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Sample records for cobayo cavia porcellus

  1. Insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes an insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Both guinea pigs presented with neurologic signs and low blood glucose readings. The neurologic signs resolved with dextrose administration. Insulinoma was confirmed on postmortem examination. PMID:15943120

  2. Prolactin Family of the Guinea Pig, Cavia porcellus

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S. M. Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P.; Soares, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig. PMID:20534723

  3. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Similarities and differences among the chromosomes of the wild guinea pig Cavia tschudii and the domestic guinea pig Cavia porcellus (Rodentia, Caviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Laura I.; Soto, Miguel A.; Spotorno, Ángel E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cavia tschudii Fitzinger, 1867 is a wild guinea pig species living in South America that according to the analysis of mitochondrial genes is the closest wild form of the domestic guinea pig. To investigate the genetic divergence between the wild and domestic species of guinea pigs from a cytogenetic perspective, we characterized and compared the C, G and AgNOR banded karyotypes of molecularly identified Cavia tschudii and Cavia porcellus Linnaeus, 1758 specimens for the first time. Both species showed 64 chromosomes of similar morphology, although C. tschudii had four medium size submetacentric pairs that were not observed in the C. porcellus karyotype. Differences in the C bands size and the mean number of AgNOR bands between the karyotypes of the two species were detected. Most of the two species chromosomes showed total G band correspondence, suggesting that they probably represent large syntenic blocks conserved over time. Partial G band correspondence detected among the four submetacentric chromosomes present only in the C. tschudii karyotype and their subtelocentric homologues in C. porcellus may be explained by the occurrence of four pericentric inversions that probably emerged and were fixed in the C. tschudii populations under domestication. The role of the chromosomal and genomic differences in the divergence of these two Cavia species is discussed. PMID:25147626

  5. Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

    2013-04-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 μg/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week.

  6. Age-related changes in haematology and serum chemistry of Weiser-Maples guineapigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, M; Yamaguchi, M; Nakamura, M; Sakurada, K; Suwa, T; Sasa, H

    2005-07-01

    Age-related changes in haematology and serum chemistry values were examined in male and female Weiser-Maples guineapigs (Cavia porcellus). Haematological changes that significantly (P<0.01) correlated with ageing were increased white blood cell and neutrophil counts in both sexes, decreased lymphocyte counts in both sexes, decreased reticulocyte and platelet counts in males, and decreased basophil counts in females. For serum chemistry, increases in total protein, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were seen in both sexes, along with increases in total cholesterol in males and sodium in females. Decreased alkaline phosphatase in both sexes and decreased chloride in males were significantly (P<0.01) associated with age. These age-related changes are compared with the published literature.

  7. Isolation induced changes in Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus pup distress whistles.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Patrícia F; Tokumaru, Rosana S; Ades, César

    2004-06-01

    Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus pups emit high-pitched distress whistles when separated from their mother. In order to assess the influence of the duration of a brief isolation period on whistle acoustic structure, we recorded the distress whistles of six 8-day old pups separated for 15 min from their group in a novel environment and compared the mean values of the first and last 30 whistle notes. Acoustic analysis revealed, throughout the session, a significant decrease in whistle duration, an increase in mean frequency and a tendency for a decrease in number of harmonics in the first part of the note. Results demonstrate that, throughout a brief isolation period, the vocal response of Guinea Pig pups to isolation undergoes structural changes possibly related to time-dependent changes in motivational state.

  8. Mandibular movement and muscle activity during mastication in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Byrd, K E

    1981-11-01

    Optoelectronic analysis of mandibular movement and electromyography (EMG) of masticatory muscles in Cavia porcellus indicate bilateral, unilateral, and gnawing cycles. During bilateral and unilateral cycles, the mandibular tip moves forward, lateral, and down during the lingual phase of the power stroke to bring the teeth into occlusion. EMG activity is generally asymmetric, with the exception of activity of the temporalis muscle during bilateral cycles. During gnawing cycles, the mandible moves in an anteroposterior direction that is opposite that during bilateral and unilateral chew cycles. Bilateral and unilateral cycles of pellets were significantly longer than carrot. With the exception of the width of bilateral cycles, the magnitude of cycle width, length, and height during the mastication of carrots was greater than that during the mastication of pellets. Significant differences exist between EMG durations during mastication of pellets and carrots. The lateral pterygoid displays continuous activity during gnawing cycles. Significant differences also exist in the duration of EMG activity between the working and balancing side during all three cycle types. High level of activity of balancing side temporalis and anterior belly of digastric (ABD) during bilateral cycles occurs during rotation and depression of the mandible during the power stroke. The temporalis apparently provides a "braking" or compensatory role during closing and power strokes. Differences between Cavia masticatory patterns and those shown by Rattus and Mesocricetus are apparently due to differences in dental morphology, occlusal relationships, and, possibly, the poorly developed temporalis in Cavia. The large number and wide diversity of rodent groups afford students of mammalian mastication an opportunity to investigate and compare different masticatory specializations.

  9. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Svetlana A.; Perelman, Polina L.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Serdyukova, Natalia A.; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O’Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ng, Bee L.; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents. PMID:26010445

  10. S1 nuclease definition of highly repeated DNA sequences in the Guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed Central

    Hubbell, H R; Robberson, D L; Hsu, T C

    1979-01-01

    Native DNA of the Guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, purified from liver or tissue culture cells, was heat denatured and reassociated to a Cot value of 0.01 (equivalent Cot value of 7.2 x 10(-2)). The reassociated DNA was isolated by digestion with the single-strand DNA specific enzyme S1 nuclease. Spectrophotometric and radioactivity assays demonstrated that 24% of the total DNA was resistant to S1 nuclease treatment. Zero-time reassociation indicated that approximately 3% of the DNA was inverted repeat sequences. Thus, highly repeated sequences comprised 21% of the total genome. CsCl buoyant density ultracentrifugation indicated that this fraction was composed of both main band and satellite sequences. Although actinomycin D - CsCl density gradients failed to give significant separation of the repetitive sequences, distamycin A - CsCl gradients were able to fractionate the DNA into several overlapping bands. The heterogeneity of the repetitive DNA was further demonstrated by the first derivative plots calculated from their thermal denaturation profiles. This analysis revealed six major thermalytes which indicate that there may be at least six discrete components in the repetitive DNA. Images PMID:523322

  11. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  12. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-01-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior. PMID:27025807

  14. [Dermatophyte colonization on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) kept in pet stores. First report from Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of sodium selenite on growth, nutrient utilization and selenium uptake in Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed

    Mahima; Garg, A K; Mudgal, Vishal

    2012-05-01

    A 70 day experiment on forty guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was conducted to find the influence of different level of sodium selenite (inorganic selenium supplementation) on growth, nutrient utilization and selenium uptake. The sodium selenite was supplemented into a basal diet at 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively and the basal diet comprised of 25% ground cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) hay, 30% ground maize (Zea mays) grain, 22% ground gram (Cicer arietinum) grain, 9.5% deoiled rice (Oryza sativa) bran, 6% soybean (Glycine max) meal, 6% fish meal, 1.5% mineral mixture (without Se), ascorbic acid (200 mg kg) and 0.1 ppm Se to meet their nutrient requirements. Daily feed intake and weekly body weights were recorded. Intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract as well as uptake of calcium and phosphorus, total body weight and average daily gain were similar (p>0.05) among the four groups. However, there was a trend of increase in Se absorption of the guinea pigs with the increasing levels of Se, in the groups given 0.2 and 0.3 ppm of Se. It can be concluded that requirement of Se in guinea pigs is 0.1 ppm, as supplementation of > or =0.1 ppm sodium selenite in the diet (having 0.1 ppm Se) did not enhanced their growth rate and nutrient utilization.

  16. Cavia porcellus as a Model for Experimental Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Verastegui, Manuela; Velásquez, Daniel E.; Sterling, Charles R.; Martin, Diana; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a natural reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi but has seldom been used as an experimental infection model. We developed a guinea pig infection model for acute and chronic Chagas disease. Seventy-two guinea pigs were inoculated intradermally with 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain Y (experimental group); 18 guinea pigs were used as control group. Eight animals from the experimental group and two from the control group were sacrificed 5, 15, 20, 25, 40, 55, 115, 165, and 365 days after inoculation. During the acute phase (15 to 55 days), we observed parasitemia (with a peak on day 20) and positive IgM and IgG Western blots with anti-shed acute-phase antigen bands. The cardiac tissue showed vasculitis, necrosis (on days 40 to 55), moderate to severe inflammation, and abundant amastigote nests. Smaller numbers of amastigote nests were also present in kidney, brain, and other organs. In the early chronic phase (115 to 165 days), parasitemia disappeared and anti–T. cruzi IgG antibodies were still detectable. In cardiac tissue, the number of amastigote nests and the grade of inflammation decreased. In the chronic phase (365 days), the cardiac tissue showed vasculitis and fibrosis; detectable parasite DNA was associated with higher grades of inflammation. The experimental T. cruzi infection model in guinea pigs shows kinetics and pathologic changes similar to those of the human disease. PMID:21703410

  17. Drinking preferences in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger), degus (Octodon degu) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Hagen, K; Clauss, M; Hatt, J-M

    2014-10-01

    Chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger), degus (Octodon degus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are South American rodents living in a semi-arid habitat with varying, species-specific adaptations to water deprivation. Nonetheless, several diseases have been linked to insufficient water intake when these species are kept as pets, such as urolithiasis or obstipation. This study evaluated preferences for drinking systems. Six animals of each species were given a choice between an open dish and a nipple drinker. Food intake and water intake were measured daily for 13 days. Chinchillas in this study had significantly lower water intakes than the other two species, indicating particular species-specific adaptations to aridity. All chinchillas favoured open dishes, whereas the degus and guinea pigs had variable individual preferences. Water intake of chinchillas was similar or higher in this study than in previous studies where nipple drinkers were used. The results indicate that degus and guinea pigs can meet their drinking water needs with nipple drinkers; for chinchillas, other drinking systems may be more adequate.

  18. Cavia porcellus as a model for experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Gilman, Robert H; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Verastegui, Manuela; Velásquez, Daniel E; Sterling, Charles R; Martin, Diana; Bern, Caryn

    2011-07-01

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a natural reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi but has seldom been used as an experimental infection model. We developed a guinea pig infection model for acute and chronic Chagas disease. Seventy-two guinea pigs were inoculated intradermally with 10(4) trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain Y (experimental group); 18 guinea pigs were used as control group. Eight animals from the experimental group and two from the control group were sacrificed 5, 15, 20, 25, 40, 55, 115, 165, and 365 days after inoculation. During the acute phase (15 to 55 days), we observed parasitemia (with a peak on day 20) and positive IgM and IgG Western blots with anti-shed acute-phase antigen bands. The cardiac tissue showed vasculitis, necrosis (on days 40 to 55), moderate to severe inflammation, and abundant amastigote nests. Smaller numbers of amastigote nests were also present in kidney, brain, and other organs. In the early chronic phase (115 to 165 days), parasitemia disappeared and anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies were still detectable. In cardiac tissue, the number of amastigote nests and the grade of inflammation decreased. In the chronic phase (365 days), the cardiac tissue showed vasculitis and fibrosis; detectable parasite DNA was associated with higher grades of inflammation. The experimental T. cruzi infection model in guinea pigs shows kinetics and pathologic changes similar to those of the human disease. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs.

  20. Comparison of fibre digestion and digesta retention time between nutrias (Myocaster coypus) and guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, E; Nabata, A

    1992-11-01

    1. Digestibilities of feed, and transit and retention time of fluid and particle digesta marker measured in nutrias (Myocaster coypus) and guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed on a diet containing 50% alfalfa. 2. The digestibility of fibre was higher in the nutria, along with the longer retention time of digesta. 3. The liquid and particle marker were similarly excreted, suggesting no separation mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract of both the animals. 4. The apparent digestibility of protein in the nutria was superior to the guinea-pig and other small hindgut fermenters, suggesting that the contribution of coprophagy on protein nutrition of nutrias is significant.

  1. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs. PMID:26817977

  2. Bitter avoidance in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Field, Kristin L; Beauchamp, Gary K; Kimball, Bruce A; Mennella, Julie A; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2010-11-01

    Rejection of bitter substances is common in many species and may function to protect an animal from ingestion of bitter-tasting toxins. Since many plants are bitter, it has been proposed that high tolerance for bitterness would be adaptive for herbivores. Earlier studies conducted on herbivorous guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used to support this proposal. We tested guinea pigs with bitter plant secondary metabolites (salicin, caffeine, quinine hydrochloride) and bitter protein hydrolysates (two types of hydrolyzed casein, hydrolyzed soy) in a series of two-choice preference tests. For comparison, we tested two nonherbivorous mouse species (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus). Guinea pigs did show weaker avoidance of quinine hydrochloride than did the mice, confirming predictions generated from earlier work. However, guinea pigs had similar responses to caffeine as did Peromyscus. Both of these species showed weaker avoidance responses than Mus to 10 mM caffeine. For salicin, guinea pigs were the only species to avoid it at 10 mM and their preference scores at this concentration were significantly lower than for the two mice species. Guinea pigs avoided all of the protein hydrolysates more strongly than the other species. Responses to the protein hydrolysates did not reflect the patterns observed with the simple bitter compounds, suggesting that other properties of these complex stimuli may be responsible for guinea pig avoidance of them. Our results suggest caution in accepting, without further empirical support, the premise that guinea pigs (and herbivores in general) have a generalized reduced bitter sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs.

  4. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) drinking preferences: do nipple drinkers compensate for behaviourally deficient diets?

    PubMed

    Balsiger, A; Clauss, M; Liesegang, A; Dobenecker, B; Hatt, J-M

    2017-10-01

    When offered diets with hay ad libitum, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) clearly prefer open dishes over nipple drinkers, but whether this preference also applies in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is unsure. We tested the drinker preference of 10 guinea pigs when offered open dishes (OD) and nipple drinkers (ND) simultaneously and measured the amount of water consumed by each animal on four different diets (grass hay 100%, or as 10% of intake on diets of fresh parsley, seed mix or pelleted complete feed, respectively) on either of the drinking systems. All animals ingested the hay portion of the combined diets first. The amount of water consumed differed significantly between individual animals. Animals drank less water on parsley than on the other diets. Nine of 10 animals clearly preferred ND when having a choice, and eight of these drank more when on ND only. The difference between the drinking systems was not consistent across all diets: on hay, similar amounts of water were drunk when on OD or ND only. Differences in water intake were reflected in urine production. Because drinking from ND in guinea pigs involves jaw movements similar to those in chewing, the results could suggest that when motivation for oral processing behaviour is not satisfied by a diet, animals may respond in using ND beyond physiological water necessity. Whereas physiological water requirements are probably better investigated with other drinking systems due to a possible overestimation when using ND, offering ND to pet guinea pigs most likely offers a form of behavioural enrichment that at the same time may increase water intake and hence act as prophylaxis against urolithiasis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of TNFSF14 (LIGHT) and its receptor TNFRSF14 (HVEM) in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlan; Chen, Shanshan; Song, Jinyun; Liu, Hongyan; Gu, Wei; Ai, Hongxin; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2013-09-10

    LIGHT (lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes with herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily, which plays important roles in inflammatory and immune responses. In the present study, the cDNAs of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) LIGHT (designated as gpLIGHT) and its receptor herpes virus entry mediator (designated as gpHVEM) were amplified from spleen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The ORFs of gpLIGHT and gpHVEM cover 726 and 861 bp, encoding predicted proteins with 241 and 286 aas, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structure, phylogenetic relationships, and characterization of both genes were also analyzed. We also generated a 3D model to verify interaction between the two proteins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that both LIGHT and HVEM are constitutively expressed in guinea pig various tissues. A fusion protein SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier)-gpsLIGHT (the soluble mature part of gpLIGHT) was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified using metal chelate affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA). Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) showed that gpsLIGHT can bind its receptors on T cells. The LIGHT-HVEM signaling pathway plays an important role in the immune system, and our results might provide a platform for further research into the effects of LIGHT and HVEM.

  6. The effects of early environmental conditions on the reproductive and somatic development of juvenile guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Barbara; Womastek, Irene; Dittami, John; Huber, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of the early environment on the development of non-seasonally reproducing species like the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). Although guinea pigs reproduce throughout the year, there is evidence for environmental sensitivity of their reproductive physiology. To investigate the sensitivity of juvenile body weight and puberty to differences in the prenatal and early postnatal environment, subjects were exposed to either of two experimental conditions mimicking seasonal variation: a long photoperiod with 25 °C ambient temperature (“LD/25 °C”), or a short photoperiod with 15 °C (“SD/15 °C”). Mean body weight of F1-males from LD/25 °C-conditions was higher than that of SD/15 °C-males during the whole pubertal period, although the difference was significant only during the early growth phase. Testosterone concentrations also differed significantly between the two treatment groups, pointing to an earlier pubertal onset in LD/25 °C- than SD/15 °C-males. In F1-females, treatment effects on body weight or age at first estrus were absent. This indicates that the somatic and reproductive development is more sensitive to early photoperiod and temperature conditions in male than female guinea pigs, and that other environmental factors may also play a crucial role for reproductive maturation in this species. PMID:17977535

  7. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  8. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652

  9. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Leitão, D P; Polizello, A C; Rothschild, Z

    2000-01-01

    Fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, LINNAEUS, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), a close relative. Capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. Undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response. Zymography of capybara and guinea-pig plasma gave the same patterns of activity as human or bovine plasma. Human urokinase (UK) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) produced lysis in capybara fibrin plates. Streptokinase (SK) (500 IU/ml) did not activate capybara or guinea-pig plasma. In this system, human plasma was extensively activated. Coagulation tests for both species of rodent were prolonged. The capybara showed values for prothrombin time (PT) shorter than activated thromboplastin time (APTT). The guinea-pig, as already shown, had longer PT values. Factors X and VII were very low for capybara and guinea-pig when tested using reference curves and diagnostic kits for human plasma. It is suggested that the capybara could be a valuable laboratory animal considering its size and closeness to the guinea-pig, and this could allow for the provision of materials from one single animal when convenient or necessary.

  10. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Li, Xiaoping; Sonne, Si Brask; Bertalan, Marcelo; Dimitrov, Peter; Madsen, Lise; Qin, Junjie; Wang, Jun; Raes, Jeroen; Kristiansen, Karsten; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-09-28

    Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans.

  12. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jay P.; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. PMID:27043446

  13. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Injury thresholds for topical-cream-coated skin of hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Zohner, Justin J.; Stolarski, David J.; Buchanan, Kelvin C.; Jindra, Nichole M.; Figueroa, Manuel A.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    The reflectance and absorption of the skin plays a vital role in determining how much radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. Any substance covering the skin would change the way radiation is reflected and absorbed and thus the extent of thermal injury. Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin. The ED 50 for visible lesions due to an Er: glass laser at 1540-nm with a pulse width of 50-ns was determined, and the results were compared with model predictions using a skin thermal model. The ED50 is compared with the damage threshold of skin coated with a highly absorbing topical cream at 1540 nm to determine its effect on damage pathology and threshold. The ED 50 for the guinea pig was then compared to similar studies using Yucatan minipigs and Yorkshire pigs at 1540-nm and nanosecond pulse duration. 1,2 The damage threshold at 24-hours of a Yorkshire pig for a 2.5-3.5-mm diameter beam for 100 ns was 3.2 Jcm -2; very similar to our ED 50 of 3.00 Jcm -2 for the hairless guinea pigs.

  15. Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

    2012-12-01

    The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs.

  16. Evaluating the Clinical and Physiological Effects of Long Term Ultraviolet B Radiation on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Megan K.; Stern, Adam W.; Labelle, Amber L.; Joslyn, Stephen; Fan, Timothy M.; Leister, Katie; Kohles, Micah; Marshall, Kemba; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important hormone in vertebrates. Most animals acquire this hormone through their diet, secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, or a combination thereof. The objectives for this research were to evaluate the clinical and physiologic effects of artificial UVB light supplementation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and to evaluate the long-term safety of artificial UVB light supplementation over the course of six months. Twelve juvenile acromelanic Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Group A was exposed to 12 hours of artificial UVB radiation daily and Group B received only ambient fluorescent light for 12 hours daily. Animals in both groups were offered the same diet and housed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected every three weeks to measure blood chemistry values, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) levels. Serial ophthalmologic examinations, computed tomography scans, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed during the course of the study. At the end of the study the animals were euthanized and necropsied. Mean ± SD serum 25-OHD3 concentrations differed significantly in the guinea pigs (p<0.0001) between the UVB supplementation group (101.49±21.81 nmol/L) and the control group (36.33±24.42 nmol/L). An increased corneal thickness in both eyes was also found in the UVB supplementation compared to the control group (right eye [OD]: p<0.0001; left eye [OS]: p<0.0001). There were no apparent negative clinical or pathologic side effects noted between the groups. This study found that exposing guinea pigs to UVB radiation long term significantly increased their circulating serum 25-OHD3 levels, and that this increase was sustainable over time. Providing guinea pigs exposure to UVB may be an important husbandry consideration that is not currently recommended. PMID:25517408

  17. Evaluating the clinical and physiological effects of long term ultraviolet B radiation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Watson, Megan K; Stern, Adam W; Labelle, Amber L; Joslyn, Stephen; Fan, Timothy M; Leister, Katie; Kohles, Micah; Marshall, Kemba; Mitchell, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important hormone in vertebrates. Most animals acquire this hormone through their diet, secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, or a combination thereof. The objectives for this research were to evaluate the clinical and physiologic effects of artificial UVB light supplementation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and to evaluate the long-term safety of artificial UVB light supplementation over the course of six months. Twelve juvenile acromelanic Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Group A was exposed to 12 hours of artificial UVB radiation daily and Group B received only ambient fluorescent light for 12 hours daily. Animals in both groups were offered the same diet and housed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected every three weeks to measure blood chemistry values, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) levels. Serial ophthalmologic examinations, computed tomography scans, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed during the course of the study. At the end of the study the animals were euthanized and necropsied. Mean ± SD serum 25-OHD3 concentrations differed significantly in the guinea pigs (p<0.0001) between the UVB supplementation group (101.49±21.81 nmol/L) and the control group (36.33±24.42 nmol/L). An increased corneal thickness in both eyes was also found in the UVB supplementation compared to the control group (right eye [OD]: p<0.0001; left eye [OS]: p<0.0001). There were no apparent negative clinical or pathologic side effects noted between the groups. This study found that exposing guinea pigs to UVB radiation long term significantly increased their circulating serum 25-OHD3 levels, and that this increase was sustainable over time. Providing guinea pigs exposure to UVB may be an important husbandry consideration that is not currently recommended.

  18. The quantification of testicular cells during the postnatal development in two Caviomorph rodents: the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and the cutia (Dasyprocta agouti).

    PubMed

    Simões, Luciana S; Sasahara, Tais H C; Favaron, Phelipe O; Marques, Ricardo; Oliveira, Moacir F DE; Machado, Márcia R F; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2017-01-01

    The germinative, Sertoli and Leydig cells of two caviomorph rodents (Cavia porcellus and Dasyprocta agouti) were counted as well as the estimation of the total volume of the testis and the total volume of seminiferous tubules and interstitium in prepubertal, pubertal and adult animals. The number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids cells increased during the pubertal phase in both rodents, notably the spermatid cells. The spermatocyte and spermatid slightly decreased in the adult of both rodents, but the increment in spermatogonia cells number was seen, mainly in cutias. The number of Sertoli cells increased in pubertal rodents, but in the adult the number reduced. Substantial number of Leydig cells was counted in pubertal and adult guinea pigs. In cutias, the number of Leydig cells increased in pubertal phase and decline in adults. The design-based stereological method has proven to be unbiased and reliable to be applied in reproduction studies.

  19. An Investigation of the Effects of Maternal Separation and Novelty on Central Mechanisms Mediating Pituitary-Adrenal Activity in Infant Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Maken, Deborah S.; Weinberg, Joanne; Cool, David R.; Hennessy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian species in which the young exhibit a strong filial attachment (e.g., monkeys, guinea pigs), numerous studies have shown that even brief separation from the attachment figure potently elevates circulating concentrations of glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). However, effects of separation on central regulation of this stress response are not known. Therefore, we investigated central mechanisms mediating pituitary-adrenal activation during maternal separation and novelty exposure in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) pups. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and plasma cortisol and ACTH levels, were elevated only during separation in a novel environment. C-Fos activity was elevated in the medial amygdala (MeA) and reduced in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during novelty exposure, regardless of separation. On the other hand, c-Fos activity was elevated in the PVN during separation, regardless of novelty exposure. These results demonstrate independent and combined effects of separation and novelty in regions of the guinea pig CNS that regulate pituitary-adrenal activity. Moreover, they suggest that a pathway from MeA to BNST to PVN mediates responses to novelty in the guinea pig pup, as in the adult rat, though inputs from other cell populations appear required to fully account for the HPA activity observed here. PMID:21038937

  20. Intake, selection, digesta retention, digestion and gut fill of two coprophageous species, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), on a hay-only diet.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Kreuzer, M; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2011-10-01

    A colonic separation mechanism (CSM) is the prerequisite for the digestive strategy of coprophagy. Two different CSM are known in small herbivores, the 'wash-back' CSM of lagomorphs and the 'mucous-trap' CSM of rodents. Differences between these groups in their digestive pattern when fed exclusively hay were investigated in six rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and six guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Intake, digestibility (by total faecal collection), solute and particle mean retention times (MRT, using Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibres) were measured. Rabbits selected less fibrous parts of the hay than guinea pigs, leaving orts with higher content of neutral detergent fibre [NDF; 721 ± 21 vs. 642 ± 31 g/kg dry matter (DM) in guinea pigs]. They also expressed a lower NDF digestibility (0.44 ± 0.10 vs. 0.55 ± 0.05 of total), a similar particle MRT (15 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 6 h), a longer solute MRT (51 ± 9 vs. 16 ± 4 h), and a lower calculated dry matter gut fill (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 29.7 ± 4.1 g DM/kg body mass) than guinea pigs (p < 0.05 for each variable). These results support the assumption that the 'wash-back' CSM, exhibited in the rabbits, is more efficient in extracting bacterial matter from the colonic digesta plug than the 'mucous-trap' CSM found in the guinea pigs. Related to metabolic body mass, rabbits therefore need a less capacious colon for their CSM where a more efficient bacteria wash-out is reflected in the lower fibre digestibility. A lighter digestive tract could contribute to a peculiarity of lagomorphs: their ability to run faster than other similar-sized mammals. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Morphometric evaluation of wound healing in burns treated with Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) honey alone and supplemented with ascorbic acid in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Schencke, Carolina; Vasconcellos, Adriana; Sandoval, Cristian; Torres, Paulina; Acevedo, Francisca; Del Sol, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the search for cost-efficient treatments, Ulmo (Eurcyphia cordifolia) honey is an excellent alternative for treating burn wounds and could have a profound medical, social, and economic impact. Ascorbic acid is an enzymatic co-factor necessary for the synthesis of collagen and the proliferation of fibroblasts and has been proposed as a coadjuvant to strengthen the healing effects of honey. The aim of this work was to evaluate by morphometric studies the healing wounds caused by burns treated with Ulmo honey alone and supplemented with ascorbic acid in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Fifteen guinea pigs were used and divided randomly into three groups: positive control (C+), experimental with unsupplemented honey (H), and experimental with supplemented honey (SH). A uniform deep burn covering 1 cm(2) of the back skin was performed. The following indices were calculated for the morphometric study: superficial contraction index of the wound, deep contraction index of the wound, wound severity index, global healing index, global contraction index, and dermal proliferation area. The superficial contraction index of the wound, global healing index, global contraction, and dermal proliferation area values of the experimental with supplemented honey group were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05). According to these results, the combination of honey with an antioxidant (ascorbic acid) promotes an appropriate action to support the healing effect. This study showed that by supplementing the Ulmo honey with ascorbic acid, the healing and contraction effects can be strengthened in burn wounds compared to unsupplemented honey. These results were proof of the synergy between honey and ascorbic acid in healing burn wounds.

  2. [Classification of neurons in the visual cortex of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). A combined Golgi-Nissl study using deimpregnation technics].

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Hedlich, A; Koglin, A

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is the identification of neuronal types in the visual cortex of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) in Nissl preparations. In two rapid Golgi series (modified by Fairén et al. 1977) and nine Golgi-Kopsch series eleven neuronal types could be classified: 1. Neurons with long axonal main stems: Pyramidal cells (layers II-VI), pyramid-like cells (layers I, VI), spiny stellate cells (layer IV). 2. Neurons with locally distributed axons: large and small aspiny cells (layers II-VI), neuroglioform cells (layers I-VI), large sparsely spiny cells with ascending axons (Martinotti cells) (layers III-VI), small sparsely spiny cells with variable axons (layer IV), bipolar cells (layers II-VI), chandelier cells (layers II, III), double bouquet cells (layers II, III), and 3. a horizontal cell in layer I without an impregnated axon. To identify Nissl stained somata, Golgi impregnated neurons were deimpregnated. Now cytoplasmic and nuclear features can be compared. In order to get a survey about the variability of the somal features, we have deimpregnated 245 neurons on the whole using either gold chloride (Fairén et al. 1977) combined with the rapid Golgi method, modified by Fairén et al. (1977), or a diluted solution of ammonia (Braak and Braak 1982) combined with the Golgi-Kopsch method, nonembedded, in glycerol stored material and in celloidin embedded sections, resp. After deimpregnation several neuronal classes could be distinguished considering at first the width of the cytoplasm and the localization of the nucleus. There are Nissl stained somata with corresponding features: 1. Pyramidal cells, pyramid-like cells, and spiny stellate cells of the layer IV with relatively broad cytoplasm and bright, centrally localized nuclei. 2. Large aspiny cells which vary in somal sizes and shapes with very broad cytoplasm and bright, centrally or excentrally localized nuclei. 3. Small aspiny cells, some of the neuroglioform cells, and small sparsely spiny

  3. Skin diseases in companion guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): a retrospective study of 293 cases seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    White, Stephen D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-10-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was performed by searching computerized medical records seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California from 1 January 1990 to 31 July 2015 using key words relevant to dermatology. Of the 580 guinea pigs seen at the VMTH, 50% (293) had skin disease. Of the 293 cases, 154 (52%) presented for nondermatological reasons. Guinea pigs with skin disease were significantly older than those without skin disease (P = 0.0002); females with skin disease were more likely to have cystic ovaries (P = 0.0203), although these were not always associated with alopecia. Pododermatitis and infestation with Trixacarus caviae or lice were the most common skin diseases. Ivermectin or selamectin was used for ectoparasite treatment. Abscesses unassociated with pododermatitis were the most common nodules. Benign follicular tumours were the most common neoplasm. Despite the frequent mention of dermatophytosis in the veterinary literature, only two cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were diagnosed. Cutaneous conditions in companion guinea pigs in the USA are common. Clinicians should include a dermatological examination when examining these rodents regardless of the reason for presentation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Howlett, Marcus H C; McFadden, Sally A

    2006-01-01

    Form deprivation (FD) was induced in 61 guinea pigs with a diffuser worn on one eye. The form-deprived eye elongated and developed myopia within 6 days in animals raised under a 12:12 h light/dark cycle, but not when reared in darkness. After 11 days of FD, the average eye was -6.6 D more myopic and 146 microm longer than its fellow eye. Initially the myopia was mostly from vitreous chamber elongation, but with longer periods of FD, corneal power increases predominated. These effects were confirmed in schematic eyes. After a delay, FD also elongated the vitreous chamber of the non-deprived eye. The myopia rapidly abated once the diffusers were removed (65% within 24 h) due to inhibition of elongation and choroidal thickening. The guinea pig provides a fast mammalian model of FD myopia and corneal curvature regulation.

  5. [Renal pleomorphic sarcoma in four guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)].

    PubMed

    Hankel, Julia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Warschau, Martina; Thöle, Anna Milena; Fehr, Michael

    2017-09-20

    Renal tumours apparently are rare not only in cats and dogs, but also in guinea pigs and can be difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings in guinea pigs with renal tumours. Furthermore, the symptoms, diagnostic possibilities and therapy are compared with renal tumours in other small animals, including cats and dogs. During a period of 4 years and 4 months the data of guinea pigs that had been presented in the clinic were retrospectively analysed. The analysis comprised guinea pigs that underwent a macroscopical and histopathological postmortem examination, and were diagnosed to have a renal neoplasm. Four guinea pigs had a renal tumour. The percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall necropsied carcasses and the number of organs originating from guinea pigs was 4.7 % and the percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall diagnosed tumours of the abdominal and pelvic cavities was 30.7 %. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of renal pleomorphic sarcomas in all four cases. In two of the four guinea pigs, the classical triad, as described for cats and dogs with renal tumours (weight loss, abdominal mass and haematuria), was observed. During clinical examination a prominent, apparently painful abdominal mass in the region of the kidneys was palpable in all four cases. Applying radiography the suspected diagnosis of a mass in the area of the kidney was confirmed in three cases, in two animals the renal origin of the masses was determined by ultrasound examination. Because a renal neoplasm is a pain-inducing disease with a high risk of metastases in domestic animals, a prompt nephrectomy should be performed when azotaemia is absent.

  6. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  7. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  8. [Tooth regeneration in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)].

    PubMed

    Stephan, F; Artis, J P; Lanot, R

    1977-01-01

    The first inferior molar has been extracted, a part of its being reimplanted or not. A new molar of normal form regenerated, apparently from the apex of the tooth germ, in all cases in which the alveolus was left free or implanted with a tooth freagment deprived of pulpa.

  9. [Occurrence and distribution of ectoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia spp.) in Peru, South America].

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Katharina Dittmar; Ribbeck, Regine; Daugschies, Arwio

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence and distribution of ectoparasites in Peru were carried out during a period of 2 1/2 years. The survey included 17,421 domesticated guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) from 14 departments in all bioregions and altitude levels and 143 wild guinea pigs (Cavia aperea) from three areas (El Paramo, Junin and La Raya) in the Andes and the Cordillera. The guinea pig is an important source of food, especially for the rural population, the infestation with ectoparasites, such as fleas, lice or mites greatly contributes to a decrease in production and low performance. Ectoparasites can be vectors for a variety of pathogens, which is particularly problematic due to the close association of this animal with humans. Twenty one ectoparasite species have been recovered. New knowledge about host associations and distributions could be obtained. The results of the studies are presented under faunistic and ecological aspects.

  10. Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants

    PubMed Central

    Holowaychuk, Marie K.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. PMID:16933558

  11. Comparative study of 2 surgical techniques for castration of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Guilmette, Josée; Langlois, Isabelle; Hélie, Pierre; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 surgical approaches (scrotal or abdominal) for castration of guinea pigs and to investigate post-operative infection rates with either technique. Forty-eight guinea pigs were castrated by scrotal or abdominal technique after being randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 24). Individuals were either castrated by an experienced exotic animal surgeon (n = 12) or by an experienced small animal surgeon (n = 12). Surgical wounds were evaluated daily before euthanasia for histological evaluation 2 wks after surgery. Post-operative infection rate was significantly higher in the scrotal group than in the abdominal group, with a higher rate for the experienced small animal surgeon. Castration of guinea pigs with the abdominal technique is significantly faster and has a significantly lower post-operative infection rate than the scrotal technique. PMID:26424914

  12. Analysis of normal and denerved laryngeal vocalization in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Taboada-Picazo, Verónica; Mota-Rojas, Daniel; Alonso-Spilsbury, Maria de Lourdes; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Paralysis of the left vocal chord is frequent in human clinical practice; because of its anatomic similarity with human, the guinea pig might be a suitable biological model to analyze the phoniatric behavior in denerved animals. Forty newborn guinea pigs were used (20 control and 20 experimental); an incision was made in the ventricular region with the animals under general anesthesia over the middle line of the neck, until the lower left laryngeal nerve was found, the same was secured with alligator clips so that afterward a two-part dissection could be performed and the middle section could be removed (1cm) from the nerve endings (distal and proximal) before they were separated from the laryngeal structure. After recovery from surgery, vocal emissions were recorded in solitary for 6 minutes. The animals that had nerves removed showed an increase in fundamental vocalization frequency compared with the controls. F test was carried out (P=0.05) and no significant difference was found. When analyzing functional recovery, we found that the guinea pigs compensated vocal emissions at 20 days. With regard to the unilateral paralysis, the motility was frequently compensated by the healthy vocal chord, improving voice emission, and loss of air inhalation.

  13. Non-invasive Serial Blood Collection in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adkins, AL, Moran, AV 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6.2 5f. WORK UNIT ...technicians. The toenail clip method provided an easily trained, easily performed method of blood collection that yielded up to one milliliter of blood...collection, toenail clips, toenail bleeds 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  14. Motivated behaviors elicited from hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Martin, J R

    1976-11-01

    Eating, drinking, biting attack, male mating behavior, and gnawing were elicited by electrical stimulation through electrodes located predominantly in a region extending from the preoptic area through the lateral hypothalamus into the ventral midbrain. Escape and digging were elicited from a parallel but more medial region that overlapped the lateral zone only in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area. Several differentiable vocalizations were produced from sites distributed through most, although not all, areas explored. Sites yielding painlike responses were located principally in the vicinity of the presumed pain pathway traced after anterolateral cordotomy in other species. Reward was obtained from widespread sites that were generally congruent with catecholaminergic systems as described in the rat. Although there was considerable overlap of the effective zones for many responses, their underlying mechanisms were differentiated anatomically by localized differences in their distribution or functionally by the elicitation of pure responses from some electrodes. Response mechanisms localized in the brain stem of the guinea pig generally resembled those in the rat, although there were differences in details, especially in the posterior midbrain and pons.

  15. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  16. A model of latent adenovirus 5 infection in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Vitalis, T Z; Keicho, N; Itabashi, S; Hayashi, S; Hogg, J C

    1996-03-01

    A model of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) infection was developed in guinea pigs to begin to study its role in the pathogenesis of peripheral lung inflammation. Forty animals were inoculated intranasally with 10(7.0) pfu of Ad5/animal, and 15 animals inoculated with sterile culture media served as controls. Viral titres were 10(4.4), 10(6.1), 10(5.2), and 10(2.9) pfu/animal, on days 1, 3, 4, and 7 after infection, respectively. In situ hybridization to viral DNA and immunocytochemistry for Ad5 E1A protein localized the virus to airway and alveolar epithelial cells. Histologic examination showed an extensive inflammatory cell infiltration around the airways, with epithelial necrosis and an alveolar exudate that caused localized alveolar collapse in the infected areas. Immunocytochemistry identified the cells in the infiltrate as cytotoxic T cells. Although all animals 20 and 47 days after infection had seroconverted to Ad5, virus was not detected in these groups either by viral plaque assay or in situ hybridization. Ad5 E1A DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in five of six animals 20 days after infection and in five of five animals 47 days after infection. In these same animals, E1A protein was detected 20 days after infection in two and 47 days after infection in one while persistent bronchiolitis was observed in four and three animals 20 and 47 days after infection, respectively. These results demonstrate that the guinea pig provides a useful model to study the role of Ad5 infection in chronic airway inflammation.

