The synthesised cryptomelane-type α-MnO{sub 2} was tested for its Co-57 uptake properties in UV-photo-reactor filled with 10 μM Co-EDTA solution with a background of 10 mM NaNO{sub 3}. High cobalt uptake of 96% was observed after 1 hour of UV irradiation. As for comparison, a well-known TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25) was tested as reference material that showed about 92% cobalt uptake after six hours of irradiation in identical experiment conditions. It was also noted that the cobalt uptake on cryptomelane with out UV irradiation was modest, only about 10%. Decreasing the pH of the Co-EDTA solution had severe effects on the cobalt uptake mainly due to the rather high point of zero charge of the MnO{sub 2} surface (pzc at pH ∼4.5). Modifying the synthesis procedure we were able to produce a material that functioned well even in solution of pH 3 giving cobalt uptake of almost 99%. The known properties, catalytic and ion exchange, of manganese oxides were simultaneously used for the separation of EDTA complexed Co-57. Tunnel structured cryptomelane -type showed very fast and efficient Co uptake properties outperforming the well known and widely used Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} in both counts. The layered structured manganese oxide, birnessite, reached also as high Co removal level as the reference material Degussa did but the reaction rate was considerably faster. Since the decontamination solutions are typically slightly acidic and the point of zero charge of the manganese oxides are rather high > pH 4.5 the material had to be modified. This modified material had tolerance to acidic solutions and it's Co uptake performance remained high in the solutions of lower pH (pH 3). Increasing the ion concentration of test solutions, background concentration, didn't affect the final Co uptake level; however, some changes in the uptake kinetics could be seen. The increase in EDTA/MoMO ratio was clearly reflected in the Co uptake curves. The obtained results of manganese oxide were

  19. “NiCo Buster”: engineering E. coli for fast and efficient capture of cobalt and nickel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    the ability to form thick biofilm structures, especially when exposed to nickel and cobalt metallic compounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the efficient use of genetic engineering to increase metal sequestration and biofilm formation by E. coli. This method allows Co and Ni contaminants to be sequestered while spatially confining the bacteria to an abiotic support. Biofiltration of nickel (II) and cobalt (II) by immobilized cells is therefore a promising option for treating these contaminants at an industrial scale. PMID:25104972

  20. The influence of manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Gong, Xinglong

    2014-08-15

    By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nano-particles, manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo2O4-GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo2O4-GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co3O4-GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O4 for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide.

  1. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James G.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1989-01-01

    The promoter(s) Mn oxide or Mn oxide and Zr oxide are added to a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst combined with the molecular sieve TC-103 or TC-123 such that the resultant catalyst demonstrates improved product selectivity, stability and catalyst life. The improved selectivity is evidenced by lower methane production, higher C5+ yield and increased olefin production.

  2. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James G.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1989-01-01

    A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst having an improved steam treated, acid extracted LZ-210 support is taught. The new catalyst system demonstrates improved product selectivity at Fischer-Tropsch reaction conditions evidenced by lower methane production, higher C.sub.5.sup.+ yield and increased olefin production.

  3. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S; Maiti, Tapas K; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic-osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co(2+)) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP-OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic-osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  4. A cobalt complex of a microbial arene oxidation product

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the first synthesis of a cobalt Cp diene complex wherein the diene is derived by microbial dearomatising dihydroxylation of an aromatic ring. The complex has been characterised crystallographically and its structure is compared to that of an uncomplexed diene precursor. PMID:22152033

  5. A Mercurial Route to a Cobalt Dihydrogen Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-03-30

    Recent results by Heinekey and co-workers provide evidence for an unusual route to a cobalt dihydrogen complex. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Tracking the metal of the goblins: cobalt's cycle of use.

    PubMed

    Harper, E M; Kavlak, G; Graedel, T E

    2012-01-17

    Cobalt is a vital element in many technological applications, which, together with its increasing end-use in batteries, makes it important to quantify its cycle of use. We have done so for the planet as a whole and for the three principal cobalt-using countries - China, Japan, and the United States - for 2005. Together, China, Japan, and the United States accounted for approximately 65% of the cobalt fabricated and manufactured into end-use products (a total of 37 Gg Co). A time residence model allowed calculations of in-use stock accumulation and recycled and landfilled flows. China had the largest accumulation of in-use stock at some 4.3 Gg Co, over half of which was comprised of consumer battery stock. More than half of the stock accumulation in the United States was estimated to be in aircraft, rocket, and gas turbine engines, with a total in-use stock accumulation of approximately 3 Gg Co. The largest amounts of cobalt landfilled in China, the United States, and the planet were from the "chemical and other uses" category, and Japan's largest landfilled flow was in consumer batteries.

  7. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... drug application, pursuant to section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is in effect for... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73.1015 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... drug application, pursuant to section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is in effect for... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73.1015 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the role of cobalt in Udimet 700, a representative nickel-base superalloy containing 17 percent or more cobalt. The study spans the spectrum of microstructural, microchemical, and mechanical behavior aspects which together form a basis for superalloy performance in jet engines. The results suggest that cobalt affects the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, which leads to enhanced gamma-prime volume fraction and to the stabilization of MC-type carbides and sigma phase. However, these microstructural and microchemical changes are too slight to significantly affect the strength and ductile properties. Depending on the heat treatment, the creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt-sensitive. In the coarse-grained, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17 percent Co can be replaced by nickel without decreasing the creep and stress rupture resistance. These findings are discussed with reference to existing theories and experimental data obtained by other workers.

  10. Energy levels scheme simulation of divalent cobalt doped bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Andreici, Emiliana-Laura; Petkova, Petya; Avram, Nicolae M.

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this paper is to simulate the energy levels scheme for Bismuth Germanate (BGO) doped with divalent cobalt, in order to give a reliable explanation for spectral experimental data. In the semiempirical crystal field theory we first modeled the Crystal Field Parameters (CFPs) of BGO:Cr{sup 2+} system, in the frame of Exchange Charge Model (ECM), with actually site symmetry of the impurity ions after doping. The values of CFPs depend on the geometry of doped host matrix and by parameter G of ECM. First, we optimized the geometry of undoped BGO host matrix and afterwards, that of doped BGO with divalent cobalt. The charges effect of ligands and covalence bonding between cobalt cations and oxygen anions, in the cluster approach, also were taken into account. With the obtained values of the CFPs we simulate the energy levels scheme of cobalt ions, by diagonalizing the matrix of the doped crystal Hamiltonian. Obviously, energy levels and estimated Racah parameters B and C were compared with the experimental spectroscopic data and discussed. Comparison of obtained results with experimental data shows quite satisfactory, which justify the model and simulation schemes used for the title system.

  11. Tailoring the magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Vega, A. Estrada; Garza-Navarro, M. A.; Durán-Guerrero, J. G.; Moreno Cortez, I. E.; Lucio-Porto, R.; González-González, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the tuning of magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters. The cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters were synthesized from a two-step approach that consists of the synthesis of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles in organic media, followed by their dispersion into aqueous dissolution to form an oil-in-water emulsion. These emulsions were prepared at three different concentrations of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in order to control the size and clustering density of the nanoparticles in the nanoclusters. The synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and their related techniques, such as bright-field and Z-contrast imaging, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry; as well as static magnetic measures. The experimental evidence indicates that the size, morphology, and nanoparticles clustering density in the nanoclusters is highly dependent of the cobalt-ferrite:CTAB molar ratio that is used in their synthesis. In addition, due to the clustering of the nanoparticles into the nanoclusters, their magnetic moments are blocked to relax cooperatively. Hence, the magnetic response of the nanoclusters can be tailored by controlling the size and nanoparticles clustering density.

  12. Study of DNA interaction with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pershina, A G; Sazonov, A E; Novikov, D V; Knyazev, A S; Izaak, T I; Itin, V I; Naiden, E P; Magaeva, A A; Terechova, O G

    2011-03-01

    Interaction of cobalt ferrite nanopowder and nucleic acid was investigated. Superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (6-12 nm) were prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Structure of the nanopowder was characterized using X-ray diffraction. It was shown that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were associated with ssDNA and dsDNA in Tris-buffer resulting in bionanocomposite formation with mass weight relation nanoparticles: DNA 1:(0.083 +/- 0.003) and 1:(0.075 +/- 0.003) respectively. The mechanism of interaction between a DNA and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was considered basing on the whole set of obtained data: FTIR-spectroscopy, analyzing desorption of DNA from the surface of the particles while changing the chemical content of the medium, and on the modeling interaction of specific biomolecule fragments with surface of a inorganic material. It was supposed that the linkage was based on coordination interaction of the phosphate groups and oxygen atoms heterocyclic bases of DNA with metal ions on the particle surface. These data can be used to design specific magnetic DNA-nanoparticles hybrid structures.

  13. Electrochemistry and catalytic properties for dioxygen reduction using ferrocene-substituted cobalt porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Ou, Zhongping; Meng, Deying; Fang, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Zhu, Weihua; Solntsev, Pavlo V; Nemykin, Victor N; Kadish, Karl M

    2014-08-18

    Cobalt porphyrins having 0-4 meso-substituted ferrocenyl groups were synthesized and examined as to their electrochemical properties in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate as a supporting electrolyte. The examined compounds are represented as (Fc)n(CH3Ph)(4-n)PorCo, where Por is a dianion of the substituted porphyrin, Fc and CH3Ph represent ferrocenyl and/or p-CH3C6H4 groups linked at the four meso-positions of the macrocycle, and n varies from 0 to 4. Each porphyrin undergoes two reversible one-electron reductions and two to six one-electron oxidations in DMF, with the exact number depending upon the number of Fc groups on the compound. The first electron addition is metal-centered to generate a Co(I) porphyrin. The second is porphyrin ring-centered and leads to formation of a Co(I) π-anion radical. The first oxidation of each Co(II) porphyrin is metal-centered to generate a Co(III) derivative under the given solution conditions. Each ferrocenyl substituent can also be oxidized by one electron, and this occurs at more positive potentials. Each compound was investigated as a catalyst for the electoreduction of dioxygen when adsorbed on a graphite electrode in 1.0 M HClO4. The number of electrons transferred (n) during the catalytic reduction was 2.0 for the three ferrocenyl substituted compounds, consistent with only H2O2 being produced as a product of the reaction. Most monomeric cobalt porphyrins exhibit n values between 2.6 and 3.1 under the same solution conditions, giving a mixture of H2O and H2O2 as a reduction product, although some monomeric porphyrins can give an n value of 4.0. Our results in the current study indicate that appending ferrocene groups directly to the meso positions of a porphyrin macrocycle will increase the selectivity of the oxygen reduction, resulting in formation of only H2O2 as a reaction product. This selectivity of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction is explained on the basis

  14. Arthroprosthetic cobaltism: identification of the at-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Tower, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    MoM hip bearings are being scrutinized due to high early failure rates and concerns that the results of the revision surgeries will be poor. However, orthopedic surgeons and the general medical community are unaware that patients with MoM bearings are also at risk for cobaltism. Medical providers need to know that hip arthroplasty implantees that present with symptom complexes that include tinnitus, deafness, vertigo, visual changes, rashes, hypothyroidism, tremor, dyspnea on exertion, mood disorders, dementia, heart failure, and peripheral neuropathy may be presenting arthroprosthetic cobaltism. These patients need to be asked if they have had a hip replacement and if so what type. For those patients implanted with a MoM bearing or those with a history of hip revision for a failed ceramic bearing obtaining a [Co] is indicated. MoM implantees with renal failure are a particularly high risk for cobaltism. A [Co] can be measured by many reference laboratories from royal blue top trace elements tube of venous blood. Venipuncture with a standard needle is adequate as long as a red stoppered tube is drawn first. The radiographic appearance of a MoM bearing is readily apparent to an orthopedic surgeon. The patient's operative report will usually specify the bearing type. Given that the publicity of the recent ASR bearing recall medical providers will be contacted by worried patients concerned about their hip implants. Most patients with hip replacements will not know the brand or material of their bearings. Providing patients with copies of their hip implant inventory might avoid worry by the majority of patients with hip arthroplasties that are not at risk. Patients with a cobalt levels of greater than 7 mcg/l bear observation of neurologic and cardiac function. Those patients with levels greater than 20 should be advised to have revision of their hip arthroplasty to a bearing that eliminates cobalt. Most patients implanted with MoM bearing have cobalt levels greater

  15. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystal structure and DFT studies of cobalt(III) complexes featuring dimethylglyoximate and aniline or p-bromoaniline ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berradj, O.; Adkhis, A.; Bougherra, H.; Bruno, G.; Michaud, F.

    2017-03-01

    Two new cobalt(III) compounds [Co(Hdmg)2(Ani)2]NO3·2H2O (I) and [Co(Hdmg)2(Ani-Br)2]NO3·H2O (II), where Hdmg is the dimethylglyoximate monoanion, Ani is aniline and Ani-Br is p-bromoaniline, were synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic techniques including IR, UV-Visible, and X-ray diffraction. In the octahedral Co(III) complexes, the two dimethylglyoximato ions are coordinated to a cobalt atom in a planar configuration and are connected by intramolecular Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen-bonding. The nitrogen atoms of the two aniline ligands occupy the apical sites. A Density Functional Theory approach has been successfully used for the investigation of the nature of solid state interactions and determination of the whole molecular packing. It was found that the computational data are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Holstein, H; Ranebo, Y; Rääf, C L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of (57)Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free (58)Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free (58)Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated (57)Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived (57)Co and (58)Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract.

  20. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  1. Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  2. Molecular, crystal, and electronic structure of the cobalt(II) complex with 10-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-9-phenanthrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linko, R. V.; Sokol, V. I.; Polyanskaya, N. A.; Ryabov, M. A.; Strashnov, P. V.; Davydov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of 10-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-9-phenanthrol (H L) with cobalt(II) acetate gives the coordination compound [Co L 2] · CHCl3 ( I). The molecular and crystal structure of I is determined by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the Co atom in complex I is an octahedron. The anion L acts as a tridentate chelating ligand and is coordinated to the Co atom through the phenanthrenequinone O1 atom and the benzothiazole N1 atom of the moieties L and the N3 atom of the azo group to form two five-membered metallocycles. The molecular and electronic structures of the compounds H L, L, and Co L 2 are studied at the density functional theory level. The results of the quantum-chemical calculations are in good agreement with the values determined by X-ray diffraction.

  3. X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopic study of trans-bis(acetylacetonato)-bis(4-methylpyridine)cobalt(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyari, Sayyed Faramarz; Habibi, Mohammad Hossien; Shojaee, Elahe; Jamialahmadi, Mina; Sammelson, Robert Erik; Wada, Koki; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Trans-bis(acetylacetonato)-bis(4-methylpyridine)cobalt(III)hexafluorophosphate, [AMPC]PF6, was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. The title compound C22H28N2O4Co crystallizes with Z = 2 in space group P-1 (#2). The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of this compound were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the results were compared with the experimental data. The measured IR bands were interpreted in terms of the calculated vibrational normal modes and compared with the tris(acetylacetonate)Co(III) (Co(acac)3) and 4-methylpyridine (4-Mepy) vibrational spectra. The scaled theoretical wavenumbers and the structural parameters were in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Cobalt-related features of spectral and magnetic properties of RNi4Co (R=Ho, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukoyanov, A. V.; Knyazev, Yu. V.; Kuz`min, Yu. I.; Kuchin, A. G.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we investigate spectral and magnetic properties of RNi4Co (R=Ho, Er) intermetallics to reveal the features associated with the presence of Co substituting ion in comparison with the parent HoNi5 and ErNi5 compounds. Our ab initio LSDA+U calculations show that in the electronic structure Co states are strongly manifested near the Fermi energy for the case of Co in 2c position, while Co in 3g position results only in weak changes of the total DOS curve. Theoretical optical conductivity calculated assuming Co equally redistributed among 2c or 3g positions agrees well with the experimental optical conductivity. Cobalt ion in RNi4Co (R=Ho, Er) is characterized by magnetic moment of 1 μB that increases exchange interaction in the 3d sublattice by several times that contributes to the growth of Curie temperature in comparison with the parent compounds.

  5. COLBALT-MEDIATED ACTIVATION OF PEROXYMONOSULFATE AND SULFATE RADICAL ATTACK ON PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS, IMPLICATIONS OF CHLORIDE IONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the sulfate radical pathway of room temperature degradation of two phenolic compounds in water. The radicals were produced by the cobalt-mediated decomposition of peroxymonosulfate (Oxone) in an aqueous homogeneous system. The major intermediates formed from...

  6. Dinuclear cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes with a Py2N4S2 macrocyclic ligand.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Bastida, Rufina; Lezama, Luis; Macías, Alejandro; Pérez-Lourido, Paulo; Valencia, Laura

    2011-06-20

    The interaction between Co(II) and Cu(II) ions with a Py(2)N(4)S(2)-coordinating octadentate macrocyclic ligand (L) to afford dinuclear compounds has been investigated. The complexes were characterized by microanalysis, conductivity measurements, IR spectroscopy and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of the compounds [H(4)L](NO(3))(4), [Cu(2)LCl(2)](NO(3))(2) (5), [Cu(2)L(NO(3))(2)](NO(3))(2) (6), and [Cu(2)L(μ-OH)](ClO(4))(3)·H(2)O (7) was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The [H(4)L](4+) cation crystal structure presents two different conformations, planar and step, with intermolecular face-to-face π,π-stacking interactions between the pyridinic rings. Complexes 5 and 6 show the metal ions in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. In the case of complex 7, the crystal structure presents the two metal ions joined by a μ-hydroxo bridge and the Cu(II) centers in a slightly distorted square plane or a tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry, taking into account weak interactions in axial positions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is in accordance with the dinuclear nature of the complexes, with an octahedral environment for the cobalt(II) compounds and square-pyramidal or tetragonally elongated octahedral geometries for the copper(II) compounds. The magnetic behavior is consistent with the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the ions for cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes, while for the Co(II) ones, this behavior could also be explained by spin-orbit coupling.

  7. Syntheses, structures and magnetic properties of two new one-dimensional cobalt (II) phosphites with organic amines acting as ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Li Gaijuan; Xing Yan Song Shuyan

    2008-04-15

    Two new one-dimensional (1D) inorganic-organic hybrid cobalt (II) phosphites Co(HPO{sub 3}) (py) (1) and [Co(OH)(py){sub 3}][Co(py){sub 2}][HPO{sub 2}(OH)]{sub 3} (2) have been prepared under solvothermal conditions in the presence of pyridine (py). Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group p2(1)/c, a=5.3577(7) A, b=7.7503(10) A, c=17.816(2) A, {beta}=94.327(2){sup o}, V=737.67(16) A{sup 3}, Z=4. Compound 2 is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a=16.3252(18) A, b=15.7005(16) A, c=13.0440(13) A, {beta}=90.00{sup o}V=3343.4(6) A{sup 3} and Z=4. Compound 1 possesses a 1D ladder-like framework constructed from CoO{sub 3}N tetrahedral, HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids and pyridine ligands. While compound 2 is an unusual inorganic-organic hybrid 1D chain, which consists of corner-shared six-membered rings made of CoO{sub 3}N{sub 3}/CoO{sub 4}N{sub 2} octahedra and HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids through sharing vertices. - Graphical abstract: Two new 1D inorganic-organic hybrid cobalt (II) phosphites have been prepared under solvothermal conditions in the presence of pyridine. Co(HPO{sub 3}) (py) possesses a 1D ladder-like framework constructed from CoO{sub 3}N tetrahedral, HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids and pyridine ligands (left); 1D-chain structure of [Co(OH)(py){sub 3}][Co(py){sub 2}][HPO{sub 2}(OH)]{sub 3} consists of corner-shared six-membered rings (right)

  8. Interdependence between urinary cobalt concentrations and hemoglobin levels in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is an essential trace element but may cause toxic effects upon occupational or environmental exposure. Women accumulate more cobalt than men at similar exposure levels which may be related to higher metabolic iron loss. During pregnancy these losses are much stronger but their influence on cobalt intake has not been studied. We have studied the associations between changes in hemoglobin and cobalt urinary excretion during pregnancy. 391 pairs of urine and blood samples from pregnant women were collected during the 12th and 32nd weeks of pregnancy and were analyzed for cobalt and hemoglobin. Mean concentrations of urinary cobalt were 0.73 and 1.6 µg/g creatinine during the first and third trimesters, respectively (p<0.001). 84% of pregnant women had higher levels of cobalt in the third than in the first trimester. Cobalt concentrations were negatively associated to hemoglobin levels in the third trimester (p<0.05). Women with higher iron decreases between both trimesters had significant cobalt increases between these two periods. This correspondence involved a statistically significant difference in third trimester mean cobalt concentrations of anemic and non-anemic women, 1.8 and 1.5 µg/g creatinine, respectively (p<0.05). No significant differences between these two groups were found during the first trimester. These results were used to construct generalized additive models both in normal and anemic women. The strong association between the changes of both iron status and cobalt urine levels found in pregnant women may be related to higher intestinal absorption of cobalt at iron depletion such as in the last pregnancy period when iron body demands are high. Possible toxicity effects of these cobalt increases along pregnancy should be considered in cases of populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to this metal.

  9. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  10. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  11. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  12. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 by cobalt chloride suppresses cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Melanie; Lapham, Abigail; Brimmell, Matthew; Wilkinson, Helen; Packham, Graham

    2008-08-01

    Cobalt promotes apoptosis in multiple cell systems, however, the molecular mechanisms that influence cobalt-induced apoptosis are not fully understood. We investigated mechanisms of cobalt chloride induced apoptosis in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. Cobalt chloride induced dose dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells (250-750 muM) which, at higher concentrations (500-750 muM), was associated with an increase in the expression of the Bcl-2-related Mcl-1 survival protein. Cobalt chloride caused the accumulation of higher molecular weight ubiquitin-conjugates of Mcl-1 in intact HCT116 cells and inhibited the activity of the trypsin-like site of the 20S proteasome in an in vitro assay. Although siRNA-mediated knockdown of Mcl-1 increased apoptosis in HCT116 cells, the combination of Mcl-1 siRNA and cobalt chloride induced very high levels of cell killing. Therefore, inhibition of the proteasome by cobalt chloride leads to the accumulation of Mcl-1 which acts to limit cobalt chloride induced apoptosis.

  13. Synthesis and oxidation catalysis of [tris(oxazolinyl)borato]cobalt(II) scorpionates

    DOE PAGES

    Reinig, Regina R.; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Weinstein, Zachary B.; ...

    2016-04-28

    The reaction of CoCl2·THF and thallium tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (TlToM) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) provides ToMCoCl (1) in 95 % yield; however, appropriate solvents and starting materials are required to favor 1 over two other readily formed side-products, (ToM)2Co (2) and {HToM}CoCl2 (3). ESR, NMR, FTIR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies were used to distinguish these cobalt(II) products and probe their electronic and structural properties. Even after the structures indicated by these methods were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, the spectroscopic identification of trace contaminants in the material was challenging. The recognition of possible contaminants in the synthesis of ToMCoCl in combination with the paramagnetic naturemore » of these complexes provided impetus for the utilization of X-ray powder diffraction to measure the purity of the ToMCoCl bulk sample. Furthermore, the X-ray powder diffraction results provide support for the bulk-phase purity of ToMCoCl in preparations that avoid 2 and 3. Thus, 1 is a precursor for new [tris(oxazolinyl)borato]cobalt chemistry, as exemplified by its reactions with KOtBu and NaOAc to give ToMCoOtBu (4) and ToMCoOAc (5), respectively. Compound 5 is a catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexane with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), and the rate constants and selectivity for cyclohexanol versus cyclohexanone and ϵ-caprolactone were assessed.« less

  14. Synthesis and oxidation catalysis of [tris(oxazolinyl)borato]cobalt(II) scorpionates

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, Regina R.; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Weinstein, Zachary B.; Xie, Weiwei; Albright, Toshia; Baird, Benjamin; Gray, Tristan S.; Ellern, Arkady; Miller, Gordon J.; Winter, Arthur H.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2016-04-28

    The reaction of CoCl2·THF and thallium tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (TlToM) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) provides ToMCoCl (1) in 95 % yield; however, appropriate solvents and starting materials are required to favor 1 over two other readily formed side-products, (ToM)2Co (2) and {HToM}CoCl2 (3). ESR, NMR, FTIR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies were used to distinguish these cobalt(II) products and probe their electronic and structural properties. Even after the structures indicated by these methods were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, the spectroscopic identification of trace contaminants in the material was challenging. The recognition of possible contaminants in the synthesis of ToMCoCl in combination with the paramagnetic nature of these complexes provided impetus for the utilization of X-ray powder diffraction to measure the purity of the ToMCoCl bulk sample. Furthermore, the X-ray powder diffraction results provide support for the bulk-phase purity of ToMCoCl in preparations that avoid 2 and 3. Thus, 1 is a precursor for new [tris(oxazolinyl)borato]cobalt chemistry, as exemplified by its reactions with KOtBu and NaOAc to give ToMCoOtBu (4) and ToMCoOAc (5), respectively. Compound 5 is a catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexane with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), and the rate constants and selectivity for cyclohexanol versus cyclohexanone and ϵ-caprolactone were assessed.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of stream sediment sampling for the detection of cobalt mineralization in the Bou Azzer District, Morocco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of 28 stream sediment samples collected in the Bou Azzer district, Morocco, show that this sampling technique may be useful in locating the cobalt arsenide mineralization that exists in this area. The absence of exceptionally high values of cobalt and arsenic, the nearly lognormal distribution of cobalt values, and the lack of correlation between the highest values of cobalt and arsenic were unanticipated results that do not support the use of this sampling technique. However, highest values of several metals, including cobalt, were associated with an identified area of cobalt mineralization, and high cobalt was present near a second area in which cobalt mineralization is suspected. Although probably mostly reflecting the geochemistry of unexposed ultramafic rocks, the association of these metals with mineralization shows that this type of sampling can independently locate areas of known or potential cobalt mineralization.