  17. Expressed sequence tag analysis of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) eye tissues for NEIBank

    PubMed Central

    Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Wistow, Graeme; Gao, James; David, Larry L.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize gene expression patterns in guinea pig ocular tissues and identify orthologs of human genes from NEIBank expressed sequence tags. Methods RNA was extracted from dissected eye tissues of 2.5-month-old guinea pigs to make three unamplified and unnormalized cDNA libraries in the pCMVSport-6 vector for the lens, retina, and eye minus lens and retina. Over 4,000 clones were sequenced from each library and were analyzed using GRIST for clustering and gene identification. Lens crystallin EST data were validated using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix assisted laser desorption (MALDI), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS). Results Combined data from the three libraries generated a total of 6,694 distinctive gene clusters, with each library having between 1,000 and 3,000 clusters. Approximately 60% of the total gene clusters were novel cDNA sequences and had significant homologies to other mammalian sequences in GenBank. Complete cDNA sequences were obtained for many guinea pig lens proteins, including αA/αAinsert-, γN-, and γS-crystallins, lengsin and GRIFIN. The ratio of αA- to αB-crystallin on 2-DE gels was 8: 1 in the lens nucleus and 6.5: 1 in the cortex. Analysis of ESTs, genome sequence, and proteins (by MALDI), did not reveal any evidence for the presence of γD-, γE-, and γF-crystallin in the guinea pig. Predicted masses of many guinea pig lens crystallins were confirmed by ESIMS analysis. For the retina, orthologs of human phototransduction genes were found, such as Rhodopsin, S-antigen (Sag, Arrestin), and Transducin. The guinea-pig ortholog of NRL, a key rod photoreceptor-specific transcription factor, was also represented in EST data. In the ‘rest-of-eye’ library, the most abundant transcripts included decorin and keratin 12, representative of the cornea. Conclusions Genomic analysis of guinea pig eye tissues provides sequence-verified clones for future studies. Guinea pig orthologs of many human eye specific genes were identified. Guinea pig gene structures were similar to their human and rodent gene counterparts. Surprisingly, no orthologs of γD-, γE-, and γF-crystallin were found in EST, proteomic, or the current guinea pig genome data. PMID:19104676

  18. The acoustical cues to sound location in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Anbuhl, Kelsey L; Williams, Whitney; Tollin, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    There are three main acoustical cues to sound location, each attributable to space- and frequency-dependent filtering of the propagating sound waves by the outer ears, head, and torso: Interaural differences in time (ITD) and level (ILD) as well as monaural spectral shape cues. While the guinea pig has been a common model for studying the anatomy, physiology, and behavior of binaural and spatial hearing, extensive measurements of their available acoustical cues are lacking. Here, these cues were determined from directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of the head-related transfer functions, for 11 adult guinea pigs. In the frontal hemisphere, monaural spectral notches were present for frequencies from ∼10 to 20 kHz; in general, the notch frequency increased with increasing sound source elevation and in azimuth toward the contralateral ear. The maximum ITDs calculated from low-pass filtered (2 kHz cutoff frequency) DTFs were ∼250 μs, whereas the maximum ITD measured with low-frequency tone pips was over 320 μs. A spherical head model underestimates ITD magnitude under normal conditions, but closely approximates values when the pinnae were removed. Interaural level differences (ILDs) strongly depended on location and frequency; maximum ILDs were <10 dB for frequencies <4 kHz and were as large as 40 dB for frequencies >10 kHz. Removal of the pinna reduced the depth and sharpness of spectral notches, altered the acoustical axis, and reduced the acoustical gain, ITDs, and ILDs; however, spectral shape features and acoustical gain were not completely eliminated, suggesting a substantial contribution of the head and torso in altering the sounds present at the tympanic membrane.

  19. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Bonnet, A; Martín de Las Mulas, J; Millán, M Y; Herráez, P; Rodríguez, F; Espinosa de los Monteros, A

    2010-03-01

    Ten spontaneous mammary gland tumors affecting guinea pigs (GP) were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. Histologically, 3 were benign (2 simple adenomas and 1 benign mixed tumor) and 7 were malignant (1 simple solid carcinoma and 6 simple tubulopapillary carcinomas). Immunohistochemical data revealed the glandular immunoprofile of all the tumors and suggested their ductal origin on the basis of cytokeratin 20 expression. Interestingly, cytokeratin 7 was detected in basal/myoepithelial cells. Further, all tumors were positive for type alpha estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting a role for steroid hormones in the development of these neoplasias in GP. This article describes the morphological and immunohistochemical features of the normal mammary gland and spontaneous mammary gland tumors in GP.

  20. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  1. Twenty-four–Hour Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Mehdi-Rajaei, Seyed; Sadjadi, Reza; Selk-Ghaffari, Masoud; Williams, David L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in intact, healthy guinea pigs (15 male, 15 female) every 2 h for a 24-h period. First, IOP was measured by using rebound tonometry (RBT). After a 1-min rest period, 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution, a topical anesthetic, was applied to both eyes; 4 min after anesthetic instillation, IOP was measured by using applanation tonometry (APT). The IOP was lower during the light period (0700 to 1900) than during the dark phase (2000 to 0600). The lowest IOP by both RBT and APT (3.68 and 13.37 mm Hg, respectively) occurred at 0700, whereas maximal IOP occurred at 2300 for RBT (8.12 mm Hg) but at 2100 for APT (20.62 mm Hg). No significant differences in IOP between the left and right eyes or between RBT and APT were noted. In addition, daily variations in the IOP of guinea pigs seem to be independent of sex and body weight. The results of this study may be beneficial in the diagnosis and observation of glaucoma in guinea pigs. PMID:26817986

  2. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin–Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding. PMID:26045451

  3. Enriched Open Field Facilitates Exercise and Social Interaction in 2 Strains of Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A

    2014-01-01

    Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species’ natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs. PMID:25199089

  4. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  6. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  7. Control of the estrous cycle in guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Grégoire, A; Allard, A; Huamán, E; León, S; Silva, R M; Buff, S; Berard, M; Joly, T

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to look for a simple method to obtain synchronized ovulation in guinea pigs under farming conditions while respecting animal welfare. The luteolytic activity of three different prostaglandins F2alpha (PGF2α) analogs (D-cloprostenol, D,L-cloprostenol and luprostiol) and a daily treatment with oral progestagen (altrenogest) was tested successively at different stages of the estrous cycle on the same group of females during a period of 8 mo. The estrous cycle length was not modified by the administration of PGF2α analogs, whatever the stage of the estrous cycle when the treatment was initiated. Our results led us to reject the use of PGF2α analog to induce practical synchronization of the estrus in this species. In females (n = 29), given 15 days with altrenogest (0.1 mL po once a day), ovulation occurred 4.43 ± 0.13 days after the end of the treatment. Altrenogest treatment was followed by mating. No negative impacts of the treatment on the pregnancy rates, delivery rates and litter sizes were observed. This standard method of guinea-pig estrus synchronization is less stressful for the animals compared to techniques using progesterone tubing.

  8. Characterization of a novel parainfluenza virus, caviid parainfluenza virus 3, from laboratory guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joe H; Purdy, Gregory A; Franklin, Craig L; Trottier, Pierre; Churchill, Anthony E; Russell, Robert J; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Riley, Lela K

    2002-12-01

    A novel Respirovirus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from clinically normal laboratory guinea pigs, and was characterized and named caviid parainfluenza virus 3 (CavPIV-3). The CavPIV-3 is enveloped, is 100 to 300 nm in diameter, and has a characteristic 15-nm-diameter chevron-shaped virus ribonucleocapsid protein. Sequence analysis of the fusion glycoprotein of CavPIV-3 revealed it to be 94% identical to human and guinea pig parainfluenza 3 (PIV-3) viruses and 80% identical to bovine PIV-3. To determine whether CavPIV-3 causes clinical disease in laboratory guinea pigs and to compare the serologic response of guinea pigs to CavPIV-3 and to other paramyxoviruses, an infection study was performed, in which groups of guinea pigs were inoculated with CavPIV-3, Sendai virus, simian virus 5 (SV-5), murine pneumonia virus (PVM), or bovine PIV-3 virus. During the course of the study, guinea pigs were maintained in an infectious disease suite, housed in Micro-Isolator cages, and were only manipulated under a laminar flow hood. Clinical signs of disease were not observed in any of the paramyxovirus-inoculated guinea pigs during the eight-week course of the study, and histologic signs of disease were not evident at necropsy eight weeks after inoculation. Guinea pigs inoculated with CavPIV-3, Sendai virus, PVM, and bovine PIV-3 developed robust homologous or heterologous serologic responses. In contrast, guinea pigs inoculated with SV-5 developed modest or equivocal serologic responses, as assessed by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Further, use of the SV-5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay resulted in the highest degree of non-specific reactivity among all of the paramyxovirus assays. In summary, CavPIV-3 is a novel guinea pig Respirovirus that subclinically infects laboratory guinea pigs, resulting in a robust serologic response, but no observed clinical or histologic disease. The CavPIV-3 fusion glycoprotein gene sequence is available from GenBank as accession No. AF394241, and the CavPIV-3 virus is available from the American Type Culture Collection as accession No. DR-1547.

  9. The acoustical cues to sound location in the Guinea pig (cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Nathanial T; Anbuhl, Kelsey L; Williams, Whitney; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    There are three main acoustical cues to sound location, each attributable to space-and frequency-dependent filtering of the propagating sound waves by the outer ears, head, and torso: Interaural differences in time (ITD) and level (ILD) as well as monaural spectral shape cues. While the guinea pig has been a common model for studying the anatomy, physiology, and behavior of binaural and spatial hearing, extensive measurements of their available acoustical cues are lacking. Here, these cues were determined from directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of the head-related transfer functions, for eleven adult guinea pigs. In the frontal hemisphere, monaural spectral notches were present for frequencies from ~10 to 20 kHz; in general, the notch frequency increased with increasing sound source elevation and in azimuth toward the contralateral ear. The maximum ITDs calculated from low-pass filtered (2 kHz cutoff frequency) DTFs were ~250 µs, whereas the maximum ITD measured with low frequency tone pips was over 320 µs. A spherical head model underestimates ITD magnitude under normal conditions, but closely approximates values when the pinnae were removed. Interaural level differences (ILDs) strongly depended on location and frequency; maximum ILDs were < 10 dB for frequencies < 4 kHz and were as large as 40 dB for frequencies > 10 kHz. Removal of the pinna reduced the depth and sharpness of spectral notches, altered the acoustical axis, and reduced the acoustical gain, ITDs, and ILDs; however, spectral shape features and acoustical gain were not completely eliminated, suggesting a substantial contribution of the head and torso in altering the sounds present at the tympanic membrane. PMID:25051197

  10. Intraocular Pressure, Tear Production, and Ocular Echobiometry in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Sadjadi, Reza; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) by means of rebound tonometry, to assess tear production by using the endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and to determine the effects of time of day on IOP and tear production in guinea pigs. The study population comprised 24 healthy adult guinea pigs (12 male, 12 female; 48 eyes) of different breeds and ranging in age from 12 to 15 mo. IOP and tear production were measured at 3 time points (0700, 1500, and 2300) during a 24-h period. Overall values (mean ± 1 SD) were: IOP, 6.81 ± 1.41 mm Hg (range, 4.83 to 8.50); PRTT, 14.33 ± 1.35 mm (range, 12.50 to 16.83); and EAPTT, 8.54 ± 1.08 mm (range, 7.17 to 10.0 mm). In addition, ultrasound biometry was performed by using a B-mode system with linear 8-MHz transducer. This study reports reference values for IOP and tear production in guinea pigs.

  11. Intraocular Pressure, Tear Production, and Ocular Echobiometry in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Sadjadi, Reza; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) by means of rebound tonometry, to assess tear production by using the endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and to determine the effects of time of day on IOP and tear production in guinea pigs. The study population comprised 24 healthy adult guinea pigs (12 male, 12 female; 48 eyes) of different breeds and ranging in age from 12 to 15 mo. IOP and tear production were measured at 3 time points (0700, 1500, and 2300) during a 24-h period. Overall values (mean ± 1 SD) were: IOP, 6.81 ± 1.41 mm Hg (range, 4.83 to 8.50); PRTT, 14.33 ± 1.35 mm (range, 12.50 to 16.83); and EAPTT, 8.54 ± 1.08 mm (range, 7.17 to 10.0 mm). In addition, ultrasound biometry was performed by using a B-mode system with linear 8-MHz transducer. This study reports reference values for IOP and tear production in guinea pigs. PMID:27423156

  12. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Paz, William; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05), genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations. PMID:22215979

  14. The developing and restructuring superior cervical ganglion of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus var. albina).

    PubMed

    Toscano, Cauê Pereira; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; Matera, Júlia Maria; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-06-01

    Post-natal development comprises both maturation (from newborn to adult) and ageing (from adult to senility) and, during this phase, several adaptive mechanisms occur in sympathetic ganglia, albeit they are not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed at detecting whether post-natal development would exert any effect on the size and number of a guinea pig's superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Twenty right SCGs from male subjects were used at four ages, i.e. newborn (7 days), young (30 days), adult (7 months) and old animals (50 months). Using design-based stereological methods the volume of ganglion and the total number of mononucleate and binucleate neurons were estimated. Furthermore, the mean perikaryal volume of mononucleate and binucleate neurons was estimated using the vertical nucleator. The main findings of this study were a combination of post-natal-dependent increases and decreases in some variables: (i) 27% increase in ganglion volume, (ii) 24% and 43% decreases in the total number of mono and binucleate neurons, respectively, and (iii) 27.5% and 40% decreases in the mean perikaryal volume of mono and binucleate neurons, respectively. Despite the fall in neuron numbers found here, post-natal development is not only associated with neuron loss, but also embraces other structural adaptive mechanisms, which are discussed in this paper.

  15. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  16. Cell death and serum markers of collagen metabolism during cardiac remodeling in Cavia porcellus experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Gilman, Robert H; Paico, Henry; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Ccopa, Fredy; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    We studied cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in cardiac remodeling produced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In addition, we evaluated collagen I, III, IV (CI, CIII and CIV) deposition in cardiac tissue, and their relationship with serum levels of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) and procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP). Eight infected and two uninfected guinea pigs were necropsied at seven time points up to one year post-infection. Cell death by necrosis and apoptosis was determined by histopathological observation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. Deposition of cardiac collagen types was determined by immunohistochemistry and serum levels of PICP, PIIINP, and anti-T. cruzi IgG1 and IgG2 by ELISA. IgG2 (Th1 response) predominated throughout the course of infection; IgG1 (Th2 response) was detected during the chronic phase. Cardiac cell death by necrosis predominated over apoptosis during the acute phase; during the chronic phase, both apoptosis and necrosis were observed in cardiac cells. Apoptosis was also observed in lymphocytes, endothelial cells and epicardial adipose tissue, especially in the chronic phase. Cardiac levels of CI, CIII, CIV increased progressively, but the highest levels were seen in the chronic phase and were primarily due to increase in CIII and CIV. High serum levels of PICP and PIIINP were observed throughout the infection, and increased levels of both biomarkers were associated with cardiac fibrosis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.038, respectively). These results confirm the role of apoptosis in cell loss mainly during the chronic phase and the utility of PICP and PIIINP as biomarkers of fibrosis in cardiac remodeling during T. cruzi infection.

  17. Fetal Growth Restriction Induces Heterogeneous Effects on Vascular Biomechanical and Functional Properties in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Cañas, Daniel; Herrera, Emilio A; García-Herrera, Claudio; Celentano, Diego; Krause, Bernardo J

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery. At the term of gestation, systemic arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral) and umbilical vessels were isolated to determine ex vivo contractile and biomechanical responses (stretch-stress until rupture) on a wire myograph, as well as opening angle and residual stresses. Histological characteristics in tissue samples were measured by van Gieson staining. Results: Aorta and femoral arteries from FGR showed an increased in biomechanical markers of stiffness (p < 0.01), contractile capacity (p < 0.05) and relative media thickness (p < 0.01), but a reduced internal diameter (p < 0.001), compared with controls. There were no differences in the biomechanical properties of carotid and umbilical from control and FGR fetuses, but FGR umbilical arteries had a decreased contractile response to KCl (p < 0.05) along with a reduced relative media thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Altogether, these changes in functional, mechanical and morphological properties suggest that FGR is associated with a heterogeneous pro-constrictive vascular remodeling affecting mainly the lower body fetal arteries. These effects would be set during a pathologic pregnancy in order to sustain the fetal blood redistribution in the FGR and may persist up to adulthood increasing the risk of a cardiovascular disease.

  18. Interactions of chromatic and lens-induced defocus during visual control of eye growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqin; Zhang, Sen; Schaeffel, Frank; Xiong, Shibo; Zheng, Yibo; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that chromaticity could affect eye growth and refractive development in guinea pigs but it remained unclear whether correction with spectacle lenses could balance these effects and how retinal responses change with different spectral compositions of light. Three illumination conditions were tested: blue, red and white light. Animals were raised without or with monocular spectacle lenses from three to seven weeks of age. Luminance electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to explore retinal responses with the different spectral compositions. In our special colony of pigmented guinea pigs, characterized by residual hyperopia, spontaneous myopia and poor emmetropization, red light induced early thinning of the choroid and relative myopia, compared to white light. Effects of red light could not be suppressed if positive spectacle lenses were worn. ERGs showed that red light failed to elicit robust retinal responses. Blue light inhibited axial eye growth, even when animals were reared with negative lenses. Intensity-matched blue and white light elicited similar a-waves but different b-waves, suggesting that the wavelength of light affects visual control of eye growth through different processing in the inner retina. We hypothesize that blue light might stimulate preferentially the ON pathway to inhibit myopia induced by negative lenses, at least in guinea pigs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Using Behavioural Changes to Assess Post-Operative Pain in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Ellen, Yvette; Flecknell, Paul; Leach, Matt

    2016-01-01

    To manage pain effectively in people and animals, it is essential to recognise when pain is present and to assess its intensity. Currently there is very little information regarding the signs of post-surgical pain or its management in guinea pigs. Studies from other rodent species indicate that behaviour-based scoring systems can be used successfully to detect pain and evaluate analgesic efficacy. This preliminary study aimed to establish whether behaviour-based scoring systems could be developed to assess post-surgical pain in guinea pigs. This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study used 16 guinea pigs, and evaluated changes in behaviour following either anaesthesia alone or anaesthesia and orchiectomy. Behaviour was assessed using a combination of manual and automated scoring of remotely obtained video footage. A small number of behaviours were identified that appeared to have high specificity for pain caused by orchiectomy. However, the behaviours were displayed infrequently. The most common was a change in posture from standing to recumbency, sometimes with one hind leg extended either to the side or behind the body. A composite behaviour score incorporating these abnormal behaviours differentiated between the effects of surgery and anaesthesia alone (p<0.0001), and between animals that received analgesia post-operatively compared to an untreated group (p<0.0001). Although behavioural changes occurred in these guinea pigs after orchiectomy, the changes were relatively subtle and the individual specific pain-related behaviours occurred infrequently. However, it may prove possible to develop a behaviour-based scoring system for routine use in this species using a combination of pain-related behaviours. PMID:27583446

  20. Hematology and clinical chemistry values of normal and euthymic hairless adult male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Waner, Trevor; Avidar, Yaakov; Peh, Hao-Chang; Zass, Rosa; Bogin, Eitan

    1996-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry measurements were performed on blood specimens from 12 male Dunkin-Hartley hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR and 10 haired Dunkin-Hartley male guinea pigs Crl:(HA)BR. Significantly higher activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, amylase, and creatine kinase were observed in the hairless guinea pigs as compared to the haired strain. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to be lower in the hairless guinea pig. The hairless guinea pigs were found to have serum urea concentrations approximately 46% higher than the normal guinea pig strain. The erythrocytic mean cell volume of the hairless strain was found to be smaller, with a greater hemoglobin content. Hairless guinea pigs were found to have approximately 40% fewer leukocytes with a reversed lymphocyte:neutrophil ratio compared to the haired guinea pigs which had much higher lymphocyte counts.

  1. Isolation and culture of highly enriched populations of Leydig cells from guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) testes.

    PubMed

    Kukucka, M A; Misra, H P

    1994-01-01

    Leydig cells were isolated from adult male guinea-pig testes using a multi-step procedure involving enzymatic dissociation and Percoll-gradient centrifugation. The following description is the first account of a successful isolation of adolescent guinea-pig Leydig cells. The enriched Leydig-cell preparation routinely isolated from six intact testicles yielded approximately 5.0 x 10(6) +/- 0.7 x 10(6) (+/- SEM) Leydig cells with a viability of 98.0 +/- 0.4% as determined using the trypan-blue exclusion method. The purity of the isolated cell population as assessed by 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) staining averaged 82.5 +/- 0.8%. Under light microscopy, guinea-pig Leydig cells were polyhedral in shape with a large prominent nucleus and a distinct nucleolus. The acidophilic cytoplasm contained numerous lipid-filled vesicles. Ultrastructurally, guinea-pig Leydig cells displayed an eccentrically located ovoid nucleus with dark-staining peripheral heterochromatin. Large quantities of mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and particulate-laden lipid droplets were also evident. The steroidogenic potential of the isolated Leydig cells was verified using a maximally stimulating dose of ovine LH (100 ng ml-1) and human CG (200 mIU ml-1). Leydig cells incubated in a shaking (120 cycles min-1) water bath for 3 h at 37 degrees C in capped polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produced 233 +/- 21 ng and 223 +/- 18 ng testosterone per 1 x 10(6) cells when maximally stimulated with oLH or hCG, respectively. The inclusion of low (1-5 microM) levels of sodium ascorbate during culture enhanced significantly Leydig-cell viability vs. control values.

  2. Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Gloria; Erices, Rafaela; Chacón, Cecilia; Corthorn, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of the signals in placenta and syncytial streamers was digitally analysed. Flt1 and eNOS content of placental homogenates was determined by western blotting. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Results In the subplacenta, placental interlobium and labyrinth VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were expressed in all stages of pregnancy. Syncytial streamers in all stages of gestation, and cytotrophoblasts surrounding myometrial arteries in early and mid pregnancy – and replacing the smooth muscle at term – displayed immunoreactivity for VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, eNOS and B2R. In partly disrupted mesometrial arteries in late pregnancy cytotrophoblasts and endothelial cells expressed VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS. Sections incubated in absence of the first antibody, or in presence of rabbit IgG fraction and mouse IgG serum, yielded no staining. According to the digital analysis, Flt-1 increased in the placental interlobium in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.016), and in the labyrinth in day 60 as compared to days 20 and 40 (P = 0.026), while the signals for VEGF, KDR, B2R, and eNOS showed no variations along pregnancy. In syncytial streamers the intensity of VEGF immunoreactivity was increased in day 40 in comparison to day 20 (P = 0.027), while that of B2R decreased in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.011); VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS expression showed no variations. Western blots for eNOS and Flt-1 in placental homogenates showed no significant temporal differences along pregnancy. Conclusion The demonstration of different angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the same cellular protagonists of angiogenesis and invasion in the pregnant guinea-pig, supports the presence of a functional network, and strengthens the argument that this species provides an adequate model to understand human pregnancy. PMID:18371207

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Paw Withdrawal Pressure in Female Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Treated with Sustained-Release Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Wegenast, Daniel J; Hansen, Ryan J; Hess, Ann M; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-11-01

    Providing appropriate analgesia is essential in minimizing pain and maintaining optimal animal care and welfare in laboratory animals. Guinea pigs are common animal models in biomedical research, often requiring analgesic support. Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) in this species. Guinea pigs (n = 7 each group) received either Bup-HCl (0.05 mg/kg BID for 3 d) or Bup-SR (0.3 mg/kg once). Plasma collection and measurement of paw-withdrawal pressure (PWP) was conducted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Plasma levels of Bup-HCl peaked at 2331 pg/mL at 1 h after administration and declined to 165 pg/mL by 12 h. Plasma concentrations of Bup-SR peaked at 1344 pg/mL at 26 h after administration and declined to 429 pg/mL by 48 h. The PWP of the Bup-HCltreated guinea pigs peaked at 674 g at 1 h and declined to 402 g at 6 h, whereas that of Bup-SRtreated guinea pigs at 1 h was 361 g, 555 g at 6 h (significantly higher than that after Bup-HCl), and peaked at 680 g at 12 h. The PWP of both treatments was similar from 24 to 72 h and ranged from 348 to 450 g. The plasma concentration and PWP showed good correlation. These results suggest that Bup-SR provides consistent analgesia equivalent to that of Bup-HCl for a prolonged period of time and that Bup-SR is an alternative method of analgesia in guinea pigs.

  4. An Investigation into the Relationship between Owner Knowledge, Diet, and Dental Disease in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Norman, Rosemary; Wills, Alison P

    2016-11-14

    Recent studies have highlighted a high prevalence of dental disease in domestic guinea pigs, yet the aetiology of this multi-factorial disease is still unclear. Factors that have been associated with dental disease include feeding a diet that is high in energy but low in fibre, feeding an insufficiently abrasive diet, a lack of dietary calcium, and genetics. As many of these factors relate to the husbandry requirements of guinea pigs, owner awareness of dietary requirements is of the utmost importance. An online questionnaire was created based on previous research into the husbandry and feeding of rabbits. Guinea pig owners were asked to answer questions on the clinical history of their animals and their diet and management. In total, 150 surveys were completed for 344 guinea pigs, where owners of multiple animals could complete the survey for individuals. According to the owners, 6.7% of guinea pigs had been clinically diagnosed with dental disease, but 16.6% had signs consistent with dental disease. The specific clinical signs of having difficulty eating (Exp(B) = 33.927, Nagelkerke R ² = 0.301, p < 0.05) and producing fewer or smaller faecal droppings (Exp(B) = 13.733, Nagelkerke R ² = 0.149, p < 0.05) were predictive for the presence of dental disease. Having access to an outside environment, including the use of runs on both concrete and grass, was significantly related to not displaying clinical signs of dental disease (Exp(B) = 1.894, Nagelkerke R ² = 0.021, p < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between owner knowledge, guinea pig diet, and dental disease in the study population. This study highlights the importance of access to the outdoors for the health and welfare of guinea pigs in addition to the need for owners to be alert to key clinical signs. A relationship between diet and dental disease was not identified in this study; however, the underlying aetiological causes of this condition require further investigation.

  5. Injury Thresholds for Topical-Cream-Coated Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs (cavia porcellus) in the Near Infrared Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Oler, and T.E. Johnson, "Comparison of two porcine { Sus scrofa domestica) skin models for in vivo near-infrared laser exposure," Comp. Med., 50, 391...Characterization of Porcine ( Sus scrofa domestica) Dermal Lesions Induced by 1540-nm Laser Radiation Pulses," Comparative Medicine 50(6), 633 - 638 (2000

  6. An Investigation into the Relationship between Owner Knowledge, Diet, and Dental Disease in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Rosemary; Wills, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Dental disease is a serious problem in small mammals, with cases in rabbits well documented. Guinea pigs also suffer from this condition, yet the literature investigating the underlying causes in guinea pigs is limited. Owners of guinea pigs were surveyed to investigate what they fed their animals. It was discovered that there was no relationship between the overall diet of the animals and whether or not they had been diagnosed with dental disease or displayed clinical signs of the disease. However, the environment was important, with animals that had access to the outside, including the use of runs on both concrete and grass, less likely to display clinical signs of disease. Some of the clinical signs of dental disease in guinea pigs, including difficulty eating, were related to dental problems. These findings are important, as many guinea pigs may not have continuous access to the outdoors. Dental disease is a serious welfare concern, as many owners may not pick up on the clinical signs, leaving animals susceptible to pain, dysphagia, malnutrition, and secondary infection. It is important that owners are aware of key clinical signs, particularly in multi-animal households where monitoring food consumption may be challenging. Abstract Recent studies have highlighted a high prevalence of dental disease in domestic guinea pigs, yet the aetiology of this multi-factorial disease is still unclear. Factors that have been associated with dental disease include feeding a diet that is high in energy but low in fibre, feeding an insufficiently abrasive diet, a lack of dietary calcium, and genetics. As many of these factors relate to the husbandry requirements of guinea pigs, owner awareness of dietary requirements is of the utmost importance. An online questionnaire was created based on previous research into the husbandry and feeding of rabbits. Guinea pig owners were asked to answer questions on the clinical history of their animals and their diet and management. In total, 150 surveys were completed for 344 guinea pigs, where owners of multiple animals could complete the survey for individuals. According to the owners, 6.7% of guinea pigs had been clinically diagnosed with dental disease, but 16.6% had signs consistent with dental disease. The specific clinical signs of having difficulty eating (Exp(B) = 33.927, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.301, p < 0.05) and producing fewer or smaller faecal droppings (Exp(B) = 13.733, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.149, p < 0.05) were predictive for the presence of dental disease. Having access to an outside environment, including the use of runs on both concrete and grass, was significantly related to not displaying clinical signs of dental disease (Exp(B) = 1.894, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.021, p < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between owner knowledge, guinea pig diet, and dental disease in the study population. This study highlights the importance of access to the outdoors for the health and welfare of guinea pigs in addition to the need for owners to be alert to key clinical signs. A relationship between diet and dental disease was not identified in this study; however, the underlying aetiological causes of this condition require further investigation. PMID:27854241

  7. Effect of a supplementation of Euphorbia heterophylla on nutritional meat quality of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus L.).

    PubMed

    Kouakou, N'Goran David Vincent; Grongnet, Jean-François; Assidjo, Nogbou Emmanuel; Thys, Eric; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe; Kouba, Maryline

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of dietary supplementation of Euphorbia heterophylla on the quality of the Guinea pig meat. Forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups fed ad libitum during 46 days a Panicum maximum diet (Panicum diet) or a mixed diet (75% Panicum maximum+25% Euphorbia heterophylla) (Paneuphorbia diet) to compare their effects on performances and on the composition of guinea pig tissues and carcass. Daily weight gain, liver weight, carcass yield, and the lipid content of both the carcass and the perirenal fat were significantly increased by the Paneuphorbia diet. Feeding Paneuphorbia diet increased (P<0.05) the n-3 PUFA content in perirenal fat, muscle, liver and in the carcass and decreased (P<0.05) the n-6/n-3 ratios in all these tissues and the carcass. In conclusion, this study shows that Euphorbia heterophylla is a source of n-3 fatty acids which can improve significantly the n-3 PUFA content of Guinea pig meat and carcass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal Growth Restriction Induces Heterogeneous Effects on Vascular Biomechanical and Functional Properties in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Cañas, Daniel; Herrera, Emilio A.; García-Herrera, Claudio; Celentano, Diego; Krause, Bernardo J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery. At the term of gestation, systemic arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral) and umbilical vessels were isolated to determine ex vivo contractile and biomechanical responses (stretch-stress until rupture) on a wire myograph, as well as opening angle and residual stresses. Histological characteristics in tissue samples were measured by van Gieson staining. Results: Aorta and femoral arteries from FGR showed an increased in biomechanical markers of stiffness (p < 0.01), contractile capacity (p < 0.05) and relative media thickness (p < 0.01), but a reduced internal diameter (p < 0.001), compared with controls. There were no differences in the biomechanical properties of carotid and umbilical from control and FGR fetuses, but FGR umbilical arteries had a decreased contractile response to KCl (p < 0.05) along with a reduced relative media thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Altogether, these changes in functional, mechanical and morphological properties suggest that FGR is associated with a heterogeneous pro-constrictive vascular remodeling affecting mainly the lower body fetal arteries. These effects would be set during a pathologic pregnancy in order to sustain the fetal blood redistribution in the FGR and may persist up to adulthood increasing the risk of a cardiovascular disease. PMID:28344561

  9. Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio M.; Hirata-Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C.; Andrade, Arnaldo F. B.

    2008-01-01

    The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains. PMID:24031204

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites of cavy (Cavia aperea aperea) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; da Silva, Marcos Kipper; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal parasitism in Cavia aperea aperea (cavy), captured in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State. Fecal samples from five free-living cavies were collected for research of parasites. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate and parasites were identified microscopically based on (oo)cyst and egg size and morphology. Cysts of Giardia sp. and (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. were observed in one or more cavies. Eggs of Paraspidodera uncinata were observed in three of the five rodents. All infected animals showed mild infection by parasite. This is the first report of Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. in Cavia a. aperea.

  11. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia caviae in the first Brazilian patient.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Geraldo Magela; Oliveira, Sílvia Cristina de Castro; Soares, Ana Cláudia de Brito; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by exogenous fungi or actinomycetes. This infection has a progressive course and shows a typical clinical characteristic of tumefaction, draining sinuses, and grains. Infection initiation is related to local trauma and can spread to muscle, underlying bone, and adjacent organs. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most frequent actinomycete isolated, while N. caviae is a rare agent. We present a case of mycetoma in a 37-year-old African-American man on the right hand. The infection had been apparent for four years prior to the consultation. When the infection did not respond to antibiotic therapy, the patient was referred to the Dermatology department. Routine laboratory studies were normal. X-ray examination of the hand showed an osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. On skin biopsy culture, on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar at 28 degrees C, a colony was isolated which was further identified as N. caviae by biochemical and hydrolysis testing. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) 160/800 mg twice a day for 10 months. Four months after the beginning of the therapy, the subject exhibited clinical improvement and functional recovery of the hand. Five-year follow-up X-ray examination of the hand showed no osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. We report the first mycetoma case caused by N. caviae in our country with an unusual location on the hand. The patient showed clinical improvement with oral TMP/SMZ.

  12. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  13. Chlamydial development is blocked in host cells transfected with Chlamydophila caviae incA.

    PubMed

    Alzhanov, Damir; Barnes, Jennifer; Hruby, Dennis E; Rockey, Daniel D

    2004-07-01

    Chlamydiae produce a set of proteins, termed Inc proteins, that are localized to the inclusion membrane and exposed to the host cell cytosol. Little information exists regarding the interaction of Inc proteins with the eukaryotic cell. To examine these interactions, Vaccinia virus vectors and mammalian plasmid-based systems were used to express inc genes in mammalian cells. Cells transfected with plasmids expressing Chlamydophila caviae incA were not productively infected by C. caviae. Expression of C. caviae incA also reduced inclusion formation by Chlamydia trachomatis, but not to the degree seen for C. caviae. Chlamydia trachomatis incA did not block development of either C. trachomatis or C. caviae. Deletion mutagenesis was used to demonstrate that plasmids encoding either the amino or carboxy-terminal regions of the protein, as well as the changing of a single amino acid within IncA (serine 17) could not block C. caviae infection. Immunoblot analysis of truncated IncA in a Vaccinia virus system provided evidence that serine 17 of C. caviae IncA is a target for phosphorylation. These experiments provide insight into the interaction of Inc proteins with the host cell and introduce a model system where these interactions can be explored further.

  14. Blood-feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi But Not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Scientific, Torrington, CT) was used as the warming device in this study. This device uses a warming pad that emits far-infrared radiation (FIR) to... injuries . Temperature was recorded every 5 min throughout the experiments. Feeding assay: Guinea pigs were divided into 2 groups (6 animals for mosquito...body and its radiation . Bull Entomol Res 42:535–541. Pinto MC, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Lozovei AL, Teodoro U, Davies CR. 2001. Phlebotomine sand fly

  15. Spatio-temporal expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue kallikrein in uteroplacental units of the pregnant guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Corthorn, Jenny; Rey, Sergio; Chacón, Cecilia; Valdés, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    Background In humans trophoblast invasion and vascular remodeling are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs share with women an extensive migration of the trophoblasts through the decidua and uterine arteries, and a haemomonochorial placenta, this species was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal expression of three enzymes that have been associated to trophoblast invasion, MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue kallikrein (K1). Methods Uteroplacental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. MMP-2, MMP-9 and K1 were analysed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assessed by gelatin zymography. Results Immunoreactive MMP-2, MMP-9 and K1 were detected in the subplacenta, interlobar and labyrinthine placenta, syncytial sprouts and syncytial streamers throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts expressed the three enzymes. The intensity of the signal in syncytial streamers was increased in mid and late pregnancy for MMP-2, decreased in late pregnancy for MMP-9, and remained stable for K1. Western blots of placental homogenates at days 20, 40 and 60 of pregnancy identified bands with the molecular weights of MMP-2, MMP-9 and K1. MMP-2 expression remained constant throughout gestation. In contrast, MMP-9 and K1 attained their highest expression during midgestation. Placental homogenates of 20, 40 and 60 days yielded bands of gelatinase activity that were compatible with MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. ProMMP-2 and MMP-9 activities did not vary along pregnancy, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased at 40 and 40–60 days respectively. Conclusion The spatio-temporal expression of MMPs and K1 supports a relevant role of these proteins in trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental angiogenesis, and suggests a functional association between K1 and MMP-9 activation. PMID:17605824

  16. Pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted fever group rickettsia that is not considered pathogenic, although there is serologic evidence of possible infection in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in guinea pigs and determine its capacity to generate protective immunity against a subsequent infection with a local strain of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from a human case. Six guinea pigs were inoculated with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' strain 9-CC-3-1 and two controls with cell culture medium. Health status was evaluated, and necropsies were executed at days 2, 4, and 13. Blood and tissues were processed by PCR to detect the gltA gene, and end titers of anti-'Candidatus R. amblyommii' IgG were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To evaluate protective immunity, another 5 guinea pigs were infected with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' (IGPs). After 4 weeks, these 5 IGPs and 3 controls (CGPs) were inoculated with pathogenic R. rickettsii. Clinical signs and titers of anti-Rickettsia IgG were determined. IgG titers reached 1:512 at day 13 post-infection with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. On day 2 after inoculation, two guinea pigs had enlarged testicles and 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' DNA was detected in testicles. Histopathology confirmed piogranulomatous orchitis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the epididymis. In the protective immunity assay, anti-Rickettsia IgG end titers after R. rickettsii infection were lower in IGPs than in CGPs. IGPs exhibited only transient fever, while CGP showed signs of severe disease and mortality. R. rickettsii was detected in testicles and blood of CGPs. Results show that the strain 9-CC-3-1 of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' was able to generate pathology and an antibody response in guinea pigs. Moreover, its capacity to generate protective immunity against R. rickettsii may modulate the epidemiology and severity of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in areas where both species circulate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of animal or plant protein diets on cecal fermentation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, T; Ushida, K

    2000-10-01

    Monogastric herbivores such as the guinea pig depend on energy supply from enteric fermentation as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) corresponding to 30-40% of their maintenance energy requirements. They evolved specific digestive system to adapt their indigenous microflora to plant polysaccharides fermentation. No information has been available about the adaptability of microbial fermentation in hindgut of the monogastric herbivorous to an animal protein diet. We investigated if the guinea pig can fully retrieve energy of an animal protein diet by hindgut fermentation compared with a plant protein diet. For comparison, we also studied two omnivores. End products of in vitro cecal fermentation (SCFA, ammonia and gases) were measured to judge how well an animal protein diet could be fermented. The animal protein diet resulted in the less intensive fermentation with increased feed intake and volume of cecal contents than the plant protein diet only in guinea pigs. This may be due to a limited capacity of the hindgut microflora to adapt to the substrate rich in animal protein. We also found that chick cecal contents produced methane at higher emission rate than ruminants.

  18. Blood-Feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi but not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Buchta, Jessica N; Zarndt, Bethany S; Garver, Lindsey S; Rowland, Tobin; Shi, Meng; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D

    2015-06-01

    Animal models are often used to study hematophagous insect feeding behavior and evaluate products such as topical repellents. However, when these models are used the study animals often experience significant drops in core body temperature because of the effects of anesthesia. This study used a guinea pig model to investigate whether maintaining a normothermic core body temperature during anesthesia influenced the rate of Anopheles stephensi and Phlebotomus papatasi blood feeding. Experiments were conducted with anesthetized animals that had their body temperatures either maintained with a warming device or were allowed to drop naturally. Results showed that when guinea pigs were actively warmed by a heating device, An. stephensi feeding behavior was similar at the beginning and end of anesthesia. However, when a warming device was not used, fewer An. stephensi took a blood meal after the animals' temperatures had dropped. Phlebotomus papatasi were not as sensitive to changes in temperature and feeding rates were similar whether a warming device was used or not. These results are discussed and it is recommended that warming devices are used when conducting feeding experiments with insects sensitive to changes in host body temperature, such as An. stephensi.