  16. Crystallization behaviour of hydroxide cobalt carbonates by aging: Environmental implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jimenez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a naturally occurring element widely distributed in water, sediments and air that is essential for living species, since it is a component of B12 vitamin and it is also a strategic and critical element used in a number of commercial, industrial and military applications. However, relatively high accumulations of cobalt in environment can be toxic for human and animal health. Cobalt usually occurs as Co2+ and Co3+ in aqueous solutions, where Co2+ is the most soluble and hence its mobility in water is higher. The study of the precipitation of cobalt carbonates is of great interest due to the abundance of carbonate minerals in contact with surface water and groundwater which can be polluted with Co2+. Previous works have demonstrated that the formation of Co-bearing calcium carbonates and Co-rich low crystallinity phases takes place at ambient conditions. With the aim of investigating the crystallization behavior of Co- bearing carbonates at ambient temperature, macroscopic batch-type experiments have been carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of CoCl2 (0.05M) and Na2CO3 (0.05M) during increasing reaction times (5 minutes and 1, 5, 24, 48, 96, 168, 720 and 1440 hours). The main goals of this work were (i) to analyse the physicochemical evolution of the system and (ii) to study the evolution of the crystallinity of the solid phases during aging. After a given reaction period, pH, alkalinity and dissolved Co2+ in the aqueous solutions were analysed. The evolution of the morphology and chemical composition of the solids with aging time was examined by SEM and TEM. The precipitates were also analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the crystallinity degree was followed by the intensity and the full width at high medium (FWHM) of the main peaks. The results show that a low crystallinity phase was obtained at the very beginning of aging. This phase evolves progressively to form hydroxide carbonate cobalt (Co2CO3(OH)2) which crystallize with the spatial

  17. Process for producing hydrogen from water using cobalt and barium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, deceased, Donald M.

    1979-01-01

    A thermochemical process for producing hydrogen comprises the step of reacting CoO with BaO or Ba(OH).sub.2 in the presence of steam to produce H.sub.2 and novel double oxides of Ba and Co having the empirical formulas BaCoO.sub.2.33 and Ba.sub.2 CoO.sub.3.33. The double oxide can be reacted with H.sub.2 O to form Co.sub.3 O.sub.4 and Ba(OH).sub.2 which can be recycled to the original reaction. The Co.sub.3 O.sub.4 is converted to CoO by either of two procedures. In one embodiment Co.sub.3 O.sub.4 is heated, preferably in steam, to form CoO. In another embodiment Co.sub.3 O.sub.4 is reacted with aqueous HCl solution to produce CoCl.sub.2 and Cl.sub.2. The CoCl.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to form CoO and HCl and the CoO is recycled to the initial reaction step. The Cl.sub.2 can be reacted with H.sub.2 O to produce HCl. HCl can be recycled for reaction with Co.sub.3 O.sub.4.

  18. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs.

  19. Effects of cobalt on structure, microchemistry and properties of a wrought nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the basic mechanical properties and microstructure of wrought nickel-base superalloys has been investigated experimentally by systematically replacing cobalt by nickel in Udimet 700 (17 wt% Co) commonly used in gas turbine (jet engine) applications. It is shown that the room temperature tensile yield strength and tensile strength only slightly decrease in fine-grained (disk) alloys and are basically unaffected in coarse-grained (blading) alloys as cobalt is removed. Creep and stress rupture resistances at 760 C are found to be unaffected by cobalt level in the blading alloys and decrease sharply only when the cobalt level is reduced below 8 vol% in the disk alloys. The effect of cobalt is explained in terms of gamma prime strengthening kinetics.

  20. Modulation of synthetic parameters of cobalt nanoparticles: TEM, EDS, spectral and thermal studies.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Avdhesh

    2012-12-01

    The study focuses on the modulation of synthetic parameters in order to influence the size, structure, composition and arrangement of nanoparticles of cobalt. Cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized by ethanolic solution of benzildiethylenetriamine in cobalt nitrate solution at 60 °C with stirring and refluxing leads to nanoparticles of cobalt. The morphology and structure of the synthesized nanoparticles of cobalt were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), QELS Data and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). Crystalline size was 20 nm determined from the sharp peak at 2θ=25 °C from the powder XRD. TEM images of cobalt nanoparticles without reducing agent having the diameter 20 nm with spherical shape and black color.

  1. Ammine-Stabilized Transition-Metal Borohydrides of Iron, Cobalt, and Chromium: Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Roedern, Elsa; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-11-02

    Iron and cobalt borohydrides stabilized by ammonia (NH3), [Fe(NH3)6](BH4)2 and [Co(NH3)6](BH4)2, were synthesized along with a solid solution, [Co(NH3)6](BH4)(2-x)Cl(x) (x ∼ 1), and a bimetallic compound, [Fe(NH3)6](Li2(BH4)4). The compounds were prepared by new low-temperature, solvent-based synthesis methods, using dimethyl sulfide or liquid NH3, which allow for the removal of inert metal halides. The crystal structures were determined from synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. [M(NH3)6](BH4)2 (M = Fe, Co) and [Co(NH3)6](BH4)(2-x)Cl(x) crystallize in the cubic crystal system, where the transition metals are octahedrally coordinated by NH3. Polymeric chains of lithium coordinated by four bridging BH4(-) anions are found in [Fe(NH3)6](Li2(BH4)4). The new compounds have high hydrogen densities of ∼14 wt % H2 and ∼140 g H2/L and release a mixture of hydrogen and NH3 gas at low temperatures, T < 80 °C. The decomposition mechanisms of the prepared compounds along with the composites [Fe(NH3)6](BH4)2·nNH3BH3 (n = 2, 4, 6) were studied by thermal analysis and in situ SR-PXD.

  2. Active Site Structures in Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Supported Cobalt Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yingdan; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-12-07

    The catalytic mechanism and the nature of active sites are revealed for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with new non-noble-metal nitrogen-doped carbon-supported transition-metal catalysts (metal-N-C catalyst). Specifically, new nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt catalysts (Co-N-C catalysts) are made by pyrolyzing various ratios of the nitrogen-atom rich heterocycle compound, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-dca) and cobalt salt (Co(NO3)2). The ORR activity (JK at 0.8 V vs RHE, in 0.1 M KOH solution) of a typical catalyst in this family, Co15-N-C800, is 8.25 mA/mg, which is much higher than the ORR activity values of N-C catalysts (0.41 mA/mg). The active site in the catalyst is found to be the Co-N species, which is most likely in the form of Co2N. Metallic cobalt (Co) particles, Co3C species, and N-C species are not catalytically active sites, nor do these moieties interact with the Co-N active sites during the catalysis of the ORR. Increasing the Co salt content during the synthesis favors the formation of Co-N active sites in the final catalyst. Higher pyrolysis temperatures (e.g., a temperature higher than 800 °C) do not favor the formation of the Co-N active sites, but cause the formed Co-N active sites to decompose, which, therefore, leads to a lower catalytic activity. This reveals that the control of the parameters that affect the final structure is critical to catalyst performance and, therefore, the effective development of high-performance heteroatom-doped non-noble-metal ORR catalysts.

  3. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  4. Changes in the vascular tissue of fresh Hass avocados treated with cobalt 60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, Lourdes; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Saucedo, Cresenciano

    2002-03-01

    This research was based on fresh avocado fruit treated with gamma rays at quarantine doses and stored at room temperature. The effects of irradiation were analyzed and measured by three different types of studies: histological, biochemical and physiological. Histological studies were focused on the effect of Cobalt 60 gamma rays in the mesocarp of avocado irradiated at three different doses; 150, 250, and 350 Gy. Damage was observed principally in the parenchyma tissue where the cell membrane was plazmolized and a red color was observed due to the development of phenol compounds. Another important effect was an increase in the size of xylem and phloem cells in the vascular tissue even at the minimum dose of 150 Gy. The biochemical and the physiological studies were done on avocado fruit irradiated at 100 and 150 Gy. An increase in L-phenilalanine ammonialyase activity was observed and therefore, an increase in the concentration of phenol compounds. These changes were not perceived by panelists in a sensorial test. Irradiated fruits were accepted by panelists as well as control fruit as regards parameters of taste, internal color and external color. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using irradiation to disinfest avocado fruit using a minimum dose of 100 Gy.

  5. Towards the elimination of excessive cobalt supplementation in racing horses: A pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt is an essential trace element for many vital physiological functions. Cobalt is also known to stabilise hypoxia-inducible transcription factors leading to increased expression of erythropoietin which activates production of red blood cells. This implies that cobalt can be used to enhance aerobic performance in racing horses. If this becomes a pervasive practice, the welfare of racing animals would be at risk because cobalt is associated with cardiovascular, haematological, thyroid gland and reproductive toxicity as observed in laboratory animals and humans. It is expected that similar effects may manifest in horses but direct evidence on equine specific effects of cobalt and the corresponding exposure conditions leading to such effects is lacking. Available pharmacokinetic data demonstrates that intravenously administered cobalt has a long elimination half-life (42-156 h) and a large volume of distribution (0.94 L/kg) in a horse implying that repeated administration of cobalt would accumulate in tissues over time attaining equilibrium after ~9-33 days. Based on these pharmacokinetic data and surveys of horses post racing, threshold cobalt concentrations of 2-10 μg/L in plasma and 75-200 μg/L in urine have been recommended. However, there is no clearly defined, presumably normal cobalt supplementation regimen for horses and characterisation of potential adverse effects of any established threshold cobalt concentrations has not been done. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of the existing literature on the pharmacological effects of cobalt in horses with some recommendations on what gaps to bridge to enable the determination of optimal threshold cobalt concentrations in racing horses.

  6. Importance of cobalt for individual trophic groups in an anaerobic methanol-degrading consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Florencio, L.; FIeld, J.A.; Lettinga, G. )

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important anaerobic substrate in industrial wastewater treatment and the natural environment. Previous studies indicate that cobalt greatly stimulates methane formation during anaerobic treatment of methanolic wastewaters. To evaluate the effect of cobalt in a mixed culture, a sludge with low background levels of cobalt was cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Specific inhibitors in batch assays were then utilized to study the effect of cobalt on the growth rate and activity of different microorganisms involved in the anaerboic degradation of methanol. Only methylotropic methanogens and acetogens were stimulated by cobalt additions, while the other trophic concentration of cobalt for the growth and activity of methanol-utilizing methanogens and acetogens were stimulated by cobalt additions, while the other trophic groups utilizing downstream intermediates, H[sub 2]-CO[sub 2] or acetate, were largely unaffected. The optimal concentration of cobalt for the growth and activity of methanol-utilizing methanogens and acetogens was 0.05 mg liter[sup [minus]1]. The higher requirement of cobalt is presumably due to the previously reported production of unique corrinoid-containing enzymes (or coenzymes) by direct utilizers of methanol. This distinctly high requirement of cobalt by methylotrophs should be considered during methanolic wastewater treatment. Methylotroph methanogens presented a 60-fold-higher affinity for methanol than acetogens. This result in combination with the fact that acetogens grow slightly faster than methanogens under optimal cobalt conditions indicates that acetogens can outcompete methanogens only when reactor methanol and cobalt concentrations are high, provided enough inorganic carbon is available.

  7. Fabrication of Discrete Nanosized Cobalt Particles Encapsulated Inside Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zoican Loebick, C.; Majewska, M; Ren, F; Haller, G; Pfefferle, L

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with encapsulated nanosized cobalt particles have been synthesized by a facile and scalable method. In this approach, SWNT were filled with a cobalt acetylacetonate solution in dichloromethane by ultrasonication. In a second step, exposure to hydrogen at different temperatures released discrete cobalt particles of controllable size inside the SWNT cavity. The SWNT-Co particles systems were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  8. Preparation and characterization of copper-doped cobalt oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Toro, A La; Berenguer, R; Quijada, C; Montilla, F; Morallón, E; Vazquez, J L

    2006-11-30

    Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper-doped cobalt oxide (CuxCo(3-x)O4) films have been prepared onto titanium support by the thermal decomposition method. The electrodes have been characterized by different techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect on the electrochemical and crystallographic properties and surface morphology of the amount of copper in the oxide layer has been analyzed. The XPS spectra correspond to a characteristic monophasic Cu-Co spinel oxides when x is below 1. However, when the copper content exceeds that for the stoichiometric CuCo2O4 spinel, a new CuO phase segregates at the surface. The analysis of the surface cation distribution indicates that Cu(II) has preference for octahedral sites.

  9. Thin films of tetrafluorosubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine: Structure and sensor properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyamer, Darya D.; Sukhikh, Aleksandr S.; Krasnov, Pavel O.; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Morozova, Natalya B.; Basova, Tamara V.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, thin films of tetrafluorosubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPcF4) were prepared by organic molecular beam deposition and their structure was studied using UV-vis, polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy, XRD and atomic force microscopy. Quantum chemical calculations (DFT) have been employed in order to determine the detailed assignment of the bands in the CoPcF4 IR and Raman spectra. The electrical sensor response of CoPcF4 films to ammonia vapours was investigated and compared with that of unsubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine films. In order to explain the difference in sensitivity of the unsubstituted and fluorinated phthalocyanines to ammonia, the nature and properties of chemical binding between CoPc derivatives and NH3 were described by quantum-chemical calculations utilizing DFT method. The effect of post-deposition annealing on surface morphology and gas sensing properties of CoPcF4 films was also studied.

  10. Cobalt-based nanocatalysts for green oxidation and hydrogenation processes.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; Stemmler, Tobias; Surkus, Annette-Enrica; Bauer, Matthias; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Radnik, Jörg; Junge, Kathrin; Junge, Henrik; Brückner, Angelika; Beller, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    This protocol describes the preparation of cobalt-based nanocatalysts and their applications in environmentally benign redox processes for fine chemical synthesis. The catalytically active material consists of nanoscale Co3O4 particles surrounded by nitrogen-doped graphene layers (NGrs), which have been prepared by pyrolysis of phenanthroline-ligated cobalt acetate on carbon. The resulting materials have been found to be excellent catalysts for the activation of both molecular oxygen and hydrogen; in all tested reactions, water was the only by-product. By applying these catalysts, green oxidations of alcohols and hydrogenation of nitroarenes for the synthesis of nitriles, esters and amines are demonstrated. The overall time required for catalyst preparation and for redox reactions is 35 h and 10-30 h, respectively.

  11. Molecular cobalt pentapyridine catalysts for generating hydrogen from water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujie; Bigi, Julian P; Piro, Nicholas A; Tang, Ming Lee; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J

    2011-06-22

    A set of robust molecular cobalt catalysts for the generation of hydrogen from water is reported. The cobalt complex supported by the parent pentadentate polypyridyl ligand PY5Me(2) features high stability and activity and 100% Faradaic efficiency for the electrocatalytic production of hydrogen from neutral water, with a turnover number reaching 5.5 × 10(4) mol of H(2) per mole of catalyst with no loss in activity over 60 h. Control experiments establish that simple Co(II) salts, the free PY5Me(2) ligand, and an isostructural PY5Me(2) complex containing redox-inactive Zn(II) are all ineffective for this reaction. Further experiments demonstrate that the overpotential for H(2) evolution can be tuned by systematic substitutions on the ancillary PY5Me(2) scaffold, presaging opportunities to further optimize this first-generation platform by molecular design.

  12. Electrodeposition of cobalt-chromium alloy from trivalent chromium solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dasarathy, H.; Riley, C.; Coble, H.D. . Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Science)

    1994-07-01

    Cobalt-chromium alloy was deposited from plating solutions containing cobalt(II) chloride and chromium(III) chloride at 3.5 pH. The deposits were obtained using both single and mixed complex solutions. Deposit morphology showed significant dependence on the complexing agent(s) used. Partitioning of the two components in the deposit as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy depended on plating parameters such as concentration ratio of the two salts in the solution, complexing agent, type of current (both dc and pulsed current were studied), and current density. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra collected from as-deposited alloy revealed the presence of both oxides and metals. X-ray diffraction spectra for the alloy deposit indicated solid solution formation.

  13. Growth and stability of cobalt nanostructures on gold (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To¨lkes, Christian; Zeppenfeld, Peter; Krzyzowski, Michael A.; David, Rudolf; Comsa, George

    1997-12-01

    The nucleation, growth and stability of cobalt nanostructures on the (˜22 × √3) reconstructed Au(111) surface have been studied using thermal energy helium-atom scattering (TEAS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in the temperature range 50-700 K. Helium atom diffraction provides information on the island distribution and step heights. The composition of the surface region was checked by AES. In addition, the presence of cobalt in the topmost layer was investigated by the adsorption of carbon monoxide, as monitored by the specularly reflected helium intensity. From the change in the CO adsorption characteristics on the Co-covered Au(111) surface and the AES data, we conclude that surface alloy formation or Au capping takes place between 300 and 350 K, whereas Co diffusion into the Au bulk only occurs above 450 K.

  14. High performance magnetorheological fluids with flower-like cobalt particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yu; Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies indicated the electrorhological (ER) effect of the ER fluids with flower-like particles were more significant than those with traditional sphere particles, but whether the special morphology can enhance the properties of magnetorheological (MR) fluids remains unclear. To address the issue, flower-like cobalt particles (FCP) and sphere cobalt particles (SCP) were synthesized, and the properties of the two kinds of MR fluids with the two kinds of particles were compared. Particle characterization results indicate the two kinds of particles have significant difference in morphology, but little difference in crystal structure, particle size, and magnetic properties. The FCP based MR fluids (FCP-MRFs) present higher zero-field viscosity, higher field-induced yield stress, higher storage modulus and better sedimentation stability than the SCP based samples (SCP-MRFs). The high performance of the FCP-MRF can be attributed to the special morphology of the flower-like particles.

  15. Interaction of cobalt with a stainless steel oxide surface

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The deposition of radioactive cobalt ions from aqueous solutions in the pH range from 1 to 12 onto the internal surface of a stainless steel vessel or pipework can lead to the buildup of tenacious surface activity. For liquid streams of low specific activity (measured in becquerels per millilitre), the surface activity buildup may create a more dominant gamma radiation field than the activity suspended in the liquid. Failure to adequately predict this buildup for an operational nuclear plant can lead to an underestimate of potential gamma dose rates. This may lead to an economic penalty if additional shielding or other protective measures are necessary following plant operation. A theoretical method of determining the cobalt mass/activity deposition from aqueous liquor onto stainless steel is outlined in this paper. A validation of the method is given, and the limits of its application are discussed.

  16. Sorption of cobalt on activated carbons from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Paajanen, A.; Lehto, J.; Santapakka, T.; Morneau, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiencies of 15 commercially available activated carbons were tested for the separation of trace cobalt ({sup 60}Co) in buffer solutions at pH 5.0, 6.7, and 9.1. On the basis of the results four carbon products, Diahope-006, Eurocarb TN5, Hydraffin DG47, and Norit ROW Supra, were selected for further study. These carbons represented varying (low, medium and high) cobalt removal efficiencies and were prepared of three typical raw materials: peat, coconut shell, or coal. Study was made of the effects on sorption efficiencies of factors of interest in metal/radionuclide-bearing waste effluents. These factors were pH, sodium ions, borate, and citrate.

  17. Pairwise cobalt doping of boron carbides with cobaltocene

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatov, A. Yu.; Losovyj, Ya. B.; Carlson, L.; LaGraffe, D.; Brand, J. I.; Dowben, P. A.

    2007-10-15

    We have performed Co K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements of Co-doped plasma enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition (PECVD) grown 'C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub x}' semiconducting boron carbides, using cobaltocene. Cobalt does not dope PECVD grown boron carbides as a random fragment of the cobaltocene source gas. The Co atoms are fivefold boron coordinated (R=2.10{+-}0.02 A) and are chemically bonded to the icosahedral cages of B{sub 10}CH{sub x} or B{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub y}. Pairwise Co doping occurs, with the cobalt atoms favoring sites some 5.28{+-}0.02 A apart.

  18. Aggregation of Cobalt (II) Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanine in Methanol- Water Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    dimerization at either 250 or 280 C. Helper observed the same irregular features in the thermodynamics of the ioniza- tion of acetic and chloroacetic acids in...4, 1-95 (1975). 70. Miller, F.J., Wu, C., and Hepler, L.G. Thermodynamics of Ionization of Acetic and Chloroacetic Acids in Ethanol-Water Mixtures. J...of 4-sulfophthalic acid , ammonium chloride, urea, ammonium molybdate, and cobalt sulfate heptahydrate in hot nitrobenzene. The purifi- cation

  19. Cobalt Doping of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Using Cobaltocene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy/inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Upon warming to room temperature, however, the Fermi level shifts towards the...studies at low temperature (~200 K) indicate that the cobalt acts as a 1-9 p-type dopant. Warming the sample to room temperature and repeating PES...ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) which is used to determine the structure of the valence band. The He I 21.2 eV photon from a helium lamp is

  20. Protective Agent-Free Synthesis of Colloidal Cobalt Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Balela, M. D. L.; Lockman, Z.; Azizan, A.; Matsubara, E.; Amorsolo, A. V. Jr.

    2010-03-11

    Spherical colloidal cobalt (Co) nanoparticles of about 2-7 nm were synthesized by hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol at 80 deg. C. The mean diameter of the Co nanoparticles was varied to some extent by changing the pH, temperature, Co(II) chloride hexahydrate concentration, and amount of hydrazine. The Co particle size was reduced by decreasing Co(II) chloride concentration and increasing amount of hydrazine.

  1. Galling wear of cobalt-free hardfacing alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vikstroem, J.

    1994-05-01

    Cobalt-base alloys have been used as hardfacing materials for nuclear power plant valves, turbines and pumps. In nuclear power plants cobalt is transported to reactor core region due to wear of valves and pumps; it is transmuted to Co{minus}60. Objective of this work was to find a cobalt-free hardfacing material that has better wear-resistance than the widely used cobalt-base alloy Stellite 6{sup TM} Six iron-base and four nickel-base alloys were compared to Stellite 6. The alloys were deposited on austenitic stainless steel by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), PTAW (Plasma Transferred Arc Welding), plasma spray fuse and laser processes. One alloy was in HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressed) condition. All alloys were tested for galling resistance in air at room temperature at applied stresses were 140, 275 and 415 MPa. Alloy microstructure and hardness values were post-test wear surfaces, were examined using a light and scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness measurements. Crack-free deposits can be manufactured from all of the alloys, and no problems were encountered during machining of the deposits. Self-mated galling resistance of Stellite 6 was comparable to galling resistance in earlier studies for this alloy. Self-mated iron-base Elmax, APM 2311, NOREM A, Nelsit, Everit 50 So alloys and Ni-/Fe-base alloy combination showed significantly better galling behaviour than Stellite 6, especially Elmax and APM 2311 alloys. Nickel-base Deloro alloys showed galling resistance inferior to Stellite 6. No correlation was observed between the microstructural characteristics and galling resistance. Further, the galling resistance is not related to the hardness of the deposit.

  2. Cobalt-catalyzed formation of symmetrical biaryls and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moncomble, Aurélien; Le Floch, Pascal; Gosmini, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    Effective devotion: An efficient cobalt-catalyzed method devoted to the formation of symmetrical biaryls is described avoiding the preparation of organometallic reagents. Various aromatic halides functionalized by a variety of reactive group reagents are employed. Preliminary DFT calculations have shown that the involvement of a Co(I)/Co(III) couple is realistic at least in the case of 1,3-diazadienes as ligands (FG = functional group).

  3. Certain physical properties of cobalt and nickel borides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostetskiy, I. I.; Lvov, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, the thermal conductivity, and the thermal emf of cobalt and nickel borides were studied. In the case of the nickel borides the magnetic susceptibility and the Hall coefficient were determined at room temperature. The results are discussed with allowance for the current carrier concentration, the effect of various mechanisms of current-carrier scattering and the location of the Fermi level in relation to the 3d band.

  4. Suitability of cation substituted cobalt ferrite materials for magnetoelastic sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nlebedim, Ikenna Catjetan; Jiles, David C

    2015-02-01

    The results of a study on the suitability of materials derived from cobalt ferrite for sensor and actuator applications are presented. The mechanism responsible for the superior sensor properties of Ge-substituted cobalt ferrite compared with Ti and other cation substituted cobalt ferrite materials is believed to be due to the tetrahedral site preference of Ge4+ and its co-substitution with Co2+. Results also showed that the higher strain derivative of Ge-substituted cobalt ferrite compared with Ti-substitution is due to a higher magnetostrictive coupling in response to applied field in the material.

  5. Porous cobalt spheres for high temperature gradient magnetically assisted fluidized beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Jovanovic, Goran N.; Wheeler, Richard R Jr; Sornchamni, Thana

    2003-01-01

    Porous metallic cobalt spheres have been prepared as high temperature capable media for employment in gradient magnetically assisted fluidization and filtration technologies. Cobalt impregnated alginate beads are first formed by extrusion of an aqueous suspension of Co3O4 into a Co(II) chloride solution. The organic polymer is thermally decomposed yielding cobalt oxide spheres, followed by reduction to the metallic state, and densification. Cobalt beads have been produced with porosities ranging between 10 and 50%, depending upon sintering conditions. The product media have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. c2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Porous cobalt spheres for high temperature gradient magnetically assisted fluidized beds.