  19. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in subplacental trophoblasts from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Burrough, E R; DiVerde, K D; Sahin, O; Plummer, P J; Zhang, Q; Yaeger, M J

    2011-03-01

    Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) are well-characterized cell surface receptors that recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play an important role in pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune system. Variable expression of TLR2 and TLR4 has been described in trophoblasts from normal and diseased placentas; yet, there are limited data regarding trophoblast TLR expression in response to specific placental pathogens, and TLR expression in the guinea pig placenta has not been described. The guinea pig is an effective model for Campylobacter-induced abortion of small ruminants, and the authors have shown by immunohistochemistry that C jejuni localizes within syncytiotrophoblasts of the guinea pig subplacenta. The present study was designed to determine if the expression of either TLR2 or TLR4 would be affected in subplacental trophoblasts following infection with C jejuni. Immunohistochemistry for TLR2 and TLR4 was performed on placenta from guinea pigs that aborted following inoculation with C jejuni and from sham-inoculated controls. Quantitative assessment of TLR expression was performed, and mean immunoreactivity for TLR2 was significantly higher in subplacental trophoblasts from animals that aborted compared with uninfected controls (P = .0283), whereas TLR4 expression was not statistically different (P = .5909). These results suggest that abortion in guinea pigs following infection with C jejuni is associated with increased TLR2 expression in subplacental trophoblasts and may reveal a possible role for TLR2 in the pathogenesis of Campylobacter-induced abortion.

  20. Effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavie (Cavia porcellus) and mitigation strategies using guava (Psidium guajava) leaves essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Guemdjo Tekam, Maryvonne; Kenfack, Augustave; Tadondjou Tchingo, Cyrille D'Alex; Nouboudem, Sandrine; Ngoumtsop, Herman; Tsafack, Borice; Teguia, Alexis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Galeotti, Marco; Tchoumboue, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3. Exposure time of heat was 7h per day for 60 days. Results reveal that the relative weights of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles were hardly affected by the temperature levels considered (P>0.05). The mass and individual sperm motility was significantly lower (P<0.05) in cavies exposed to the temperature of 35 and 45°C as compared with those which received GLEO and controls. The percentages of abnormal sperm and altered sperm DNA were higher in animals exposed to temperature of 35 and 45°C as compared with the controls. The activity of superoxide dismutase significantly increased (P<0.05) in animals exposed to temperature of 45°C and in those of 45°C and orally treated with GLEO, compared with cavies exposed to temperature of 45°C without receiving GLEO. The level of malondialdehyde was significantly increased (P<0.05) in animals exposed to temperature of 35 and 45°C, whereas the level of nitric oxide was significantly lower (P<0.05) in exposed animals as compared with controls. It was concluded that the exposure of male cavies at 35 and 45°C for 60 days induce heat stress that causes deterioration of sperm characteristics. These effects that can be mitigated by the administration of guava leaves essential oil.

  1. Aeromonas Caviae Strain Induces Th1 Cytokine Response in Mouse Intestinal Tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small i...

  2. Aeromonas Caviae Strain Induces Th1 Cytokine Response in Mouse Intestinal Tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small i...

  3. Estimation of Value-at-Risk for Energy Commodities via CAViaR Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiliang, Zhao; Xi, Zhu

    This paper uses the Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk model (CAViaR) proposed by Engle and Manganelli (2004) to evaluate the value-at-risk for daily spot prices of Brent crude oil and West Texas Intermediate crude oil covering the period May 21th, 1987 to Novermber 18th, 2008. Then the accuracy of the estimates of CAViaR model, Normal-GARCH, and GED-GARCH was compared. The results show that all the methods do good job for the low confidence level (95%), and GED-GARCH is the best for spot WTI price, Normal-GARCH and Adaptive-CAViaR are the best for spot Brent price. However, for the high confidence level (99%), Normal-GARCH do a good job for spot WTI, GED-GARCH and four kind of CAViaR specifications do well for spot Brent price. Normal-GARCH does badly for spot Brent price. The result seems suggest that CAViaR do well as well as GED-GARCH since CAViaR directly model the quantile autoregression, but it does not outperform GED-GARCH although it does outperform Normal-GARCH.

  4. Nocardia caviae: a Report of 13 New Isolations with Clinical Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Causey, William A.

    1974-01-01

    Thirteen isolates of Nocardia caviae from 12 different clinical sources were received and identified over a 5½-year period by the Mycology Division of the Center for Disease Control. The results of morphological, biochemical, and physiological studies on these isolates were compared with those obtained with four reference cultures of N. caviae received from the Institute of Microbiology, Rutgers University. Comparison showed that N. caviae isolates form a homogeneous group that is usually easily distinguished from N. asteroides, N. brasiliensis, and other pathogenic aerobic actinomycetes. The clinical sources included nine human and two animal infections and one human isolate apparently not associated with disease. Previous reports of N. caviae infections in man have been limited to rare cases of actinomycotic mycetoma. Among the human infections reported in this series are one case of mycetoma, one case of “mycotic” keratitis, one case of skin abscess, two cases of osteomyelitis, and four cases of serious pulmonary infection caused by N. caviae. PMID:4604822

  5. Learning and personality types are related in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Guenther, Anja; Brust, Vera; Dersen, Mona; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-02-01

    The evolution and maintenance of consistent individual differences, so called animal personalities, have attracted much research interest over the past decades. Variation along common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs. Individuals that are bolder and hence take more risks may be more successful in acquiring resources over the short term. Cautious individuals taking fewer risks may, on the other hand, live longer, but may also gather fewer resources over the short term. According to recent theory, individual differences in personality may be functionally related to individual differences in cognitive performance (i.e., the way in which individuals acquire or use information). Individual differences in the acquisition speed of cognitively challenging tasks are often associated with a speed-accuracy trade-off. Accuracy can be improved by investing more time in the decision-making process or, conversely, decisions can be made more quickly at the cost of making more mistakes. Hence, the speed-accuracy trade-off often involves a risk-reward trade-off. We tested whether 3 personality traits, boldness, activity, and aggressiveness, are correlated with individual learning, associative learning speed, and behavioral flexibility as assessed by reversal learning in wild cavies (Cavia aperea). We found strong positive relationships between all personality traits and learning speed, whereas flexibility was negatively associated with aggressiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that performance reflects individual differences in personality in a predictable way.

  6. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine-Derived Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a Potential Chitinase Producer Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here a draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a marine-derived bacterium with the ability to hydrolyze chitin and express high levels of chitinases. The assembly resulted in 65 scaffolds with approximately 4.78 Mb. Genomic analysis revealed different genes encoding chitin-degrading enzymes that can be used for chitin derivative production. PMID:27856589

  8. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  9. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine-Derived Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a Potential Chitinase Producer Strain.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Flávio Augusto; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-11-17

    We report here a draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a marine-derived bacterium with the ability to hydrolyze chitin and express high levels of chitinases. The assembly resulted in 65 scaffolds with approximately 4.78 Mb. Genomic analysis revealed different genes encoding chitin-degrading enzymes that can be used for chitin derivative production.

  11. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  12. The Aeromonas caviae AHA0618 gene modulates cell length and influences swimming and swarming motility.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Rebecca C; Parker, Jennifer L; Kumbhar, Ramhari; Mesnage, Stephane; Shaw, Jonathan G; Stafford, Graham P

    2014-12-17

    Aeromonas caviae is motile via a polar flagellum in liquid culture, with a lateral flagella system used for swarming on solid surfaces. The polar flagellum also has a role in cellular adherence and biofilm formation. The two subunits of the polar flagellum, FlaA and FlaB, are posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation with pseudaminic acid on 6-8 serine and threonine residues within the central region of these proteins. This modification is essential for the formation of the flagellum. Aeromonas caviae possesses the simplest set of genes required for bacterial glycosylation currently known, with the putative glycosyltransferase, Maf1, being described recently. Here, we investigated the role of the AHA0618 gene, which shares homology (37% at the amino acid level) with the central region of a putative deglycosylation enzyme (HP0518) from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which also glycosylates its flagellin and is proposed to be part of a flagellin deglycosylation pathway. Phenotypic analysis of an AHA0618 A. caviae mutant revealed increased swimming and swarming motility compared to the wild-type strain but without any detectable effects on the glycosylation status of the polar flagellins when analyzed by western blot analysis or mass spectroscopy. Bioinformatic analysis of the protein AHA0618, demonstrated homology to a family of l,d-transpeptidases involved in cell wall biology and peptidoglycan cross-linking (YkuD-like). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy analysis of the wild-type and AHA0618-mutant A. caviae strains revealed the mutant to be subtly but significantly shorter than wild-type cells; a phenomenon that could be recovered when either AHA0618 or H. pylori HP0518 were introduced. We can therefore conclude that AHA0618 does not affect A. caviae behavior by altering polar flagellin glycosylation levels but is likely to have a role in peptidoglycan processing at the bacterial cell wall, consequently altering

  13. The Aeromonas caviae AHA0618 gene modulates cell length and influences swimming and swarming motility

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Rebecca C; Parker, Jennifer L; Kumbhar, Ramhari; Mesnage, Stephane; Shaw, Jonathan G; Stafford, Graham P

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae is motile via a polar flagellum in liquid culture, with a lateral flagella system used for swarming on solid surfaces. The polar flagellum also has a role in cellular adherence and biofilm formation. The two subunits of the polar flagellum, FlaA and FlaB, are posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation with pseudaminic acid on 6–8 serine and threonine residues within the central region of these proteins. This modification is essential for the formation of the flagellum. Aeromonas caviae possesses the simplest set of genes required for bacterial glycosylation currently known, with the putative glycosyltransferase, Maf1, being described recently. Here, we investigated the role of the AHA0618 gene, which shares homology (37% at the amino acid level) with the central region of a putative deglycosylation enzyme (HP0518) from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which also glycosylates its flagellin and is proposed to be part of a flagellin deglycosylation pathway. Phenotypic analysis of an AHA0618 A. caviae mutant revealed increased swimming and swarming motility compared to the wild-type strain but without any detectable effects on the glycosylation status of the polar flagellins when analyzed by western blot analysis or mass spectroscopy. Bioinformatic analysis of the protein AHA0618, demonstrated homology to a family of l,d-transpeptidases involved in cell wall biology and peptidoglycan cross-linking (YkuD-like). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy analysis of the wild-type and AHA0618-mutant A. caviae strains revealed the mutant to be subtly but significantly shorter than wild-type cells; a phenomenon that could be recovered when either AHA0618 or H. pylori HP0518 were introduced. We can therefore conclude that AHA0618 does not affect A. caviae behavior by altering polar flagellin glycosylation levels but is likely to have a role in peptidoglycan processing at the bacterial cell wall, consequently altering

  14. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-02-27

    Potassium tellurite (K{sub 2}TeO{sub 3}) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  15. Characterization of Aeromonas caviae antigens which cross-react with Shigella boydii 5.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M J; Qadri, F; Ansaruzzaman, M; Kibriya, A K; Haider, K; Neogi, P K; Alam, K; Alam, A N

    1992-01-01

    Live and boiled cells of 16 strains of Aeromonas caviae, isolated from patients with diarrhea, agglutinated with Shigella boydii 5 antiserum in a slide test. Further studies with seven selected strains showed agglutination with boiled cells in a tube test. Lipopolysaccharide antigen extracted from one of these strains cross-reacted with S. boydii 5 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot studies. Either all or the majority of the seven strains possessed properties deemed to be diarrheagenic. Images PMID:1583145

  16. Impact of azithromycin resistance mutations on the virulence and fitness of Chlamydia caviae in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Binet, Rachel; Bowlin, Anne K; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rank, Roger G

    2010-03-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is a major drug used in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections caused by Chlamydia, yet no significant clinical resistance has been reported for these obligate intracellular bacteria. Nevertheless, spontaneous AZM resistance (Azm(r)) arose in vitro at frequencies ranging from 3 x 10(-8) to 8 x 10(-10) for clonal isolates of Chlamydia caviae, which is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs. Sequencing of the unique 23S rRNA gene copy in 44 independent Azm(r) isolates identified single mutations at position A(2058) or A(2059) (Escherichia coli numbering system). While SP(6)AZ(1) (A(2058)C) and SP(6)AZ(2) (A(2059)C) Azm(r) mutants showed growth defects in cell culture and were less pathogenic in the guinea pig ocular infection model than in the parent SP(6), the three isogenic C. caviae isolates grew equally well in the animal. On the other hand, coinoculation of the C. caviae parent strain with one of the Azm(r) strains was detrimental for the mutant strain. This apparent lack of association between pathology and bacterial load in vivo showed that virulence of the two Azm(r) mutants of C. caviae was attenuated. While chlamydial growth in vitro reflects the ability of the bacteria to multiply in permissive cells, survival in the host is a balance between cellular multiplication and clearance by the host immune system. The obligate intracellular nature of Chlamydia may therefore limit emergence of resistance in vivo due to the strength of the immune response induced by the wild-type antibiotic-sensitive bacteria at the time of antibiotic treatment.

  17. Quorum Sensing Activity of Aeromonas Caviae Strain YL12, A Bacterium Isolated from Compost

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a well-studied cell-to-cell communication method that involves a cell-density dependent regulation of genes expression mediated by signalling molecules. In this study, a bacterium isolated from a plant material compost pile was found to possess quorum sensing activity based on bioassay screening. Isolate YL12 was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and molecular typing using rpoD gene which identified the isolate as Aeromonas caviae. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry was subsequently employed to identify the N-acyl homoserine lactone profile of Aeromonas caviae YL12 and confirmed that this isolate produced two short chain N-acyl homoserine lactones, namely C4-HSL and C6, and the production was observed to be cell density-dependent. Using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, both AHLs were found to activate C. violaceum CV026, whereas only C6-HSL was revealed to induce bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401]. The data presented in this study will be the leading steps in understanding the role of quorum sensing in Aeromonas caviae strain YL12. PMID:24759107

  18. Dynamics of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae in a sewage treatment pond.

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, P; Baleux, B

    1990-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms in the sewage treatment ponds of an urban wastewater center were studied after 20 months of sampling from five stations in these ponds. Isolation and identification of 247 Aeromonas strains were undertaken over four seasons at the inflow and outflow of this pond system. The hemolytic activity of these strains was determined. The Aeromonas spp. and the fecal coliform distributions showed seasonal cycles, the amplitude of which increased at distances further from the wastewater source, so that in the last pond there was an inversion of the Aeromonas spp. cycle in comparison with that of fecal coliforms. The main patterns in these cycles occurred simultaneously at all stations, indicating control of these bacterial populations by seasonal factors (temperature, solar radiation, phytoplankton), the effects of which were different on each bacterial group. The analysis of the Aeromonas spp. population structure showed that, regardless of the season, Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species at the pond system inflow. However at the outflow the Aeromonas spp. population was dominated by A. caviae in winter, whereas Aeromonas sobria was the dominant species in the treated effluent from spring to fall. Among the Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria strains, 100% produced hemolysin; whereas among the A. caviae strains, 96% were nonhemolytic. Images PMID:2389929

  19. The effect of infectious dose on humoral and cellular immune responses in Chlamydophila caviae primary ocular infection

    PubMed Central

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Lukic, Ivana; Stein, Elisabeth; Marinkovic, Emilija; Djokic, Radmila; Kosanovic, Dejana; Schuerer, Nadine; Chalabi, Hadeel; Belij-Rammerstorfer, Sandra; Stojanovic, Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Following infection, the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often depends on the initial infectious load. Several studies have investigated the effect of infectious dose; however, the mechanism by which infectious dose affects disease outcomes and the development of a protective immune response is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate how the infectious dose modulates the local and systemic humoral and the cellular immune responses during primary ocular chlamydial infection in the guinea pig animal model. Guinea pigs were infected by ocular instillation of a Chlamydophila caviae-containing eye solution in the conjunctival sac in three different doses: 1×102, 1×104, and 1×106 inclusion forming units (IFUs). Ocular pathology, chlamydial clearance, local and systemic C. caviae-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. All inocula of C. caviae significantly enhanced the local production of C. caviae-specific IgA in tears, but only guinea pigs infected with the higher doses showed significant changes in C. caviae-specific IgA levels in vaginal washes and serum. On complete resolution of infection, the low dose of C. caviae did not alter the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within guinea pigs’ submandibular lymph node (SMLN) lymphocytes while the higher doses increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within the SMLN lymphocytes. A significant negative correlation between pathology intensity and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within SMLN lymphocyte pool at selected time points post-infection was recorded for both 1×104, and 1×106 IFU infected guinea pigs. The relevance of the observed dose-dependent differences on the immune response should be further investigated in repeated ocular chlamydial infections. PMID:28678871

  20. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Belland, Robert J; Ingalls, Robin R; O'Connell, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  1. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus caviae Strain Cavy grass 6T, Isolated from Domesticated Guinea Pig Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus caviae strain Cavy grass 6T, isolated from fecal samples of pet guinea pigs, can metabolize a range of plant mono- and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 2.11 Mb. PMID:28360157

  3. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

    2015-04-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts.

  4. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

  5. Induction of L-phase variants of Nocardia caviae within intact murine lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L

    1980-01-01

    The data presented show that cells of Nocardia caviae 112 were converted to cell wall-deficient microbial variants within the intact murine lung after intranasal administration. At the time that these L-phase variants were recovered in large numbers from the lung, there was a correspondingly enhanced inflammation leading to alveolar consolidation and animal death. During the peak of this response (at 1 week after infection), normal nocardial cells were neither isolated from nor seen within the lung. It is suggested that the conversion of these normal nocardial cells to their L-phase variant leads to this extensive pulmonary damage. Furthermore, the L-phase organisms appear to play an active role in this pathological effect since introduction of similar amounts of killed nocardial cells into the lungs of the mice failed to produce a similar response. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7399704

  6. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the Chlamydia caviae elementary body and reticulate body forms.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Adams, Nancy E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for significant diseases in humans and economically important domestic animals. These pathogens undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the environmentally stable elementary body (EB) and the replicative intracellular reticulate body (RB), a conversion that appears to require extensive regulation of protein synthesis and function. However, Chlamydia possess a limited number of canonical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of proteins in bacteria has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of post-translational control of protein function. We utilized 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with phosphoprotein staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to map the phosphoproteome of the EB and RB forms of Chlamydia caviae. Forty-two non-redundant phosphorylated proteins were identified (some proteins were present in multiple locations within the gels). Thirty-four phosphorylated proteins were identified in EBs, including proteins found in central metabolism and protein synthesis, Chlamydia-specific hypothetical proteins and virulence-related proteins. Eleven phosphorylated proteins were identified in RBs, mostly involved in protein synthesis and folding and a single virulence-related protein. Only three phosphoproteins were found in both EB and RB phosphoproteomes. Collectively, 41 of 42 C. caviae phosphoproteins were present across Chlamydia species, consistent with the existence of a conserved chlamydial phosphoproteome. The abundance of stage-specific phosphoproteins suggests that protein phosphorylation may play a role in regulating the function of developmental-stage-specific proteins and/or may function in concert with other factors in directing EB-RB transitions.

  7. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the Chlamydia caviae elementary body and reticulate body forms

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nancy E.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for significant diseases in humans and economically important domestic animals. These pathogens undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the environmentally stable elementary body (EB) and the replicative intracellular reticulate body (RB), a conversion that appears to require extensive regulation of protein synthesis and function. However, Chlamydia possess a limited number of canonical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of proteins in bacteria has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of post-translational control of protein function. We utilized 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with phosphoprotein staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to map the phosphoproteome of the EB and RB forms of Chlamydia caviae. Forty-two non-redundant phosphorylated proteins were identified (some proteins were present in multiple locations within the gels). Thirty-four phosphorylated proteins were identified in EBs, including proteins found in central metabolism and protein synthesis, Chlamydia-specific hypothetical proteins and virulence-related proteins. Eleven phosphorylated proteins were identified in RBs, mostly involved in protein synthesis and folding and a single virulence-related protein. Only three phosphoproteins were found in both EB and RB phosphoproteomes. Collectively, 41 of 42 C. caviae phosphoproteins were present across Chlamydia species, consistent with the existence of a conserved chlamydial phosphoproteome. The abundance of stage-specific phosphoproteins suggests that protein phosphorylation may play a role in regulating the function of developmental-stage-specific proteins and/or may function in concert with other factors in directing EB–RB transitions. PMID:25998263

  8. Aeromonas caviae alters the cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on renal bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; Verdi, Camila Marina; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Santos, Roberto C V; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae. Cytosolic CK activity decreased in infected animals, while mitochondrial CK activity increased compared to uninfected animals. Moreover, the activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the inhibition of cytosolic CK activity by A. caviae causes an impairment on renal energy homeostasis through the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. This contributes to the inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, although the mitochondrial CK activity acted in an attempt to restore the cytosolic ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. In summary, A. caviae infection causes a severe energetic imbalance in infected silver catfish, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of L-forms of Nocardia caviae in the development of chronic mycetomas in normal and immunodeficient murine models.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Scates, S M

    1981-01-01

    Single-cell suspensions of Nocardia caviae 112 were injected into normal, athymic, and asplenic mice by several different routes. The 50% lethal dose values, kill curve characteristics, histological and electron microscopic properties, organ clearance patterns, and induction of L-forms during the acute and chronic phase of disease were determined in groups of mice for up to 2 years after infection. From these data we concluded the following. (i) Athymic and asplenic animals were significantly more susceptible to N. caviae than their littermate controls regardless of inoculation route. (ii) All mice were most susceptible to lethal infection after intranasal administration and least affected when the organisms were injected into the peritoneal cavity. (iii) Chronic, progressive disease leading to the formation of mycetomas occurred only in mice injected intravenously. (iv) T-cell-deficient animals were impaired in the development of typical mycetomas. (v) L-forms of N. caviae were induced within immunocompetent hosts, whereas the cell wall-less state of the bacteria was not observed in the immunodeficient animals. (vi) Two colony types of the cell wall-deficient state were isolated from infected animals. (vii) These cell wall-deficient organisms were intimately involved in the pathogenesis of disease and bacterial persistence within the host. Finally (viii), with this strain of Nocardia, cell wall-deficient organisms played a major role in the development of the characteristic bacterial granule formed within the mycetomatous lesions 6 months to 1 year after intravenous inoculation. Images PMID:7287189

  10. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Wijayanti, D.; Setiatin, E. T.; Kurnianto, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively. Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina. Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2) orally. PMID:28507407

  11. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    PubMed

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  12. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the gene encoding the extracellular metalloprotease of Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, K; Toma, C; Honma, Y

    2000-01-01

    A gene (apk) encoding the extracellular protease of Aeromonas caviae Ae6 has been cloned and sequenced. For cloning the gene, the DNA genomic library was screened using skim milk LB agar. One clone harboring plasmid pKK3 was selected for sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the 3.5 kb region of pKK3 revealed a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1,785 bp encoding 595 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide contained a putative 16-amino acid signal peptide followed by a large propeptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified recombinant protein (APK) was consistent with the DNA sequence. This result suggested a mature protein of 412 amino acids with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. However, the molecular mass of purified recombinant APK revealed 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that further processing at the C-terminal region took place. The 2 motifs of zinc binding sites deduced are highly conserved in the APK as well as in other zinc metalloproteases including Vibrio proteolyticus neutral protease, Emp V from Vibrio vulnificus, HA/P from Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. Proteolytic activity was inhibited by EDTA, Zincov, 1,10-phenanthroline and tetraethylenepentamine while unaffected by the other inhibitors tested. The protease showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and was inactivated by heating at 80 C for 15 min. These results together suggest that APK belongs to the thermolysin family of metalloendopeptidases.

  13. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region

    PubMed Central

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A.; Gibson, Troy J.

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs. PMID:26963642

  14. Seasonally different reproductive investment in a medium-sized rodent (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Rübensam, K; Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Guenther, A

    2015-09-01

    Pronounced seasonal variations in day length, temperature, and resource availability characterize the temperate regions and strongly influence the animals living in these environments. To survive and reproduce successfully, animals must allocate resources among competing physiological systems, and they usually adjust their time of breeding to the most adequate season. Here, we examined whether reproductive investment in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) differs across seasons. We kept animals in combined indoor-outdoor enclosures under natural light and temperature year-round. We measured littering probability, litter size, and birth weight, as well as maternal weight loss during lactation. In addition, we measured ovulation rate as a parameter to adjust reproductive investment prenatally. Our data reveal strong seasonal variations in reproductive traits despite the fact that the animals reproduced year-round. The results show a reduced reproductive investment in winter, indicated by a lower litter size and birth weight of pups, whereas investment was highest in warm seasons (summer and autumn) with higher litter size and birth weight. Maternal weight loss in lactation was highest in cold seasons even if the litter size was lower. Furthermore, we found the regulation on the proximate level of the reproductive investment, the ovulation rate, to differ significantly between the seasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blastocyst recovery and multifactorial gene expression analysis in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Hribal, Romy; Guenther, Anja; Rübensam, Kathrin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2016-09-15

    The expression of specific developmentally important genes in preimplantation embryos is an accepted marker for unraveling the influence of single factors in studies that are mostly related to artificial reproduction techniques. Such studies, however, often reveal high levels of heterogeneity between single embryos, independently of the influence of factors of interest. A possible explanation for this variation could be the large variety of physiological and environmental factors to which early embryos are exposed and their ability to react to them. Here, we investigated several potentially important parameters of development at the same time, in blastocysts of the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) generated in vivo after natural mating. The optimal time for flushing fully developed blastocysts was between 123 and 126 hours after mating. The abundance of POU5F1 (P = 0.042), BAX (P < 0.001), SLC2A1 (P = 0.017), and DNMT3A (P < 0.001) mRNA changed significantly over time after mating. The number of sibling embryos present influenced STAT3 levels significantly (P = 0.02). Levels of BAX and POU5F1 were significantly affected by season (P = 0.03 and 0.04). The temporal pattern of SLC2A1 levels was significantly altered both after feeding a protein-deficient diet (P = 0.04) and temperature treatment (P = 0.04) of the sire. In addition, the identity of the father had a significant influence on POU5F1 (P = 0.049) and STAT3 (P < 0.001) mRNA abundances. These data report that the expression of specific genes in early embryos reflects the entire heterogeneity of their surroundings and that it is a plastic reaction toward a multifactorial environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors. PMID:27908996

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Flávio Augusto; Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-12-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors.

  18. Isolation and identification of Aeromonas caviae strain KS-1 as TBTC- and lead-resistant estuarine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Kashif; Naik, Milind Mohan; Pandey, Anju; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC)- and lead-resistant estuarine bacterium from Mandovi estuary, Goa, India was isolated and identified as Aeromonas caviae strain KS-1 based on biochemical characteristics and FAME analysis. It tolerates TBTC and lead up to 1.0 and 1.4 mM, respectively, in the minimal salt medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.4 % glucose. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed a unique morphological pattern in the form of long inter-connected chains of bacterial cells on exposure to 1 mM TBTC, whereas cells remained unaltered in presence of 1.4 mM Pb(NO₃)₂ but significant biosorption of lead (8 %) on the cell surface of this isolate was clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins of this lead-resistant isolate interestingly demonstrated three lead-induced proteins with molecular mass of 15.7, 16.9 and 32.4 kDa, respectively, when bacterial cells were grown under the stress of 1.4 mM Pb (NO₃)₂. This clearly demonstrated their possible involvement exclusively in lead resistance. A. caviae strain KS-1 also showed tolerance to several other heavy metals, viz. zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. Therefore, we can employ this TBTC and lead-resistant bacterial isolate for lead bioremediation and also for biomonitoring TBTC from lead and TBTC contaminated environment.

  19. Production, characterization, and immobilization of partially purified surfactant-detergent and alkali-thermostable protease from newly isolated Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sumitra; Menon, Gopalakrishnan; Varughese, Bincy

    2017-04-21

    Proteolytic Aeromonas caviae P-1-1 growing at wide-ranging pH (7.0-11.0) and moderate salinity (0-5% NaCl) was isolated from cattle shed of Thanjavur, India. It produced lipase, gelatinase, and polyhydroxybutyrate. Different culture conditions, incubation time, carbon and nitrogen sources, vitamins, amino acids, surfactants, and metal ions for optimal growth and protease production of P-1-1 were examined. Maximum protease (0.128 U/mL) production was achieved with 1% fructose, 1% yeast extract, 0.1% ammonium sulfate, 3% NaCl, 0.1% CaCl2 · 2H2O, 1% glycine, 0.1% vitamin E, and 0.1% Tween-40 at pH 8.0 after 42 hr of incubation at 37°C. It was active over broad range of pH (7.0-12.0), temperature (15-100°C), and salinity (0-9% NaCl) with optima at pH 10.0, 55°C, and 3% NaCl. It retained 65 and 48% activities at pH 12.0 and 100°C, respectively. Partially purified protease was highly stable (100%) within pH range 7.0-12.0 and salinities of 0-5% NaCl for 48 hr. Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Ca(2+) did not inhibit its activity. Its stability at extreme pHs, temperatures, and in the presence of surfactants and commercial detergents suggests its possible application in laundry detergents. Partially purified protease was immobilized and reused. This is the first report of alkali-thermotolerant, surfactant-detergent-stable partially purified extracellular protease from A. caviae.

  20. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae.

  1. Conservation of the biochemical properties of IncA from Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae: oligomerization of IncA mediates interaction between facing membranes.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, Cédric; Nilges, Michael; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Subtil, Agathe

    2004-11-05

    The developmental cycle of Chlamydiaceae occurs in a membrane compartment called an inclusion. IncA is a member of a family of proteins synthesized and secreted onto the inclusion membrane by bacteria. IncA proteins from different species of Chlamydiaceae show little sequence similarity. We report that the biochemical properties of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae are conserved. Both proteins self-associate to form multimers. When artificially expressed by the host cell, they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Strikingly, heterologous expression of IncA in the endoplasmic reticulum completely inhibits concomitant inclusion development. Using truncated forms of IncA from C. caviae, we show that expression of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein at the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum is sufficient to disrupt the bacterial developmental cycle. On the other hand, development of a C. trachomatis strain that does not express IncA is not inhibited by artificial IncA expression, showing that the disruptive effect observed with the wild-type strain requires direct interactions between IncA molecules at the inclusion and on the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we modeled IncA tetramers in parallel four helix bundles based on the structure of the SNARE complex, a conserved structure involved in membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells. Both C. trachomatis and C. caviae IncA tetramers were highly stable in this model. In conclusion, we show that the property of IncA proteins to assemble into multimeric structures is conserved between chlamydial species, and we propose that these proteins may have co-evolved with the SNARE machinery for a role in membrane fusion.

  2. An outbreak of Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs at an animal petting facility and an evaluation of the safety and suitable dose of selamectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Honda, M; Namikawa, K; Hirata, H; Neo, S; Maruo, T; Lynch, J; Chida, A; Morita, T

    2011-08-01

    In June 2009, 27 guinea pigs kept at an animal petting facility at a zoo in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were observed to scratch intensely, weaken, and develop lesions. Three sarcoptiform mites were found in skin scrapings taken from affected areas of 2 guinea pigs, and they were identified as Trixacarus caviae by morphological examination. This result confirmed the presence of T. caviae in Japan. For treatment, doses of 13.6-18.75 mg/head of selamectin were administered in a topical preparation applied to a single spot on the skin on the back of the neck, and no side effects were observed. In April 2010, a second outbreak of mange occurred at the zoo, and, following investigation, 2 mite eggs were observed. It was, therefore, thought probable that the mites had survived during the winter within nonclinical carriers. Accordingly, doses of 5.0-7.5 mg/head of selamectin were applied on days 0 and 28, after which clinical symptoms disappeared and general condition improved. This dose of selamectin was thus shown to be a suitable and economical treatment for guinea pigs infested with the mites. Because the mite is not always easily observed in infested guinea pigs and the potential for human infestation exists, clinicians should not hesitate to treat when the clinical presentation suggests infestation, particularly in a setting such as an animal petting facility, where large numbers of children and adults have direct contact with the animals.

  3. Effect of superatmospheric oxygen packaging on sensorial quality, spoilage, and Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae growth in fresh processed mixed salads.

    PubMed

    Allende, Ana; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Devlieghere, Frank; Debevere, Johan; Artés, Francisco

    2002-10-01

    Atmospheres with O2 levels higher than 70 kPa have recently been suggested as an innovation to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh processed vegetables to maintain sensory quality and safety. In the present work, mixed vegetable salad collected from a commercial processing plant and stored with the MAP technique was studied. Two gas mixtures were actively generated by using an initial O2 concentration of 95 kPa and combined with two plastic films. The low-barrier film permeability for O2 was 1,629 mlO2/m2 x 24 h x atm with 30 microm of thickness (Hyplast, Hoogstraten, Belgium) and the O2 permeability of the high-barrier film was 2 mlO2/m2 x 24h x atm with 150 microm of thickness (Euralpack, Wommelgen, Belgium) at 23 degrees C. As control, active conventional MAP with application of 3 to 5 kPa of O2 and 6 to 8 kPa of CO2 was used. Packaged salads were stored up to 8 days at 4 degrees C and at temperatures simulating chilled distribution chain conditions. Microbial safety and sensory quality, as well as the survival of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae, were monitored. The effect of superatmospheric O2 on the growth of aerobic microflora was variable. Under superatmospheric conditions, lactic acid bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited. Nevertheless, growth of yeast and A. caviae seem to be stimulated by superatmospheric O2, whereas growth of psychrotrophic bacteria and L monocytogenes was not affected. The overall visual appearance (mainly color) of the mixed vegetable salads was better maintained and the shelf life prolonged when packaged under O2 concentrations greater than 50 kPa.

  4. Animal housing and welfare: effects of housing conditions on body weight and cortisol in a medium-sized rodent (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Schumann, Kathrin; Guenther, Anja; Jewgenow, Katarina; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Rodents are the most abundant experimental nonhuman animals and are commonly studied under standard laboratory housing conditions. As housing conditions affect animals' physiology and behavior, this study investigated the effects of indoor and outdoor housing conditions on body weight and cortisol level of wild cavies, Cavia aperea. The changing housing condition strongly influenced both parameters, which are commonly used as indicators for animal welfare. The transfer from outdoor to indoor enclosures resulted in a body-weight loss of about 8%. In contrast, animals kept indoors showed a substantial weight gain of about 12% when they were transferred outdoors. These effects were reversible. To substantiate a connection between body-weight changes and the health states of the animals, blood basal cortisol concentrations were measured. Animals kept outdoors had significantly lower cortisol levels than did animals kept indoors. These results imply that indoor conditions have a direct effect on the animals' states. The physiological and metabolic consequences as well as potential welfare aspects should be taken into account when planning experimental work, especially on nondomestic animals.

  5. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  6. Adaptive Information Processing in Auditory Cortex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    to as "AR-I"), we extended studies to the guinea pig Cavia Porcellus as a model system for combined behavioral and neurophysiological experiments...the implementation of the biological principles and mechanisms so discovered, so that novel and powerful AlP machines can be built and effectively used

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of lung tissue from guinea pigs with Leptospiral Pulmonary Haemorrhage Syndrome (LPHS) reveals a decrease in abundance of host proteins involved in cytoskeletal and cellular organization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent completion of the complete genome sequence of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides innovative opportunities to apply proteomic technologies to an important animal model of disease. In this study, a 2-D guinea pig proteome lung map was used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of ...

  8. Alteration of chain length substrate specificity of Aeromonas caviae R-enantiomer-specific enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase through site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Takeharu; Hisano, Tamao; Taguchi, Seiichi; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2003-08-01

    Aeromonas caviae R-specific enoyl-coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase (PhaJ(Ac)) is capable of providing (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA with a chain length of four to six carbon atoms from the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis. In this study, amino acid substitutions were introduced into PhaJ(Ac) by site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the feasibility of altering the specificity for the acyl chain length of the substrate. A crystallographic structure analysis of PhaJ(Ac) revealed that Ser-62, Leu-65, and Val-130 define the width and depth of the acyl-chain-binding pocket. Accordingly, we targeted these three residues for amino acid substitution. Nine single-mutation enzymes and two double-mutation enzymes were generated, and their hydratase activities were assayed in vitro by using trans-2-octenoyl-CoA (C(8)) as a substrate. Three of these mutant enzymes, L65A, L65G, and V130G, exhibited significantly high activities toward octenoyl-CoA than the wild-type enzyme exhibited. PHA formation from dodecanoate (C(12)) was examined by using the mutated PhaJ(Ac) as a monomer supplier in recombinant Escherichia coli LS5218 harboring a PHA synthase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3 (phaC1(Ps)). When L65A, L65G, or V130G was used individually, increased molar fractions of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)) units were incorporated into PHA. These results revealed that Leu-65 and Val-130 affect the acyl chain length substrate specificity. Furthermore, comparative kinetic analyses of the wild-type enzyme and the L65A and V130G mutants were performed, and the mechanisms underlying changes in substrate specificity are discussed.

  9. Emergence of CTX-M-3, TEM-1 and a new plasmid-mediated MOX-4 AmpC in a multiresistant Aeromonas caviae isolate from a patient with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Xu, Xi-Hai; Li, Jia-Bin

    2010-07-01

    Aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. We report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by Aeromonas caviae. Detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. The beta-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed a new ampC gene that was closely related to those encoding the MOX-1, MOX-2 and MOX-3 beta-lactamases. This new plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase from China was named MOX-4. This is believed to be the first report of MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1 beta-lactamases in a multiresistant A. caviae.

  10. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540nm Exposure Laser Damage Using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    same parameters as this paper with hairless guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus ) subjects to find an M VL threshold. When creating this phantom, the...5 mm for 30 ns at varying power levels. Various materials were tested for use in the phantom; including agar, ballistic media, and silicone rubber...plasma generation. Furthermore, equation (2) is used to determine the electric field amplitude 24, which is mainly based on the power density and is

  11. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    size or duration parameters than this experiment. Pocock et a19 used the same parameters as this paper with hairless guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus ...exposure to infrared lasers. The phantom was exposed to a 1540-nm, Erbium:Glass, Q-switched laser with a beam diameter of 5 mm for 30 ns at varying power ...on the power density and is an indicator of dielectric breakdown when the amplitude reaches 2 X 105 V/cm. 13 Approved for Public Release; Distribution

  12. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn.) to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya

    PubMed Central

    Nirwana, Intan; Rachmadi, Priyawan; Rianti, Devi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. Aim: To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4th day of wound healing process. Materials and Methods: This study used 12 Cavia cobaya, which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Results: Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound. PMID:28919696

  13. The potential application of hairless guinea pigs as a replacement for the Yucatan mini-pig in animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Imholte, Michelle L.

    2008-02-01

    The Yucatan mini-pig (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely used animal models for skin damage studies because it shares many of the same physical properties as human skin. While the Yucatan is ideal for laser exposure studies using a large spot size, its size and cost are excessive for projects using smaller beams. This experiment performed histological analysis of skin biopsies from pigmented Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) for epidermal thickness and melanin concentration. That data was then compared to similar information on the Yucatan.