    PubMed

    Atwater, James E; Akse, James R; Jovanovic, Goran N; Wheeler, Richard R; Sornchamni, Thana

    2003-02-20

    Porous metallic cobalt spheres have been prepared as high temperature capable media for employment in gradient magnetically assisted fluidization and filtration technologies. Cobalt impregnated alginate beads are first formed by extrusion of an aqueous suspension of Co3O4 into a Co(II) chloride solution. The organic polymer is thermally decomposed yielding cobalt oxide spheres, followed by reduction to the metallic state, and densification. Cobalt beads have been produced with porosities ranging between 10 and 50%, depending upon sintering conditions. The product media have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

  7. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy investigation of carbon nanotube growth on cobalt catalyst surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yasuo; Numasawa, Takeru; Nihei, Mizuhisa; Niwano, Michio

    2007-02-01

    To clarify the effect the oxygen has on the carbon nanotube (CNT) growth mechanisms, the authors use infrared absorption spectroscopy for the monitoring of CNT growth on cobalt catalyst surfaces. CNT grew when methanol was used as a reaction gas, while they did not grow when methane was used. The authors observed spectral changes due to the formation of cobalt oxides and methoxides on the cobalt catalyst surfaces only during the growth of CNT. The results indicate that partial oxidation of the cobalt catalyst surface increases the adsorption probability of the reaction gas and ultimately induces growth of CNT.

  8. Evaluation of low-cobalt alloys for hardfacing applications in nuclear components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Landerman, E.I.

    1984-08-01

    The low- and no-cobalt alloys selected for this study were evaluated first based on weldability and metallurgical tests of hardfaced specimens prepared by the plasma transferred arc method. Wear and friction tests were then performed on these selected materials and comparisons were made with the currently used high-cobalt alloys. The low- and no-cobalt alloys showed significantly higher wear (based on weight loss) compared to the high-cobalt alloys at high loads when like materials were tested. When dissimilar combinations were tested, selected low- or no-cobalt alloys evaluated against the high-cobalt alloys showed wear properties equivalent to those observed in similar metal tests of the high-cobalt alloys at high loads. The coefficients of friction measured during these tests with several of the low- or no-cobalt alloys in similar metal and dissimilar metal combinations did not show significant differences from the coefficients of friction determined for the currently used high-cobalt alloys.

  9. Porous cobalt spheres for high temperature gradient magnetically assisted fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Jovanovic, Goran N.; Wheeler, Richard R.; Sornchamni, Thana

    2003-02-20

    Porous metallic cobalt spheres have been prepared as high temperature capable media for employment in gradient magnetically assisted fluidization and filtration technologies. Cobalt impregnated alginate beads are first formed by extrusion of an aqueous suspension of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} into a Co(II) chloride solution. The organic polymer is thermally decomposed yielding cobalt oxide spheres, followed by reduction to the metallic state, and densification. Cobalt beads have been produced with porosities ranging between 10 and 50%, depending upon sintering conditions. The product media have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

  10. Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by underpotential deposition.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David A; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Yu; Hemminger, John C; Penner, Reginald M; Borovik, A S

    2013-11-26

    Development of electrocatalysts for the conversion of water to dioxygen is important in a variety of chemical applications. Despite much research in this field, there are still several fundamental issues about the electrocatalysts that need to be resolved. Two such problems are that the catalyst mass loading on the electrode is subject to large uncertainties and the wetted surface area of the catalyst is often unknown and difficult to determine. To address these topics, a cobalt monolayer was prepared on a gold electrode by underpotential deposition and used to probe its efficiency for the oxidation of water. This electrocatalyst was characterized by atomic force microscopy, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at various potentials to determine if changes occur on the surface during catalysis. An enhancement of current was observed upon addition of PO4(3-) ions, suggesting an effect from surface-bound ligands on the efficiency of water oxidation. At 500 mV overpotential, current densities of 0.20, 0.74, and 2.4 mA/cm(2) for gold, cobalt, and cobalt in PO4(3-) were observed. This approach thus provided electrocatalysts whose surface areas and activity can be accurately determined.

  11. Cobalt Nanocrystals as Starting Materials for Shape Modificationand Assembly Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant-coated cobalt nanocrystals can be prepared with areasonable degree of control over particle size and shape using athermolytic route. The small crystallite size, enhanced reactivity andtunable interparticle interactions enable use of this material asstarting material for demonstration of achievement of novel structuresusing extremely simple solution-based approaches. In particular,formation of hollow cobalt sulfide nanocrystals upon chemicalmodification and emergence of long-range orientational order upondrying-mediated assembly of cobalt nanocrystals is reportedhere.Colloidal preparation of Co nanocrystals has been well-studied.Here, we emphasize general principles and crystallographic/morphologicalcharacterization of disk-shaped hcp-Co nanocrystals. Use of surfactantmolecules enables achievement of multiple morphologies in one syntheticsystem.Formation of hollow structures upon in-solution sulfidation of Conanocrystals is presented and discussed. A Kirkendall-type effect,involving dominant outward mass transport during formation of the ionicshell material explains the results naturally. It is expected that thisphenomenon will generalize extensively to formation of hollow structuresof an enormous variety of compositions. Detailed study of particlemorphology as a function of reaction conditions suggest phenomena likelyto be generally relevant to use of this approach. A short report ofcrystallographic co-alignment into vortex-like structures is alsoprovided. Our current best picture of this process involves an interplayof packing and magnetic interactions between facetedparticles.

  12. Thermophysical and Magnetic Properties of Carbon Beads Containing Cobalt Nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izydorzak, M.; Skumiel, A.; Leonowicz, M.; Kaczmarek-Klinowska, M.; Pomogailo, A. D.; Dzhardimalieva, G. I.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic Co-beads were fabricated in the course of a three-step procedure comprising preparation of a metal-acrylamide complex, followed by frontal polymerization and finally pyrolysis of the polymer. The composites obtained were composed of cobalt nanocrystallites stabilized in a carbon matrix built of disordered graphite. The crystallite size, material morphology, fraction of the magnetic component, and thus the magnetic properties can be tailored by a proper choice of the processing variables. The samples were subjected to an alternating magnetic field of different strengths ( H = 0 to 5 kA · m-1) at a frequency of f = 500 kHz. From the calorimetric measurements, we concluded that the relaxation processes dominate in the heat generation mechanism for the beads pyrolyzed at 773 K. For the beads pyrolyzed at 1073 K, significant values of magnetic properties, such as the coercive force and remanence give substantial contribution to the energy losses for hysteresis. The specific absorption coefficient ( SAR) related to the cobalt mass unit for the 1073 K pyrolyzed beads {({SAR} = 1340 W \\cdot g^{-1 }_cobalt)} is in very good conformity with the results obtained by other authors. The effective density power loss, caused by eddy currents, can be neglected for heating processes applied in magnetic hyperthermia. The Co-beads can potentially be applied for hyperthermia treatment.

  13. Lattice strain induced magnetism in substituted nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-10-01

    Strontium (Sr) substituted cobalt ferrite i.e. Co1-xSrxFe2O4 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1) have been synthesized by the citric acid modified sol-gel method. Crystal structure and phase purity have been studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD pattern using the space group Fd 3 bar m shows monotonically increasing of lattice parameter with the increase in Sr concentration. Magnetic hysteresis loops measurement has been carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) over a field range of ±1.5 T. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant were calculated by employing the Law of Approach (LA) to the saturation. It is observed that magnetocrystalline anisotropy has anomaly for x=0.01 (Co0.99Sr0.01Fe2O4) sample. Strain mediated modification of magnetic properties in Sr substituted cobalt ferrite has been observed. The saturation magnetization for doping concentration i.e. x=0.01 abruptly increase while for x>0.01 decreases with the increase in Sr concentration. A correlation between lattice strain and magnetic behavior in non-magnetic Sr- substituted nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite has been reported.

  14. Hard metal lung disease: importance of cobalt in coolants.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, I; Hillerdal, G; Andersson, A; Zetterström, O

    1980-01-01

    Four patients were found to react to occupational exposure to grinding of hard metal (tungsten carbide). Three of the patients had symptoms and signs compatible with an allergic alveolitis, the symptoms disappearing and the chest radiograph clearing when they were absent from work for a few months. Re-exposure to the offending agent led to new signs and symptoms. The first patient was re-exposed twice and each time reacted a little more seriously. After the last episode her chest radiograph has not cleared completely, in contrast to the first two times. The fourth patient had more typical occupational asthma. All the cases occurred in the part of the factory where air concentrations of cobalt were the lowest. The cobalt there is dissolved in the coolant necessary for grinding the hard metal. It occurs mainly in the ionised form, which is known to react with proteins and therefore presumably acts as a hapten. Protective measures, including choosing a coolant with minimal ability to dissolve cobalt and an effective exhaust system, should minimise the risk of this occupational disease in the future. PMID:7444839

  15. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) cobalt test assembly results

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, J.A.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    A cobalt test assembly containing yttrium hydride pins for neutron moderation was irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility during Cycle 9A for 137.7 equivalent full power days at a power level of 291 MW. The 36 test pins consisted of a batch of 32 pins containing cobalt metal to produce Co-60, and a set of 4 pins with europium oxide to produce Gd-153, a radioisotope used in detection of the bone disease Osteoporosis. Post-irradiation examination of the cobalt pins determined the Co-60 produced with an accuracy of about 5%. The measured Co-60 spatially distributed concentrations were within 20% of the calculated concentrations. The assembly average Co-60 measured activity was 4% less than the calculated value. The europium oxide pins were gamma scanned for the europium isotopes Eu-152 and Eu-154 to an absolute accuracy of about 10%. The measured europium radioisotope and Gd-153 concentrations were within 20% of calculated values. In conclusion, the hydride assembly performed well and is an excellent vehicle for many Fast Flux Test Facility isotope production applications. The results also demonstrate that the calculational methods developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company are very accurate. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Structural and oxo-transfer reactivity differences of hexacoordinate and pentacoordinate (nitro)(tetraphenylporphinato)cobalt(III) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, J; Bailey, R; Pennington, W; Rasberry, R; Green, T; Shasho, S; Yongsavanh, M; Echevarria, V; Tiedeken, J; Brown, C; Fromm, G; Lyerly, S; Watson, N; Long, A; De Nitto, N

    2001-08-13

    The oxo-transfer catalyst (nitro)(pyridyl)cobalt(III) tetraphenylporphyrin has been reinvestigated by substitution of the distal pyridine ligand with 4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridine and 3,5-dichloropyridine. Differences in their structures and in the reactivity of the compounds toward catalytic secondary oxo transfer were investigated by FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, semiempirical calculations, and reactions with alkenes in dichloromethane solution. Very modest differences in the hexacoordinate compounds' structures were predicted and observed, but the secondary oxo-transfer reactivity at the nitro ligand varies markedly with the basicity of the pyridine ligand and the position of the coordination equilibrium. Oxo transfer occurs rapidly through the pentacoordinate species (nitro)cobalt(III) tetraphenylporphyrin that is generated by dissociation of the pyridine ligand and therefore is strongly related to the Hammett parameters of these nitrogenous bases. The reactive pentacoordinate species CoTPP(NO(2)) can be generated in solution by addition of lithium perchlorate to (py)CoTPP(NO(2)) by Lewis acid-base interactions or more simply by using the weaker Lewis base Cl(2)py instead of py as the distal ligand. In contrast to pentacoordinate (nitro)iron porphyrins, disproportionation reactions of CoTPP(NO(2)) compound are not evident. This pentacoordinate derivative, CoTPP(NO(2)), is reactive enough to stoichiometrically oxidize allyl bromide in minutes. Preliminary catalytic oxidation reaction studies of alkenes also indicate the involvement of both radical and nonradical oxo-transfer steps in the mechanism, suggesting formation of a peroxynitro intermediate in the reaction of the reduced CoTPP(NO) with O(2).

  17. In situ oxidation of carbon-encapsulated cobalt nanocapsules creates highly active cobalt oxide catalysts for hydrocarbon combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Chen, Chunlin; Zhang, Yexin; Peng, Lixia; Ma, Song; Yang, Teng; Guo, Huaihong; Zhang, Zhidong; Su, Dang Sheng; Zhang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Combustion catalysts have been extensively explored to reduce the emission of hydrocarbons that are capable of triggering photochemical smog and greenhouse effect. Palladium as the most active material is widely applied in exhaust catalytic converter and combustion units, but its high capital cost stimulates the tremendous research on non-noble metal candidates. Here we fabricate highly defective cobalt oxide nanocrystals via a controllable oxidation of carbon-encapsulated cobalt nanoparticles. Strain gradients induced in the nanoconfined carbon shell result in the formation of a large number of active sites featuring a considerable catalytic activity for the combustion of a variety of hydrocarbons (methane, propane and substituted benzenes). For methane combustion, the catalyst displays a unique activity being comparable or even superior to the palladium ones.