  14. Naturally acquired infections with Leishmania enriettii Muniz and Medina 1948 in guinea-pigs from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, M I; Milder, R V; Pacheco, R S; Silva, M; Braga, R R; Lainson, R

    1994-08-01

    Two domestic guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus), bought in Pinheros, São Paulo State, Brazil, were taken by their owners to a farm in the rural district of Capão Bonito, close to the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo, where they both developed tumour-like and ulcerating lesions on the ears. The causative agent was identified as Leishmania (L.) enriettii, based on biological characters and isoenzyme profiles. Sources of the parasite in wild mammals, and the possible sandfly vector species are discussed.

  15. Dermal Sensitization Potential of BALL POWDER (trade name) in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Morgan—21 ANIMAL DATA Species: Cavia porcellus Strain: Hartley Source: Charles River Kingston, NY Sex: Male Date of birth: 23 March 1985 Method of...Left Right BALL POWER ® 0.0 0.0 Ü.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Negative Control* — — 0.0 0.0 Saline Vehicle 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ENCB

  16. Comparative Analysis of Histological Results of Visible Lesion Thresholds for Thermal and LIB Induced Skin Damage at 1.3 microns and 1.5 microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    L.J. Chavey, M.L Imholte, R.J. Thomas, and B.A. Rockwell, "Injury thresholds for topical-cream- coated skin of hairless guinea pigs ( cavia porcellus ...safety, LIB I. INTRODUCTION Recent technical developments in solid state and chemical lasers have facilitated the growing use of pulsed, high-peak- power ...mechanism of surface LIB plasma damage on skin from nanosecond pulses in the NIR. Due to the proliferation of high-peak- power systems in the NIR for

  17. Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery.

    PubMed

    Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.

  18. New method for visualization of C-heterochromatin in synaptonemal complex spreads

    PubMed Central

    Lisachov, Artem P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract DAPI staining of the metaphase chromosomes pretreated with barium hydroxide generates a C-like banding pattern. In this work a protocol for visualizing similar pattern at the synaptonemal complex (SC) spreads after immunostaining is suggested. This method was used to visualize centromeric and sex heterochromatin at the SC spreads of guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). The efficiency of this method was further confirmed at SC spreads of the northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus (Pallas, 1779)), the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758)), and the pigmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766). PMID:24260695

  19. Immunological relationships of an endogenous guinea pig retrovirus with prototype mammalian type B and type D retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, J E; Tronick, S R; Aaronson, S A

    1980-01-01

    A retrovirus endogenous to guinea pig cells was earlier shown to be morphologically similar to type B and type D prototype retroviruses. Molecular hybridization techniques were used to show that guinea pig virus nucleotide sequences are endogenous to both domestic (Cavia porcellus) and indigenous (Cavia aperea) guinea pigs, but cannot be detected in the DNA of either other hystricomorph rodents or other mammals tested. Using radioimmunological techniques designed to detect interspecies relationships, the major internal polypeptide of guinea pig virus (p26) was shown to share three different sets of interspecies antigenic determinants with squirrel monkey retrovirus, viper retrovirus, and mouse mammary tumor virus. Thus, guinea pig virus appears to provide an evolutionary link between type B and D retroviruses. Images PMID:6154150

  20. Biocompatibility of Ricinus comunnis polymer compared to titanium implant used in artificial hearts. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando; Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos de Salles; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Sobral, Ana Cristina Lira; Olandoski, Marcia; Kubrusly, Fernando Bermudez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine if the tissue reaction to the Riccinus communis (mamona) polymer has significant statistical difference compared to the tissue reaction provoked by the titanium implant. Thirty two Cavia porcellus were divided into four groups containing eight animals each one. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were sacrificed at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. The quantitative analysis did not show difference between the tissue reaction of the two materials (P>0.05). The analysis of the qualitative variable also did not show difference between the tissue reaction of the materials (P>0.05). Macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant has no significant statistical difference compared to the titanium implant tissue reaction.

  1. Comparative study on the forefoot and hindfoot intrinsic muscles of some cavioidea rodents (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Rocha-Barbosa, Oscar; Loguercio, Mariana F C; Renous, Sabine; Gasc, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the forefoot and hindfoot musculature of five representative species of Cavioidea rodents. In all species, the musculature of both forefeet and hindfeet have the same array regardless of the absence of digit I in the manus of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris and Cavia porcellus. Our results suggest a tendency in these species towards a three-digit system, with a functional loss of digit V and a predominance of digit III in their forefeet. In the same way, the muscular reduction of digit I in the other rodents analyzed indicates a four-digit system with predominance of digit II in Myoprocta acouchy and Dasyprocta leporina and of digit V in Agouti paca. There seems to be an association between the muscular arrangement and functional axis of the foot, raising the general question why this axis runs between the third and forth digit, or along the third digit.

  2. Expression of the secreted FAD-dependent sulfydryl oxidase (QSOX) in the guinea pig central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Amiot, C; Musard, J F; Hadjiyiassemis, M; Jouvenot, M; Fellmann, D; Risold, P Y; Adami, P

    2004-06-18

    cpQSOx1 is a member of the QSOx family of proteins, expressed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and ortholog of the rat rQSOx1. In this study, in vitro experiments were conducted and showed that, as other member of this family, cpQSOx1 has a sulfydryl oxidase activity, and is a secreted protein. Then, the expression of this enzyme was researched in the guinea pig brain, as very little information exists yet on the expression of QSOx family members in the central nervous system. By immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, cpQSOx1 is synthesized by neurons throughout the whole guinea pig central nervous system. Reticular structures as the basal forebrain, reticular thalamic nucleus and reticular nuclei of the brainstem contained the densest labeling. These results are discussed in terms of putative roles of this protein in synaptic strengthening and in redox activities.

  3. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W

    2013-05-01

    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  4. [Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Piura, Peru].

    PubMed

    Marín, Edgard; Santillán, Rosa; Cuba, César; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    2007-09-01

    Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein) and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. This is the first report of synanthropic presence of P. rufotuberculatus in the region. The finding emphasizes the need for careful entomological and epidemiological surveillance of this and other triatomine species in the Region.

  5. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction.

  6. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. PMID:25140479

  7. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Pharmacological properties of the repellent secretion of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Prygomorphidae).

    PubMed

    Idowu, A B; Idowu, O A

    1999-12-01

    The odours of the whole body and the secretion of Zonocerus variegatus were easily recognised and perceived by human volunteers. However, the secretion odour is not related to the odour of the food plant consumed by the grasshopper. The repellency of Z. variegatus becomes more pronounced in the 6th. and adult instars whose gland lumens contain an appreciable volume of secretion. The secretion odour is so strong that even dilution does not affect its repulsiveness to humans. The secretion had pharmacological properties: it induced contraction in rat (Rattus rattus) stomach smooth muscle preparations and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) ileum, and induced oedema formation in the rat hind paw. The secretion was not lethal to the animals used in this study, effects were temporary and recovery occurs after a short time.

  9. Fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural hosts.

    PubMed

    Wohlsein, Peter; Lehmbecker, Annika; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Böer, Michael; Kummrow, Maja; Haas, Ludwig; Grummer, Beatrice

    2011-05-05

    In a zoological collection, four black bears (Ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. Independently in a geographically different zoo, two Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. In addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. All affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes virus antigen and ultrastructurally herpes viral particles were detected. Virus isolation and molecular analysis identified neurotropic equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 strains in both epizootics. There is serological evidence of a possible virus transmission from other equids to the affected animals. Cross-species transmission of EHV-1 should be considered in the management of captive wild equids and ungulates, particularly with respect to fatal disease in irreplaceable species.

  10. [Respiration at high altitudes, phosphate-protein interaction: the sequence of hemoglobins from guinea pig and dromedary (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Braunitzer, G; Schrank, B; Stangl, A; Wiesner, H

    1979-12-01

    The sequence of the main hemoglobin component of the guinea pig (Cavia aerea f. porcellus, Caviidae) and that of the hemoglobin of the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius, Camelidae) is given. The sequence is obtained automatically by the sequenator using the quadrol and the propyne programme. The sequence of the alpha-and beta-chains of the guinea pig is compared with that of the human hemoglobin; the sequence of the dromedary in comparison to the Ilama shows in the alpha-chains five amino acid exchanges, in the beta-chains there are only two exchanges in beta 2 and beta 76. Beta 2 in dromedary is the P2-glycerate contact histidine. This sustains the interpretation of the high altitude respiration of the Ilama as mutation beta2His leads to Asn.

  11. Of Domestic and Wild Guinea Pigs: Studies in Sociophysiology, Domestication, and Social Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachser, Norbert

    Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.

  12. Glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface in hemomonochorial placentae from five widely separated species of mammal: is there evidence for convergent evolution?

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, Anthony M; Aplin, John D; Enders, Allen C

    2007-01-01

    Hemomonochorial placentation occurs in diverse species. We have examined placental glycosylation in five widely separated mammals with this type of placentation--lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), human (Homo sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)--in order to assess whether evolutionary convergence to the hemomonochorial state is accompanied by a similar convergence of glycan expression. Placentae from 2 E. telfairi, 3 C. crocuta, 1 D. novemcinctus, 4 womenand 1 C. porcellus were fixed and processed into epoxy resin. Binding of twenty-three lectins was assessed using a semiquantitative ranking system. The trophoblast apical/microvillous membrane of all five species showed marked similarities in glycosylation. In the N-linked series, there were abundant bi/tri-antennary complex chains, while the non-bisected variants were much scarcer. All species had plentiful N-acetyl lactosamine sequences; at chain termini, binding to Galbeta1,4GlcNAc and Galbeta1,3GalNAc sequences was greatly enhanced after neuraminidase treatment. In all species, terminal NeuNAcalpha2,3 residues were detected. The tenrec had unusually abundant terminal N-acetyl galactosamine. The basal plasma membrane/basal lamina showed glycosylation patterns distinct from the microvillous membrane in each case, indicating chemical diversity of the two opposite faces of trophoblast. Similar classes of glycan at the hemochorial interface suggest conservation of function. The observed lectin binding patterns suggest broad similarities of glycosylation that may have arisen by convergent evolution.

  13. Whole genome sequencing and methylome analysis of the wild guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Schüllermann, Tino; Heeger, Felix; Jeschek, Marie; Mazzoni, Camila J; Chen, Wei; Schumann, Kathrin; Fickel, Joerns

    2014-11-28

    DNA methylation is a heritable mechanism that acts in response to environmental changes, lifestyle and diseases by influencing gene expression in eukaryotes. Epigenetic studies of wild organisms are mandatory to understand their role in e.g. adaptational processes in the great variety of ecological niches. However, strategies to address those questions on a methylome scale are widely missing. In this study we present such a strategy and describe a whole genome sequence and methylome analysis of the wild guinea pig. We generated a full Wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) genome sequence with enhanced coverage of methylated regions, benefiting from the available sequence of the domesticated relative Cavia porcellus. This new genome sequence was then used as reference to map the sequence reads of bisulfite treated Wild guinea pig sequencing libraries to investigate DNA-methylation patterns at nucleotide-specific level, by using our here described method, named 'DNA-enrichment-bisulfite-sequencing' (MEBS). The results achieved using MEBS matched those of standard methods in other mammalian model species. The technique is cost efficient, and incorporates both methylation enrichment results and a nucleotide-specific resolution even without a whole genome sequence available. Thus MEBS can be easily applied to extend methylation enrichment studies to a nucleotide-specific level. The approach is suited to study methylomes of not yet sequenced mammals at single nucleotide resolution. The strategy is transferable to other mammalian species by applying the nuclear genome sequence of a close relative. It is therefore of interest for studies on a variety of wild species trying to answer evolutionary, adaptational, ecological or medical questions by epigenetic mechanisms.

  14. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  15. Evaluation of experimental methods to induce congenital hypothyroidism in guinea pigs for use in the study of congenital hypothyroidism in horses.

    PubMed

    D'Amours, Geneviève H; Taylor, Susan M; Olfert, Ernest D; Simko, Elemir; Allen, Andrew L

    2004-09-01

    To develop a method to reliably induce congenital hypothyroidism in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and assess similarities between the resultant developmental abnormalities and those described in horses with congenital hypothyroidism. 35 female guinea pigs and their offspring. Guinea pigs were allocated to control groups or groups treated with a low-iodine diet before and throughout gestation; an s.c. injection of 100 or 200 microCi of radioactive iodine 131 (131I) on day 40 of gestation; or 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) continuously in the drinking water, beginning day 3 or 40 of gestation. In all groups, assessments included gestation duration, litter size, proportion of stillborn pups, and laboratory analyses in live pups and dams; postmortem examinations were performed on all pups and dams and selected tissues were examined histologically. Compared with control animals, pups from dams receiving a low-iodine diet or 131I s.c. had mild changes in their thyroid glands but no grossly or radiographically detectable lesions of hypothyroidism. Pups from dams receiving PTU were often stillborn (24/27 pups) and had enlarged thyroid glands (characterized by large, variably sized follicles of tall columnar epithelium and little or no colloid), an incomplete coat, and radiographically detectable skeletal dysgenesis. Many of the lesions detected in guinea pig pups from the experimentally treated dams were similar to those described in foals with congenital hypothyroidism. Experimental induction of congenital hypothyroidism in guinea pigs may be useful for the study of naturally occurring congenital hypothyroidism in horses.

  16. The molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

    1999-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat (Felis catus), horse (Equus caballus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). These opsins were expressed in COS1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. The purified visual pigments of the cat, horse, squirrel, deer, and guinea pig have lambdamax values at 553, 545, 532, 531, and 516 nm, respectively, which are precise to within +/-1 nm. We also regenerated the "true" red pigment of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has a lambdamax value at 559 +/- 4 nm. Multiple linear regression analyses show that S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, and A308S shift the lambdamax values of the red and green pigments in mammals toward blue by 7, 28, 7, 15, and 16 nm, respectively, and the reverse amino acid changes toward red by the same extents. The additive effects of these amino acid changes fully explain the red-green color vision in a wide range of mammalian species, goldfish, American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), and pigeon (Columba livia).

  17. The molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat (Felis catus), horse (Equus caballus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). These opsins were expressed in COS1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. The purified visual pigments of the cat, horse, squirrel, deer, and guinea pig have lambdamax values at 553, 545, 532, 531, and 516 nm, respectively, which are precise to within +/-1 nm. We also regenerated the "true" red pigment of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has a lambdamax value at 559 +/- 4 nm. Multiple linear regression analyses show that S180A, H197Y, Y277F, T285A, and A308S shift the lambdamax values of the red and green pigments in mammals toward blue by 7, 28, 7, 15, and 16 nm, respectively, and the reverse amino acid changes toward red by the same extents. The additive effects of these amino acid changes fully explain the red-green color vision in a wide range of mammalian species, goldfish, American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis), and pigeon (Columba livia). PMID:10511567

  18. Molecular cloning, overexpression, purification, and sequence analysis of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ferritin light polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Hou, Y L; Ding, X; Du, Y J; Zhu, H Q; Zhang, N; Hou, W R

    2016-08-30

    The complementary DNA (cDNA) of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene was successfully cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technology. We constructed a recombinant expression vector containing FTL cDNA and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli using pET28a plasmids. The expressed protein was then purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. The cloned cDNA fragment was 580 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 525 bp. The deduced protein sequence was composed of 175 amino acids and had an estimated molecular weight of 19.90 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 5.53. Topology prediction revealed one N-glycosylation site, two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, one N-myristoylation site, two protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, and one cell attachment sequence. Alignment indicated that the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences are highly conserved across several mammals, including Homo sapiens, Cavia porcellus, Equus caballus, and Felis catus, among others. The FTL gene was readily expressed in E. coli, which gave rise to the accumulation of a polypeptide of the expected size (25.50 kDa, including an N-terminal polyhistidine tag).

  19. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  20. Research ethics in animal models.

    PubMed

    Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Santos, Maruska d'Aparecida; Gomes, Erika Ferreira; Oliveira, Reinaldo Ayer de

    2012-04-01

    The use of animals in scientific experiments has been described since the fifth century BC. A number of scientific advances in health are attributed to animal models. The issue of the moral status of animals has always been debated. This article aims to review and to present a historical summary of the current laws, to guide researchers who wish to use animal models in otolaryngology research. Research on the medline database. For many years there were no laws ruling the use of animals in scientific experimentation in Brazil. Standards set by national and international organizations were followed. Recently, Law No. 11.794/08 established procedures for the scientific use of animals. Studies in otolaryngology have used the larynxes of rabbits, pigs, dogs, guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), and mice. There were also studies comparing rabbits, rats, and dogs, rhinoplasty on rabbits, and inner ear studies on rats and guinea pigs (albino). The researchers involved in scientific work with animals should know the principles of Law 11.794/08 and investigate what animals are appropriate for each area of study in their models. Otolaryngologists, especially those dedicated to research, need to be mindful of the ethical rules regarding the use of animals in their studies.

  1. The CodY regulator is essential for virulence in Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liping; Zhu, Jiawen; Chang, Haitao; Gao, Xiaoping; Gao, Cheng; Wei, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Fangyan; Bei, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    The main role of CodY, a global regulatory protein in most low G + C gram-positive bacteria, is in transcriptional repression. To study the functions of CodY in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), a mutant codY clone named ∆codY was constructed to explore the phenotypic variation between ∆codY and the wild-type strain. The result showed that the codY mutation significantly inhibited cell growth, adherence and invasion ability of S. suis 2 to HEp-2 cells. The codY mutation led to decreased binding of the pathogen to the host cells, easier clearance by RAW264.7 macrophages and decreased growth ability in fresh blood of Cavia porcellus. The codY mutation also attenuated the virulence of S. suis 2 in BALB/c mice. Morphological analysis revealed that the codY mutation decreased the thickness of the capsule of S. suis 2 and changed the surface structures analylized by SDS-PAGE. Finally, the codY mutation altered the expressions of many virulence related genes, including sialic acid synthesis genes, leading to a decreased sialic acid content in capsule. Overall, mutation of codY modulated bacterial virulence by affecting the growth and colonization of S. suis 2, and at least via regulating sialic acid synthesis and capsule thickness. PMID:26883762

  2. Ontogenetic allometry in the thoracolumbar spine of mammal species with differing gait use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katrina E; German, Rebecca Z

    2014-03-01

    Vertebrae are serially homologous structures with tight integration through their evolution and development. However, in mammals, the thoracic and lumbar regions are morphologically and functionally differentiated. We test the hypothesis that locomotor specialization is associated with altered post-natal growth patterns in vertebrae from different vertebral regions. We use longitudinal data to examine thoracolumbar growth in two specialized half-bounding (Oryctolagus cuniculus and Chinchilla lanigera) and two non-specialized (Cavia porcellus and Monodelphis domestica) species with similar body sizes. Lateral X-rays of 38 individuals were the source of centrum length, centrum height and intervertebral space length measures for 19-20 thoracolumbar vertebrae. The repeated measurements design included the same individuals soon after birth and again at adult size. Data from columns with different vertebral counts were compared by either summing (length) or averaging (height) within regions, and individual vertebrae were directly compared at the first and last five vertebral positions. Specialized half-bounders had longer lumbar regions than generalists, which was attributable to positively allometric growth of the lumbar centra. Lumbar centrum length was more variable both ontogenetically and interspecifically than the other variables, suggesting heterochrony may be generating lumbar variation. Craniocaudal patterns of centrum growth correlate with expression of regionalizing genes (i.e., Hox).

  3. The reproductive tract of the male spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and coagulation studies with other species.

    PubMed

    Peitz, B; Foreman, D; Schmitt, M

    1979-09-01

    The testes of the spiny mice showed asymmetry, the left being significantly heavier than the right (P = 0.025). Histological studies indicated that spermatozoa were first present in the testes of animals 35--45 days of age but the maturation of the accessory glands, especially the lateral prostates and coagulating glands, occurred later. The highest fructose concentration in the adult was in the lateral prostates (126.97 +/- 22.23 mg fructose/100 g, n = 5) and coagulating glands (99.38 +/- 17.65 mg fructose/100 g gland weight, n = 5). Coagulation tests of mixtures of extracts of seminal vesicles and coagulating glands from spiny mice and rats indicated that the vesiculase of the spiny mouse was active on rat substrates and vice versa. Cross-reactions of extracts of house mouse (Mus musculus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), and guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) seminal vesicles (substrate) and coagulating glands (vesiculase) with those of rats and spiny mice showed that although the substrates of rat and spiny mouse were readily coagulated by vesiculase from all the other species, rat and spiny mouse vesiculase were not equally active on substrates of the other species.

  4. Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

    2004-05-01

    Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals.

  5. Prokaryotic Expression and In vitro Functional Analysis of IL-1 and MCP-1 from Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Dirisala, Vijaya R.; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H.; McMurray, David N.

    2012-01-01

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an excellent animal model for studying human tuberculosis (TB) and also for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases. One of the major roadblocks in effective utilization of this animal model is the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In order to address this issue, guinea pig interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were efficiently cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector (pET-30a) and the expressed proteins in soluble form from both the genes were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The biological activity of recombinant guinea pig IL-1β was demonstrated by its ability to drive proliferation in thymocytes and the recombinant guinea pig MCP-1 exhibited chemotactic activity for guinea pig resident peritoneal macrophages. These biologically active recombinant guinea pig proteins will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the immune responses of the guinea pig to TB and other diseases. PMID:22744745

  6. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model.

  7. Prokaryotic expression and in vitro functional analysis of IL-1β and MCP-1 from guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H; McMurray, David N

    2013-06-01

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an excellent animal model for studying human tuberculosis (TB) and also for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases. One of the major roadblocks in effective utilization of this animal model is the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In order to address this issue, guinea pig interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were efficiently cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the expressed proteins in soluble form from both the genes were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The biological activity of recombinant guinea pig IL-1β was demonstrated by its ability to drive proliferation in thymocytes, and the recombinant guinea pig MCP-1 exhibited chemotactic activity for guinea pig resident peritoneal macrophages. These biologically active recombinant guinea pig proteins will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the immune responses of the guinea pig to TB and other diseases.

  8. Immune modulation in the guinea pig using cortisone acetate.

    PubMed

    Scipioni, R L; Baggs, R B; Kraus, A L

    1991-01-01

    Cortisone acetate was administered to a group of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) at 0 (control), 20 (low) or 200 (high) mg/kg. Steroid was given daily for two individual 7 day periods, separated by 7 days of no treatment. The effects of this steroid on body weight gain, thymic weight, total and differential leukocyte counts, serum antibody titer against a bacterin, dermal hypersensitivity response to a sensitizing agent and histological evaluation of lymphoid and other tissues were evaluated. Significant differences in body weight gain (p less than 0.05) and thymic weight (p less than .01) were noted. For total leukocyte count, no significant difference among treatment groups at individual time points was noted (p greater than .10), while significant differences were seen in lymphocyte and neutrophil counts (p less than .01). A significant difference in antibody titer among the treatment groups was observed (p less than .01). For the dermal hypersensitivity response, there was no consistent pattern among the treatment groups in gross (macroscopic) skin reactions. Microscopically, differences were seen in the inflammatory response among the treatment groups. Histologically, steroid related changes were seen in thymus, spleen, lymph node and liver. At necropsy, 24 of 40 animals had lesions of focal necrotizing hepatitis. Three affected animals died and remaining animals showed no clinical illness. The cause of the necrotizing hepatitis could not be determined by culture, special stains, electron microscopy, serology or by attempts at transmission with affected liver samples.

  9. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Peter A.; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S.; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. PMID:24856783

  10. Guinea pig alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin: cDNA sequencing, tissue expression and expression during acute phase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Suzuki, Y; Yamamoto, K; Sinohara, H

    1999-02-01

    cDNA encoding alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin (AMBP) was amplified from guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) liver mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods, cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence was found to be homologous to the sequence of AMBP of other mammals (69-76% amino acid identity). It has two Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor domains in the bikunin part as reactive sites, one in the N-terminal region and another in the C-terminal region. The N-terminal inhibitor domain sequence is well-conserved, but the P1 residue of the C-terminal inhibitor domain sequence was found to be Gln rather than Arg, a residue highly conserved in the AMBP of seven other mammals examined to date. By RT-PCR and nested PCR, AMBP mRNA was detected not only in liver tissue, previously known to be a site of its synthesis, but also in pancreas, stomach, small intestine, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testis, skeletal muscle, and leukocytes, but not in brain or heart. We examined the AMBP mRNA levels in guinea pig liver by RT-PCR, comparing normal levels and those in a state of inflammation. The mRNA levels, however, did not significantly change.

  11. Identification of guinea pig gammadelta T cells and characterization during pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaowei; Morita, Craig T; Bukowski, Jack F; Brenner, Michael B; Dascher, Christopher C

    2004-11-01

    Guinea pigs are an alternative small animal model for many disease studies. Here we describe a pan-gammadelta monoclonal antibody (anti-TCRdelta1) specific for the constant region of human T cell receptor delta chains that cross-reacts with a subpopulation of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) lymphocytes. The phenotype and distribution of this subpopulation is consistent with the guinea pig gammadelta T cell subset. FACS analysis of fresh PBMC and splenocytes from naïve guinea pigs revealed the presence of a subset of cells that stained with the anti-TCRdelta1 mAb. The relative percentage of anti-TCRdelta1 positive cells in PBMC and tissues is similar to that described for gammadelta T cells in other species. Immunohistochemistry of tissues also revealed a distribution of anti-TCRdelta1 positive cells consistent with gammadelta T cells. These data are further supported by staining of a polyclonal guinea pig T cell line that became progressively CD4 and CD8 negative in long-term culture. Analysis of PBMC from guinea pigs following aerosol infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed no apparent changes in the steady-state percentage of blood gammadelta+ T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the anti-TCRdelta1 antibody recognizes the gammadelta T cell subset in guinea pigs. This reagent may be useful for examining gammadelta T cells in various disease models where the guinea pig is a more desirable model for study.

  12. Hematological profile of the euthymic hairless guinea pig following sulfur mustard vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Gold, M B; Scharf, B A

    1995-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a potent vesicating agent of military importance, with known radiomimetic properties. The euthymic hairless guinea pig (EHGP) (Cavia porcellus) is emerging as the animal model of choice for cutaneous HD study. With elucidation of the systemic effects, we may better utilize this animal for all HD toxicity work. To this end, studies were conducted to determine the definitive median lethal dose (MLD) of subcutaneously applied sulfur mustard (HD) in the EHGP, and to correlate the induced hematological changes. Eight groups of two animals each were dosed at 0.3 log intervals from an extrapolated expected dose, deriving a tentative mean around which five groups of six animals each were dosed at 0.1 log intervals, resulting in a definitive MLD of 48.17 mg kg(-1). Sulfur mustard was then administered to seven groups of six animals each at a dose of 30 mg kg(-1) and hematology performed. Significant leukocyte count suppression was found to occur on days 4, 5 and 6, following a leukocyte elevation on day 1 after exposure. Serum potassium levels were found to be elevated all 7 days after HD exposure. Establishing the MLD for subcutaneously applied HD and the pattern of induced leukocyte suppression allows for more definitive evaluation of successful toxicity counter-measures.

  13. Identification and characterization of a ubiquitinconjugating enzyme UBE2A gene from lamprey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyong; Wu, Fenfang; Feng, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play an important role in the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer. Although in most species many of these enzymes share high sequence and structural conservation, their existence and functions in the lamprey remain unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBE2A)-like gene in lamprey. The gene, designated as LaUBE2A, contained a 456-bp open reading frame encoding a 152-amino acid protein with a typical UBC domain. Real-time PCR assay showed that LaUBE2A was expressed in various tissues of the adult lamprey, with higher levels in the leukocytes and muscle and lower levels in the skin and liver. The high conservation in amino acid sequence between LaUBE2A and UBE2As from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Cavia porcellus, and Alligator sinensi implied that the function of LaUBE2A may be similar to that of UBE2A.

  14. The yellow colour of the lens of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis leucotis)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G. F.; Robson, J. G.

    1969-01-01

    1. The absorption spectrum of the lens of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis leucotis) has been measured, revealing an absorption maximum at 370 nm. Peak densities in the intact lens ranged from 12 to 20. 2. This peak is not present in the lenses of horse, cow, pig, dog, cat, ferret (Mustelo furo), or guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus). 3. The pigment responsible for this absorption is water-soluble and aqueous extracts have been examined. Protein-free aqueous extracts show an additional maximum at 265 nm, which can only partially be accounted for by the presence of ascorbic acid. 4. The absorption spectrum of extracts of lens material from the ground squirrel (Citellus mexicanus) also had maxima at 265 and 370 nm. 5. Chromatography of the protein-free solution separated two yellow components, both of which had a yellow fluorescence. The faster component had a very similar absorption spectrum to the original protein-free solution. 6. Possible functions of the yellow pigment are discussed. PMID:5796470

  15. Diseases in pet guinea pigs: a retrospective study in 1000 animals.

    PubMed

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Jeklova, E; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2015-08-22

    Guinea pigs are commonly kept as pet animals; however, information about particular disease prevalence is lacking. The objective of this article was to present disease prevalence in 1000 pet guinea pigs from private owners divided into three age groups: under two years; between two and five years; and above five years. Medical records of guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) that were presented to the authors' clinic in the period from January 2008 to August 2013 were reviewed. The most commonly diagnosed disease in guinea pigs was dental disease (36.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in the middle age group (P<0.001) and in males (P<0.001) rather than females. Skin problems were seen as the second most common disease (33.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in male guinea pigs (P<0.001) and in animals younger than two years (P<0.001). Ovarian cystic disease was the third most commonly seen disorder, with higher prevalence in females older than two years (P<0.001). Other common health disorders included gastrointestinal stasis, heterotopic ciliary body calcifications, fatty eye and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Only 81 guinea pigs from a total of 1000 animals were healthy. This is the first study to describe the disease prevalence in three age groups of pet guinea pigs. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Risk Prioritization Tool to Identify the Public Health Risks of Wildlife Trade: The Case of Rodents from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bueno, I; Smith, K M; Sampedro, F; Machalaba, C C; Karesh, W B; Travis, D A

    2016-06-01

    Wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. Legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. These approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. As a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was developed to rank the pathogens found in rodent species imported from Latin America into the United States with the highest risk of zoonotic consequence in the United States. Four formally traded species and 16 zoonotic pathogens were identified. Risk scores were based on the likelihood of pathogen release and human exposure, and the severity of the disease (consequences). Based on the methodology applied, three pathogens (Mycobacterium microti, Giardia spp. and Francisella tularensis) in one species (Cavia porcellus) were ranked as highest concern. The goal of this study was to present a methodological approach by which preliminary management resources can be allocated to the identified high-concern pathogen-species combinations when warranted. This tool can be expanded to other taxa and geographic locations to inform policy surrounding the wildlife trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Zeta-crystallin, a novel lens protein from the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q L; Russell, P; Stone, S H; Zigler, J S

    1987-05-01

    Lens proteins from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) were found to be similar to those of other mammals with the exception of the presence of a previously undescribed constituent comprising about 10% of the total soluble lens proteins. This oligomeric protein is composed of polypeptides with apparent molecular weight of 38,000 and elutes from gel exclusion chromatography columns in the beta H-crystallin fraction. Following purification by ion exchange chromatography an antibody was raised against the protein. Using that antibody and antibodies specific for other crystallins we could detect no cross-reactivity between the guinea pig protein and any other reported lens crystallin. This protein, which we have named zeta (zeta)-crystallin, is the first reported mammalian lens crystallin which is not part of the alpha- or beta-gamma families of crystallins. Unlike all other known mammalian crystallins, which have little or no alpha-helical structure, zeta-crystallin is estimated to be approximately 30-40% alpha-helix.

  18. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, S. A.; Lucas, D.; Kleven, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multi-colored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To insure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism. PMID:25655512

  19. Injury Thresholds for Topical Cream-Coated Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia Procellus) in Near Infrared Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    five to six individual exposure locations denoted by 1 cm by 1 cm boxes using black ink marker. Surgical markers were found to smear and interfere with...shows the comparison. Table 2. Comoarison of ED50 values for 0-switched 1540 nm laser at various oulse widths and soots Experimental Setup MVL-ED50 (JcmŖ

  20. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  1. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild

  2. Development of isolation-induced vocal behavior in normal-hearing and deafened guinea pig infants.

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, E; McCowan, B; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, J; Zarco de Coronado, I; Licona-Bonilla, J

    2000-04-01

    Infants in many different animal species require auditory information from conspecifics to learn appropriate responses to important environmental and social cues. Isolation calls are emitted by infant guinea pigs in contexts of social separation from their mothers. The aim of the present study was to examine the ontogeny of the isolation calls in normal-hearing and deafened infant guinea pigs, from 2 to 40 days postpartum and to determine the role of hearing maternal vocalization in infant guinea pig vocal responses in contexts of social proximity and isolation. Female newborn pigmented guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were housed with their birth mother and siblings. Water and dry food were available ad libitum. One day postpartum, the cochlea of infants in the experimental group was destroyed. The control group consisted of normal-hearing female siblings. Vocalizations from infants in the experimental and control groups were recorded for 6 minutes when with the mother before isolation, 6 minutes when alone, and then 6 minutes when with the mother after reunion. Recordings were made 5 days per week from 2 to 40 days after birth. The duration of calling was calculated for each 6-minute period of recording. Results demonstrated that deaf infants vocalize more than normal-hearing infants during social isolation from their mothers. Vocal activity of isolated deaf and normal-hearing infants decreased substantially over development, almost disappearing by the end of the study period. These results indicate that maternal vocal behavior modulates the vocal responses of guinea pigs early in infant development and supports other evidence that the guinea pig offers a viable model for investigating audition in deaf and normal-hearing human infants.

  3. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  4. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, L.C.M.; Lezirovitz, K.; Zanatta, D.B.; Strauss, B.E.; Mingroni-Netto, R.C.; Oiticica, J.; Haddad, L.A.; Bento, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy. PMID:27007652

  5. Survey of Hymenolepis spp. in pet rodents in Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Noviello, Emilio; Pepe, P; Del Prete, L; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2015-12-01

    We carried out the first survey of Hymenolepis spp. infection in pet rodents in Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 172 pet rodents as follows: guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus; n = 60), squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii, Callosciurus prevosti, Tamias striatus, Tamias sibiricus, Sciurus calorinensis; n = 52), hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Mesocricetus auratus; n = 30), chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera; n = 13), rats (Rattus norvegicus; n = 10), and mice (Mus minutoides; n = 7). These animals were housed either in pet shops or in private houses. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to assess the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces. Eggs of Hymenolepis nana were found in 24 out of 172 (13.9 %; 95 % confidence interval = 9.3-20.2 %) pet rodents. Of those rodents, 41.6 % (10/24) were rats (mean EPG = 55.7; range = 2-200), 29.2 % (7/24) mice (mean EPG = 64.5; range = 32-120), 25.0 % (6/24) were chinchillas (mean EPG = 25.5; range = 10-50), and 4.2 % (1/24) hamsters (P. campbelli) (EPG = 86.0). In addition, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs were found in 2 out of 172 (1.2 %; 95 % confidence interval = 0.2-4.6 %) rodents examined, both of which (100 %; 2/2) were pet squirrels (C. prevosti) (mean EPG = 10; range = 4-16). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of H. diminuta in pet squirrels.

  6. Evidence for rodent-common and species-typical limb and digit use in eating, derived from a comparative analysis of ten rodent species.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Sarna, J R; Pellis, S M

    1998-11-01

    Order Rodentia comprises a vast portion of mammalian species (1814 species), which occupy extremely diverse habitats requiring very distinct motor specializations (e.g. burrowing, hopping, climbing, flying and swimming). Although early classification of paw use ability suggests rodents are impoverished relative to primates and make little use of their paws, there have been no systematic investigations of paw use in rodents. The present study was undertaken to describe limb/paw movements in a variety of common rodents. The movements used for handling sunflower seeds and other foods were videorecorded and analyzed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), laboratory mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonni), prairie dog (Cynomus parvidens), and Canadian beaver (Castor americanus). The results suggested five order-common movements of food handling: (1) locating food by sniffing, (2) grasping food by mouth, (3) sitting back on the haunches to eat, (4) grasping the food using an elbow-in movement, and (5) manipulate the food with the digits. Different species displayed species-typical specializations including (1) bilateral grasping with the paws (gerbil), (2) unilateral grasping with a paw (beaver), (3) unilateral holding (ground squirrels), (4) various grip and digit postures (all species), (5) unilateral object removal from the mouth (gerbil), (6) bilateral thumb holding (squirrels), and (7) simultaneous holding/manipulation of two objects (squirrels). Only the guinea pig did not handle food with its paws, suggesting its behavior is regressive. The existence of a core pattern of paw and digit use in rodents suggests that skilled limb and paw movements originate at least with the common ancestors of the rodent, and likely the common ancestor to

  7. The Guinea Pig as a Model for Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): The Impact of Cholesterol Intake on Expression of AD-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Daniel; Wijaya, Linda; Laws, Simon M.; Taddei, Kevin; Newman, Morgan; Lardelli, Michael; Martins, Ralph N.; Verdile, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, as a model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), both in terms of the conservation of genes involved in AD and the regulatory responses of these to a known AD risk factor - high cholesterol intake. Unlike rats and mice, guinea pigs possess an Aβ peptide sequence identical to human Aβ. Consistent with the commonality between cardiovascular and AD risk factors in humans, we saw that a high cholesterol diet leads to up-regulation of BACE1 (β-secretase) transcription and down-regulation of ADAM10 (α-secretase) transcription which should increase release of Aβ from APP. Significantly, guinea pigs possess isoforms of AD-related genes found in humans but not present in mice or rats. For example, we discovered that the truncated PS2V isoform of human PSEN2, that is found at raised levels in AD brains and that increases γ-secretase activity and Aβ synthesis, is not uniquely human or aberrant as previously believed. We show that PS2V formation is up-regulated by hypoxia and a high-cholesterol diet while, consistent with observations in humans, Aβ concentrations are raised in some brain regions but not others. Also like humans, but unlike mice, the guinea pig gene encoding tau, MAPT, encodes isoforms with both three and four microtubule binding domains, and cholesterol alters the ratio of these isoforms. We conclude that AD-related genes are highly conserved and more similar to human than the rat or mouse. Guinea pigs represent a superior rodent model for analysis of the impact of dietary factors such as cholesterol on the regulation of AD-related genes. PMID:23805206

  8. Vocal mother-offspring communication in guinea pigs: females adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Melanie; Trillmich, Fritz; Naguib, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background In parent-offspring communication, vocal signals are often used to attract attention and offspring might call to induce parental behaviour. In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknown whether this difference depends on processes induced during pregnancy or is influenced post-natally by the number of pups present. We here tested with playback-experiments using pup separation calls whether mothers with cross-fostered large experimental litters (four-pup-litters) were more responsive to offspring calls and maintained responsiveness for longer than mothers with small experimental litters (two-pup-litters). Mothers were tested when two pups were suckling i.e. when both teats were occupied. Results Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger to broadcast pup separation calls than those with two-pup litters. Additionally, we tested the mothers' responsiveness to pup separation calls in the absence of their pups on day 8 and 20 of lactation. Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger and showed no decrease in responsiveness from day 8 to 20, whereas mothers of two-pup litters responded less and decreased responsiveness from day 8 to 20. Mothers of four-pup litters also weaned their pups 5 days later than those of two-pup litters. Conclusion Measured by their response to pup calls and by time to weaning, guinea pig mothers adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size. This behaviour is likely to be an adaptive strategy in resource allocation during reproduction. PMID:18783602

  9. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata seeds enhances the action of bradykinin-related peptides.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Morales Álvares, Alice; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Amaral, Nathalia Oda; Trindade, Neidiane Rosa; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Silva, Luciano Paulino; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2014-10-30

    The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk) by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M-1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.

  10. Coevolution of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and the house mouse (Mus musculus)✯

    PubMed Central

    Kváč, Martin; McEvoy, John; Loudová, Martina; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg; Rašková, Veronika; Moriarty, Elaine; Rost, Michael; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Two house mouse subspecies occur in Europe, eastern and northern Mus musculus musculus (Mmm) and western and southern Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd). A secondary hybrid zone occurs where their ranges meet, running from Scandinavia to the Black Sea. In this paper, we tested a hypothesis that the apicomplexan protozoan species Cryptosporidium tyzzeri has coevolved with the house mouse. More specifically, we assessed to what extent the evolution of this parasite mirrors divergence of the two subspecies. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed sequence variation at five genes (ssrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium 1 (TRAP-C1), actin and gp60) in C. tyzzeri isolates from Mmd and Mmm sampled along a transect across the hybrid zone from the Czech Republic to Germany. Mmd samples were supplemented with mice from New Zealand. We found two distinct isolates of C. tyzzeri, each occurring exclusively in one of the mouse subspecies (C. tyzzeri-Mmm and C. tyzzeri-Mmd). In addition to genetic differentiation, oocysts of the C. tyzzeri-Mmd subtype (mean: 4.24 × 3.69 μm) were significantly smaller than oocysts of C. tyzzeri-Mmm (mean: 4.49 × 3.90 μm). Mmm and Mmd were susceptible to experimental infection with both C. tyzzeri subtypes; however, the subtypes were not infective for the rodent species Meriones unguiculatus, Mastomys coucha, Apodemus flavicollis or Cavia porcellus. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that C. tyzzeri is coevolving with Mmm and Mmd. PMID:23791796

  11. Multispecies Purification of Testicular Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana C; Jung, Min; Rusch, Jannette; Usmani, Abul; Lopes, Alexandra; Conrad, Donald F

    2016-08-24

    Advanced methods of cellular purification are required to apply genome technology to the study of spermatogenesis. One approach, based on flow cytometry of murine testicular cells stained with Hoechst-33342 (Ho-FACS), has been extensively optimized and currently allows the isolation of 9 germ cell types. This staining technique is straightforward to implement, highly effective at purifying specific germ cell types and yields sufficient cell numbers for high throughput studies. Ho-FACS is a technique that does not require species-specific markers, but whose applicability to other species is largely unexplored. We hypothesized that, due to the similar cell physiology of spermatogenesis across mammals, Ho-FACS could be used to produce highly purified subpopulations of germ cells in mammals other than mouse. To test this hypothesis, we applied Ho-FACS to 4 mammalian species that are widely used in testis research - Rattus norvegicus, Cavia porcellus, Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa domesticus We successfully isolated 4 germ cell populations from these species with average purity of 79% for spermatocytes, and 90% for spermatids and 66% for spermatogonia. Additionally, we compare the performance of mechanical and chemical dissociation for each species, and propose an optimized gating strategy to better discriminate round and elongating spermatids in the mouse, which can potentially be applied to other species. Our work indicates that spermatogenesis may be uniquely accessible among mammalian developmental systems, as a single set of reagents may be sufficient to isolate germ cell populations from many different mammalian species, opening new avenues in the fields of development and male reproductive biology.

  12. High-purity flow sorting of early meiocytes based on DNA analysis of guinea pig spermatogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Geisinger, Adriana; Santiñaque, Federico F; López-Carro, Beatriz; Folle, Gustavo A

    2011-08-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is still nowadays poorly understood at the molecular level. Testis cellular heterogeneity is a major drawback for spermatogenic gene expression studies, especially when research is focused on stages that are usually very short and poorly represented at the cellular level such as initial meiotic prophase I (i.e., leptotene [L] and zygotene [Z]). Presumably, genes whose products are involved in critical meiotic events such as alignment, pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are expressed during the short stages of early meiotic prophase. Aiming to characterize mammalian early meiotic gene expression, we have found the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as an especially attractive model. A detailed analysis of its first spermatogenic wave by flow cytometry (FCM) and optical microscopy showed that guinea pig testes exhibit a higher representation of early meiotic stages compared to other studied rodents, partly because of their longer span, and also as a result of the increased number of cells entering meiosis. Moreover, we have found that adult guinea pig testes exhibit a peculiar 4C DNA content profile, with a bimodal peak for L/Z and P spermatocytes that is absent in other rodents. Besides, we show that this unusual 4C peak allows the separation by FCM of highly pure L/Z spermatocyte populations aside from pachytene ones, even from adult individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an accurate and suitable method for highly pure early meiotic prophase cell isolation from adult mammals, and thus sets an interesting approach for gene expression studies aiming at a deeper understanding of the molecular groundwork underlying male gamete production.

  13. [Communication and auditory behavior obtained by auditory evoked potentials in mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles].

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Collado-Corona, Miguel Angel; Morales-Martínez, José de Jesús

    2004-01-01

    amphibians, Frog catesbiana (frog bull, 30 animals); reptiles, Sceloporus torcuatus (common small lizard, 22 animals); birds: Columba livia (common dove, 20 animals), and mammals, Cavia porcellus, (guinea pig, 20 animals). With regard to lodging, all animals were maintained at the Institute of Human Communication Disorders, were fed with special food for each species, and had water available ad libitum. Regarding procedure, for carrying out analysis of auditory evoked potentials of brain stem SPL amphibians, birds, and mammals were anesthetized with ketamine 20, 25, and 50 mg/kg, by injection. Reptiles were anesthetized by freezing (6 degrees C). Study subjects had needle electrodes placed in an imaginary line on the half sagittal line between both ears and eyes, behind right ear, and behind left ear. Stimulation was carried out inside a no noise site by means of a horn in free field. The sign was filtered at between 100 and 3,000 Hz and analyzed in a computer for provoked potentials (Racia APE 78). In data shown by amphibians, wave-evoked responses showed greater latency than those of the other species. In reptiles, latency was observed as reduced in comparison with amphibians. In the case of birds, lesser latency values were observed, while in the case of guinea pigs latencies were greater than those of doves but they were stimulated by 10 dB, which demonstrated best auditory threshold in the four studied species. Last, it was corroborated that as the auditory threshold of each species it descends conforms to it advances in the phylogenetic scale. Beginning with these registrations, we care able to say that response for evoked brain stem potential showed to be more complex and lesser values of absolute latency as we advance along the phylogenetic scale; thus, the opposing auditory threshold is better agreement with regard to the phylogenetic scale among studied species. These data indicated to us that seeking of auditory information is more complex in more

  14. Coevolution of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and the house mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; McEvoy, John; Loudová, Martina; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg; Rašková, Veronika; Moriarty, Elaine; Rost, Michael; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    Two house mouse subspecies occur in Europe, eastern and northern Mus musculus musculus (Mmm) and western and southern Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd). A secondary hybrid zone occurs where their ranges meet, running from Scandinavia to the Black Sea. In this paper, we tested a hypothesis that the apicomplexan protozoan species Cryptosporidium tyzzeri has coevolved with the house mouse. More specifically, we assessed to what extent the evolution of this parasite mirrors divergence of the two subspecies. In order to test this hypothesis, we analysed sequence variation at five genes (ssrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium 1 (TRAP-C1), actin and gp60) in C. tyzzeri isolates from Mmd and Mmm sampled along a transect across the hybrid zone from the Czech Republic to Germany. Mmd samples were supplemented with mice from New Zealand. We found two distinct isolates of C. tyzzeri, each occurring exclusively in one of the mouse subspecies (C. tyzzeri-Mmm and C. tyzzeri-Mmd). In addition to genetic differentiation, oocysts of the C. tyzzeri-Mmd subtype (mean: 4.24×3.69μm) were significantly smaller than oocysts of C. tyzzeri-Mmm (mean: 4.49×3.90 μm). Mmm and Mmd were susceptible to experimental infection with both C. tyzzeri subtypes; however, the subtypes were not infective for the rodent species Meriones unguiculatus, Mastomys coucha, Apodemus flavicollis or Cavia porcellus. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that C. tyzzeri is coevolving with Mmm and Mmd.

  15. Determination of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pigs treated with haloperidol

    PubMed Central

    GUMULEC, JAROMIR; RAUDENSKA, MARTINA; HLAVNA, MARIAN; STRACINA, TIBOR; SZTALMACHOVA, MARKETA; TANHAUSEROVA, VERONIKA; PACAL, LUKAS; RUTTKAY-NEDECKY, BRANISLAV; SOCHOR, JIRI; ZITKA, ONDREJ; BABULA, PETR; ADAM, VOJTECH; KIZEK, RENE; NOVAKOVA, MARIE; MASARIK, MICHAL

    2013-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=−0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/μl) between the two groups of animals was for GR. PMID:23403848

  16. Determination of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pigs treated with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Hlavna, Marian; Stracina, Tibor; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Tanhauserova, Veronika; Pacal, Lukas; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Novakova, Marie; Masarik, Michal

    2013-02-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=-0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/μl) between the two groups of animals was for GR.

  17. Microangioarchitecture of the guinea pig gallbladder and bile duct as studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed Central

    Aharinejad, S; Lametschwandtner, A

    1992-01-01

    The microvasculature of the gallbladder, the common bile duct, and the duodenal papilla was investigated in 20 albino guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) using microvascular corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Main supplying and draining vessels (first-order vessels) approach the gallbladder along the cystic duct. From the latter, penetrating vessels (second-order vessels) arise which pierce the muscular coat of the gallbladder body to form the plexus of third-order vessels between the muscle coat and the mucosa. Third-order vessels finally branch to supply the subepithelial capillaries, which show a honeycomb arrangement, corresponding to the gallbladder pits. At the areas bordering mucosal pits and beneath the tunicae plicae mucosae, the capillaries form glomera. These structures make the mucosal vasculature suitable for adapting to gallbladder wall distension caused by volume changes. The mucosal capillary glomera may also be involved in absorption of substances from bile, or they could act as buffer zones, counteracting the pressure which develops as the gallbladder volume increases. Venous sphincters occurring at the junction of mucosal vessels with the subjacent third-order veins may regulate blood flow in the mucosal glomera. The neck region as well as bile ducts consist of 2 vascular layers: an inner capillary layer and an outer one containing arterioles and venules. The duodenal papilla has a hemispheric shape and is interposed in the transition zone between the stomach and the duodenum. On the most luminal aspect, the capillaries of the papilla have a ring-shaped arrangement, as do the capillaries of the stomach, surrounding the mucosal glands; the remainder of the papilla is covered by duodenal villi capillaries. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1294573

  18. Multispecies Purification of Testicular Germ Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ana C.; Jung, Min; Rusch, Jannette; Usmani, Abul; Lopes, Alexandra M.; Conrad, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced methods of cellular purification are required to apply genome technology to the study of spermatogenesis. One approach, based on flow cytometry of murine testicular cells stained with Hoechst-33342 (Ho-FACS), has been extensively optimized and currently allows the isolation of nine germ cell types. This staining technique is straightforward to implement, is highly effective at purifying specific germ cell types, and yields sufficient cell numbers for high-throughput studies. Ho-FACS is a technique that does not require species-specific markers, but whose applicability to other species is largely unexplored. We hypothesized that, because of the similar cell physiology of spermatogenesis across mammals, Ho-FACS could be used to produce highly purified subpopulations of germ cells in mammals other than mouse. To test this hypothesis, we applied Ho-FACS to four mammalian species that are widely used in testis research: Rattus norvegicus, Cavia porcellus, Canis familiaris, and Sus scrofa domesticus. We successfully isolated four germ cell populations from these species with average purity of 79% for spermatocytes, 90% for spermatids, and 66% for spermatogonia. Additionally, we compare the performance of mechanical and chemical dissociation for each species, and propose an optimized gating strategy to better discriminate round and elongating spermatids in the mouse, which can potentially be applied to other species. Our work indicates that spermatogenesis may be uniquely accessible among mammalian developmental systems, as a single set of reagents may be sufficient to isolate germ cell populations from many different mammalian species, opening new avenues in the fields of development and male reproductive biology. PMID:27557646

  19. The pattern of expression of guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3) in the retina is conserved across vertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Eric R.; Bongini, Rachel E.; Code, Kimberly A.; Zelinka, Christopher; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

    2010-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3) is an isoform of the β subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein second messenger complex that is commonly associated with transmembrane receptors. The presence of GNB3 in photoreceptors, and possibly bipolar cells, has been confirmed in murine, bovine and primate retinas (Lee et al., 1992, Peng et al., 1992, Huang et al., 2003). Studies have indicated that a mutation in the GNB3 gene causes progressive retinopathy and globe enlargement (RGE) in chickens. The goals of this study were to 1) examine the expression pattern of GNB3 in wild-type and RGE mutant chickens, 2) characterize the types of bipolar cells that express GNB3 and 3) examine whether the expression of GNB3 in the retina is conserved across vertebrate species. We find that chickens homozygous for the RGE allele completely lack GNB3 protein. We find that the pattern of expression of GNB3 in the retina is highly conserved across vertebrate species, including teleost fish (Carassius auratus), frogs (Xenopus laevis), chickens (Gallus domesticus), mice (Mus musculata), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and non-human primates (Macaca fasicularis). Regardless of the species, we find that GNB3 is expressed by Islet1-positive cone ON-bipolar cells and by cone photoreceptors. In some vertebrates, GNB3-immunoreactivity was observed in both rod and cone photoreceptors. A protein-protein alignment of GNB3 across different vertebrates, from fish to humans, indicates a high degree (>92%) of sequence conservation. Given that analogous types of retinal neurons express GNB3 in different species, we propose that the functions and the mechanisms that regulate the expression of GNB3 are highly conserved. PMID:20538044

  20. Temporal Progression of Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected With Lassa Virus.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bearss, J J; Mattix, M E; Koistinen, K A; Honnold, S P; Zeng, X; Blancett, C D; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2017-05-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes. Guinea pigs developed viremia on day 5 to 6 postexposure (PE), with clinical signs appearing by day 7 to 8 PE. Complete blood counts revealed lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included skin lesions and congested lungs. Histologic lesions consisted of cortical lymphoid depletion by day 6 to 7 PE with lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia at 7 to 8 days PE. Scattered hepatocellular degeneration and cell death were also noted in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues including the haired skin, lung, heart, adrenal gland, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. The first cell types to demonstrate staining for viral antigen were fibroblastic reticular cells and macrophages/dendritic cells in the lymph nodes on day 5 to 6 PE. This study demonstrates similarities between Lassa viral disease in human infections and experimental guinea pig infection. These shared pathologic characteristics support the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development under the Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule.

  1. Ultrastructural and biochemical changes of the medial pterygoid muscle induced by unilateral exodontia.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Emmanuel; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the histological, biochemical and ultrastructural effects of occlusal alteration induced by unilateral exodontia on medial pterygoid muscle in guinea pigs, Cavia porcellus. Thirty (n=30) male guinea pigs (450g) were divided into two groups: experimental-animals submitted to exodontia of the left upper molars, and sham-operated were used as control. The duration of the experimental period was 60 days. Medial pterygoid muscles from ipsilateral and contralateral side were analyzed by histological (n=10), histochemical (n=10), and ultrastructural (n=10) methods. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. When the ipsilateral side was compared to the control group, it showed a significantly shorter neuromuscular spindle length (P<0.05), lower oxidative metabolic activity, and microvessel constriction, in spite of the capillary volume and surface density were not significantly different (P>0.05). In the contralateral side, the neuromuscular spindles showed significantly shorter length (P<0.05), the fibers reflected a higher oxidative capacity, the blood capillaries showed endothelial cell emitting slender sprouting along the pre-existing capillary, and significantly higher blood capillary surface density, and volume density (V(v)=89% Mann-Whitney test, P<0.05). This finding indicated a complex morphological and functional medial pterygoid muscle adaptation to occlusal alteration in this experimental model. Considering that neuromuscular spindles are responsible for the control of mandibular positioning and movements, the professional should consider if these changes interfere in the success of clinical procedures in medical field involving stomatognathic structures.

  2. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Xu, Dingbang; Zhang, Yi; Emala, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component of the pathophysiology of asthma. Taurine, an agonist of glycine receptor chloride (GlyR Cl−) channels, was found to relax contracted ASM, which led us to question whether functional GlyR Cl− channels are expressed in ASM. Messenger RNA for β (GLRB), α1 (GLRA1), α2 (GLRA2), and α4 (GLRA4) subunits were found in human (Homo sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) tracheal smooth muscle. Immunoblotting confirmed the protein expression of GLRA1 and GLRB subunits in ASM. Electrical activity of cultured human ASM cells was assessed using a fluorescent potentiometric dye and electrophysiological recordings. Glycine increased current and significantly increased fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner. The GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine significantly blocked the effects of glycine on potentiometric fluorescence in ASM cells. Guinea pig airway ring relaxation of ACh-induced contractions by isoproterenol was significantly left-shifted in the presence of glycine. This effect of glycine was blocked by pretreatment with the GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine. Glycine treatment during tachykinin- and acetylcholine-induced contractions significantly decreased the maintenance of muscle force compared to control. GlyR Cl− channels are expressed on ASM and regulate smooth muscle force and offer a novel target for therapeutic relaxation of ASM.—Yim, P. D., Gallos, G., Xu, D., Zhang, Y., Emala, C. W. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle. PMID:21282206

  3. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Sabrina; Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone). Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR) returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2-6), non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3-6) and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6). Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso's anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs.

  4. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone). Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR) returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2–6), non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3–6) and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6). Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso’s anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs. PMID:28328950

  5. Guinea Pig ID-Like Families of SINEs

    PubMed Central

    Kass, David H.; Schaetz, Brian A.; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M.; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A–B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents. PMID:19232383

  6. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  7. Serological response of guinea pigs to oily and aqueous inactivated vaccines containing a Brazilian isolate of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Jordão, Ricardo Spacagna; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Okuda, Líria Hiromi; Del Fava, Cláudia; Stefano, Eliana de; Filho, Moacir Marchiori; Mehnert, Dolores Ursula

    2011-10-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is widespread in cattle in Brazil and research shows its large antigenic variability. Available vaccines are produced with virus strains isolated in other countries and may not be effective. In this study, inactivated vaccines containing the Brazilian BVDV-Ib IBSP11 isolate were developed and tested on 6 groups of 10 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Animals in groups A and C received an aqueous vaccine (aluminum hydroxide); B and D groups received an oily vaccine (Montanide ISA50); Group E positive-control animals were given an imported commercial vaccine with BVDV-Ia Singer; Group F animals were sham vaccinated (negative control). Groups A, B and E received two doses, and Groups C and D, three, every 21 days. Twelve blood samples were taken, at 21-day intervals over 231 days, and evaluated for antibody titer through virus-neutralization (VN), using a homologous strain (IBSP11), and a heterologous strain (BVDV-Ia NADL). Most animals, 42 days following the first dose, seroconverted to both strains and, after the second dose, there was a significant increase of titers in all groups. The oily formulation induced greater response after the third administration. This increase was not observed with the aqueous vaccines, regardless of the virus used in the VN. Antibody decline was more rapid in animals that received aqueous vaccines. The results showed the importance of studying the influence of endemic strains of commercial vaccines, to improve the efficacy of BVD vaccination. Use of the endemic strain in vaccine formulation presented promising results, as well as the use of guinea pigs as a laboratory model.

  8. Annual Progress Report on the Research Program of the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases on Medical Defense against Biological Agents for Fiscal Year 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Boxaca, M. Weissenbacher, and L. Guerrero. 1976. Estudio * de Ia. infeccion experimental del cobayo con virus Junin. 1. Anatomia pathologica. Medicine...W1. Aires) 26:197-206. 4. Ponzinibbio, C., P. H. Gonzalez, J. Maiztegui, and R. P. Laguens. 1979. Estudio morfolo,,ico de la medula osea humana en

  9. Omecamtiv Mecarbil Abolishes Length-Mediated Increase in Guinea Pig Cardiac Myofiber Ca(2+) Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gollapudi, Sampath K; Reda, Sherif M; Chandra, Murali

    2017-08-22

    Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a pharmacological agent that augments cardiac contractile function by enhancing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Given that interventions that increase myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity have the potential to alter length-dependent activation (LDA) of cardiac myofilaments, we tested the influence of OM on this fundamental property of the heart. This is significant not only because LDA is prominent in cardiac muscle but also because it contributes to the Frank-Starling law, a mechanism by which the heart increases stroke volume in response to an increase in venous return. We measured steady-state and dynamic contractile indices in detergent-skinned guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) cardiac muscle fibers in the absence and presence of 0.3 and 3.0 μM OM at two different sarcomere lengths (SLs), short SL (1.9 μm) and long SL (2.3 μm). Myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, as measured by pCa50 (-log of [Ca(2+)]free concentration required for half-maximal activation), increased significantly at both short and long SLs in OM-treated fibers when compared to untreated fibers; however, the magnitude of increase in pCa50 was twofold greater at short SL than at long SL. A consequence of this greater increase in pCa50 at short SL was that pCa50 did not increase any further at long SL, suggesting that OM abolished the SL dependency of pCa50. Furthermore, the SL dependency of rate constants of cross-bridge distortion dynamics (c) and force redevelopment (ktr) was abolished in 0.3-μM-OM-treated fibers. The negative impact of OM on the SL dependency of pCa50, c, and ktr was also observed in 3.0-μM-OM-treated fibers, indicating that cooperative mechanisms linked to LDA were altered by the OM-mediated effects on cardiac myofilaments. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization and predicted structure of a putative copper-zinc SOD from the camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed

    Ataya, Farid S; Fouad, Dalia; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Malik, Ajamaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  12. Hot and cold: medicinal plant uses in Quechua speaking communities in the high Andes (Callejón de Huaylas, Ancash, Perú).

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Mercedes Gonzales; Malpartida, Severo Baldeón; Santiago, Hamilton Beltrán; Jullian, Valérie; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2014-09-11

    An ethnopharmacological survey has been set up in high altitude Quechua speaking communities dwelling in Callejón de Huaylas (Ancash department, Peru) and in medicinal plant markets in order to document the medicinal plants use of 178 species within the frame of a traditional Andean medicinal system. A sound ethnopharmacological survey was performed during the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 in different places along Callejón de Huaylas valley in the peruvian Andes, were Quechua speaking communities dwell. Two different methodologies were used: first, plant uses were recorded during walks with informants and in medicinal plant markets held on a regular bases in the area (Huaraz, Carhuaz, Yungay). Secondly, traditional healers (curanderas, curanderos) were interviewed about their practices and healing sessions were observed, in order to understand better the traditional medicinal system as a whole (disease aetiology, diagnosis, treatments, healers). Altogether, 178 medicinal species were collected. Most of the plants found on the market were also found in the wild and vice-versa. Medicinal plant trade is exclusively held by women, selling their merchandise to local people or to big retailer. Plants are classified according their hot or cold virtues, this in accordance with the local conception of the body physiology and disease aetiology, based on a hot-cold polarity. Main use notified for medicinal plants is "(bath) against cold", a prophylactic measure against diseases of cold nature. Other uses include culture bound illnesses i.e. susto, aire, nervios, or heart pain, commonly cited in South America. Regarding symptoms, rheumatic/arthritic pain, musculoskeletal traumas, cough, pulmonary and respiratory problems, gastritis and stomach ache, were the most frequently cited. Diagnosis and treatment are intrinsically linked together and mainly based upon divination techniques using egg and cuy (Cavia porcellus L., Caviidae). Medicinal plants use and traditional medicinal

  13. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    PubMed Central

    Ataya, Farid S.; Fouad, Dalia; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Malik, Ajamaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  14. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska, Agata; Alibhai, Aziza; Hughes, Chloe; Price, Jennifer; Klisch, Karl; Sturrock, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point at which most

  15. Hierarchical phylogenetic models for analyzing multipartite sequence data.

    PubMed

    Suchard, Marc A; Kitchen, Christina M R; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Weiss, Robert E

    2003-10-01

    Debate exists over how to incorporate information from multipartite sequence data in phylogenetic analyses. Strict combined-data approaches argue for concatenation of all partitions and estimation of one evolutionary history, maximizing the explanatory power of the data. Consensus/independence approaches endorse a two-step procedure where partitions are analyzed independently and then a consensus is determined from the multiple results. Mixtures across the model space of a strict combined-data approach and a priori independent parameters are popular methods to integrate these methods. We propose an alternative middle ground by constructing a Bayesian hierarchical phylogenetic model. Our hierarchical framework enables researchers to pool information across data partitions to improve estimate precision in individual partitions while permitting estimation and testing of tendencies in across-partition quantities. Such across-partition quantities include the distribution from which individual topologies relating the sequences within a partition are drawn. We propose standard hierarchical priors on continuous evolutionary parameters across partitions, while the structure on topologies varies depending on the research problem. We illustrate our model with three examples. We first explore the evolutionary history of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) using alignments of 13 mitochondrial genes. The hierarchical model returns substantially more precise continuous parameter estimates than an independent parameter approach without losing the salient features of the data. Second, we analyze the frequency of horizontal gene transfer using 50 prokaryotic genes. We assume an unknown species-level topology and allow individual gene topologies to differ from this with a small estimable probability. Simultaneously inferring the species and individual gene topologies returns a transfer frequency of 17%. We also examine HIV sequences longitudinally sampled from HIV+ patients. We ask

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of the IL-10 gene from guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Bix, Gregory; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2012-04-25

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most relevant small animals for modeling human tuberculosis (TB) in terms of susceptibility to low dose aerosol infection, the organization of granulomas, extrapulmonary dissemination and vaccine-induced protection. It is also considered to be a gold standard for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases; however, this animal model has a major disadvantage due to the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In the present study, we successfully cloned a cDNA for the critical Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), from inbred Strain 2 guinea pigs using the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project. The complete open reading frame (ORF) consists of 537 base pairs which encodes a protein of 179 amino acids. This cDNA sequence exhibited 87% homology with human IL-10. Surprisingly, it showed only 84% homology with the previously published IL-10 sequence from the C4-deficient (C4D) guinea pig, leading us to clone IL-10 cDNA from the Hartley strain of guinea pig. The IL-10 gene from the Hartley strain showed 100% homology with the IL-10 sequence of Strain 2 guinea pigs. In order to validate the only published IL-10 sequence existing in Genbank reported from C4D guinea pigs, genomic DNA was isolated from tissues of C4D guinea pigs. Amplification with various sets of primers showed that the IL-10 sequence reported from C4D guinea pigs contained numerous errors. Hence the IL-10 sequence that is being reported by us replaces the earlier sequence making our IL-10 sequence to be the first one accurate from guinea pig. Recombinant guinea pig IL-10 proteins were subsequently expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, purified and were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. Polyclonal anti-IL-10 antibodies were generated in rabbits using the recombinant IL-10 protein expressed in this study. Taken together, our results indicate that the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project

  17. Effect of organic selenium supplementation on growth, Se uptake, and nutrient utilization in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Mahima; Garg, Anil Kumar; Mittal, Ganesh Kumar; Mudgal, Vishal

    2010-02-01

    Forty weaned male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) of 152.6 +/- 7.96 g mean body weight were divided into four equal groups and fed a common basal diet comprised of 25% ground cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) hay, 30% ground maize (Zea mays) grain, 22% ground gram (Cicer arietinum) grain, 9.5% deoiled rice (Oryza sativa) bran, 6% soybean (Glycine max) meal, 6% fish meal, 1.5% mineral mixture (without Se), and ascorbic acid at 200 mg/kg to meet their nutrient requirements along with 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 ppm of organic selenium (Se) in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Experimental feeding lasted for a period of 10 weeks, during which, daily feed intake and weekly body weights were recorded. Intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract as well as uptake of calcium and phosphorus were similar (P > 0.05) among the four groups. Feed:gain ratio was also similar (P > 0.05) in the four groups. However, digestibility of crude protein was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in group II supplemented with 0.1 ppm organic Se as compared to other three group. Intake and absorption of Se was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in all the Se supplemented groups as compared to control group. Average daily gain (ADG) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in group II (3.16 g/day) and III (3.38 g/day) as compared to group I (2.88 g/day). However, ADG in group IV (supplemented 0.3 ppm organic Se) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (2.83 g/day) than group II and III, but comparable (P > 0.05) to group I. Findings of the present experiment suggests that Se requirements of guinea pigs are > or =0.2 ppm, as supplementation of 0.1 ppm organic Se in the diet (having 0.1 ppm Se) not only enhanced their growth rate but also improved the protein utilization.

  18. Characterization of phosphodiesterase 4 in guinea-pig macrophages: multiple activities, association states and sensitivity to selective inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John J; Barnes, Peter J; Giembycz, Mark A

    1998-01-01

    The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages were isolated, partially characterized and their role in regulating the cyclic AMP content in intact cells evaluated.Differential centrifugation of macrophage lysates revealed that ∼90% of the PDE activity was membrane-bound and exclusively hydrolyzed cyclic AMP. This activity was not removed by KCl (200 mM) but was readily solubilized by the non-ionic detergent, Triton X-100 (1% v/v). Greater than 80% of the hydrolytic activity was suppressed by the PDE4 inhibitors, R-rolipram and nitraquazone with IC50s of 240 and 540 nM, respectively.Anion-exchange chromatography of the total protein extracted from macrophages resolved two major peaks of cyclic AMP PDE activity that were insensitive to cyclic GMP (10 μM), calmodulin (50 units plus 2 mM CaCl2) and a PDE3 inhibitor, SK&F 95654 (10 μM), but were markedly suppressed by RS-rolipram (10 μM). The two peaks of PDE activity were arbitrarily designated CPPDE4α and CPPDE4β with respect to the order from which they were eluted from the column where the prefix, CP, refers to the species, Cavia porcellus.The hydrolysis of cyclic AMP catalyzed by CPPDE4α and CPPDE4β conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetic behaviour with similar Kms (13.4 and 6.4 μM, respectively).Thermal denaturation of membrane-bound PDE4 at 50°C followed bi-exponential kinetics with t1/2 values of 1.5 and 54.7 min for the first and second components, respectively. In contrast, CPPDE4α and CPPDE4β each decayed mono-exponentially with significantly different thermostabilities (t1/2=2.77 and 1.15 min, respectively).Gel filtration of CPPDE4β separated two peaks of rolipram-sensitive PDE activity. The main peak eluted at a volume indicative of a ∼180 kDa protein but was preceded by a much larger form of the enzyme that had an estimated weight of 750 kDa. Size exclusion chromatography of CPPDE4α resolved a broad peak of activity with molecular weights

  19. OS059. Blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor in early pregnancy reduces fetal growth and trophoblast invasion in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Valdes, G; Schneider, D; Corthorn, J; Ortiz, R

    2012-07-01

    Research in preeclampsia (PE) is hampered by the difficulty of sampling the placental bed in early pregnancies followed to delivery to be defined as normal or preeclamptic. Thus, animal models contribute to the understanding of its physiopathology. The guinea-pig shares with humans extensive vascular remodelling, a hemomonochorial placenta [1] and a vasodilator and angiogenic utero-placental repertoire [2]. In pregnancy it expresses bradykinin (BK) B1R and B2R receptors in cells related to invasion, angiogenesis and vasodilatation. In addition, in HTR-8/SVneo cells, BK induces a B2R-mediated increase in migration and invasion [3]. To test whether blocking the B2R with a rodent-selective non-peptide antagonist Bradyzide (BDZ) from days 20 to 34 of an ≈65 day gestation - period of maximal trophoblast invasion and placental development - induces PE-like morphological and functional alterations. Virgin Pirbright guinea-pigs (Cavia Porcellus) after mating and echographic confirmation of pregnancy, were allocated in gestational day 20 to to subcutaneous implantation of Alzet pumps that delivered for 14 days saline (Control; n=7), BDZ0,875mg/kg/day (BDZ0,87; n=6) and BDZ 1,2mg/kg/day (BDZ1,2; n=7). Systolic pressure was acquired in the right hindlimb with a Power Lab 8 SP and analyzed with Labchart at day 34. On that day dams were sacrificed, vesical urine was extracted for protein determination, the fetuses and corresponding placentas weighed and the cephalo-caudal length measured. The placentas were studied by HE and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin to identify trophoblasts. Results are expressed as means±SE. Statistical analysis was performed with Graphpad Prism 5.1, using one-way ANOVA, the recommended post hoc tests and χ2 test. Maternal systolic pressure tended to increase in BDZ0,875 and BDZ1,2 versus controls (63±567±6 versus 56±2,mm Hg respectively; NS). Proteinuria was not observed in any group. The number of viable fetuses tended to be reduced in

  20. Adherence to HEp-2 cells and enteropathogenic potential of Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Grey, P. A.; Kirov, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Aeromonas strains (total = 60) of clinical, water and food origin were tested for adherence to HEp-2 cells. Environmental strains were selected (except for A. caviae) to include primarily those expressing other virulence-associated properties. Adhesion was markedly species-dependent (A. veronii biotype sobria, 15 of 26 [58%]. A caviae, 4 of 12 [33%] and A. hydrophila, 2 of 8 [11%]). A. veronii biotype sobria were adhesive, irrespective of source (62 and 54% for clinical and environmental strains, respectively). Adherent strains of this species were enterotoxin-positive and most (13 of 15) grew at 43 degrees C. A. caviae isolated from clinical specimens contained a higher proportion (75%) of adherent strains than environmental strains (13%). Virulent subsets of A. veronii biotype sobria and A. caviae are adherent to HEp-2 cells. The HEp-2 assay is a useful model for investigating mechanisms of adherence and enteropathogenicity of virulent Aeromonas species. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8472772

  1. Infectious dose and repeated infections are key factors influencing immune response characteristics in guinea pig ocular chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Belij-Rammerstorfer, Sandra; Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Marijana; Marinkovic, Emilija; Lukic, Ivana; Stein, Elisabeth; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Bintner, Nora; Schürer, Nadine; Ghasemian, Ehsan; Kundi, Michael; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether infectious dose of Chlamydia caviae after repeated infections influences the immunological responses and subsequent clearance of pathogen at the ocular surface of guinea pigs. Animals were infected three times via the conjunctiva at six- and twelve-week intervals by applying either 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(6) inclusion-forming units (IFUs) of C. caviae. Ocular pathology, infection course, C. caviae-specific serum IgG levels and their capacity to bind and neutralize infection ex vivo were assessed. Animals infected with 1 × 10(4) IFUs had completely diminished ocular infection and pathology after the 2nd infection with increased levels of C. caviae-specific serum IgG and their effective capacity to bind and neutralize C. caviae. Only partial protection was observed in animals infected with 1 × 10(6) IFUs after the 2nd and 3rd infections. Our findings show that full protection was observed in animals repeatedly infected with the lower dose. The lower dose appeared not to compromise the host immune system, thereby enabling fast clearance of the pathogen and the establishment of competent neutralizing antibodies.

  2. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  4. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  5. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    PubMed Central

    Prediger, Karoline deCampos; Pereira, Renata da Silva; Winckler Neto, Carlos Hugo Del Priore; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia Maria Telles; Vizzotto, Bruno Stefanello

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7%) of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:24031914

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  7. The interactions of the separated strands of satellite DNAs with other DNAs: 1. Conditions for associations of the alpha-satellite of the guinea pig with heterologous double-stranded DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, D M; Chambers, C A

    1977-01-01

    The separated H- and L-strands of the alpha-satellite of the guinea pig, Cavea porcellus, recovered from centrifugation in alkaline CsC1 gradients, from complexes with 7 different double-stranded (ds) DNAs including those of 1 bacteriophage, 2 prokaryotes, 2 invertebrates and 2 mammals. The complexes are not artifacts due to in vitro labeling of the satellite, methods of collection, the presence of divalent cations, or the fact that trace amounts of single-stranded (ss) DNAs are used. More complex dsDNAs, such as that recovered from nicked RF M13, do not associate with dsDNAs. PMID:405659

  8. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-11

    trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections globally, contributes significantly to increasing health-care costs [1, 2...Despite decades of epidemiological studies [3, 4, 5], sexual health programs [6], improved diagnosis [7, 8, 9] and antibiotic treatment regimens [10...genital infection with regard to pathogenesis, immunity, and the ability to be transmitted sexually [26, 32]. Also, C. caviae is a natural pathogen of the

  9. Characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from an estuarine environment

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; de Carvalho, Fatima Cristiane Teles; Vieira, Regine Helena S. dos Fernandes; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Macrae, Andrew; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2010-01-01

    Thirty water samples were collected, at two week intervals, from the estuary of the River Cocó. The aim was to characterize the presence, distribution and types of Aeromonas spp, in the estuary of the River Cocó, Ceara, Brazil (03°46’28.83’’S e 38°26’36.52’’S). Aeromonas were identified in 19 (63%) samples analyzed by plating and CFU counts. Presence/absence tests were positive for 11 (37%) of the samples resulting in the detection of Aeromonas in a total of 23 (77%) of samples. CFU counts varied from < 10 to 1.4 x 104 CFU mL-1. From the isolated strains seven species of Aeromonas were identified: A. caviae (29/69), A. veronii bv. sobria (13/69), A. veronii bv. veronii (8/69), A. trota (6/69), A. media (5/69), A. sobria (4/69) and A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. (2/69). Of the 38 strains tested, 23 (60%) showed resistance to at least one of the eight antimicrobials. Multiple resistance to antibiotics was observed in A. caviae, A. media , A. sóbria and A. veronii bv. sobria. Aeromonas caviae showed the highest multiple resistance, being resistant to four antibiotics. The presence of those microorganisms may contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis, mainly in children, since they are considered opportunists. PMID:24031516

  10. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods in Italy.

    PubMed

    Villari, P; Crispino, M; Montuori, P; Stanzione, S

    2000-12-01

    A survey was carried out in Italy to ascertain the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods (vegetables, cheeses, meat products, and ice creams) and the level of molecular heterogeneity of the isolates found by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 46 (14.4%) of the 320 food samples examined were found positive for Aeromonas spp. The highest percentages of isolation were discovered in vegetables, particularly lettuce (45.0%), endive (40.0%), and rucola (20.0%). Ricotta was the only cheese type analyzed that showed a high frequency of isolation (45.0%). Among meat products, salami and raw ham (25.0% of samples positive) and, to a lesser extent, baloney (5.0%) were found positive for Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most common isolate from foods of animal origin, whereas Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species in vegetables. No motile aeromonads were found in ice cream samples. Aeromonas isolates showed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, because 24 PFGE patterns were identified among 27 A. hydrophila strains and 20 PFGE patterns were found in 23 A. caviae isolates. In conclusion, consumers of ready-to-eat foods in Italy are regularly exposed to many genetically distinct strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae without evident signs of malaise, and therefore, few of these strains, if any, are likely to be pathogenic.

  11. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  12. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the chlamydial effector protein Tarp is species specific and not required for recruitment of actin.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Dawn R; Dooley, Cheryl A; Grieshaber, Scott S; Carabeo, Reynaldo A; Fields, Kenneth A; Hackstadt, Ted

    2005-07-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that efficiently induce their endocytosis by susceptible eukaryotic host cells. Recently, a Chlamydia trachomatis type III secreted effector protein, Tarp, was found to be translocated and tyrosine phosphorylated at the site of entry and associated with the recruitment of actin that coincides with endocytosis. C. trachomatis Tarp possesses up to six direct repeats of approximately 50 amino acids each. The majority of the tyrosine residues are found within this repeat region. Here we have ectopically expressed distinct domains of Tarp in HeLa 229 cells and demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation occurs primarily within the repeat region, while recruitment of actin is mediated by the C-terminal domain of the protein. A comparison of other sequenced chlamydial genomes revealed that each contains an ortholog of Tarp, although Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydophila caviae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae Tarp lack the large repeat region. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting using an antiphosphotyrosine antibody show no evidence of phosphotyrosine at the site of entry of C. muridarum, C. caviae, and C. pneumoniae, although each species similarly recruits actin. Ectopic expression of full-length C. trachomatis and C. caviae Tarp confirmed that both recruit actin but only C. trachomatis Tarp is tyrosine phosphorylated. The data indicate that the C-terminal domain of Tarp is essential for actin recruitment and that tyrosine phosphorylation may not be an absolute requirement for actin recruitment. The results further suggest the potential for additional, unknown signal transduction pathways associated specifically with C. trachomatis.