  18. Crystal structures of bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate and tetra-chlorido-cuprate.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y

    2017-01-01

    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra-chlorido-cuprate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra-hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra-hydro-naphthalene system A+B and a deca-hydro-isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra-chlorido-cobaltate (or tetra-chlorido-cuprate) anions via strong N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan.

  19. Optical properties and electronic structure of cobalt-deficit GdBaCo1.86O5 + δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomerovannaya, L. V.; Makhnev, A. A.; Naumov, S. V.; Telegin, S. V.

    2015-04-01

    The optical properties of cobalt-deficit GdBaCo2 - x O5 + δ single crystals with different oxygen contents have been studied using the ellipsometry method in the spectral range of 0.16-4.8 eV. The optical conductivity spectrum has been characterized by a low-energy structure with the center at ˜1.3 eV and an intense broad absorption band at 1.8-4.0 eV. It has been found that the electronic transitions in the cobalt-deficit samples are partially blocked in a narrow spectral range of 0.5-0.8 eV due to weakening of the contribution from the interstitial Co(3 d)-Co(3 d) transitions. The ordered GdBaCo2O5.5 crystal exhibits a strong absorption in the energy band gap ( E g < 0.26 eV) due to the structural disorder, defects, and vacancies. A significant decrease in the interband absorption intensity in the tetragonal phase of the GdBaCo1.86O5.07 compound as compared to that in the case of the orthorhombic GdBaCo1.86O5.32 phase has been explained by the existence of only the pyramidal environment of a cobalt ion.

  20. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of novel cobalt salicylaldimine-urea complexes: A new approach to Co3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, M. Y.; Mohamed, T. Y.; Ahmed, I. S.

    2013-10-01

    Three novel Cobalt salicylaldimine-urea complexes {[CoxLy(H2O)n]Clz; where, L = 1,3-bis(salicylaldehydimine)urea Schiff base; x, y = 1 or 2; n = 2 or 8; z = 0 or 2} were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment of methanolic solutions of urea, salicylaldehyde, and cobalt chloride at 120 °C for 3 h. Subsequently, normal spinel-type Co3O4 nanoparticles, with an average crystallite size in the range 22-38 nm, were easily produced via thermal decomposition of the synthesized complexes at 400 °C for 2 h. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal analysis (TG-DTA/DTG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EI mass spectroscopy. Investigation of the optical properties of the produced cobalt oxide, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirmed its semiconducting properties by revealing two optical band gabs in the range of 1.42-1.50 and 1.83-1.95 eV.

  1. Calculation of the standard heat capacity at constant pressure for cobalt ferrite-zinc ferrite solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chachanidze, G.D.; Pavlenishvili, T.A.; Machaladze, T.E.; Khutsishvili, D.I.

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic, electrical, and other properties of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solutions are widely studied because of their high coercive force and Curie temperature ({Tc}), which makes these compounds applicable in modern electronic devices. However, the information published on their thermodynamic properties is limited. This paper focuses on calculation of the standard heat capacity C{sub p}{sup 0} (298 K) for cobalt zinc ferrites using correlation analysis of the relationship between C{sub p}{sup 0} (298 K) and the saturation magnetic moment {mu}{sub o}. The authors studied the solid solutions Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.8), whose magnetic and thermal parameters, crucial in our calculations, are known to be strongly dependent on the preparation conditions. An equation was derived for calculation of the standard heat capacity at constant pressure from the saturation magnetic moment of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solutions. The equation allows a satisfactory estimation of the standard heat capacity at 298 Kelvin for any cobalt ferrite-zinc ferrite solid, providing the saturation magnetic moment is available.

  2. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; Li, Ling; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Narayanan, S. R.; Quesnel, David J.; Tryk, Donald A.; Manivannan, A.

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unity were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.

  3. Series of Hydrated Heterometallic Uranyl-Cobalt(II) Coordination Polymers with Aromatic Polycarboxylate Ligands: Formation of U═O-Co Bonding upon Dehydration Process.

    PubMed

    Falaise, Clément; Delille, Jason; Volkringer, Christophe; Vezin, Hervé; Rabu, Pierre; Loiseau, Thierry

    2016-10-06

    Five new heterometallic UO2(2+)-Co(2+) coordination polymers have been obtained by hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic cobalt with aromatic polycarboxylic acids. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of four 3D frameworks with the mellitate (noted mel) ligand and one 2D network with the isophthalate (noted iso) ligand. The compounds [(UO2(H2O))2Co(H2O)4(mel)]·4H2O (1), [UO2Co(H2O)4(H2mel)]·2H2O (2), and [(UO2(H2O))2Co(H2O)4(mel)] (4) consist of 3D frameworks built up from the connection of mellitate ligands and mononuclear metallic centers. These three compounds exhibit two types of geometry for the uranyl cation: pentagonal bipyramidal environment for 1 and 4, and hexagonal bipyramidal environment for 2. Using the mellitate ligand, the uranyl dinuclear unit is isolated in the compound [(UO2)2(OH)2(Co(H2O)4)2(mel)]·2H2O (3). Due to their 2D framework and the presence of uncoordinated cobalt(II) cations, the compound [(UO2)(iso)3][Co(H2O)6]·3(H2O) (5) is drastically different than the previous one. The thermal behavior of compounds 1, 2, and 3 has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray thermodiffraction, and in situ infrared. By heating, the dehydration of compounds 1 and 2 promotes two structural transitions (1 → 1' and 2 → 2'). The crystal structures of [(UO2(H2O))2Co(H2O)2(mel)] (1') and [(UO2)Co(H2mel)] (2') were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction; each of them presents a heterometallic interaction between uranyl bond and the Co(II) center. Due to the rarely reported coordination environment for the cobalt center in compound 2' (square pyramidal configuration), the magnetic properties and EPR characterizations of the compounds 2 and 2' were also investigated.

  4. Heat treatment of cobalt-chromium alloy wire.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, G M; Tomlinson, J L

    1976-04-01

    This study shows that the ability of cobalt-chromium wire to resist permanent deformation is definitely affected by the temperature of heat treatment. For each temperature of heat treatment up to 1200 degrees F there is progressively greater resistance to permanent deformation; at temperatures of heat treatment above 1200 degrees F, however, there is a rapid decline in resistance to permanent deformation due to partial annealing. The maximum resistance to permanent deformation occurs from heat treatment in the temperature range of 1100 degrees to 1200 degrees F. A clinician desiring maximum resistance to permanent deformation from a .016 inches x .022 inches cobalt-chromium archwire should heat-treat the wire at 1100 degrees to 1200 degrees F for 5 minutes in a dental furnace. If the wire was in a highly work-hardened condition as were the wire specimens of this study, he could expect an increase in resistance to permanent deformation of approximately 174 percent. Heat treatment at lower temperatures could be used in situations requiring less than maximum resistance to permanent deformation. Heat treatment at 900 degrees F would give approximately a 95 percent increase in resistance to permanent deformation. Of course, heat treatment would not be indicated when the desired level of resistance to permanent deformation was not greater than the amount exhibited in the untreated wires of this study. When an electrical resistance heat-treatment unit and 950 degrees F temper-indicating paste were used, the clinician would expect increased resistance to permanent deformation similar to that seen in the wires heat-treated with a dental furnace at 800 degrees and 900 degrees F, i.e., about half of that obtained by the 1200 degrees F treatment. This study has determined the effects that various temperatures of heat treatment have on the resistance to permanent deformation of cobalt-chromium wire specimens which were formed into a specific pattern of loops. The following

  5. Atomic structure and magnetic properties of Cu 80Co 20 nanocrystalline compound produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, V. A.; Uimin, M. A.; Yermakov, A. Ye; Korobeinikov, A. Yu

    1999-10-01

    Direct observation of the atomic structure of the mechanically alloyed Cu 80Co 20 compounds has been made using the field ion microscope (FIM). Phase composition, defect structure and morphology of material on the atomic scale have been determined. It has been established that the studied material is chemically inhomogeneous, presenting a mixture of two main phases: heterogeneous solid solution of cobalt in copper, and pure cobalt. Phase volume ratios, particle and cluster sizes have been estimated. An evaluation of Co content in CuCo solid solution has been made. The width of interfaces in this mechanically alloyed material was revealed to be at least twice the width of phase boundaries in metals and alloys. Superparamagnetism of the compound studied at elevated temperatures and saturation magnetization deficit at low temperatures are discussed on the basis of the above-mentioned structural data.

  6. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Ibieta, F; Serrano, A; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2016-07-01

    Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response. The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0.018 to 0.035mg/L of dissolved cobalt (0.24-0.65mg total cobalt/L), reaching improvements up to 23% and 30% in the methane production rate and the methane yield coefficient, respectively. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions.

  7. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: XANES Investigation of Hydrogen Chloride Poisoned Iron and Cobalt-Based Catalysts at the K-Edges of Cl, Fe, and Co

    DOE PAGES

    Pendyala, Venkat Ramana Rao; Jacobs, Gary; Ma, Wenping; ...

    2016-07-23

    The effect of co-fed hydrogen chloride (HCl) in syngas on the performance of iron and cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts was investigated in our earlier studies [ACS Catal. 5 (2015) 3124-3136 and DOE final report 2011; Catal. Lett. 144 (2014) 1127-1133]. For an iron catalyst, lower HCl concentrations (< 2.0 ppmw of HCl)) in syngas did not significantly affect the activity, whereas rapid deactivation occurred at higher concentrations (~20 ppmw). With cobalt catalysts, even low concentrations of HCl (100 ppbw) caused catalyst deactivation, and the deactivation rate increased with increasing HCl concentration in the syngas. The deactivation of the catalysts ismore » explained by the chloride being adsorbed on the catalyst surface to (1) block the active sites and/or (2) electronically modify the sites. In this study, XANES spectroscopy was employed to investigate HCl poisoning mechanism on the iron and cobalt catalysts. Cl K-edge normalized XANES results indicate that Cl is indeed present on the catalyst following HCl poisoning and exhibits a structure similar to the family of compounds MCl; two main peaks are formed, with the second peak consisting of a main peak and a higher energy shoulder. At the Co K and Fe K edges, the white line was observed to be slightly increased relative to the same catalyst under clean conditions. There is then the additional possibility that Cl adsorption may act in part to intercept electron density from the FT metallic function (e.g.,cobalt or iron carbide). If so, this would result in less back-donation and therefore hinder the scission of molecules such as CO.« less

  8. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: XANES Investigation of Hydrogen Chloride Poisoned Iron and Cobalt-Based Catalysts at the K-Edges of Cl, Fe, and Co

    SciTech Connect

    Pendyala, Venkat Ramana Rao; Jacobs, Gary; Ma, Wenping; Sparks, Dennis E.; Shafer, Wilson D.; Khalid, Syed; Xiao, Qunfeng; Hu, Yongfeng; Davis, Burtron H.

    2016-07-23

    The effect of co-fed hydrogen chloride (HCl) in syngas on the performance of iron and cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts was investigated in our earlier studies [ACS Catal. 5 (2015) 3124-3136 and DOE final report 2011; Catal. Lett. 144 (2014) 1127-1133]. For an iron catalyst, lower HCl concentrations (< 2.0 ppmw of HCl)) in syngas did not significantly affect the activity, whereas rapid deactivation occurred at higher concentrations (~20 ppmw). With cobalt catalysts, even low concentrations of HCl (100 ppbw) caused catalyst deactivation, and the deactivation rate increased with increasing HCl concentration in the syngas. The deactivation of the catalysts is explained by the chloride being adsorbed on the catalyst surface to (1) block the active sites and/or (2) electronically modify the sites. In this study, XANES spectroscopy was employed to investigate HCl poisoning mechanism on the iron and cobalt catalysts. Cl K-edge normalized XANES results indicate that Cl is indeed present on the catalyst following HCl poisoning and exhibits a structure similar to the family of compounds MCl; two main peaks are formed, with the second peak consisting of a main peak and a higher energy shoulder. At the Co K and Fe K edges, the white line was observed to be slightly increased relative to the same catalyst under clean conditions. There is then the additional possibility that Cl adsorption may act in part to intercept electron density from the FT metallic function (e.g.,cobalt or iron carbide). If so, this would result in less back-donation and therefore hinder the scission of molecules such as CO.