  14. Distribution of Virulence Factors and Molecular Fingerprinting of Aeromonas Species Isolates from Water and Clinical Samples: Suggestive Evidence of Water-to-Human Transmission ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Fadl, Amin A.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Berg, Richard L.; Horneman, Amy J.; Stemper, Mary E.; Joseph, Sam W.; Moyer, Nelson P.; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 227 isolates of Aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the United States and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. These isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the A. hydrophila group, the A. caviae-A. media group, and the A. veronii-A. sobria group, based on biochemical profiles, and they had various pulsotypes. When virulence factor activities were examined, Aeromonas isolates obtained from clinical sources had higher cytotoxic activities than isolates obtained from water sources for all three Aeromonas species groups. Likewise, the production of quorum-sensing signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactone, was greater in clinical isolates than in isolates from water for the A. caviae-A. media and A. hydrophila groups. Based on colony blot DNA hybridization, the heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin gene and the DNA adenosine methyltransferase gene were more prevalent in clinical isolates than in water isolates for all three Aeromonas groups. Using colony blot DNA hybridization and PFGE, we obtained three sets of water and clinical isolates that had the same virulence signature and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. In addition, all of these isolates belonged to the A. caviae-A. media group. The findings of the present study provide the first suggestive evidence of successful colonization and infection by particular strains of certain Aeromonas species after transmission from water to humans. PMID:20154106

  15. Identification and epidemiological relationships of Aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea, drinking water and foods.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M; Huys, G; Cnockaert, M; Rodríguez-Calleja, J M; Otero, A; Santos, J A; García-López, M L

    2011-06-30

    A collection of Aeromonas isolates obtained over a three-year period in the same geographic area (León, NW of Spain) was characterized by (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and gyrB gene sequence analysis. The isolates originated from human diarrheal stools (29 isolates), potable water (13 isolates), rabbit meat (13 isolates) and marine fish (5 isolates). The distribution of Aeromonas species varied with the strain source. Aeromonas caviae HG4 and Aeromonas media HG5 were predominant in clinical and water isolates, respectively, whereas motile Aeromonas salmonicida HG3 strains were most frequently found in fish and meat. Molecular typing revealed several genotypic relationships among specific isolate subsets: (i) two clones of A. media HG5 persisted in drinking water over the study period, (ii) different patients harbored identical or closely related clones during several months, and (iii) clonal relatedness was observed in two sets of water and human isolates. The first of these sets comprised nine water isolates and two human A. media HG5 isolates, whereas the other one included a water isolate and a human isolate of A. caviae HG4. The latter finding suggests that Aeromonas transmission in the studied region followed a waterborne route. Interestingly, the three human isolates closely related to water isolates were recovered in a period of four days in June 2006 from non-related patients without underlying medical conditions that tested negative for other enteric pathogens. The data imply the transmission through contaminated water of strains of the A. caviae group that can produce disease in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Hirai, Itaru; Sano, Kouichi

    2016-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas is known to causes diseases such as food poisoning, sepsis, and wound infection. However, the mode of Aeromonas transmission from environment to humans is not clearly understood. To evaluate the health risks of Aeromonas spp. in environmental freshwater, the number, proportion and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas species were investigated in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Environmental freshwater samples were collected from three dams, two springs and three private wells. Aeromonas strains were identified by the biochemical method and the viable count was calculated. The production of extracellular enzymes and the virulence genes were investigated for possessing putative virulence factors using representative isolates. At least seven species of already-known Aeromonas isolates as well as unidentified Aeromonas spp. with/without arginin dehydrolase (ADH) exist in water at these sites. Aeromonas spp. was found to exist at over 1000 CFU/100 ml in one spring and two wells. A. veronii biovar sobria and A. jandaei were the predominant species in dams, and A. hydrophila and/or A. eucrenophila were predominant in wells. Almost all the sampled Aeromonas species produced protease, gelatinase, lipase, esterase and DNase, but A. caviae, A. caviae-like bacteria, and A. eucrenophila had low hemolytic activity. Most sampled A. hydrophila strains possessed both aerolysin gene (aer) and hemolysin gene (hlyA), but A. caviae and A. eucrenophila strains did not possess either gene. Since these results indicated that several Aeromonas species having potential pathogenicity exist in environmental water in Okinawa, surveys are recommended as a public health measure.

  17. [Isolation and identification of species from the genera Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Plesiomonas from extraintestinal samples in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Cabrera R, Luis E; Castro E, Graciela; Ramírez A, M Margarita; Llop H, Alina; Llanes C, Rafael; Castañeda E, Neisideismy; Fernández A, Anabel; Bravo F, Laura

    2007-06-01

    Extraintestinal infections caused by the genera Aeromonas, Vibrio and Plesiomonas have high morbidity and mortality rates in different areas of world. From January 2002 to December 2003, the National Reference Laboratory for Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases of the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute received 95 gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, oxidase positive bacilli strains from different extraintestinal specimen (blood, ear exudates, infected wounds, conjunctive exudates, urine, and catheters, among others) sent by different provincial laboratories along the country. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii bv sobria, Aeromonas jandaei, Vibrio cholerae no-O1, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio fluvialis and Plesiomonas shigelloides were the species most frequently found in the sample analysed.

  18. Water beetles from the Bokkeveld Plateau: a semi-arid hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Northern Cape of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2017-05-16

    The Bokkeveld Plateau in the Northern Cape of South Africa supports a complex transition zone between the fynbos and succulent karoo biomes on the margins of Namaqualand. A combination of regular winter rainfall, geology and strong rainfall gradients mean that the region supports a diverse and highly endemic flora. Recent sampling of aquatic beetles in the Bokkeveld demonstrates that this region also has a diverse freshwater fauna, including a number of apparent endemics. Five new species of Hydraenidae (Pterosthetops chrysomallus sp. nov., Parastetops porcellus sp. nov., Mesoceration castaneum sp. nov., M. chasmum sp. nov., and M. sabulosum sp. nov.) are described from the Bokkeveld, and new records provided for 68 other water beetle taxa recorded during recent fieldwork in the region, 28 of which are new to Northern Cape Province. Most of the newly described species are relatively common in the region, suggesting that additional taxa may remain undetected in this apparent hotspot of freshwater diversity.

  19. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  20. Resistance to a novel antichlamydial compound is mediated through mutations in Chlamydia trachomatis secY.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Eriksen, Steven G; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Suchland, Robert J; Putman, Timothy E; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert; Rockey, Daniel D

    2012-08-01

    A novel and quantitative high-throughput screening approach was explored as a tool for the identification of novel compounds that inhibit chlamydial growth in mammalian cells. The assay is based on accumulation of a fluorescent marker by intracellular chlamydiae. Its utility was demonstrated by screening 42,000 chemically defined compounds against Chlamydia caviae GPIC. This analysis led to the identification of 40 primary-hit compounds. Five of these compounds were nontoxic to host cells and had similar activities against both C. caviae GPIC and Chlamydia trachomatis. The inhibitory activity of one of the compounds, (3-methoxyphenyl)-(4,4,7-trimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-[1,2]dithiolo[3,4-C]quinolin-1-ylidene)amine (MDQA), was chlamydia specific and was selected for further study. Selection for resistance to MDQA led to the generation of three independent resistant clones of C. trachomatis. Amino acid changes in SecY, a protein involved in Sec-dependent secretion in Gram-negative bacteria, were associated with the resistance phenotype. The amino acids changed in each of the resistant mutants are located in the predicted central channel of a SecY crystal structure, based on the known structure of Thermus thermophilus SecY. These experiments model a process that can be used for the discovery of antichlamydial, anti-intracellular, or antibacterial compounds and has led to the identification of compounds that may have utility in both antibiotic discovery and furthering our understanding of chlamydial biology.

  1. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water.

    PubMed

    Amorós, I; Alonso, J L; Romaguera, S; Carrasco, J M

    2007-05-01

    A new Aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, in the Albufera lake, a protected area near Valencia. Viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of Aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. Data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between A. caviae counts of viability markers at the studied concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate). The effects of Roundup on microbial biota present in the lake were assessed by measuring the number of indigenous mesophilic Aeromonas in presence of different amounts of the herbicide at 0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate. In samples containing 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate a significant (P<0.05) increase in Aeromonas spp. counts and accompanying flora was observed. The acute toxicity of Roundup and of Roundup diluted with Albufera lake water to Microtox luminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) also was determined. The EC50 values obtained were 36.4 mg l-1 and 64.0 mgl-1 of glyphosate respectively. The acidity (pH 4.5) of the herbicide formulation was the responsible of the observed toxicity.

  3. The Genus Aeromonas: Biochemical Characteristics, Atypical Reactions, and Phenotypic Identification Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sharon L.; Cheung, Wendy K. W.; Janda, J. Michael

    2003-01-01

    A total of 193 strains representing 14 different Aeromonas genomospecies were evaluated for 63 phenotypic properties to create useful tables for the reference identification of mesophilic aeromonads. Only 9 of 62 biochemical tests (14%) yielded uniform results, and the fermentation of certain carbohydrates was found to be linked to specific species. A number of unusual or aberrant properties for the genus Aeromonas were also detected in the collection of 428 strains (193 in the phenotypic study, 235 in a retrospective review). These tests included susceptibility to the vibriostatic agent, fermentation of m-inositol and d-xylose, hydrolysis of urea, and the lack of cytochrome oxidase activity. Fermentation of melibiose was linked to raffinose fermentation in all Aeromonas species except A. jandaei. Keys are provided for clinical laboratories choosing to identify aeromonads to species level based upon initial Møeller decarboxylase and dihydrolase reactions. In addition, several new tests were identified that help to separate members of the A. caviae complex (A. caviae, A. media, and A. eucreonophila). PMID:12791848

  4. Biotyping of Aeromonas isolates as a correlate to delineating a species-associated disease spectrum.

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J M; Reitano, M; Bottone, E J

    1984-01-01

    A group of 147 Aeromonas isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources was subjected to the biotyping scheme of Popoff and Veron. Of the 147 isolates biotyped, 137 (93%) could be identified, with Aeromonas hydrophila predominating (48%) and equal percentages (25 to 27%) of the other two species (Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae). A number of additional biochemical properties were found to be significantly associated with one or more of these three species. These included lysine decarboxylase activity, hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, lecithinase production, staphylolytic activity, arbutin hydrolysis, and acid production from utilization of various carbohydrates. By incorporating these phenotypic properties into an extended biotyping system, 98% of the isolates were identified. Selective distribution of individual species with respect to certain body sites was noted. PMID:6690467

  5. Use of satellite telemetry to indentify common loon migration routes, staging areas and wintering range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Evers, D.C.; Douglas, D.C.; Hines, J.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a satellite transmitter attachment technique for adult Common Loons (Cavia immer) that would help in identifying important migration routes, staging areas, and the location of wintering grounds of birds that breed in the north central United States. During the autumn and winter of 1998, the migration of six adult loons that were radio marked in northern Wisconsin and Minnesota was monitored. The results of this work offer insight into autumn movement patterns of Common Loons. Timing of autumn staging and migration to wintering grounds appeared to be related to low pressure systems that delivered winter weather to the Upper Midwest. Most of the radio marked birds staged on the Great Lakes and then followed one of two distinct migration routes to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Several of the birds used lakes and reservoirs in the southeastern United States during migration. This study provides a basis for more extensive studies of Common Loon migration.

  6. Molecular Typing of Aeromonas Isolates in Natural Mineral Waters

    PubMed Central

    Villari, P.; Crispino, M.; Montuori, P.; Boccia, S.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 103 isolates of Aeromonas spp. were obtained over a 3-year period from a natural mineral water and from surface streams located within the boundaries of the watershed of the natural mineral water wells and were typed by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA with XbaI and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All Aeromonas caviae isolates from the natural mineral water belonged to the same clone, and an analogous clonal identity was found among Aeromonas hydrophila isolates. These two clones expressed no hemolytic or cytotoxic activities. Aeromonas isolates from surface waters showed high molecular heterogeneity and were not related to the clones found in the natural mineral water. The presence of aeromonads chronically found in the natural mineral water was a likely consequence of a localized development of a biofilm, with no exogenous contamination of the aquifer. Molecular fingerprinting of drinking water isolates is a useful tool in explaining possible reasons for bacterial occurrences. PMID:12514065

  7. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic motile aeromonads in children, fish, milk and ice-cream and their public health significance.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A S; Kumar, A

    2000-01-01

    Motile aeromonads, which have been implicated as causative agents of human gastroenteritis, meningitis. endocarditis and osteomyelitis, were isolated from fish, pasteurized and flavored milk and ice creams. Forty-five isolates of Aeromonas from diarrheic children (100) and 285 food samples comprising of fish (100), milk (85) and ice creams (100) were identified as A. hydrophila (21), A. sobria (16) and A. caviae (8). Five of these 45 isolates of Aeromonoas (3 A. sobria, 2 A. hydrophila) were from fecal samples of diarrheic children under five years of age. Twenty-six of these 45 isolates were found to be enterotoxin producing by ligated rabbit ileum loop technique. Isolation of enterotoxigenic motile aeromonads from food as well as diarrheic children have great public health significance which will be further discussed.

  8. Clinical significance of Aeromonas species isolated from patients with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Moyer, N P

    1987-11-01

    A total of 248 strains of Aeromonas spp. were isolated from 3,334 human fecal specimens submitted to a state public health laboratory over a 2-year period to be cultured for enteric pathogens. Cary-Blair transport medium, blood ampicillin agar, and alkaline peptone water enrichment provided optimal recovery of Aeromonas spp. A questionnaire requesting clinical and epidemiological information was sent to physicians, who submitted stool samples for testing, with each laboratory report for 107 consecutive stool isolates of Aeromonas spp. The 56 questionnaires which were completed and returned were analyzed to determine the seasonal distribution of illness and the age and sex distribution of patients; characteristic symptoms; and predisposing factors for gastrointestinal disease caused by Aeromonas spp. It was concluded that some A. hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae strains are capable of causing diarrhea and that antibiotic therapy and the drinking of untreated water are significant risk factors for susceptible hosts.

  9. Optimisation of the protocol for detection of Aeromonas species in ready-to-eat salads, and its use to speciate isolates and establish their prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mattick, K L; Donovan, T J

    1998-12-01

    Aeromonas spp. are detected in more than 500 cases of gastrointestinal infection each year in England and Wales. This study aimed to identify their prevalence in ready-to-eat salads, which are a potential source of aeromonas infection. The protocol for isolation of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from salads was optimised. Using the improved method, Aeromonas spp were isolated from 19 of 25 samples (25 g) of ready-to-eat salad products. Aeromonas organisms were counted, isolates were identified to species level, and the effect of pH on colonisation of salads was assessed. Aeromonas was present at high levels in six salads (> or = 100 cfu/g). The major species present in salads was Aeromonas caviae, but A.hydrophila and A.sobria, which have more pathogenic potential, were also isolated. It is hoped that this study will help to assess the risk to public health of aeromonas in salads.

  10. [Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides in bivalves, mud, and water from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, E; Antillón, F

    1989-06-01

    Bivalves, mud, and surface water were collected at three different sites of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, in search of Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides. For their isolation, these bacteria were enriched in alkaline peptone water and streaked on MacConkey agar and on brilliant green bile inositol agar. This was followed by the biochemical tests necessary for their identification. Thirty-five strains of A. hydrophila, 58 of A. caviae, 43 of A. sobria, and 7 of P. shigelloides were isolated. None of these predominated nor was there any indication of a seasonal distribution along the 15 month's duration of the study. Seven strains of A. hydrophila and two of A. sobria showed the biochemical characteristics associated with toxin production (positive Voges-Proskauer and lysine decarboxylase tests). These species are widely distributed in the gulf and there is risk of contracting an infection while bathing or when eating raw bivalves from this area.

  11. Two membrane filter media (mADA/0129 and mSA/0129 agars) for enumeration of motile Aeromonas in seawater.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J L; Garay, E

    1989-10-01

    Sewage-contaminated natural seawater was analysed for the presence of motile Aeromonas by two membrane filtration procedures. Incubation of membranes on two modified media (mADA (0/129) and mSA (0/129) were compared. The specificity of the two media was high, 95.8% on mADA (0/129) and 94.8% on mSA (0129). The most frequent species identified were A. caviae, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Motile Aeromonas counts were high in both media (greater than 10(4)/100 ml) and no significant differences were observed between them. The two membrane filtration procedures allowed rapid quantitative recovery of motile Aeromonas from seawater in the presence of very large numbers of competing microflora.

  12. Clinical significance of Aeromonas species isolated from patients with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, N P

    1987-01-01

    A total of 248 strains of Aeromonas spp. were isolated from 3,334 human fecal specimens submitted to a state public health laboratory over a 2-year period to be cultured for enteric pathogens. Cary-Blair transport medium, blood ampicillin agar, and alkaline peptone water enrichment provided optimal recovery of Aeromonas spp. A questionnaire requesting clinical and epidemiological information was sent to physicians, who submitted stool samples for testing, with each laboratory report for 107 consecutive stool isolates of Aeromonas spp. The 56 questionnaires which were completed and returned were analyzed to determine the seasonal distribution of illness and the age and sex distribution of patients; characteristic symptoms; and predisposing factors for gastrointestinal disease caused by Aeromonas spp. It was concluded that some A. hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae strains are capable of causing diarrhea and that antibiotic therapy and the drinking of untreated water are significant risk factors for susceptible hosts. PMID:3693537

  13. The presence of Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in patients infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyue; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yuanjun; Li, Lingjie; Hou, Shuping; Gao, Xibo; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 has been found in Chlamydia caviae in a guinea pig model for inclusion conjunctivitis, raising the possibility that Chlamydia phage is also present in patients infected with C. trachomatis (Ct). In the present study, we assayed for presence of Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in 84 non-Ct controls and 206 Ct patients using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), followed by verification with Western blot. None of the subjects were exposed to an antibiotic treatment or had a C. pneumoniae infection. The VP1 antibody test was positive in both, the ELISA and Western blot assay, in 4 Ct patients. PCR amplification experiments revealed presence of the VP1 gene in 5 Ct patients. The results suggest that Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 may exist in some Ct patients.

  14. Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Alexandra; Sting, Reinhard; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Tyczka, Judith; Sachse, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas species from an eutrophic tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Marcel, Kouassi Aka; Antoinette, Adingra Ama; Mireille, Dosso

    2002-12-01

    Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas species were undertaken in the Ebrié lagoon (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire) over a one year period. Overall 63% of 501 water samples were identified as positive for Aeromonas spp. A. sobria, A. hydrophila and A. caviae represent respectively 49.20%, 20.63% and 30.15% of the positive samples. Thirty nine of the positive samples were recovered from surface water samples; while 24 bottom water samples were positive for Aeromonas. Aeromonas species are most frequently (82.53) present in the Ebrié lagoon urban area during the rainy and flood seasons when the salinity is low and below 10 per thousand. A lower isolation frequency is noticed during the dry season when water salinity is over 10 per thousand. Finally, a higher isolation frequency occurred in samples with highest counts of Escherichia coli.

  16. Application of ribotyping for differentiating aeromonads isolated from clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Moyer, N P; Luccini, G M; Holcomb, L A; Hall, N H; Altwegg, M

    1992-06-01

    We have investigated the usefulness of ribotyping for the differentiation of aeromonads isolated from five patients with gastroenteritis and from the source water, treatment plant, and distribution system of a small public water supply. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae were isolated from fecal specimens preserved in Cary-Blair transport medium by using blood ampicillin agar or alkaline peptone water (pH 8.4) subcultured to blood ampicillin agar plates. A. hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and A. caviae were isolated from duplicate 100-ml water samples by the membrane filter technique by using ampicillin dextrin agar for quantitative determination of growth and alkaline peptone water enrichment for detection of the presence or absence of aeromonads below the detection limit of the membrane filter method. In addition, free chlorine residuals and pH values were determined for all water samples and heterotrophic plate counts and total and fecal coliform analyses were performed on them. Ribotyping patterns of aeromonads recovered from well 1, detention basin, sand filter, softener, and distribution samples were compared with those of the five clinical isolates. All patient strains were unique; however, identical ribotypes of A. hydrophila and A. sobria isolated from multiple sites in the water system indicated colonization of a well, sand filters, and the softener, with the potential for sporadic contamination of distribution water. Plant operational deficiencies were noted and corrected. Ribotyping can effectively differentiate otherwise indistinguishable strains of bacteria, thus providing a powerful tool for investigation of waterborne diseases and bacteriological problems within water treatment plants and distribution systems.

  17. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Aeromonas recovered from the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain): diseases spectrum and prevalence in the environment.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Giménez, M J

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas infections are rare in Europe and often related to traveller's diarrhoea. A total of 185 Aeromonas isolates from river water, fish and clinical sources, recovered during a 1-year period, were used to investigate the disease spectrum and impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. They were all identified by biochemical tests and 25% of them were also identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 antimicrobials were determined for all isolates by broth microdilution/E-strips methods, and susceptibility was assessed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Strains pathogenicity was determined by using Swiss Webster mice as the animal model. Aeromonas diseases had an incidence of around 20 cases/million inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Acute gastroenteritis in children with no history of travel abroad was the main pathology. These cases were related to A. caviae, A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. dhakensis. A significant incidence of A. caviae in humans was found, while the other species were equally present in clinical and environmental origins. A. jandaei, A. bestiarum and A. media had mainly an environmental distribution. The prevalence of MDR Aeromonas was maximal in clinical samples, and resistance phenotypes were significantly related to this source. 7.2% of environmental Aeromonas was resistant to at least five drugs; most of them were moderately virulent for mice and, in addition, belonged to clinically significant species. The present study demonstrates a diseases spectrum similar to that reported in tropical countries, and also that pathogenic and heavily MDR Aeromonas are present in environmental reservoirs. MDR Aeromonas from any source analysed were susceptible to aztreonam, netilmicin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and fluoroquinolones.

  18. Real-time detection and identification of Chlamydophila species in veterinary specimens by using SYBR green-based PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Steen; Kabell, Susanne; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-09-01

    Infections caused by members of the Chlamydiaceae family have long been underestimated due to the requirement of special laboratory facilities for the detection of this group of intracellular pathogens. Furthermore, new studies of this group of intracellular pathogens have revealed that host specificity of different species is not as clear as recently believed. As most members of the genus Chlamydophila have shown to be transmissible from animals to humans, sensitive and fast detection methods are required. In this study, SYBR green-based real-time assays were developed that detect all members of Chlamydiaceae and differentiate the most prevalent veterinary Chlamydophila species: Cp. psittaci, Cp. abortus, Cp. felis, and Cp. caviae. By adding bovine serum albumin to the master mixes, target DNA could be detected directly in crude lysates of enzymatically digested conjunctival or pharyngeal swabs or tissue specimens from heart, liver, and spleen without further purification. The assays were evaluated on veterinary specimens where all samples were screened using a family-specific PCR, and positive samples were further tested using species-specific PCRs. Cp. psittaci was detected in 47 birds, Cp. felis was found in 10 cats, Cp. caviae was found in one guinea pig, and Cp. abortus was detected in one sheep. The screening assay appeared more sensitive than traditional microscopical examination of stained tissue smears. By combining a fast, robust, and cost-effective method for sample preparation with a highly sensitive family-specific PCR, we were able to screen for Chlamydiaceae in veterinary specimens and confirm the species in positive samples with additional PCR assays.

  19. Genetic diversity and virulence potential of clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. isolates from a diarrhea outbreak.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lívia Christina Alves da; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; Melo, Beatriz Souza Toscano de; Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva de; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2017-08-18

    Aeromonas spp. are gram-negative bacteria that can cause a variety of infections in both humans and animals and play a controversial role in diarrhea outbreaks. Our aim was to identify clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in a northeast county of Brazil at the species level. We also aimed to determine the genetic structure of the bacterial population and the virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates. Analysis based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes suggested the classification of the 119 isolates studied into the following species: A. caviae (66.9%), A. veronii (15.3%), A. aquariorum (9.3%), A. trota (3.4%), A. hydrophila (3.4%) and A. jandaei (1.7%). One isolate did not fit any Aeromonas species assessed, which might indicate a new species. The haplotype network based on 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 59 groups among the 119 isolates and 26 reference strains, and it clustered almost all A. caviae isolates into the same group. The analysis of the frequency patterns of seven virulence-associated genes (alt, ast, hlyA, aerA, exu, lip, flaA/B) revealed 29 virulence patterns composed of one to seven genes. All the isolates harbored at least one gene, and three of them harbored all seven virulence genes. The results emphasize the need to improve local water supply and maintain close monitoring of possible bacterial contamination in the drinking water.

  20. Clinical and Therapeutic Implications of Aeromonas Bacteremia: 14 Years Nation-Wide Experiences in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background To elucidate the clinical presentation, antimicrobial susceptibility, and prognostic factors of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia in order to determine the most effective optimal therapy. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of Aeromonas bacteremia patients for the period January 2000 to December 2013 in a retrospective multi-center study. Results A total of 336 patient records were reviewed, with 242 having community-acquired bacteremia. The major clinical infections were of the hepatobiliary tract (50.6%) and peritonitis (18.5%), followed by primary bacteremia (17.9%). The infections usually occurred in patients with malignancy (42.3%), hepatic cirrhosis (39.3%), or diabetes mellitus (25.6%). High antimicrobial-resistance rates (15.5% for ceftriaxone, 15.5% for piperacillin/tazobactam) were noted. However, resistance to carbapenem and amikacin was only 9.8% and 3.0%, respectively. Aeromonas hydrophila (58.9%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Aeromonas caviae (30.4%). The severity of A. caviae bacteremia cases were less than that of A. hydrophila or Aeromonas veronii bacteremia (P <0.05). A. hydrophila showed higher antimicrobial resistance than did other Aeromonas species (P <0.05). Patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia were more likely to have severely abnormal laboratory findings and relatively high antimicrobial-resistance rates. Mortality was associated with metastatic cancer, shock, delayed use of appropriate antimicrobial agents, increased prothrombin time, and increased creatinine level (P <0.05). Conclusions Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative agents of bacteremia in patients with intra-abdominal infections or malignancies. Although ceftriaxone-resistant Aeromonas bacteremia was not statistically related to mortality in this study, it was associated with severe clinical manifestations and laboratory abnormalities. Appropriate antibiotics, including carbapenem, should be administered early

  1. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Feng, Yanni; Ying, Xin; Gong, Joshua; Gyles, Carlton L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE) lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands) and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:26090813

  2. High Prevalence of BlaCTX-M Group Genes in Aeromonas dhakensis Isolated from Aquaculture Fish Species in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    YI, Seung-Won; CHUNG, Tae-Ho; JOH, Seong-Joon; PARK, Chul; PARK, Byoung-Yong; SHIN, Gee-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, blaTEM, blaOXA-B and blaCTX-M. In the results, the blaTEM-1 gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored blaOXA gene. In the case of blaCTX-M gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the blaCTX-M positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for blaCTX-M genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including blaCTX-M-33 from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health. PMID:25649940

  3. High prevalence of blaCTX-M group genes in Aeromonas dhakensis isolated from aquaculture fish species in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; Chung, Tae-Ho; Joh, Seong-Joon; Park, Chul; Park, Byoung-Yong; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B) and bla(CTX-M). In the results, the bla(TEM-1) gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored bla(OXA) gene. In the case of bla(CTX-M) gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the bla(CTX-M) positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for bla(CTX-M) genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including bla(CTX-M-33) from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health.

  4. Real-Time Detection and Identification of Chlamydophila Species in Veterinary Specimens by Using SYBR Green-Based PCR Assays ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, Steen; Kabell, Susanne; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by members of the Chlamydiaceae family have long been underestimated due to the requirement of special laboratory facilities for the detection of this group of intracellular pathogens. Furthermore, new studies of this group of intracellular pathogens have revealed that host specificity of different species is not as clear as recently believed. As most members of the genus Chlamydophila have shown to be transmissible from animals to humans, sensitive and fast detection methods are required. In this study, SYBR green-based real-time assays were developed that detect all members of Chlamydiaceae and differentiate the most prevalent veterinary Chlamydophila species: Cp. psittaci, Cp. abortus, Cp. felis, and Cp. caviae. By adding bovine serum albumin to the master mixes, target DNA could be detected directly in crude lysates of enzymatically digested conjunctival or pharyngeal swabs or tissue specimens from heart, liver, and spleen without further purification. The assays were evaluated on veterinary specimens where all samples were screened using a family-specific PCR, and positive samples were further tested using species-specific PCRs. Cp. psittaci was detected in 47 birds, Cp. felis was found in 10 cats, Cp. caviae was found in one guinea pig, and Cp. abortus was detected in one sheep. The screening assay appeared more sensitive than traditional microscopical examination of stained tissue smears. By combining a fast, robust, and cost-effective method for sample preparation with a highly sensitive family-specific PCR, we were able to screen for Chlamydiaceae in veterinary specimens and confirm the species in positive samples with additional PCR assays. PMID:21764961

  5. Storage Insects on Yam Chips and Their Traditional Management in Northern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Loko, Y. L.; Dansi, A.; Tamo, M.; Bokonon-Ganta, A. H.; Assogba, P.; Dansi, M.; Vodouhè, R.; Akoegninou, A.; Sanni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples). Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret) and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani) all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed. PMID:23710140

  6. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production.

  7. Storage insects on yam chips and their traditional management in Northern Benin.

    PubMed

    Loko, Y L; Dansi, A; Tamo, M; Bokonon-Ganta, A H; Assogba, P; Dansi, M; Vodouhè, R; Akoegninou, A; Sanni, A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples). Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret) and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani) all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed.

  8. Seasonal changes in the rotifer (Rotifera) diversity from a tropical high altitude reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Contreras, Jorge Jimenez; Sarma, S S S; Merino-Ibarra, Martin; Nandini, S

    2009-03-01

    We studied the zooplankton community composition at different depths (2, 4, 8, 12 and 20 m) of Valle de Bravo, a drinking water reservoirin central Mexico during December 2005 to November 2006. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll a were measured simultaneously. While physicochemical values were similar to those found in previous studies, total zooplankton abundance was higher (mean 847 ind. l(-1)), doubling the mean abundance found in the previous year. Nevertheless, Zooplankton remained dominated by the rotifer genera Keratella, Polyarthra and Trichocerca, which constituted nearly 80% of the total numerical abundances. We encountered 23 rotifer species of which 5 of them (Lepadella rhomboides, Cephalodella catellina, Trichocerca elongata, T porcellus and Dicranophorus forcipatus) were recorded for the first time from this reservoir. Shannon Wiener diversity index showed that the annual mean species diversity index was similar at depths of 2, 4 and 8 m, but were reduced at 12 and 20 m. Regardless of depth, the highest diversity value of 1.82 was observed during January, while the lowest (0.07) during March. Principal component analysis showed that temperature, dissolved oxygen, water column depth and chlorophyll a have combined effects on the abundance of dominant rotiferspecies. The highest rotifer density was observed in April (> 1600 individuals l(-1)), while the lowest was recorded during January (<50 ind. l(-1)). During the study period, the most abundant rotifer species were Keratella chochlearis, Polyarthra vulgaris, Trichocecra elongata and Anuraeopsis fissa.

  9. Prevalence, Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles, and In-vitro Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Against Aeromonas Isolates from Stool Samples of Patients in the Venda Region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Obi, C.L.; Ramalivhana, J.; Samie, A.; Igumbor, E.O.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence, pathogenic indices, such as haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities, antibiograms, and in-vitro activities of local medicinal plants against Aeromonas isolates in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa, were studied using standard microbiological methods. In total, 309 diarrhoeic stool samples were collected from patients attending five health centres in the region during December 2004–May 2005. Aeromonas species were identified using the API 20E system. The haemagglutinating and haemolytic activities of isolates on human, sheep, pig and chicken red blood cells were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates to several antibiotics and in-vitro activity of local medicinal plants were also ascertained using previously-reported schemes. Results showed that 104 (33.6%) of the 309 samples were positive for Aeromonas species, of which 89 (85.6%) were Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 (11.5%) A. sobria, and three (2.9%) A. caviae. All strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae produced haemolysis on sheep blood, while eight of the 12 A. sobria strains were haemolytic on sheep blood. The haemolytic activities of the isolates were variable on other red blood cells tested. High level of resistance was observed to amoxicillin and ampicillin, followed by cefuroxime (79%), chloramphenicol (74%), and erythromycin (65%). The carbapenems were the most active drugs with only 7% resistance to meropenem and 11% to imipenem. About 12% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The extracts of three of seven medicinal plants tested showed inhibitory activity against all Aeromonas isolates; these included acetone and hexane extracts of Pterocarpus angolensis, Syzygium cordatum, and Zornia milneana. The results suggest a high prevalence of Aeromonas species in the region. The isolates demonstrated multiple resistant profiles to different antibiotics tested. Some local medicinal plants were inhibitory to Aeromonas isolates, indicating a

  10. [Pulmonary nocardiosis. A case report (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, J A; Martín Luengo, F; Villar Galán, J L

    1979-06-25

    Within the genus Nocardia three species are at present considered to have human pathologic interest: N. asteroides, N. brasiliensis, and N. caviae. These species are usually the etiologic agents of at least two clinical pictures: nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. A case of pulmonar nocardiosis in a 62-year-old male is reported. The patient had asthmatic episodes and on several occasions received treatment with corticoids. The clinical picture basically consisted of an impairment of the general condition with respiratory symptomatology and fever of 38 to 39 degrees C. An opaque pleuropulmonary image was observed on the chest X-ray film, and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was initially established. The correct diagnosis was confirmed through the bacteriological examination of the transtracheal aspirate with the isolation of N. asteroides. Treatment with streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim achieved the clinical and roentgenologic cure of the patient. After 2 months of treatment the clinical manifestations had disappeared and after 5 months the chest X-ray was normal. Some epidemiologic data are reviewed.

  11. Streptomycin action to the mammalian inner ear vestibular organs: comparison between pigmented guinea pigs and rats.

    PubMed

    Meza, Graciela; Aguilar-Maldonado, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Streptomycin is the antibiotic of choice to treat tuberculosis and other infectious diseases but it causes vestibular malfunction and hipoacusia. Rodents are usually employed as models of drug action to the inner ear and results are extrapolated to what happens in humans. In rats, streptomycin destroys macular sensory cells and does not affect cochlear ones, whereas in guinea pigs the contrary is true. Action on the vestibular cristae cells involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex integrity is less clear. Thus, we compared this response in both pigmented guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) after parallel streptomycin chronic treatment. In guinea pigs, the reflex was obliterated along treatment time; in rats this behavior was not observed, suggesting that the end organ target was diverse. In recent studies, streptidine, a streptomycin derivative found in the blood of humans and rats treated with streptomycin, was the actual ototoxic agent. The putative streptomycin vestibular organ target observed in humans corresponds with the guinea pig observations. Results observed in rats are controversial: streptidine did not cause any damage either to vestibular cristae nor auditory cells. We hypothesize differential drug metabolism and distribution and conclude that results in laboratory animals may not always be applicable in the human situation.

  12. Virulence factor-activity relationships (VFAR) with specific emphasis on Aeromonas species (spp.).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Ashok K; Graf, Joerg; Horneman, Amy J; Johnson, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    The human population most commonly inflicted with Aeromonas infection includes young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Importantly, the isolation rate of Aeromonas species from children suffering from diarrhea is similar in developing and developed countries. It is becoming clear that only a small subset of Aeromonas species belonging to a particular hybridization group causes disease in humans. Human infections with this pathogen occur by consuming contaminated food and water. Aeromonas species were isolated from wounds of patients during the tsunami in southern Thailand. Further, increased numbers of this pathogen were recovered from floodwater samples during Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Among various species of Aeromonas, A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. veronii biovar sobria are mainly responsible for causing disease in humans. Our laboratory has isolated various virulence factors from a diarrheal isolate SSU of A. hydrophila and molecularly characterized them. In addition to various virulence factors produced by Aeromonas species, the status of the immune system plays an important role in inducing disease by this pathogen in the host. Taken together, we have made significant advances in better understanding the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections, which will help in differentiating pathogenic from non-pathogenic aeromonads. This review covers virulence aspects of a clinical isolate of A. hydrophila.

  13. Occurrence of bacteriophages infecting Aeromonas, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella in water and association with contamination sources in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wangkahad, Bencharong; Bosup, Suchada; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2015-06-01

    The co-residence of bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts in humans, animals, and environmental sources directed the use of bacteriophages to track the origins of the pathogenic bacteria that can be found in contaminated water. The objective of this study was to enumerate bacteriophages of Aeromonas caviae (AecaKS148), Enterobacter sp. (EnspKS513), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KlpnKS648) in water and evaluate their association with contamination sources (human vs. animals). Bacterial host strains were isolated from untreated wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand. A double-layer agar technique was used to detect bacteriophages. All three bacteriophages were detected in polluted canal samples, with likely contamination from human wastewater, whereas none was found in non-polluted river samples. AecaKS148 was found to be associated with human fecal sources, while EnspKS513 and KlpnKS648 seemed to be equally prevalent in both human and animal fecal sources. Both bacteriophages were also present in polluted canals that could receive contamination from other fecal sources or the environment. In conclusion, all three bacteriophages were successfully monitored in Bangkok, Thailand. This study provided an example of bacteriophages for potential use as source identifiers of pathogen contamination. The results from this study will assist in controlling sources of pathogen contamination, especially in developing countries.

  14. Regulation of 3-hydroxyhexanoate composition in PHBH synthesized by recombinant Cupriavidus necator H16 from plant oil by using butyrate as a co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Fujiki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2015-09-01

    A (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HH) composition-regulating technology for poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBH) production was developed using recombinant Cupriavidus necator H16 with butyrate as a co-substrate. A new (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA ((R)-3HH-CoA) synthesis pathway was designed and enhanced by replacing the PHA synthase gene (phaC1) of C. necator by the phaCAcNSDG (encoding the N149S and D171G mutant of PHA synthase from Aeromonas caviae) and deactivation of the phaA gene (encoding (β-ketothiolase) from C. necator H16 chromosome). The effect of butyrate as co-substrate was assessed in high-cell-density fed-batch cultures of several C. necator mutants, and the 3HH fraction was successfully increased by adding butyrate to the culture. Moreover, overexpression of BktB (encoding the second β-ketothiolase with broad substrate specificity) enhanced the (R)-3HH-CoA synthesis pathway in the phaA deactivated mutant of C. necator by promoting the condensation of acetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA into 3-ketohexanoyl-CoA. Consequently, PHBH containing 4.2-13.0 mol% 3HH was produced from butyrate and palm kernel oil by the genetically modified C. necator H16 strains. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic bacterial microbiota isolated from the cloaca of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health.

  16. Effect of Ca content percentage and sintering temperature on corrosion rate in Mg-Ca composite fabricated using powder metallurgy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaza Nabilla, M. S.; Zuraidawani, C. D.; Nazree, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a good element with high potential to be used in various field of work. It has the benefit of lightweight and low density its application is limited for Mg is relatively low in term of strength. Hence, calcium (Ca) is chosen to be mixed with Mg as additional element for it is lightweight and non-toxic. In this research, Mg is prepared with different weight percentage (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. %) of Cavia powder metallurgy (PM) method. The samples were sintered at 500 and 550°Cin argon atmosphere and electrochemically using SBF solution as the electrolyte medium. The effect of Ca content on corrosion rateis investigated by focusing on the microstructure and properties of sintered sample. Increase of Ca content causes reduction in grain structure due to increase Mg2Ca phase at grain boundaries. Subsequently, reduce corrosion resistance. Hence, the amount of Ca content and sintering temperature of Mg-Ca composite is controlled to acquire optimum corrosion rate.

  17. Chlamydia spp. development is differentially altered by treatment with the LpxC inhibitor LPC-011.

    PubMed

    Cram, Erik D; Rockey, Daniel D; Dolan, Brian P

    2017-04-24

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C. trachomatis developmental cycle during RB- > EB differentiation. Here, we explore the effects of one of these inhibitors, LPC-011, on the developmental cycle of five chlamydial species. Sensitivity to the drug varied in some of the species and was conserved between others. We observed that inhibition of LOS biosynthesis in some chlamydial species induced formation of aberrant reticulate bodies, while in other species, no change was observed to the reticulate body. However, loss of LOS production prevented completion of the chlamydial reproductive cycle in all species tested. In previous studies we found that C. trachomatis and C. caviae infection enhances MHC class I antigen presentation of a model self-peptide. We find that treatment with LPC-011 prevents enhanced host-peptide presentation induced by infection with all chlamydial-species tested. The data demonstrate that LOS synthesis is necessary for production of infectious progeny and inhibition of LOS synthesis induces aberrancy in certain chlamydial species, which has important implications for the use of LOS synthesis inhibitors as potential antibiotics.

  18. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Bavoil, Patrik M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Stephens, Richard S; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Horn, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) comprises important, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Subdivision of the family into the two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila has been discussed controversially during the past decade. Here, we have revisited the current classification in the light of recent genomic data and in the context of the unique biological properties of these microorganisms. We conclude that neither generally used 16S rRNA sequence identity cut-off values nor parameters based on genomic similarity consistently separate the two genera. Notably, no easily recognizable phenotype such as host preference or tissue tropism is available that would support a subdivision. In addition, the genus Chlamydophila is currently not well accepted and not used by a majority of research groups in the field. Therefore, we propose the classification of all 11 currently recognized Chlamydiaceae species in a single genus, the genus Chlamydia. Finally, we provide emended descriptions of the family Chlamydiaceae, the genus Chlamydia, as well as the species Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia caviae and Chlamydia felis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Suprasegmental lexical stress cues in visual speech can guide spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M

    2014-01-01

    Visual cues to the individual segments of speech and to sentence prosody guide speech recognition. The present study tested whether visual suprasegmental cues to the stress patterns of words can also constrain recognition. Dutch listeners use acoustic suprasegmental cues to lexical stress (changes in duration, amplitude, and pitch) in spoken-word recognition. We asked here whether they can also use visual suprasegmental cues. In two categorization experiments, Dutch participants saw a speaker say fragments of word pairs that were segmentally identical but differed in their stress realization (e.g., 'ca-vi from cavia "guinea pig" vs. 'ka-vi from kaviaar "caviar"). Participants were able to distinguish between these pairs from seeing a speaker alone. Only the presence of primary stress in the fragment, not its absence, was informative. Participants were able to distinguish visually primary from secondary stress on first syllables, but only when the fragment-bearing target word carried phrase-level emphasis. Furthermore, participants distinguished fragments with primary stress on their second syllable from those with secondary stress on their first syllable (e.g., pro-'jec from projector "projector" vs. 'pro-jec from projectiel "projectile"), independently of phrase-level emphasis. Seeing a speaker thus contributes to spoken-word recognition by providing suprasegmental information about the presence of primary lexical stress.

  20. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Chlamydophila abortus genome sequence reveals an array of variable proteins that contribute to interspecies variation

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Nicholas R.; Yeats, Corin; Bell, Kenneth; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Livingstone, Morag; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M.; Harris, Barbara; Doggett, Jon; Ormond, Doug; Mungall, Karen; Clarke, Kay; Feltwell, Theresa; Hance, Zahra; Sanders, Mandy; Quail, Michael A.; Price, Claire; Barrell, Bart G.; Parkhill, Julian; Longbottom, David

    2005-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydophila abortus strain S26/3 (formerly the abortion subtype of Chlamydia psittaci) is an important cause of late gestation abortions in ruminants and pigs. Furthermore, although relatively rare, zoonotic infection can result in acute illness and miscarriage in pregnant women. The complete genome sequence was determined and shows a high level of conservation in both sequence and overall gene content in comparison to other Chlamydiaceae. The 1,144,377-bp genome contains 961 predicted coding sequences, 842 of which are conserved with those of Chlamydophila caviae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Within this conserved Cp. abortus core genome we have identified the major regions of variation and have focused our analysis on these loci, several of which were found to encode highly variable protein families, such as TMH/Inc and Pmp families, which are strong candidates for the source of diversity in host tropism and disease causation in this group of organisms. Significantly, Cp. abortus lacks any toxin genes, and also lacks genes involved in tryptophan metabolism and nucleotide salvaging (guaB is present as a pseudogene), suggesting that the genetic basis of niche adaptation of this species is distinct from those previously proposed for other chlamydial species. PMID:15837807

  2. Bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) production in Aeromonas hydrophila water isolates.

    PubMed

    Messi, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Elisa; Bondi, Moreno

    2003-03-14

    30 Aeromonas hydrophila water isolates were tested for bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) production using a target panel of closely related microorganisms and other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including food-borne pathogens. A. hydrophila showed antibacterial activity against one or more indicator microorganisms, but the activity emerged only with non-phylogenetically related genera or species. In particular all A. hydrophila showed antibacterial activity against one or more of the tested Staphylococcus strains, five against Listeria spp. (Listeria seeligeri, Listeria welshimeri and Listeria ivanovii), and eight presented a weak antagonistic activity towards Streptococcus agalactiae and Lactobacillus spp. Inhibitory activity was not observed against the other Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus spp.) and Gram-negative tested strains, including Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae and the same A. hydrophila, when used as indicator. Anti-staphylococcal activity was observed with a gradual increase of the inhibition zone during incubation and seemed to be influenced by A. hydrophila hemolytic expression. Extrachromosomal analysis showed the presence, in 70% of the strains, of one to five plasmids with molecular masses ranging from 2.1 to 41.5 MDa, but it was not possible to relate this result with BLS production.

  3. In Azospirillum brasilense, mutations in flmA or flmB genes affect polar flagellum assembly, surface polysaccharides, and attachment to maize roots.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fernando Ariel; Medeot, Daniela Beatriz; Liaudat, Juan Pablo; Pistorio, Mariano; Jofré, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a soil bacterium capable of promoting plant growth. Several surface components were previously reported to be involved in the attachment of A. brasilense to root plants. Among these components are the exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the polar flagellum. Flagellin from polar flagellum is glycosylated and it was suggested that genes involved in such a posttranslational modification are the same ones involved in the biosynthesis of sugars present in the O-antigen of the LPS. In this work, we report on the characterization of two homologs present in A. brasilense Cd, to the well characterized flagellin modification genes, flmA and flmB, from Aeromonas caviae. We show that mutations in either flmA or flmB genes of A. brasilense resulted in non-motile cells due to alterations in the polar flagellum assembly. Moreover, these mutations also affected the capability of A. brasilense cells to adsorb to maize roots and to produce LPS and EPS. By generating a mutant containing the polar flagellum affected in their rotation, we show the importance of the bacterial motility for the early colonization of maize roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [Studies on bacterial agents in acute diarrheal disease (1985-1987)].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, M; Kobayashi, K; Harada, K; Kanno, I

    1989-06-01

    A three-year epidemiological study (from January 1985 to December 1987) was carried out on sporadic cases of acute diarrhea. A total of 2889 fecal specimens in Cary-Blair transport medium were examined for bacterial enteric pathogens, and 832 strains of fifteen species were isolated from 739 specimens, 73 patients having two or more pathogens. C. jejuni shared 51.7%, Salmonella spp. 18.3%, V. parahaemolyticus 10.3%, and Aeromonas spp. 15.7% of total fecal specimens. Isolation rates of C. jejuni and Salmonella spp. in children under the age of fifteen years (19.3%, 6.4%) were higher than those of older years (9.8%, 3.9%), respectively. Isolation of C. jejuni decreased to 24% (12/50) during 2-4 days storage at room temperature in Cary-Blair transport medium, which showed the necessity of rapid plating for isolation of C. jejuni from fecal specimens. Incidence of A. caviae in children up to ten years of age was significantly higher as compared with those of other Aeromonas species. Desoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-xylose-agar (DHXA) was used for direct plating technique and for plating after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (without NaCl), which was found suitable as an enrichment medium for Aeromonas spp. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 was isolated from 3 patients by using desoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-sorbitol-agar (DHSA).

  5. Analysis of the Structure and Function of FOX-4 Cephamycinase

    PubMed Central

    Lefurgy, S. T.; Malashkevich, V. N.; Aguilan, J. T.; Nieves, E.; Mundorff, E. C.; Biju, B.; Noel, M. A.; Toro, R.; Baiwir, D.; Papp-Wallace, K. M.; Almo, S. C.; Frere, J.-M.; Bou, G.

    2015-01-01

    Class C β-lactamases poorly hydrolyze cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin, cefotetan, and moxalactam). In the past 2 decades, a new family of plasmid-based AmpC β-lactamases conferring resistance to cefoxitin, the FOX family, has grown to include nine unique members descended from the Aeromonas caviae chromosomal AmpC. To understand the basis for the unique cephamycinase activity in the FOX family, we determined the first X-ray crystal structures of FOX-4, apo enzyme and the acyl-enzyme with its namesake compound, cefoxitin, using the Y150F deacylation-deficient variant. Notably, recombinant expression of N-terminally tagged FOX-4 also yielded an inactive adenylylated enzyme form not previously observed in β-lactamases. The posttranslational modification (PTM), which occurs on the active site Ser64, would not seem to provide a selective advantage, yet might present an opportunity for the design of novel antibacterial drugs. Substantial ligand-induced changes in the enzyme are seen in the acyl-enzyme complex, particularly the R2 loop and helix H10 (P289 to N297), with movement of F293 by 10.3 Å. Taken together, this study provides the first picture of this highly proficient class C cephamycinase, uncovers a novel PTM, and suggests a possible cephamycin resistance mechanism involving repositioning of the substrate due to the presence of S153P, N289P, and N346I substitutions in the ligand binding pocket. PMID:26525784

  6. Clinical characteristics of seven patients with Aeromonas septicemia in a Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Araki, Nobuko; Harada, Yosuke; Yamada, Koichi; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Matsuda, Junichi; Nishino, Tomoya; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2011-10-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises flagellated gram-negative rods widely distributed in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Aeromonas species may cause a variety of illnesses in humans, such as enterocolitis and septicemia, especially in warmer tropical or subtropical environments. To recognize the characteristics of Aeromonas septicemia in Japan, we reviewed laboratory data and medical records in our hospital. During 11 years (from 2000 to 2010), Aeromonas septicemia was observed in seven patients involving six female subjects. Six patients were observed in summer or fall. The incidence of Aeromonas septicemia was about 0.07 per 1000 admissions, and two out of the seven patients died. All patients had underlying diseases such as malignancy (six patients) and choledocholithiasis (one patient). Two patients developed septicemia within two days after ingesting raw seafood. Five patients developed Aeromonas septicemia > 48 h after admission. Fever was present in all patients, and four out of the seven patients developed septic shock. All patients developed monomicrobial septicemia. A. hydrophila was isolated from five patients, and A. caviae and A. veronii biovar sobria were isolated from one patient each. Most antimicrobial agents had high activity against the isolated strains. However, a carbapenem-resistant strain appeared in one patient during treatment and led to death. Aeromonas septicemia is uncommon in temperate areas but can occur particularly in warm seasons. Immunocompromised conditions and recent ingestion of raw fish or shellfish are important characteristics of developing Aeromonas septicemia.

  7. Identification and characterisation of coding tandem repeat variants in incA gene of Chlamydophila pecorum.

    PubMed

    Yousef Mohamad, Khalil; Rekiki, Abdessalem; Myers, Garry; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rodolakis, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria of the family Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens of human and animals. Chlamydophila pecorum is associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koala. To characterize a coding tandem repeat (CTR) identified at the 3' end of incA gene of C. pecorum, 51 strains of different chlamydial species were examined. The CTR were observed in 18 of 18 tested C. pecorum isolates including symptomatic and asymptomatic animals from diverse geographical origins. The CTR were also found in two strains of C. abortus respectively isolated from faeces from a healthy ewe and from a goat belonging to asymptomatic herds, but were absent in C. abortus strains isolated from clinical disease specimens, and in tested strains of C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis and C. trachomatis. The number of CTR repeats is variable and encode several motifs that are rich in alanine and proline. The CTR-derived variable structure of incA, which encode the Chlamydiaceae-specific type III secreted inclusion membrane protein, IncA, may be involved in the adaptation of C. pecorum to its environment by allowing it to persist in the host cell.

  8. Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

  9. Implications of low-power He-Ne laser and monochromatic red light biostimulation in the metabolism of proteins and glucosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onac, I.; Pop, L.; Ungur, Rodica; Giurgiu, Ioana

    2001-06-01

    We checked the changes occurring in the metabolism of proteins (seric cholinesterase, total proteins) and in the metabolism of glycosides (seric glucose) in Cavia cobaia. A simple blind study was carried out and the results were checked on the first, tenth and twentieth days of treatment. The data thus obtained were graphically represented and statistically processed according to the Duncan test. The technique and treatment doses were similar and they were compared with the data obtained from controls and environment controls. In the groups biostimulated with He-Ne laser, seric cholinesterase levels increased proportionally with the dose reaching a peak on day 10, which was not the case with the controls. Monochromatic red light caused a similar but quantitatively lower effect. The same results were obtained in the case of seric proteins as well, however, the effect did not depend on the dose and it was less significant statistically than in the case of seric cholinesterase both in laser treated and in monochromatic red light treated groups.

  10. Unusual microorganisms and antimicrobial resistances in a group of Syrian migrants: Sentinel surveillance data from an asylum seekers centre in Italy.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Vita, Serena; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Lopalco, Maurizio; Dedej, Etleva; Blasi, Aletheia; Antonelli, Francesca; Conti, Alessia; De Cesaris, Marina; Farchi, Francesca; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Three years of civil war in Syria have caused death and increase of communicable diseases. The suffering population has been forced to migrate creating a fertile condition for epidemic spread of infection within the refugee camps. Forty-eight Syrian migrants, upon their arrival in Italy, were accommodated at the asylum seekers centre of Castelnuovo di Porto. They received a physical examination and were subjected to microbiological surveillance by blood, rectal, pharyngeal and nasal swabs collection and delivering to the Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory of the University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome. All refugees resulted negative for HBV, HCV and HIV infections. In swabs a large number of unusual gram-negative bacteria species were isolated, such as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas monteilii, Pseudomonas fulva, Pseudomonas moselii, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinteobacter guilloviae, Acinteobacter lowffii; Acinetobacter johnsonii; Acinteobacter tjernbergae; Pantoea agglomerans; Pantoea calida. Among isolates, strains resistant to carbapenems, ESBL producers and methicillin resistant were found. The microbiological surveillance performed represents a useful action to understand refugees health status and to trace unusual microorganisms movement even carriers of antimicrobial resistance during migrants traveling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, B.C.J.; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S.H.M.P.; Pathirana, H.N.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica, Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa. MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla, C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. enterica. Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO. PMID:28747972

  12. Molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in road-killed wild animals.

    PubMed

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Griese, Juliana; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Macoris, Severino Assis Graça; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Barrozo, Lígia; Tavares, Patrícia Morais e Silva; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections have been little studied in wild and/or domestic animals, which may represent an important indicator of the presence of the pathogen in nature. Road-killed wild animals have been used for surveillance of vectors of zoonotic pathogens and may offer new opportunities for eco-epidemiological studies of paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM). The presence of P. brasiliensis infection was evaluated by Nested-PCR in tissue samples collected from 19 road-killed animals; 3 Cavia aperea (guinea pig), 5 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating-fox), 1 Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), 1 Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), 2 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), 1 Eira barbara (tayra), 2 Gallictis vittata (grison), 2 Procyon cancrivorus (raccoon) and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine). Specific P. brasiliensis amplicons were detected in (a) several organs of the two armadillos and one guinea pig, (b) the lung and liver of the porcupine, and (c) the lungs of raccoons and grisons. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals from endemic areas might be more common than initially postulated. Molecular techniques can be used for detecting new hosts and mapping 'hot spot' areas of PCM.

  13. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pamela Merlo; Hayasaka, Enio Yoshinori; Victoria, Cassiano; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Tarp harbors distinct G and F actin binding domains that bundle actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Shahanawaz; Alvarado, Stephenie; Ohr, Ryan J; Romero, Adriana; Nguyen, Brenda; Jewett, Travis J

    2013-02-01

    All species of Chlamydia undergo a unique developmental cycle that transitions between extracellular and intracellular environments and requires the capacity to invade new cells for dissemination. A chlamydial protein called Tarp has been shown to nucleate actin in vitro and is implicated in bacterial entry into human cells. Colocalization studies of ectopically expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-Tarp indicate that actin filament recruitment is restricted to the C-terminal half of the effector protein. Actin filaments are presumably associated with Tarp via an actin binding alpha helix that is also required for actin nucleation in vitro, but this has not been investigated. Tarp orthologs from C. pneumoniae, C. muridarum, and C. caviae harbor between 1 and 4 actin binding domains located in the C-terminal half of the protein, but C. trachomatis serovar L2 has only one characterized domain. In this work, we examined the effects of domain-specific mutations on actin filament colocalization with EGFP-Tarp. We now demonstrate that actin filament colocalization with Tarp is dependent on two novel F-actin binding domains that endow the Tarp effector with actin-bundling activity. Furthermore, Tarp-mediated actin bundling did not require actin nucleation, as the ability to bundle actin filaments was observed in mutant Tarp proteins deficient in actin nucleation. These data shed molecular insight on the complex cytoskeletal rearrangements required for C. trachomatis entry into host cells.

  15. The Chlamydia effector TarP mimics the mammalian leucine-aspartic acid motif of paxillin to subvert the focal adhesion kinase during invasion.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, Tristan; Nogueira, Ana T; Campeotto, Ivan; Silva, Ana P; Grieshaber, Scott S; Carabeo, Rey A

    2014-10-31

    Host cell signal transduction pathways are often targets of bacterial pathogens, especially during the process of invasion when robust actin remodeling is required. We demonstrate that the host cell focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was necessary for the invasion by the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia caviae. Bacterial adhesion triggered the transient recruitment of FAK to the plasma membrane to mediate a Cdc42- and Arp2/3-dependent actin assembly. FAK recruitment was via binding to a domain within the virulence factor TarP that mimicked the LD2 motif of the FAK binding partner paxillin. Importantly, bacterial two-hybrid and quantitative imaging assays revealed a similar level of interaction between paxillin-LD2 and TarP-LD. The conserved leucine residues within the L(D/E)XLLXXL motif were essential to the recruitment of FAK, Cdc42, p34(Arc), and actin to the plasma membrane. In the absence of FAK, TarP-LD-mediated F-actin assembly was reduced, highlighting the functional relevance of this interaction. Together, the data indicate that a prokaryotic version of the paxillin LD2 domain targets the FAK signaling pathway, with TarP representing the first example of an LD-containing Type III virulence effector.

  16. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P < 0·05) the isolation of Aeromonas allosaccharophila from water, Aeromonas salmonicida from shellfish and Aeromonas caviae from both types of samples. The most specific (P < 0·05) culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P < 0·05) in the ADA medium, while SAA enhanced (P < 0·05) the isolation of Aer. salmonicida from shellfish. The culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Aeromonas species isolated from humans, water and eels.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María-Dolores; Esteve, Consuelo

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of resistance were determined in 33 quinolone-resistant isolates of the species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas media, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas popoffii and Aeromonas veronii, recovered from humans, freshwater and eels. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC genes were sequenced in these resistant strains, as well as in 8 quinolone-sensitive Aeromonas used as controls. All quinolone-resistant Aeromonas carried point mutations in the gyrA QRDR at codon 83, respectively giving rise to substitutions Ser(83)-->Ile (32 strains) or Ser(83)-->Val (1 strain). Almost half of these isolates (48%) carried additional point mutations in the gyrA QRDR at codon 92 and/or in the parC QRDR at codon 80 corresponding to substitutions Leu(92)-->Met and Ser(80)-->Ile. In all cases, MICs of quinolones were determined in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAbetaN). Addition of PAbetaN had no effect on the levels of resistance observed in these isolates. In conclusion, the mechanism of quinolone resistance in the Aeromonas isolates studied was related to mutations in QRDR regions of gyrA and parC genes, with little obvious involvement of pumps inhibited by PAbetaN. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bliven, Kimberly A; Fisher, Derek J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. In contrast, most Chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxB abrogating activity. The G115R missense mutation was not predicted to impact AaxB functionality, making it unclear whether AaxB variations in other Chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. To address the impact of gene polymorphism on functionality, we investigated the activity and production of the Chlamydia AaxB variants. Because ArgDC plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli acid stress response, we studied the ability of these Chlamydia variants to complement an E. coli ArgDC mutant in an acid shock assay. Active AaxB was detected in four additional species: Chlamydia caviae, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia muridarum. Of the C. trachomatis serovars, only E appears to encode active enzyme. To determine when functional enzyme is present during the chlamydial developmental cycle, we utilized an anti-AaxB antibody to detect both uncleaved and cleaved enzyme throughout infection. Uncleaved enzyme production peaked around 20 h postinfection, with optimal cleavage around 44 h. While the role ArgDC plays in Chlamydia survival or virulence is unclear, our data suggest a niche-specific function.

  19. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    PubMed

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits.

  20. Pathogenicity of Mexican isolates of Aeromonas sp. in immersion experimentally-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792).

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Ortega-Santana, César; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; de Oca-Mira, Dany Montes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2017-05-01

    Ten species of Aeromonas have been previously identified in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pathogenicity of 10 Aeromonas isolates belonging to 10 different Aeromonas species in immersion experimentally-infected rainbow trout fry. Isolates of A. bestiarum, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, and A. veronii produced significant mortality (8.8%, 12.2%, 18.8%, and 8.8%, respectively). Isolates of A. caviae and A. sobria produced no significantly mortality (3.3% and 1.1%, respectively). No mortality was recorded in fish infected with A. allosaccharophila, A. lusitana, A. media, or A. popoffii. Microscopic lesions and bacterial reisolation were registered in liver of fish infected with the ten different Aeromonas isolates. Our results suggest that all Aeromonas species included in the study have the ability to colonize the liver. The results have confirmed that species A. bestiarum, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, and A. veronii affected fish as elsewhere reported. In conclusion, the variation in pathogenicity of Aeromonas isolates included in the study, emphasizes the importance of active, on-going monitoring of Aeromonas in the Mexican rainbow trout farming.

  1. Predictive modelling for packaging design: equilibrium modified atmosphere packages of fresh-cut vegetables subjected to a simulated distribution chain.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2002-03-01

    The impact of temperature fluctuations in a simulated cold distribution chain, typical of commercial practice, was investigated on both the microbial and sensorial quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere (EMA) packaged minimally processed vegetables. The internal O2 concentration of the designed packages could be predicted for the different steps of the simulated distribution chain by applying an integrated mathematical system. The internal atmosphere in the packages remained in its aerobic range during storage in the chain due to the application of high permeable packaging films for O2 and CO2. Spoilage microorganisms were proliferating fast on minimally processed bell peppers and lettuce. Yeasts showed to be the shelf-life limiting group. Visual properties limited the sensorial shelf-life. Listeria monocytogenes was able to multiply on cucumber slices, survived on minimally processed lettuce and decreased in number on bell peppers due to the combination of low pH and refrigeration. Aeromonas caviae was multiplying on both cucumber slices and mixed lettuce, but was as well inhibited by the low pH of bell peppers. Storage temperature control was found to be of paramount importance for the microbial (spoilage and safety) and sensorial quality evaluation of EMA-packaged minimally processed vegetables.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas from seafoods in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yaun, S S; Lin, L P

    1993-05-01

    A total of 124 fresh seafoods and 158 processed seafoods collected from the retail markets and supermarkets in Taipei were tested for the contamination with motile Aeromonas spp. Of the fresh seafoods analyzed, 88% displayed the presence of Aeromonas. The isolation rates of various samples were as follows: 100%, freshwater fish; 95%, seawater fish; 78%, fish fillets; 84%, shrimp and crab of the crustacea group; 83%, bivalve shellfish and 84%, non-bivalve shellfish of the mollusca group, and 100%, seaweed. Of the 158 processed seafoods, 11% were contaminated by Aeromonas. The isolation rates were as follows: 0%, canned, dried, or frozen fresh seafood; 18%, salted seafood; 30%, fish cake; 7% vacuum-packaged fish cakes; 14%, frozen seafood dumplings; 8%, cooked seafoods. One hundred and eighty-three Aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and tested for their ability to produce beta-hemolysin. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the A. hydrophila produced beta-hemolysin on 5% blood agar, 94% of the A. sobria and 33% of the A. caviae produced beta-hemolysin. Thus it is likely that fresh seafoods are potentially significant sources of the virulent Aeromonas species and may play an important role in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis.

  3. Construction of CoA-dependent 1-butanol synthetic pathway functions under aerobic conditions in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Naoya; Vangnai, Alisa S; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Tajima, Takahisa; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Kato, Junichi

    2015-06-20

    1-Butanol is an important industrial platform chemical and an advanced biofuel. While various groups have attempted to construct synthetic pathways for 1-butanol production, efforts to construct a pathway that functions under aerobic conditions have met with limited success. Here, we constructed a CoA-dependent 1-butanol synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic conditions in Escherichia coli, by expanding the previously reported (R)-1,3-butanediol synthetic pathway. The pathway consists of phaA (acetyltransferase) and phaB (NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) from Ralstonia eutropha, phaJ ((R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae, ter (trans-enoyl-CoA reductase) from Treponema denticola, bld (butylraldehyde dehydrogenase) from Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum, and inherent alcohol dehydrogenase(s) from E. coli. To evaluate the potential of this pathway for 1-butanol production, culture conditions, including volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) and pH were optimized in a mini-jar fermenter. Under optimal conditions, 1-butanol was produced at a concentration of up to 8.60gL(-1) after 46h of fed-batch cultivation.

  4. Aeromonas spp. induce apoptosis of epithelial cells through an oxidant-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Krzyminska, Sylwia; Tanska, Anna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2011-07-01

    We investigated interactions of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from faecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis, with HT29 intestinal epithelial cells. All strains were found to be cytotoxic to the cells. Bacterial infection caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide radical (NO(·)). The maximal levels of ROS and NO(·) were 14 and 35 times, respectively, greater in cells infected with Aeromonas spp. than in those incubated with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. The cells incubated with cytolytic enterotoxin isolated from A. veronii biotype sobria induced the highest level of ROS and caused the highest cytotoxicity. We observed that increased accumulation of intracellular ROS leads to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)). Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed characteristic features of cells undergoing apoptosis. The process was dependent on the activation of caspases, and was completely blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Treatment of infected HT29 cells with three distinct antioxidants prevented intracellular ROS production, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. The Pearson linear test revealed positive correlations between apoptotic index at 24 h and percentage cytotoxicity, ROS production, NO(·) production and loss of ΔΨ(m). This study has provided new insights into the mechanisms contributing to the development of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. The results indicate that bacteria-induced apoptosis of epithelial cells results from mitochondrial depolarization due to oxidative stress.

  5. Foodborne pathogenic bacteria in prepackaged fresh retail portions of farmed rainbow trout and salmon stored at 3 degrees C.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, M N; Sanz, J J; Santos, J A; Otero, A; García-López, M L

    2002-06-05

    Twelve lots of fresh unskinned fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 10 lots of fresh sliced salmon (Salmo salar) prepacked in trays wrapped with an oxygen-permeable film were obtained immediately after packing from two supermarkets having in-plant facilities for packaging wet fish. During storage at 3 degrees C, Listeria innocua was detected in eight lots of trout fillets after 4 days storage. L. monocytogenes was recovered from a single lot also contaminated with L. innocua. Initial numbers of aeromonads were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in trout fillets (3.35 +/- 0.62 log cfu g(-1)) than in salmon slices (4.20 +/- 0.89 log cfu g(-1)). In both fish products, these bacteria significantly (p < 0.05) increased up until spoilage. Most Aeromonas spp. isolates from trout fillets were assigned to A. veronii biovar sobria HG8 (hybridisation group 8), A. caviae HG4, A. eucrenophila HG6, A. hydrophila HG1 and A. veronii biovar veronii HG10. Strains of HG12 (A. schubertii), HG4 and HG8 formed the majority of aeromonads recovered from salmon slices.

  6. Retention of solute and particle markers in the digestive tract of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Dittmann, M T; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2016-10-01

    The chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) is a herbivorous hystricomorph South American rodent for which no mean digesta retention times have been reported so far. Six animals (mean body mass ± standard deviation: 513 ± 99 g) on a diet of grass hay and lucerne-based pellets were given a pulse dose of a solute (cobalt-EDTA) and a particle (chromium-mordanted fibre, <2 mm) marker with subsequent frequent faecal collection. Dry matter intake was 45.2 ± 8.0 g/kg(0.75) /day. Mean retention times were 22.2 ± 5.3 h for solutes and 25.4 ± 5.2 h for particles, with the difference being not significant within individuals. This indicates the presence of a 'mucus-trap' colonic separation mechanism, which is in accord with morphological descriptions of the typical colonic furrow in chinchillas. Corresponding to a strategy of colonic digesta separation and caecotroph formation, secondary marker excretion peaks indicated coprophagic events that were spaced approximately 12 h apart. Given that these retention times appear longer than measures reported for rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or guinea pigs (Cavia procellus), it would be interesting to compare the digestive efficiency of chinchillas on high levels of dietary fibre to other species.

  7. Aeromonas Flagella (Polar and Lateral) Are Enterocyte Adhesins That Contribute to Biofilm Formation on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Sylvia M.; Castrisios, Marika; Shaw, Jonathan G.

    2004-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. (gram-negative, aquatic bacteria which include enteropathogenic strains) have two distinct flagellar systems, namely a polar flagellum for swimming in liquid and multiple lateral flagella for swarming over surfaces. Only ∼60% of mesophilic strains can produce lateral flagella. To evaluate flagellar contributions to Aeromonas intestinal colonization, we compared polar and lateral flagellar mutant strains of a diarrheal isolate of Aeromonas caviae for the ability to adhere to the intestinal cell lines Henle 407 and Caco-2, which have the characteristic features of human intestinal enterocytes. Strains lacking polar flagella were virtually nonadherent to these cell lines, while loss of the lateral flagellum decreased adherence by ∼60% in comparison to the wild-type level. Motility mutants (unable to swim or swarm in agar assays) had adhesion levels of ∼50% of wild-type values, irrespective of their flagellar expression. Flagellar mutant strains were also evaluated for the ability to form biofilms in a borosilicate glass tube model which was optimized for Aeromonas spp. (broth inoculum, with a 16- to 20-h incubation at 37°C). All flagellar mutants showed a decreased ability to form biofilms (at least 30% lower than the wild type). For the chemotactic motility mutant cheA, biofilm formation decreased >80% from the wild-type level. The complementation of flagellar phenotypes (polar flagellar mutants) restored biofilms to wild-type levels. We concluded that both flagellar types are enterocyte adhesins and need to be fully functional for optimal biofilm formation. PMID:15039313

  8. Postnatal lung and metabolic development in two marsupial and four eutherian species

    PubMed Central

    Szdzuy, Kirsten; Zeller, Ulrich; Renfree, Marilyn; Tzschentke, Barbara; Janke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Two marsupial species (Monodelphis domestica, Macropus eugenii) and four eutherian species (Mesocricetus auratus, Suncus murinus, Tupaia belangeri and Cavia aperea) were examined to compare and contrast the timing of lung and metabolic development during the postnatal maturation of the mammalian respiratory apparatus. Using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the lung structural changes were correlated with indirect calorimetry to track the metabolic development. Marsupial and eutherian species followed the same pattern of mammalian lung development, but differed in the developmental pace. In the two newborn marsupial species, the lung parenchyma was at the early terminal sac stage, with large terminal air sacs, and the lung developed slowly. In contrast, the newborn eutherian species had more advanced lungs at the late terminal sac stage in altricial species (M. auratus, S. murinus) and at the alveolar stage in precocial species (T. belangeri, C. aperea). Postnatal lung development proceeded rapidly in eutherian species. The marsupial species had a low metabolic rate at birth and achieved adult metabolism late in postnatal development. In contrast, newborn eutherian species had high metabolic rates and reached adult metabolism during the first week of life. The time course of the metabolic development is thus tightly linked to the structural differentiation of the lungs and the timing of postnatal lung development. These differences in the neonatal lung structure and the timing of postnatal lung maturation between marsupial and eutherian species reflect their differing reproductive strategies. PMID:18179474

  9. Molecular evidence for genetic distinctions between Chlamydiaceae detected in Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) and known Chlamydiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Sariya, Ladawan; Kladmanee, Kan; Bhusri, Benjaporn; Thaijongrak, Prawporn; Tonchiangsai, Kanittha; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydiosis, caused by Chlamydiaceae, is a zoonotic disease found in humans and several species of animals, including reptiles and amphibians. Although chlamydiosis in saltwater crocodiles has been previously reported in South Africa and Papua New Guinea, the reported strains have not been identified or confirmed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to sequence and characterize Chamydiaceae isolated from Siamese crocodiles. Results showed the 16S ribosomal (r) RNA and the 16S/23S rRNA gene of the crocodile isolates were closely related to the genus Chlamydophila with matched identity greater than 98%. The phylogenetic tree constructed from the 16S/23S rRNA gene showed the crocodile cluster diverges far from Cp. caviae with a 100% bootstrap value. The tree based on the ompA gene loci distinguished the crocodile strains into genotypes I, II, and III. The present study is the first report on Chlamydophila detected in Siamese crocodiles that is genetically distinct from the known species of Chlamydiaceae.

  10. Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.

    PubMed

    Scheibler, D R; Christoff, A U

    2007-11-01

    We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus). Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata) and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)). The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping) were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness.

  11. Diversity of microflora in the gut and casts of tropical composting earthworms reared on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, K; Ranganathan, L S; Anandi, V; Zeyer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of fungi, bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes and protozoa were analysed in the gut and casts of Eudrilus eugeniae, Lampito mauritii, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, both qualitatively and quantitatively as influenced by different feed substrates like clay loam soil, cowdung and pressmud. While actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, S. somaliensis, Nocardia asteroides, N. caviae and Saccharomonosporia) were not digested by any of these species of worms, protozoa (Amoeba proteus, A. terricola, Paramecium trichium, Euglena viridis, E. orientalis, Vorticella picta and Trichomonas hominis) and yeast (Candida tropicalis, C. krusei C. albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) were totally digested. Certain species of fungi (Saksenae vasiformis, Mucor plumbeus, Cladosporium carrionii, C. herbacium, Alternaria sp., Cunninghamella echinulata, Mycetia sterila, Syncephalostrum racemosum, Curvalaria lunata, C. geniculata and Geotrichum candidum) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacterium antitratum, Mima polymorpha, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. rettgeri, Escherichia coli, Staphylococus citreus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococci and Micrococci) were completely digested. Certain other species were not digested fungi like Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. ochraceous, Trichoderma koningii (except by Eeugeniae), Fusarium moniliforme (except by E. eugeniae) and Rhizopus sp., and bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii) and these were multiplied during the transit of the organic residues through the gut of worms. The microbial proliferation was more in the casts, due to the environment prevailing--rich in nutrient supply and large surface area available for growth and reproduction of the microbes that lead to enhanced microbial activity and humic acid contents in the casts.

  12. [Characterization of Aeromonas spp isolates from newborns hospitalized].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Christiane Soares; Amorim, Simone Duarte; Santos, André Felipe das Mercês; Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina Dos; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres

    2008-01-01

    Aeromonas spp is recognized as pathogenic to humans after consumption of contaminated water and food. In the present investigation, 2,323 rectal swab samples from newborns hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro were evaluated with a view to isolating Aeromonas. The samples were collected and sent to the national reference laboratory for cholera and other bacterial intestinal infections, at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The swabs were subjected to enrichment in alkaline peptonated water with the addition of 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) and alkaline peptonated water plus 3% NaCl (37 degrees C/18-24h) and were streaked onto agar that was selective for Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP Agar). Fifty-six Aeromonas strains were isolated, distributed as follows: Aeromonas caviae (42.8%), Aeromonas media (25%), Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria (10.7%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9%), Aeromonas veronii biogroup veronii (5.3%), Aeromonas sobria (1.8%), Aeromonas jandaei (1.8%), Aeromonas schubertii (1.8%) and Aeromonas sp (1.8%). Resistance to one or more antimicrobial drugs was observed in 26.8% of the strains. Considering the importance of Aeromonas, there is an urgent need to warn about this in relation to nosocomial infection control.

  13. Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Christiane S; Amorim, Simone D; Santos, André Felipe das M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreno, Ignacio B; Ott, Paulo Henrique; Rodrigues, Dalia Dos Prazeres

    2008-10-01

    The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ) and southern (RS) coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/ UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl), APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar) and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P. shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A. veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%), A. caviae (12.3%), A. hydrophila (9.6%) and P. shigelloides (7%). The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.

  14. Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Christiane S.; Amorim, Simone D.; Santos, André Felipe das M.; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreno, Ignacio B.; Ott, Paulo Henrique; Rodrigues, Dalia dos Prazeres

    2008-01-01

    The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ) and southern (RS) coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/ UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl), APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37°C for 18–24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar) and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P. shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A. veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%), A. caviae (12.3%), A. hydrophila (9.6%) and P. shigelloides (7%). The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species. PMID:24031302

  15. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

  16. The application of the fluoride reactivation process to the detection of sarin and soman nerve agent exposures in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Adams, T K; Capacio, B R; Smith, J R; Whalley, C E; Korte, W D

    2004-02-01

    The fluoride reactivation process was evaluated for measuring the level of sarin or soman nerve agents reactivated from substrates in plasma and tissue from in vivo exposed guinea pigs (Cava porcellus), in blood from in vivo exposed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and in spiked human plasma and purified human albumin. Guinea pig exposures ranged from 0.05 to 44 LD50, and reactivated nerve agent levels ranged from 1.0 ng/mL in plasma obtained from 0.05 LD50 sarin-exposed guinea pigs to an average of 147 ng/g in kidney tissue obtained from two 2.0 LD50 soman-exposed guinea pigs. Positive dose-response relationships were observed in all low-level, 0.05 to 0.4 LD50, exposure studies. An average value of 2.4 ng/mL for reactivated soman was determined in plasma obtained from two rhesus monkeys three days after a 2 LD50 exposure. Of the five types of guinea pig tissue studied, plasma, heart, liver, kidney and lung, the lung and kidney tissue yielded the highest amounts of reactivated agent. In similar tissue and with similar exposure procedures, reactivated soman levels were greater than reactivated sarin levels. Levels of reactivated agents decreased rapidly with time while the guinea pig was alive, but decreased much more slowly after death. This latter chemical stability should facilitate forensic retrospective identification. The high level of reactivated agents in guinea pig samples led to the hypothesis that the principal source of reactivated agent came from the agent-carboxylesterase adduct. However, there could be contributions from adducts of the cholinesterases, albumin and fibrous tissue, as well. Quantitative analysis was performed with a GC-MS system using selected ion monitoring of the 99 and 125 ions for sarin and the 99 and 126 ions for soman. Detection levels were as low as 0.5 ng/mL. The assay was precise and easy to perform, and has potential for exposure analysis from organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides in other animal species.