  9. A cobalt-containing eukaryotic nitrile hydratase.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Salette; Yang, Xinhang; Bennett, Brian; Holz, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase), an industrially important enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of nitriles to their corresponding amides, has only been characterized from prokaryotic microbes. The putative NHase from the eukaryotic unicellular choanoflagellate organism Monosiga brevicollis (MbNHase) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting enzyme expressed as a single polypeptide with fused α- and β-subunits linked by a seventeen-histidine region. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that MbNHase exists primarily as an (αβ)2 homodimer in solution, analogous to the α2β2 homotetramer architecture observed for prokaryotic NHases. The NHase enzyme contained its full complement of Co(III) and was fully functional without the co-expression of an activator protein or E. coli GroES/EL molecular chaperones. The homology model of MbNHase was developed identifying Cys400, Cys403, and Cys405 as active site ligands. The results presented here provide the first experimental data for a mature and active eukaryotic NHase with fused subunits. Since this new member of the NHase family is expressed from a single gene without the requirement of an activator protein, it represents an alternative biocatalyst for industrial syntheses of important amide compounds.

  10. Binding of transition metal ions [cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc] with furanyl-, thiophenyl-, pyrrolyl-, salicylyl- and pyridyl-derived cephalexins as potent antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Pervez, Humayun; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Rauf, A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2004-02-01

    A method is described for the preparation of novel cephalexin-derived furanyl-, thiophenyl-, pyrrolyl-, salicylyl- and pyridyl-containing compounds showing potent antibacterial activity. The binding of these newly synthesized antibacterial agents with metal ions such as cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) has been studied and their inhibitory properties against various bacterial species such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are also reported. These results suggest that metal ions to possess an important role in the designing of metal-based antibacterials and that such complexes are more effective against infectious diseases compared to the uncomplexed drugs.

  11. Hollow Cobalt Selenide Microspheres: Synthesis and Application as Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ko, You Na; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-01

    The electrochemical properties of hollow cobalt oxide and cobalt selenide microspheres are studied for the first time as anode materials for Na-ion batteries. Hollow cobalt oxide microspheres prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis are transformed into hollow cobalt selenide microspheres by a simple selenization process using hydrogen selenide gas. Ultrafine nanocrystals of Co3O4 microspheres are preserved in the cobalt selenide microspheres selenized at 300 °C. The initial discharge capacities for the Co3O4 and cobalt selenide microspheres selenized at 300 and 400 °C are 727, 595, and 586 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). The discharge capacities after 40 cycles for the same samples are 348, 467, and 251 mA h g(-1), respectively, and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle onward are 66, 91, and 50%, respectively. The hollow cobalt selenide microspheres have better rate performances than the hollow cobalt oxide microspheres.

  12. [Study on the thermodynamical molar absorptivity of the interaction of cobalt(II) and the histidine].

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhang, D; Yang, D; He, Z; Wang, Y

    1999-02-01

    In this paper UV-Vis absorption spectrum of Cobalt(II) with the histidine and the thermodynamical molar absorptivity of the complex reaction were determined and the complexes of Cobalt(II) with the histidine were compared in terms of stability.

  13. Metallic phases of cobalt-based catalysts in ethanol steam reforming: The effect of cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sean S.-Y.; Kim, Do Heui; Ha, Su Y.

    2009-02-28

    The catalytic activity of cobalt in the production of hydrogen via ethanol steam reforming has been investigated in its relation to the crystalline structure of metallic cobalt. At a reaction temperature of 350 8C, the specific hydrogen production rates show that hexagonal close-packed (hcp) cobalt possesses higher activity than face-centered cubic (fcc) cobalt. However, at typical reaction temperatures (400– 500 8C) for ethanol steam reforming, hcp cobalt is transformed to less active fcc cobalt, as confirmed by in situ X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The addition of CeO2 promoter (10 wt.%) stabilizes the hcp cobalt structure at reforming temperatures up to 600 8C. Moreover, during the pre-reduction process, CeO2 promoter prevents sintering during the transformation of Co3O4 to hcp cobalt. Both reforming experiments and in situ diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) showed that the surface reactions were modified by CeO2 promoter on 10% Ce–Co (hcp) to give a lower CO selectivity and a higher H2 yield as compared with the unpromoted hcp Co.

  14. Influences On The Oceanic Biogeochemical Cycling Of The Hybrid-Type Metals: Cobalt, Iron, And Manganese

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    derived from these correlations changed over orders of magnitude, revealing dynamic variability in the utilization, demand, and sources of this...33 2.3.4. The upper water column cobalt-phosphate correlation : a mechanistic explanation and a minimum productivity...cobalt concentrating mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Figure 7) Co:PO43- correlation plots

  15. Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium Borohydride-Water Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 2082 July 2015 Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium ...describes experiments to generate hydrogen gas using the cobalt chloride catalyzed sodium borohydride-water reaction. Space and Naval Warfare Systems...to inflate LTAs. Of the metal hydrides, we chose to explore the sodium borohydride chemistry. We chose this chemistry because of its energy density

  16. The treatment of refractory anaemia of chronic renal failure with cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Duckham, J M; Lee, H A

    1976-04-01

    Twelve anephric patients on maintenance haemodialysis received treatment with oral enteric coated cobalt chloride 25 to 50 mg daily. The change in haemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume, are recorded and discussed with special reference to possible toxicity and mechanism of action of cobalt. Six of eight patients who completed the first course with cobalt chloride 50 mg daily for 12 weeks showed a significant rise in haemoglobin concentration of 26 to 70 per cent and a fall to near pre-therapeutic levels when cobalt was withdrawn. Evidence of a response was present within two months of starting treatment. Four patients showed a diminution in their blood transfusion requirements and three patients experienced a definite sense of increased well-being during treatment. One patient suffered from side effects of the drug and failed to complete the study because of gastrointestinal disturbance. The improvment in haemoglobin concentration was reproducible in four patients who were given second, and in one case third courses courses with varying doses of cobalt over differing periods of time. Serum cobalt levels tended to stabilize after two months continuous treatment to the therapeutic range of 40-100 mumg per 100 ml. A rapid fall in serum cobalt was seen on cessation of treatment. It is suggested that therapy with enteric coated cobalt chloride at a dose of between 25 and 50 mg per day has a definite place in the treatment of the refractory anaemia of chronic renal failure.

  17. Understanding the roles of the strategic element cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The United States imports over 90% of its cobalt, chromium, columbium, and tantalum, all key elements in high temperature nickel base superalloys for aircraft gas turbine disks and airfoils. Research progress in understanding the roles of cobalt and some possible substitutes effects on microstructure, mechanical properties, and environmental resistance of turbine alloys is discussed.

  18. Effects of Cobalt on Structure, Microchemistry and Properties of a Wrought Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Robert N.; Tien, John K.

    1982-06-01

    Cobalt in a 17 pct cobalt containing wrought nickel-base superalloy is systematically substituted for by nickel in order to determine the role of cobalt. The eventual goal is to reduce the levels of cobalt, a critical strategic element, in superalloys. It is found that the strengthening γ microstructure is highly heat treatment sensitive. Reducing cobalt did not result in a reduction of the fine γ precipitates after a coarse grain type (blading) heat treatment, but did after a fine grain type (disk) heat treatment. Representative mechanical properties were determined for each case to isolate microstructural and microchemistry effects. Ambient yield strength and tensile strength were seen to decrease by no more than 15 pct and 7 pct, respectively, even when all the cobalt was removed. The decrease in strength is quantitatively discussed and shown to be consistent with the observed microstructural results and microchemistry results obtained using STEM/EDS. Elevated temperature creep and stress rupture resistances were concluded to be affected by alloy cobalt content through its effect on strengthening γ volume fraction. Significant decreases in these properties were observed for the lower cobalt content alloys. Long term aging, precipitate coarsening, and carbide stability results are also presented and discussed.

  19. Ultrastructure, glutathione and low molecular weight proteins of Penicillium brevicompactum in response to cobalt.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Rasha M

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium brevicompactum highly tolerated cobalt concentrations of 50, 200, 800 and 1000 ppm both through cell wall and intracellular sequestration- immobilization of the metal on/within the cell wall, cell wall thickness, presence of electron-dense deposits inside vacuoles (thiol peptides sequestering cobalt) and in the cytoplasm (cobalt), and presence of matrixed electron-dense deposits, only at 800 and 1000 ppm, were observed. Increased vacuole formation and plasmolysis were also observed. Fraction number 9 of the cell free extract showed maximum cobalt uptake for all the investigated cobalt concentrations. In this fraction, glutathione was only induced at 500, 800 and 1000 ppm. Maximum glutathione concentration supported maximum cobalt uptake at 800 ppm. Low molecular weight protein profiles of fraction number 9 revealed that the presence of cobalt induced the appearance of new proteins that were not detected in the same fraction of the control. These low molecular weight peptides (12-5 KDa) suggest the production of Co-metallothioneins. This is the first report of cobalt-induced glutathione by P. brevicompactum and suggests the possible production of phytochelatins.

  20. The impact of rare earth cobalt permanent magnets on electromechanical device design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.; Studer, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Specific motor designs which employ rare earth cobalt magnets are discussed with special emphasis on their unique properties and magnetic field geometry. In addition to performance improvements and power savings, high reliability devices are attainable. Both the mechanism and systems engineering should be aware of the new performance levels which are currently becoming available as a result of the rare earth cobalt magnets.

  1. Exposure to Cobalt Causes Transcriptomic and Proteomic Changes in Two Rat Liver Derived Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    phosphofructokinase, liver; phospho- glycerate kinase 1; proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type 3; solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose...oxidative stress caused by cobalt particles. Arch Toxicol 76: 1–7. 20. Moger WH (1983) Effects of the calcium-channel blockers cobalt, verapamil, and D600

  2. An hydrothermal experimental study of the cobalt-cobalt oxide redox buffer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemke, K.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bischoff, J.L.; Bird, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Equilibrium aqueous hydrogen concentration and corresponding energies of reaction, ??Grxno(T, P), for the reaction Co(s) + H2O(l) = CoO(s) + H2(aq) have been determined at temperatures between 256 and 355 ??C and at 400 bar. Steady-state concentrations of hydrogen were approached in experiments under conditions of both H2 excess and deficiency containing the solids Co, CoO and liquid water. All experiments were carried out in flexible gold and titanium reactors with the capability of on-line fluid sampling. Measured equilibrium molal concentrations of H2(aq) at 256, 274, 300, 324 and 355 ??C are 0.81(?? 0.01) ?? 10- 3 1.11(?? 0.01) ?? 10- 3, 1.92(?? 0.01) ?? 10- 3, 3.71(?? 0.06) ?? 10- 3, 7.54(?? 0.12) ?? 10- 3, respectively, and corresponding values of ??Grxno(T, P) in units kJ ?? mol- 1 are 31.4(?? 0.1), 31.0(?? 0.1), 29.8(?? 0.1), 27.7(?? 0.5) and 25.5(?? 0.9), respectively. Using published heat capacity data for Co(s) and CoO(s) and - 79.6 J ?? mol- 1 ?? K- 1 for the entropy of formation of CoO we calculated for this study a value for ??GCoO,Tr,Pro = - 214.5(?? 0.9) kJ ?? mol- 1 and ??HCoO,Tr,Pro = - 238.3(?? 0.9) kJ ?? mol- 1 at 25 ??C and 1 bar. The value of ??HCoO,Tr,Pro determined in this study compares well with the reported calorimetric value of - 238.9(?? 1.2) kJ ?? mol- 1 [Boyle, B.J., King, E.G., Conway, K.C., 1954. Heats of formation of nickel and cobalt oxides (NiO and CoO) by combustion calorimetry. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76, 3835-3837]. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Ojo, Isaac; Adebajo, Clement; Isabirye, David

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10–32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:28293149

  4. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine.

    PubMed

    Aiyelabola, Temitayo; Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Ojo, Isaac; Obuotor, Efere; Adebajo, Clement; Isabirye, David

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10-32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  5. High volume hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride using a cobalt catalyst supported on a honeycomb matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionni, Andrea; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Filippi, Jonathan; Folliero, Maria G.; Innocenti, Massimo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish A.; Pagliaro, Maria V.; Vizza, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen storage and distribution will be two very important aspects of any renewable energy infrastructure that uses hydrogen as energy vector. The chemical storage of hydrogen in compounds like sodium borohydride (NaBH4) could play an important role in overcoming current difficulties associated with these aspects. Sodium borohydride is a very attractive material due to its high hydrogen content. In this paper, we describe a reactor where a stable cobalt based catalyst supported on a commercial Cordierite Honeycomb Monolith (CHM) is employed for the hydrolysis of alkaline stabilized NaBH4 (SBH) aqueous solutions. The apparatus is able to operate at up to 5 bar and 130 °C, providing a hydrogen generation rate of up to 32 L min-1.

  6. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  7. In situ formation of cobalt oxide nanocubanes as efficient oxygen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Gregory S; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jian; Yonemoto, Bryan T; Zhou, Xinggui; Zhu, Kake; Jiao, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen evolution from water poses a significant challenge in solar fuel production because it requires an efficient catalyst to bridge the one-electron photon capture process with the four-electron oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, a new strategy was developed to synthesize nonsupported ultrasmall cobalt oxide nanocubanes through an in situ phase transformation mechanism using a layered Co(OH)(OCH3) precursor. Under sonication, the precursor was exfoliated and transformed into cobalt oxide nanocubanes in the presence of NaHCO3-Na2SiF6 buffer solution. The resulting cobalt catalyst with an average particle size less than 2 nm exhibited a turnover frequency of 0.023 per second per cobalt in photocatalytic water oxidation. X-ray absorption results suggested a unique nanocubane structure, where 13 cobalt atoms fully coordinated with oxygen in an octahedral arrangement to form 8 Co4O4 cubanes, which may be responsible for the exceptionally high OER activity.

  8. Investigations in cobalt doped silicon by DLTS and Mössbauer effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, E.; Schröter, W.

    1983-02-01

    We have investigated the system Co in Si by Möβbauer spectroscopy and DLTS. In p-type silicon no DLTS signal of cobalt species between E v + 0.1 eV and E v + 0.5 eV, neither of substitutional cobalt nor of Co-B pairs, is found giving evidence that many assignments in the literature of ionization energies to cobalt in solution are doubtful. If one lowers the diffusion temperature to 940 °C the main part of Co in Si remains in solution as substitutional cobalt and as a new species, tentatively attributed to a pair of cobalt with a shallow boron acceptor (sa). This new species even found in specimens with a boron concentration of N sa = 2.8 10 15 cm -3 anneals out below 110 °C.

  9. Tailoring the oxidation state of cobalt through halide functionality in sol-gel silica.

    PubMed

    Olguin, Gianni; Yacou, Christelle; Smart, Simon; da Costa, João C Diniz

    2013-01-01

    The functionality or oxidation state of cobalt within a silica matrix can be tailored through the use of cationic surfactants and their halide counter ions during the sol-gel synthesis. Simply by adding surfactant we could significantly increase the amount of cobalt existing as Co3O4 within the silica from 44% to 77%, without varying the cobalt precursor concentration. However, once the surfactant to cobalt ratio exceeded 1, further addition resulted in an inhibitory mechanism whereby the altered pyrolysis of the surfactant decreased Co3O4 production. These findings have significant implications for the production of cobalt/silica composites where maximizing the functional Co3O4 phase remains the goal for a broad range of catalytic, sensing and materials applications.

  10. Microstructure and characterization of a novel cobalt coating prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; He, Yedong

    2015-10-01

    A novel cobalt coating was prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The kinetics of the electrode process in cathode plasma electrolytic deposition was studied. The composition and microstructure of the deposited coatings were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM. The novel cobalt coatings were dense and uniform, showing a typically molten morphology, and were deposited with a rather fast rate. Different from the coatings prepared by conventional electrodeposition or chemical plating, pure cobalt coatings with face center cubic (fcc) structure were obtained by CPED. The deposited coatings were nanocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 40-50 nm, exhibited high hardness, excellent adhesion with the stainless steels, and superior wear resistance. The properties of the novel cobalt coatings prepared by CPED have been improved significantly, as compared with that prepared by conventional methods. It reveals that cathode plasma electrolytic deposition is an effective way to prepare novel cobalt coatings with high quality.

  11. Structural, morphological, and electrical characteristics of the electrodeposited cobalt oxide electrode for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kandalkar, Sunil G.; Lee, Hae-Min; Chae, Heeyeop; Kim, Chang-Koo

    2011-01-15

    Cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were prepared through electrodeposition on copper substrates using an ammonia-complexed cobalt chloride solution. The structural and morphological properties of the film were studied using an X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy, and the results showed that the electrodeposited cobalt oxide film had a nanocrystalline and porous structure. The electrochemical behavior of the electrodeposited cobalt oxide electrode was evaluated in a KOH solution using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The electrodeposited cobalt oxide electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 235 F/g at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The specific energy and the specific power of the electrode were 4.0 Wh/kg and 1.33 kW/kg, respectively.

  12. Cobalt toxicity after revision total hip replacement due to fracture of a ceramic head.

    PubMed

    Pelayo-de Tomás, J M; Novoa-Parra, C; Gómez-Barbero, P

    2017-01-25

    Symptomatic cobalt toxicity from a failed total hip replacement is a rare, but devastating complication. Potential clinical findings include cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism, skin rash, visual and hearing impairment, polycythaemia, weakness, fatigue, cognitive impairment, and neuropathy. The case is presented of a 74year-old man in whom, after a ceramic-ceramic replacement and two episodes of prosthetic dislocation, it was decided to replace it with a polyethylene-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). At 6months after the revision he developed symptoms of cobalt toxicity, confirmed by analytical determination (serum cobalt level=651.2μg/L). After removal of the prosthesis, the levels of chromium and cobalt in blood and urine returned to normal, with the patient currently being asymptomatic. It is recommended to use a new ceramic on ceramic bearing at revision, in order to minimise the risk of wear-related cobalt toxicity following breakage of ceramic components.

  13. Effects of cobalt on the microstructure of Udimet 700. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cobalt, a critical and "strategic" alloying element in many superalloys, was systematically substituted by nickel in experimental alloys Udimet 700 containing 0.1, 4.3, 8.6, 12.8 and the standard 17.0 wt.% cobalt. Electrolytic and chemical extraction techniques, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and optical microscopy were used for the microstructural studies. The total weight fraction of gamma' was not significantly affected by the cobalt content, although a difference in the size and quantities of the primary and secondary gamma' phases was apparent. The lattice parameters of the gamma' were found to increase with increasing cobalt content while the lattice mismatch between the gamma matrix and gamma' phases decreased. Other significant effects of cobalt on the weight fraction, distribution and formation of the carbide and boride phases as well as the relative stability of the experimental alloys during long-time aging are also discussed.

  14. Thermal evolution of cobalt deposits on Co3O4(111): atomically dispersed cobalt, two-dimensional CoO islands, and metallic Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehl, S; Ferstl, P; Schuler, M; Toghan, A; Brummel, O; Hammer, L; Schneider, M A; Libuda, J

    2015-09-28

    Cobalt oxide nanomaterials show high activity in several catalytic reactions thereby offering the potential to replace noble metals in some applications. We have developed a well-defined model system for partially reduced cobalt oxide materials aiming at a molecular level understanding of cobalt-oxide-based catalysis. Starting from a well-ordered Co3O4(111) film on Ir(100), we modified the surface by deposition of metallic cobalt. Growth, structure, and adsorption properties of the cobalt-modified surface were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) using CO as a probe molecule. The deposition of a submonolayer of cobalt at 300 K leads to the formation of atomically dispersed cobalt ions distorting the surface layer of the Co3O4 film. Upon annealing to 500 K the Co ions are incorporated into the surface layer forming ordered two-dimensional CoO islands on the Co3O4 grains. At 700 K, Co ions diffuse from the CoO islands into the bulk and the ordered Co3O4(111) surface is restored. Deposition of larger amounts of Co at 300 K leads to formation of metallic Co aggregates on the dispersed cobalt phase. The metallic particles sinter at 500 K and diffuse into the bulk at 700 K. Depending on the degree of bulk reduction, extended Co3O4 grains switch to the CoO(111) structure. All above structures show characteristic CO adsorption behavior and can therefore be identified by IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO.

  15. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  16. Treatment of spent electropolishing solution for removal of cobalt-60

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; Youngblood, E.L.; Macon, R.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing (IMET) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory electropolishes various types of irradiated metal specimens prior to examination of metallurgical and mechanical properties. The standard electropolishing solution used at IMET for most specimens consists of a 7:1 methanol/sulfuric acid mixture, with smaller amounts of a 3:1 methanol/nitric acid solution and a 10:6:1 methanol/2-butoxyethanol/perchloric acid solution also being used. Cobalt-60 is the primary source of gamma radiation in the spent solutions, with lesser amounts from manganese-54 and iron-59. A treatment method is needed to remove most of the Co-60 from these solutions to allow the waste solutions to be contact-handled for disposal. A wide range of adsorbents was tested for removing cobalt from the electropolishing solutions. No adsorbent was found that would treat full strength solution, but a complexing ion exchange resin (Chelex 100, BioRad Labs, or Amberlite IRC-718, Rohm and Haas Co.) will remove cobalt and other heavy metals from partially neutralized (pH=3) solution. A 5 wt% sodium hydroxide solution is used for pH adjustment, since more concentrated caustic caused sodium sulfate precipitates to form. Lab-scale column tests have shown that about 10 bed volumes of methanol/sulfuric acid solution, 30 bed volumes of methanol/nitric acid solution or 15 bed volumes of methanol/2-butoxyethanol/perchloric acid solution can be treated prior to initial Co-60 breakthrough.

  17. Cobalt(III)Hexaammine-Dependent Photocrosslinks in the Hairpin Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer-Chant, Christina M.; Heckman, Joyce E.; Lambert, Dominic; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    We have utilized the hairpin ribozyme, an RNA enzyme whose structure has been solved by high-resolution methods, to develop a new tool for mapping nucleobase-stacking interactions and potential metal-binding sites in RNA molecules. This tool involves the photoactivation of a specifically bound cobalt(III)hexaammine molecule at wavelengths corresponding to excitation of the metal ion complex only; no base excitation is involved. The photoexcitation initiates a process which strongly promotes the formation of a novel covalent bond or crosslink between one base (termed the “first base”), which is close in space to the excited cobalt(III)hexaammine complex, and another base upon which the first base is closely stacked. These crosslinked species can be isolated and sequenced; their activities can be analyzed to ensure that the crosslinked structures represent an active conformation of the molecule. We have shown that, as in electron transfer in DNA, several criteria must be met to result in the successful formation of these crosslinks. These include the appropriate oxidation potential of the first donor base, the stacking and close interaction of the two donor bases involved in the crosslink, and the binding of a specific cobalt(III)hexaammine molecule to the first donor base. Additionally, we have determined that this crosslinking is pH-sensitive, although the cause of this sensitivity remains unknown. This tool has proven useful in the past for the analysis of the hairpin ribozyme folded structure, and has been applied to identifying potential metal-binding sites on the hairpin and extended hammerhead ribozymes. PMID:24295878

  18. Electrical properties and magnetic response of cobalt germanosilicide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-I; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Tang, Jianshi; Hung, Min-Hsiu; Wang, Kang L; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2011-12-27

    The effects of partial substitution of Ge for Si in cobalt germanosilicide (CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) and Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x)) nanowires (NWs) on the electrical transport, magnetic properties, and magnetoresistance (MR) have been investigated. Cobalt germanosilicide NWs were synthesized by a spontaneous chemical vapor transport growth method. The Ge concentration can be selectively controlled from 0 to 15% and 0-50% for CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) and Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x) NWs, respectively, by varying the reaction temperature. Electrical measurements showed that the resistivities of CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) NWs are 90, 60, 30, and 23 μΩ-cm for x = 0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.15, respectively. Therefore, the electrical resistivity of CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) NWs was found to decrease significantly with an increasing Ge concentration, which is believed to be a result of the band gap narrowing. On the other hand, the Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x) (x ≤ 0.5) NWs exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K, which is attributed to the uncoordinated Co atoms on the NW surface and spin-glass behavior at low temperature. The highest MR response of Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x) NWs occurred at x = 0.5, where a MR ratio of 11.7% can be obtained at 10-25 K with a magnetic field of 8 T. The enhanced physical properties of cobalt germanosilicide NWs with Ge substitution shall lead to promising application in the fabrication of nanodevices, including spintronics and serving as the gate and interconnect material.

  19. Propolis attenuates cobalt induced-nephrotoxicity in adult rats and their progeny.

    PubMed

    Garoui, El Mouldi; Troudi, Afef; Fetoui, Hamadi; Soudani, Nejla; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in cobalt-exposed rats and to investigate the potential role of Tunisian propolis against the cobalt-induced renal damages. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups and were treated as follows: group 1 (control) received distilled water; group 2 received 350 ppm of CoCl(2) in drinking water; group 3 received 350 ppm CoCl(2) in drinking water and a propolis-supplemented diet (1 g/100 g of diet); group 4 received a propolis-supplemented diet (1 g/100 g of diet) without cobalt. In the cobalt group, a significant decrease in body, absolute and relative weights was noted when compared to controls. The administration of cobalt to pregnant rats from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery resulted in an increased level of renal malondialdehyde, a decreased renal content of glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in lactating rats and their pups. A statistically significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine serum levels was seen in treated female rats and their pups. Histopathologically, the cobalt-administration induced degenerative changes in the kidney of lactating rats and their pups. When compared with cobalt-treated rats, those receiving the propolis supplementation (along with cobalt-treatment) had lower malondialdehyde levels, higher antioxidant activities and the cobalt-related histopathological changes in the kidneys were at lower severity. Our results suggested that the propolis might be a potential candidate agent against cobalt-induced nephrotoxicity in adult and juvenile rats when administered to female rats during the late pregnancy and the early postnatal period.

  20. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.