  17. Effect of Inflammatory Response on In Vivo Competition between Two Chlamydial Variants in the Guinea Pig Model of Inclusion Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Bowlin, Anne K.; Tormanen, Kati I.; Wang, Yin; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of variants in in vivo infection, we employed an azithromycin-resistant mutant (AZ2) and its wild-type parent (SP6) in the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae conjunctival infection. When each strain was inoculated individually into conjunctiva, both attained the same level of growth, but AZ2 elicited less pathology. However, when equal numbers of the two strains were inoculated together into the guinea pig conjunctiva, SP6 produced a significantly greater number of inclusion-forming units than AZ2, and the pathology reflected that of a SP6 monoinfection. The goal of this study was to further characterize the dynamics of concomitant infection of these two distinct variants, with particular emphasis on the impact of the host response on the in vivo growth of each organism and the development of pathology. Animals infected with AZ2 had reduced conjunctival infiltration with CD45+ cells and neutrophils as well as a reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) response. Gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CCL2, and CCL5 was also significantly lower in AZ2-infected animals. The lower inflammatory response induced by AZ2 was associated with its decreased ability to activate NF-κB via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). In general, the inflammatory response in animals infected with both variants was greater than in infection with AZ2 alone, resulting in lower numbers of AZ2 than those of SP6 in the mixed infection. Our results suggest that the ability to elicit an inflammatory response is an important factor in the dynamics of mixed infection with strains that display different pathological phenotypes. PMID:22144478

  18. [The relevance of correct identification and interpretation of susceptibility testing of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia isolates].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castillo, Ana; Lepe-Jiménez, José Antonio; Torres-Sánchez, María José; Artacho-Reinoso, María José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To assess the relevance of correct identification and interpretation of susceptibility testing of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia isolates using newly developed molecular methods in comparison to previous conventional methods. The study included 22 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila group, microbiologically characterized using the MicroScan system. Further identification to species level was performed by mass spectrometry, and confirmed by sequencing the rpoB gene. The MIC of imipenem, cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was studied using a commercial broth microdilution and antibiotic gradient strips with low and high inocula. Detection of carbapenemase production was performed using the modified Hodge test, and was confirmed by amplifying the cphA gene by PCR. A total of 9 (40.9%) isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 (36.4%) as Aeromonas veronii, and the remaining 5 (22.7%) isolates as Aeromonas caviae. Resistance to beta-lactams according to both the commercial microdilution and MIC gradient strips methods was: 36%-50% to imipenem; 4%-56% to cefotaxime, and 27%-56% to piperacillin/tazobactam. The agreement between results generated by the automated system and the diffusion antibiotic gradient strip was, for all 3 species, 68% for imipenem, 50% to cefotaxime, and 46% to piperacillin/tazobactam. No resistance to cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin was found by either of the two methods, although 22.7% of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. It is essential to identify the isolates of Aeromonas spp. at the species level, due to the fact that beta-lactam resistance is species- and method-dependent. The high rate of resistance to beta-lactam and quinolones reduce their application as empiric treatments for invasive infection by Aeromonas ssp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  20. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  1. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  2. A study on the relation between poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases or oligomer hydrolases and molecular weight of polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulating in Cupriavidus necator H16.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Hisashi; Sato, Shunsuke; Fujiki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2016-06-10

    Cupriavidus necator H16 has nine genes of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerases or oligomer hydrolases (intracellular PHB mobilization enzymes). In this study, we evaluated the relation between these genes and the accumulation, consumption, and molecular weight of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating in strain H16 and in a recombinant C. necator strain, KNK-005, which harbors an NSDG mutant of the PHA synthase gene (phaCAc) from Aeromonas caviae. PhaZ6 had a significant influence on the molecular weight of PHA when palm kernel oil was used as a carbon source. The 005dZ6 strain (ΔphaZ6 mutant of KNK-005) could produce ultra-high-molecular-weight poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) with weight-average molecular weight (Mw) >3.0×10(6) (approximately double that of KNK-005). Under PHA consumption conditions, deletion of phaZ1 and phaZ2 had a significant and slight attenuating effect, respectively, on the reduction in PHA content of KNK-005 cells. Regardless of the PHA consumption, its Mw did not decrease. Thus, 005dZ126 (the ΔphaZ1ΔphaZ2ΔphaZ6 triple mutant of KNK-005) is a promising strain capable of producing PHBHHx of ultra-high-molecular-weight and barely degrades PHBHHx enzymatically intracellularly. This is the first report examining the relation between intracellular PHB mobilization enzymes and molecular weight of PHAs accumulating in C. necator H16 and the derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of inflammatory response on in vivo competition between two chlamydial variants in the guinea pig model of inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Tormanen, Kati I; Wang, Yin; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the interaction of variants in in vivo infection, we employed an azithromycin-resistant mutant (AZ(2)) and its wild-type parent (SP(6)) in the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae conjunctival infection. When each strain was inoculated individually into conjunctiva, both attained the same level of growth, but AZ(2) elicited less pathology. However, when equal numbers of the two strains were inoculated together into the guinea pig conjunctiva, SP(6) produced a significantly greater number of inclusion-forming units than AZ(2), and the pathology reflected that of a SP(6) monoinfection. The goal of this study was to further characterize the dynamics of concomitant infection of these two distinct variants, with particular emphasis on the impact of the host response on the in vivo growth of each organism and the development of pathology. Animals infected with AZ(2) had reduced conjunctival infiltration with CD45(+) cells and neutrophils as well as a reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) response. Gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CCL2, and CCL5 was also significantly lower in AZ(2)-infected animals. The lower inflammatory response induced by AZ(2) was associated with its decreased ability to activate NF-κB via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). In general, the inflammatory response in animals infected with both variants was greater than in infection with AZ(2) alone, resulting in lower numbers of AZ(2) than those of SP(6) in the mixed infection. Our results suggest that the ability to elicit an inflammatory response is an important factor in the dynamics of mixed infection with strains that display different pathological phenotypes.

  5. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila Wound Pathotypes by Comparative Genomic and Functional Analyses of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Christopher J.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Sha, Jian; Fitts, Eric C.; van Lier, Christina J.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Read, Timothy D.; Burd, Eileen M.; Tall, Ben D.; Joseph, Sam W.; Horneman, Amy J.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Shak, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aeromonas hydrophila has increasingly been implicated as a virulent and antibiotic-resistant etiologic agent in various human diseases. In a previously published case report, we described a subject with a polymicrobial wound infection that included a persistent and aggressive strain of A. hydrophila (E1), as well as a more antibiotic-resistant strain of A. hydrophila (E2). To better understand the differences between pathogenic and environmental strains of A. hydrophila, we conducted comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence-associated genes of these two wound isolates (E1 and E2), the environmental type strain A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T, and four other isolates belonging to A. aquariorum, A. veronii, A. salmonicida, and A. caviae. Full-genome sequencing of strains E1 and E2 revealed extensive differences between the two and strain ATCC 7966T. The more persistent wound infection strain, E1, harbored coding sequences for a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), flagella, hemolysins, and a homolog of exotoxin A found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corresponding phenotypic analyses with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T and SSU as reference strains demonstrated the functionality of these virulence genes, with strain E1 displaying enhanced swimming and swarming motility, lateral flagella on electron microscopy, the presence of T3SS effector AexU, and enhanced lethality in a mouse model of Aeromonas infection. By combining sequence-based analysis and functional assays, we characterized an A. hydrophila pathotype, exemplified by strain E1, that exhibited increased virulence in a mouse model of infection, likely because of encapsulation, enhanced motility, toxin secretion, and cellular toxicity. PMID:23611906

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis Isolated from Feces, Water and Fish in Mediterranean Spain

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004–2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8–100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993–1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD50 of 3.3×106 CFU fish−1) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries. PMID:22472298

  7. A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

  8. A Molecular Study on the Prevalence and Virulence Potential of Aeromonas spp. Recovered from Patients Suffering from Diarrhea in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Yigal; Ken-Dror, Shifra; Vainblat, Irina; Blau, Dvora; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2012-01-01

    Background Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2%) patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%), A. veronii (29%) and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%). This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77%) from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%), pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%), act/hlyA/aerA (35%), alt (18%), ast (6%), fla (65%), lafA (41%), TTSS ascV (12%), TTSS ascF-ascG (12%), TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41%) and aexT (6%) in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. Conclusions Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings. PMID:22355306

  9. A secreted aminopeptidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Identification, primary structure, and relationship to other aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Cahan, R; Axelrad, I; Safrin, M; Ohman, D E; Kessler, E

    2001-11-23

    Using leucine-p-nitroanilide (Leu-pNA) as a substrate, we demonstrated aminopeptidase activity in the culture filtrates of several Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The aminopeptidase was partially purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and found to be heat stable. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 56 kDa; hence, it was designated AP(56). Heating (70 degrees C) of the partially purified aminopeptidase preparations led to the conversion of AP(56) to a approximately 28-kDa protein (AP(28)) that retained enzyme activity, a reaction that depended on elastase (LasB). The pH optimum for Leu-pNA hydrolysis by AP(28) was 8.5. This activity was inhibited by Zn chelators but not by inhibitors of serine- or thiol-proteases, suggesting that AP(28) is a Zn-dependent enzyme. Of several amino acid p-nitroanilide derivatives examined, Leu-pNA was the preferred substrate. The sequences of the first 20 residues of AP(56) and AP(28) were determined. A search of the P. aeruginosa genomic data base revealed a perfect match of these sequences with positions 39-58 and 273-291, respectively, in a 536-amino acid residue open reading frame predicted to encode an aminopeptidase. A search for sequence similarities with other proteins revealed 52% identity with Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase, approximately 35% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae aminopeptidase Y and a hypothetical aminopeptidase from Bacillus subtilis, and 29-32% with Aeromonas caviae, Vibrio proteolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae aminopeptidases. The residues potentially involved in zinc coordination were conserved in all these proteins. Thus, P. aeruginosa aminopeptidase may belong to the same family (M28) of metalloproteases.

  10. Air-dust-borne associations of phototrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms: promising consortia in volatile hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Eliyas, Mohamed; Rayan, Rihab; Radwan, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms active in hydrocarbon bioremediation have been described earlier. The question arises: do similar consortia also occur in the atmosphere? Dust samples at the height of 15 m were collected from Kuwait City air, and analyzed microbiologically for phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms, which were subsequently characterized according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The hydrocarbon utilization potential of the heterotrophs alone, and in association with the phototrophic partners, was measured quantitatively. The chlorophyte Gloeotila sp. and the two cyanobacteria Nostoc commune and Leptolyngbya thermalis were found associated with dust, and (for comparison) the cynobacteria Leptolyngbya sp. and Acaryochloris sp. were isolated from coastal water. All phototrophic cultures harbored oil vapor-utilizing bacteria in the magnitude of 10(5) g(-1). Each phototrophic culture had its unique oil-utilizing bacteria; however, the bacterial composition in Leptolyngbya cultures from air and water was similar. The hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were affiliated with Acinetobacter sp., Aeromonas caviae, Alcanivorax jadensis, Bacillus asahii, Bacillus pumilus, Marinobacter aquaeolei, Paenibacillus sp., and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nonaxenic cultures, when used as inocula in batch cultures, attenuated crude oil in light and dark, and in the presence of antibiotics and absence of nitrogenous compounds. Aqueous and diethyl ether extracts from the phototrophic cultures enhanced the growth of the pertinent oil-utilizing bacteria in batch cultures, with oil vapor as a sole carbon source. It was concluded that the airborne microbial associations may be effective in bioremediating atmospheric hydrocarbon pollutants in situ. Like the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, the atmosphere contains dust-borne associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon

  11. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Malek, Ashraf M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia). Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%), protease (77.1%), and lipase enzyme (17.1%). Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health. PMID:28246446

  12. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-01-15

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies diversity were assessed based on the 16S rRNA, cpn60 and gyrB genes sequence analysis. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qnrVC; qepA; oqxAB; aac(6′)-Ib-cr; blaOXA; incU) were analyzed in function of the origin and taxonomic group. Most isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila (50% and 41%, respectively). The quinolone and the beta-lactamase resistance genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA, including gene blaOXA-101, identified for the first time in Aeromonas spp., were detected in 58% and 56% of the isolates, respectively, with identical prevalence in HE and UWTP wastewater. In contrast, the gene qnrS2 was observed mainly in isolates from the UWTP (51%) and rarely in HE isolates (3%), suggesting that its origin is not the clinical setting. Bacterial groups and genes that allow the identification of major routes of antibiotic resistance dissemination are valuable tools to control this problem. In this study, it was concluded that members of the genus Aeromonas harboring the genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA are relevant tracers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in wastewater habitats, while those yielding the gene qnrS2 allow the traceability from non-clinical sources.

  13. Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Malheiros, Antonio F; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-10-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms

  14. Effect of high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on microbial growth and sensorial qualities of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Van der Steen, C; Debevere, J

    2001-12-30

    The application of High Oxygen Atmospheres (HOA) (i.e. > 70% O2) for packaging ready-to-eat vegetables was evaluated as an alternative technique for low O2 Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere (EMA) packaging (3% O2-5% CO2-balance N2) for respiring products. Comparative experiments between both techniques were performed in-vitro and in-vivo. Typical spoilage causing microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Candida lambica), the moulds Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus and the opportunistic psychrotrophic human pathogenic microorganism associated with refrigerated minimally processed vegetables. Aeromonas caviae (HG4), showed a retarded growth during the conducted in-vitro studies at 4 degrees C in 70%, 80% and 95% O2 as examples of HOA compared to the in-vitro experiments in 5% O2 (as example of EMA packaging) and the effect was more pronounced in 95% O2. The effect of the high O2-concentrations on the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes resulted in an extended lag phase (95% O2). The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora was increasingly stimulated by increasing high O2-concentrations. During a storage experiment of three types of ready-to-eat vegetables (mushroom slices, grated celeriac and shredded chicory endive), which are sensitive to enzymatic browning and microbial spoilage, the effect of EMA and HOA (95% O2-5% N2) on their quality and shelf life was compared. High O2 atmospheres were found to be particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic browning of the tested vegetables. Also, the microbial quality was better as a reduction in yeast growth was observed. The HOA can be applied as an alternative for low O2 modified atmospheres for some specific types of ready-to-eat vegetables, sensitive to enzymatic browning and spoilage by yeasts.

  15. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables.

  16. Reassessment of the Enteropathogenicity of Mesophilic Aeromonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Teunis, Peter; Figueras, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study. In the present study we reassess the enteropathogenicity of Aeromonas using dose response models for microbial infection and acute illness. The analysis uses the data from the human challenge study and additional data from selected outbreak investigations where the numbers exposed and the dose were reported, allowing their inclusion as “natural experiments”. In the challenge study several cases of asymptomatic shedding were found (26.3%, 15/57), however, only 3.5% (2/57) of those challenged with Aeromonas developed acute enteric symptoms (i.e., diarrhea). The “natural experiments” showed a much higher risk of illness associated with exposure to Aeromonas, even at moderate to low doses. The median dose required for 1% illness risk, was ~1.4 × 104 times higher in the challenge study (1.24 × 104 cfu) compared to natural exposure events (0.9 cfu). The dose response assessment presented in this study shows that the combined challenge and outbreak data are consistent with high infectivity of Aeromonas, and a wide range of susceptibility to acute enteric illness. To illustrate the outcomes, we simulate the risk associated with concentrations of Aeromonas found in different water and food matrices, indicating the disease burden potentially associated with these bacteria. In conclusion this study showed that Aeromonas is highly infectious, and that human susceptibility to illness may be high, similar to

  17. Sewage treatment effluents in Delhi: A key contributor of β-lactam resistant bacteria and genes to the environment.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Manisha; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2017-08-28

    Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. Lack of access to safe drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate sewage treatment facilities in these countries are fueling the problem associated with emergence of AR. Rapid proliferation of AR mediated by treated and untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. This study aims to understand the occurrence, fate, and routes of proliferation of carbapenem (KPC) and extended spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria, and selected resistant genes in the samples collected from different unit operations in 12 STPs in New Delhi over two seasons. Strong correlation observed between faecal coliform levels and KPC (R = 0.95, p = 0.005, n = 60) and ESBL (R = 0.94, p = 0.004, n = 60) resistant bacteria levels indicates possible association of resistant bacteria with faecal matter. Different unit operations in STPs proved inefficient in treating resistant bacteria and genes present in the wastewater. However, inclusion of tertiary treatment (chlorination) unit and anaerobic digester in the present STPs resulted in better removal of AR. Significant correlations between antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and integron levels indicates a potential for higher rate of AR proliferation in the environment. Microbial culturing indicated the presence of clinically significant drug-resistant pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Acinetobacter baumannii, Shigella dysentery and Aeromonas caviae in the STP effluents. The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria through STP effluents poses exposure risk for the residents of the city. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning, expression, and cell surface localization of Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 xylanase 5, a multidomain xylanase.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuko; Tomita, Toshio; Roy, Narayan; Nakano, Akito; Sugawara-Tomita, Noriko; Watanabe, Seiji; Okai, Naoko; Abe, Naoki; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2003-12-01

    We have shown that a xylan-degrading bacterium, W-61, excretes multiple xylanases, including xylanase 5 with a molecular mass of 140 kDa. Here, we emend the previously used classification of the bacterium (i.e., Aeromonas caviae W-61) to Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, and we clone and express the xyn5 gene encoding xylanase 5 (Xyn5) in Escherichia coli and study the subcellular localization of Xyn5. xyn5 encodes 1,326 amino acid residues, including a 27-amino-acid signal sequence. Sequence analysis indicated that Xyn5 comprises two family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM), a family 10 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolases, a family 9 CBM, a domain similar to the lysine-rich region of Clostridium thermocellum SdbA, and three S-layer-homologous (SLH) domains. Recombinant Xyn5 bound to a crystalline cellulose, Avicel PH-101, while an N-terminal 90-kDa fragment of Xyn5, which lacks the C-terminal half of the family 9 CBM, did not bind to Avicel PH-101. Xyn5 was cell bound, and the cell-bound protein was digested by exogenous trypsin to produce immunoreactive and xylanolytic fragments with molecular masses of 80 and 60 kDa. Xyn5 was exclusively distributed in the cell envelope fraction consisting of a peptidoglycan-containing layer and an associated S layer. Thus, Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 Xyn5 is a cell surface-anchored modular xylanase possessing a functional cellulose-binding module and SLH domains. Possible cooperative action of multiple xylanases produced by strain W-61 is discussed on the basis of the modular structure of Xyn5.

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis isolated from feces, water and fish in Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004-2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8-100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993-1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD(50) of 3.3×10(6) CFU fish(-1)) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries.

  20. Chlamydial Variants Differ in Ability To Ascend the Genital Tract in the Guinea Pig Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K.; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even “silent” infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. PMID:26015484

  1. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  2. Respiratory allergy induced by exclusive polysensitization to serum albumins of furry animals.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Dente, B; Restani, P; Senna, G; Falagiani, P; Ballabio, C; D'Amato, G

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe un unusual case of exclusive allergic sensitization to furry animals, as a possible study model to speculate about different modalities ofsensitization to allergens of common and less common mammalian species. A 27-year-old woman referred in our Allergological Centre for the occurrence of conjunctival and severe respiratory symptoms after contact with several animals such as cats, dogs, rabbits, horses, cows etc. Patient underwent clinical and anamnestic evaluation including a detailed information on the modality of exposure to different furry animals. Skin-prick-test (SPT) was performed with our routine panel of commercial standardized extracts (Lofarma Laboratories, Milan, Italy). Some animal allergenic extracts (rabbit, horse, rat, mouse, cavia, cow and hamster) have been tested by SPT one week after the routine SPT A blood sample was taken for measurement of total IgE and specific IgE (CAP System, Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) as well as Immunoblotting procedures. The results of in vivo and in vitro procedures revealed allergic sensitization only to animal-derived allergens. Total IgE were 59.3 kU/L. Immunoblotting showed a specific IgE-mediated sensitization of the patient to cow's, rabbit's and horse's serum albumins (SA). In conclusion, our case report confirms the role of SA as cross-reacting agent in allergic sensitization to furry animals. This finding suggests to perform SPTs to several furry animal allergens in all individuals with high level of allergic sensitization to common pets (cats and/or dogs) in order to identify allergy to other animals and consequently to avoid future exposures at risk.

  3. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Albert, Frank W; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A; Plyusnina, Irina Z; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-09-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  4. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions—exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism. PMID:26710336

  5. Paternal heat exposure causes DNA methylation and gene expression changes of Stat3 in Wild guinea pig sons.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Benz, Stephanie; Karl, Stephan; Jeschek, Marie; Jewgenow, Katarina; Fickel, Joerns

    2016-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms convey environmental information through generations and can regulate gene expression. Epigenetic studies in wild mammals are rare, but enable understanding adaptation processes as they may occur in nature. In most wild mammal species, males are the dispersing sex and thus often have to cope with differing habitats and thermal changes more rapidly than the often philopatric females. As temperature is a major environmental selection factor, we investigated whether genetically heterogeneous Wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) males adapt epigenetically to an increase in temperature, whether that response will be transmitted to the next generation(s), and whether it regulates mRNA expression. Five (F0) adult male guinea pigs were exposed to an increased ambient temperature for 2 months, corresponding to the duration of the species' spermatogenesis. To study the effect of heat, we focused on the main thermoregulatory organ, the liver. We analyzed CpG-methylation changes of male offspring (F1) sired before and after the fathers' heat treatment (as has recently been described in Weyrich et al. [Mol. Ecol., 2015]). Transcription analysis was performed for the three genes with the highest number of differentially methylated changes detected: the thermoregulation gene Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat3), the proteolytic peptidase gene Cathepsin Z (Ctsz), and Sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) with function in epigenetic regulation. Stat3 gene expression was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), which indicated a close link between CpG-methylation and expression levels for this gene. The two other genes did not show gene expression changes. Our results indicate the presence of a paternal transgenerational epigenetic effect. Quick adaptation to climatic changes may become increasingly relevant for the survival of wildlife species as global temperatures are rising.

  6. Paternal intergenerational epigenetic response to heat exposure in male Wild guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Lenz, Dorina; Jeschek, Marie; Chung, Tzu Hung; Rübensam, Kathrin; Göritz, Frank; Jewgenow, Katarina; Fickel, Jörns

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic modifications, of which DNA methylation is the best studied one, can convey environmental information through generations via parental germ lines. Past studies have focused on the maternal transmission of epigenetic information to the offspring of isogenic mice and rats in response to external changes, whereas heterogeneous wild mammals as well as paternal epigenetic effects have been widely neglected. In most wild mammal species, males are the dispersing sex and have to cope with differing habitats and thermal changes. As temperature is a major environmental factor we investigated if genetically heterogeneous Wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) males can adapt epigenetically to an increase in temperature and if that response will be transmitted to the next generation(s). Five adult male guinea pigs (F0) were exposed to an increased ambient temperature for 2 months, i.e. the duration of spermatogenesis. We studied the liver (as the main thermoregulatory organ) of F0 fathers and F1 sons, and testes of F1 sons for paternal transmission of epigenetic modifications across generation(s). Reduced representation bisulphite sequencing revealed shared differentially methylated regions in annotated areas between F0 livers before and after heat treatment, and their sons' livers and testes, which indicated a general response with ecological relevance. Thus, paternal exposure to a temporally limited increased ambient temperature led to an 'immediate' and 'heritable' epigenetic response that may even be transmitted to the F2 generation. In the context of globally rising temperatures epigenetic mechanisms may become increasingly relevant for the survival of species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas in three riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Imziln, B

    2001-12-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of pollution and sewage on the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic aeromonads in riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, samples were collected from three rivers (Oukaimeden, Ourika, and Tensift) upstream and downstream from the principal bordering villages. During a 2-year study, indicators of pollution increased dramatically in the downstream waters. Bacterial indicators (faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) correlated with mesophilic aeromonads only in heavily polluted waters. In low and moderately polluted sources, densities of mesophilic aeromonads were independent of water quality indicators and did not correlate statistically with faecal indicators. Average counts of Aeromonas in low and heavily polluted waters were 2.5 x 10(3) and 2.1 x 10(6) colony forming units per 100 ml, respectively. The biochemical identification of 841 isolates indicated a predominance of A. caviae in heavily and moderately polluted water and sediment. A. hydrophila was dominant only in low polluted waters and when the temperature was below 12 degrees C. High densities of A. sobria were found in low, moderately polluted, or cleaned waters and when the water temperature was above 18 degrees C. All selected isolates (total = 841) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against 21 antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance frequencies recorded were: ampicillin and amoxicillin, 100%; novobiocin, 96%; cefalotin, 81%; colistin, 72%; sulfamethoxazole, 40%; cefamandole, 37%; polymyxin B, 23%; trimethoprim, 17%; erythromycin, 15%; streptomycin, 8%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 5%. Resistance to cefotaxime, kanamycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, or trimethoprim-sulfameth-oxazole was found to be <5%. Antibiotic resistance rates did vary according to the source of a strain"s isolation, and high numbers of antibiotic resistant strains were recorded in polluted samples. Since no correlation between

  8. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. Methods A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analysed using Epi Info. Results There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%). Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–8.5) and having toilets located within 20 m of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.3). In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49). Discussion In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns. PMID:26668761

  9. Antimicrobial assays of natural extracts and their inhibitory effect against Listeria innocua and fish spoilage bacteria, after incorporation into biopolymer edible films.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, L; Olabarrieta, I; de Marañón, I Martínez

    2012-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve natural extracts was tested against two fish spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae) and Listeria innocua, in order to assess their potential utilization in the preservation and safety of minimally processed fish products. After a screening of the active extracts by agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods, oregano and thyme essential oils and citrus extract were selected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected extracts was determined by disc diffusion method against target bacteria and at two temperatures: bacteria's optimal growth temperature (30 °C or 37 °C) and refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Due to its better solubility, lack of odour and greater inhibitory effect obtained against L. innocua at refrigerated temperature, citrus extract was selected and incorporated at 1% (v/v) into different biopolymer film forming solutions (gelatin, methyl cellulose and their blend 50:50 w/w). The antimicrobial activity of the developed films was then evaluated, just after preparation of the films and after one month of storage at 43±3% relative humidity and 24±3 °C. Regardless of the biopolymer matrix, all the developed films showed antimicrobial activity against the target bacteria. The most sensitive bacterium towards active films was L. innocua while P. fluorescens appeared as the most resistant one, in accordance with the previously performed antimicrobial tests for pure extracts. The differences in activity of the films between the tested two temperatures were not significant except for L. innocua, for which three times higher inhibition diameters were observed at refrigerated temperature. The inhibitory effectiveness of the films against the tested strains was maintained regardless of the biopolymer matrix for at least one month. Therefore, these edible films show potential for their future use in fresh fish fillets preservation.

  10. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  11. Chlamydiaphage φCPG1 Capsid Protein Vp1 Inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis Growth via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanli; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Quan; Sun, Changgui; Zhang, Xinmei; Liu, Yuanjun; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-04-14

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Although the pathogen is well established, the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Given the current challenges of antibiotic resistance and blocked processes of vaccine development, the use of a specific chlamydiaphage may be a new treatment solution. φCPG1 is a lytic phage specific for Chlamydia caviae, and shows over 90% nucleotide sequence identity with other chlamydiaphages. Vp1 is the major capsid protein of φCPG1. Purified Vp1 was previously confirmed to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth. We here report the first attempt at exploring the relationship between Vp1-treated C. trachomatis and the protein and gene levels of the mitogen-activated/extracellular regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after Vp1 treatment. After 48 h of incubation, the p-ERK level of the Vp1-treated group decreased compared with that of the Chlamydia infection group. Accordingly, ERK1 and ERK2 mRNA expression levels of the Vp1-treated group also decreased compared with the Chlamydia infection group. IL-8 and IL-1 levels were also decreased after Vp1 treatment compared with the untreated group. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition effect of the chlamydiaphage φCPG1 capsid protein Vp1 on C. trachomatis is associated with the MAPK pathway, and inhibits production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1. The bacteriophages may provide insight into a new signaling transduction mechanism to influence their hosts, in addition to bacteriolysis.

  12. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Alethea; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analysed using Epi Info. There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%). Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6-8.5) and having toilets located within 20 m of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.3). In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09-0.49). In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  13. Rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; García-López, Isabel; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

    2006-05-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. This study provides data on the prevalence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria spp., motile Aeromonas spp., and Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. A total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. In addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes were investigated by PCR in suspect isolates and samples. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli O157:H7 was detected. All samples were negative for virulence-associated invA, stx1, and stx2 genes. At one abattoir, two carcasses (3.9%) carried Y. enterocolitica yst-, and two were positive for the yst gene, although viable Y. enterocolitica cells were not recovered from these samples. Seven samples (13.7%) were contaminated with Listeria. Of them, three were positive for hly and iap genes (Listeria monocytogenes hly+ / iap+), two carried Listeria seeligeri, one carried Listeria ivanovii, and one carried Listeria innocua. For detectable motile Aeromonas spp. (average count, 1.77 +/- 0.62 log CFU/g), the contamination rate was 35.3%, although ca. 90% of the samples were positive for the aerA and/or hlyA genes. The majority of aeromonad isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila aerA+ / hlyA+. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas schubertii, and the two biovars of Aeromonas veronii were also isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination (average count, 1.37 +/- 0.79 log CFU/g) was 52.9%. Among 27 S. aureus isolates, two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb), and two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin C (sec). The remaining isolates were negative for sea, seb, sec, sed, and see.

  14. Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Manuel; Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2009-10-31

    Aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. Over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in León (NW of Spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. Samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility, and two public artesian drinking-water fountains. Because of low numbers of coliforms or Clostridium perfringens, the non-compliance rate with microbial standards was 3.8% whereas the percentage of positive samples for motile mesophilic Aeromonas was 26.5%. For all but two samples, Aeromonas was recovered between October and early March when the temperature was below 14 degrees C and the residual chlorine ranged from 0.21 to 0.72 mg/l. An apparent relationship was observed between rainfall and the incidence of Aeromonas. The 35 selected Aeromonas isolates were identified as A. caviae and A. media. The alt and laf genes were present in all isolates, the aerA gene was present in six isolates, and the four remaining genes investigated (hlyA, ast, stx1 and stx2) were absent. The combinations of putative virulence genes were: aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (82.9%) and aerA(+)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)/stx1(-)/stx2(-) (17.1%). None of the isolates bore plasmids. As Aeromonas strains harbouring two or more virulence-associated genes have the potential to cause disease by direct transmission via drinking water or by water use in food preparation, it would be advisable to control excessive numbers of these bacteria in drinking-water supplies.

  15. Cell death, BAX activation, and HMGB1 release during infection with Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Verbeke, Philippe; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2004-11-01

    Infection by a number of Chlamydia species leads to resistance of the host cell to apoptosis, followed by induction of host-cell death. In a population of infected cells that displays protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis among the adherent cells, we find that cells that had been recovered from the supernatant share characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis, as assayed by the propidium iodide (PI)-annexin V double-labeling technique. Cell death was observed in both an epithelial cell line and primary fibroblasts, although the primary cells had a higher propensity to die through apoptosis than the immortalized cell line. Staurosporine-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, BAX, was inhibited in the epithelial cell line infected for 32 h with the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) but not the murine pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of C. trachomatis, but inhibition of staurosporine-mediated BAX activation disappeared after 48 h of infection with the LGV/L2 strain. Conversely, infection with MoPn (C. muridarum) but not LGV/L2 led to BAX activation after 72 h, as previously reported for shorter (48 h) infection with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) serovar of C. psittaci (C. caviae). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit staurosporine-mediated BAX activation or to activate BAX due to the infection itself may vary as a function of the chlamydial strain. Interestingly, both the epithelial cells and the fibroblasts also released high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) during infection, although much less HMGB1 was released from fibroblasts, consistent with the higher level of apoptosis observed in the primary cells. HMGB1 is released preferentially by necrotic or permeabilized viable cells, but not apoptotic cells. In the extracellular space, HMGB1 promotes inflammation through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. Higher levels of HMGB1 were also measured in the genital-tract secretions of mice

  16. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  17. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhea with emphasis on Entamoeba histolytica infections in preschool children in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Akther, Selim; Farr, Barry M; Sack, R Bradley; Petri, William A

    2003-10-01

    The epidemiology, clinical features, nutritional status, and causative agents of diarrhea were studied in 289 Bangladeshi children (147 boys and 142 girls) 2-5 years old. The use of improved diagnostic tests for amebiasis enabled for the first time analysis of the contribution of Entamoeba histolytica to total diarrheal illness in this community setting. The average incidence rate of diarrhea was 1.8/child-year, and the average number of diarrheal days was 3.7 days/child-year over an average observation period of 2.8 years/child. Seventy-five percent of the diarrheal episodes were < or = 2 days in duration. Persistent diarrhea was relatively uncommon (0.2% of the children) and chronic diarrhea was observed in only one episode. Compared with malnourished and/or stunted children, better-nourished children experienced significantly fewer diarrheal episodes. The diarrheal incidence rate for children with blood group A was significantly less that that of the children with blood groups O and AB. The most frequent bacterial enteropathogens isolated from diarrheal stool specimens were enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (9%) and Aeromonas species (9%), followed by Plesimonas shigelloides (4%) and Shigella flexneri (3.8%). Rotavirus was the most common viral agent isolated from diarrheal stool samples (5%). Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and E. histolytica were identified in 11%, 8.4%, and 8%, respectively, of the diarrheal stool specimens. Dysentery was observed in 7.7% of all diarrheal episodes. The most common pathogens isolated from dysenteric stool were S. flexneri (11.6%), Aeromonas sp. (10%), E. histolytica (8.7%), Campylobacter jejunii (5.8%), P. shigelloides (4.3%), and A. caviae (4.3%). The overall incidence rate of E. histolytica-associated diarrhea was 0.08/child-year. Visible blood and hemoccult test-detected blood loss was found in 7% and 25%, respectively, of cases of E. histolytica-associated diarrhea. Children who had recovered from a diarrheal

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN BLOOD CULTURES FROM CLINICALLY ILL CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS).

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariana C O; Attademo, Fernanda F L; Freire, Augusto C B; Sousa, Glaucia P; Luna, Fábia O; Lima, Débora C V; Mota, Rinaldo A; Mendes, Emiko S; Silva, Jean C R

    2017-03-01

    Between September 2001 and March 2013, 62 bacterial cultures (37 aerobic and 25 anaerobic) were performed on 37 blood samples from 23 Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) that were kept in captivity at the Brazilian National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals (CMA) in Pernambuco (CMA-PE) and Alagoas (CMA-AL), Brazil. All of the animals sampled exhibited clinical signs at the time of sampling including abscesses (n = 8), debilitation and anorexia (n = 22), and profound lethargy-moribundity (n = 7). The 4 animals with profound lethargy-moribundity died shortly after sampling of unknown causes. Bacteria were isolated from 15/37 (40.5%) and aerobic blood cultures from 13/23 animals (56.5%). None of the anaerobic cultures were positive. Aeromonas caviae , Aeromonas hydrophila , Aeromonas sp., Escherichia coli , Leclercia adecarboxylata , Pantoea agglomerans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas stutzeri , Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas paucimobilis , coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were each found in only one animal; Staphylococcus spp. was found in two; and Vibrio fluvialis in four. Thirteen samples had only one bacteria isolated, one sample had two bacteria, and one sample had three bacteria isolated. Regarding sex, age group, and origin among the manatees examined, 54.5% (6/11) of the females, 58.3% (7/12) of the males, 40% (2/5) of the calves, 66.7% (8/12) of the juveniles, 50% (3/6) of the adults, 55.5% (10/18) at CMA-PE, and 60% (3/5) at CMA-AL were found to be positive for bacterial growth during at least one sampling time. All Antillean manatees were clinically ill. Regarding clinical signs, bacteria were found in 50% (11/22) of blood samples of the animals showing debilitation and anorexia, 1 of 8 (12.5%) of blood samples of the animals showing abscesses, and 3 of 7 (42.9%) of blood samples of the animals showing profound lethargy-moribundity.

  19. Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms.

    PubMed

    Everett, K D; Bush, R M; Andersen, A A

    1999-04-01

    new Chlamydophila species are derived from Chlamydia psittaci: Chlamydophila abortus gen. nov., sp. nov., Chlamydophila caviae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Chlamydophila felis gen. nov., sp. nov. Emended descriptions for the order Chlamydiales and for the family Chlamydiaceae are provided. These families, genera and species are readily distinguished by analysis of signature sequences in the 16S and 23S ribosomal genes.

  20. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C; Stuart, Elizabeth S

    2004-07-22

    Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp), C. caviae (GPIC), and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial inclusion independently of caveolin-1. The function of caveolin-2, either

  1. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1

    PubMed Central

    Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C; Stuart, Elizabeth S

    2004-01-01

    Background Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. Methods We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. Results We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp), C. caviae (GPIC), and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Conclusion Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial inclusion independently of caveolin

  2. Modification of β-oxidation pathway in Ralstonia eutropha for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Insomphun, Chayatip; Mifune, Jun; Orita, Izumi; Numata, Keiji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Fukui, Toshiaki

    2014-02-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a useful platform for metabolic engineering aiming at efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanaotes being attracted as practical bioplastics. This study focused on bifunctional (S)-specific 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase/(S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase encoded by fadB to obtain information regarding β-oxidation in this bacterium and to achieve compositional regulation of poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] synthesized from soybean oil. In addition to two FadB homologs (FadB1 and FadB') encoded within the previously identified β-oxidation gene clusters on the chromosome 1, a gene of third homolog (FadB2) was found on chromosome 2 of R. eutropha. The fadB homologs were disrupted in R. eutropha strain NSDG expressing a mutant gene of PHA synthase from Aeromonas caviae. The gene disruptions affected neither growth nor PHA production on fructose. On soybean oil, fadB' deletion led to reduction of PHA quantity attributed to decrease of 3HB unit, while fadB1 deletion slightly increased 3HHx composition without serious negative impact on both cell growth and PHA biosynthesis. Double deletion of fadB1 and fadB' significantly impaired the cell growth and PHA biosynthesis, indicating the major roles of fadB1 and fadB' in β-oxidation. When fadB1 was deleted in several engineered strains of R. eutropha possessing additional (R)-enoyl-CoA hydratase gene(s), the net amounts of 3HHx unit in the PHA fractions showed 6-21% increase probably due to slightly enhanced supply of medium-chain-length 2-enoyl-CoAs through the partially impaired β-oxidation. These results demonstrated that modification of β-oxidation by fadB1 deletion was effective for increasing 3HHx composition in the copolyesters produced from soybean oil.

  3. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  4. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  5. Dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in the New Delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Timothy R; Weeks, Janis; Livermore, David M; Toleman, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    which carried bla(NDM-1) on plasmids, which ranged in size from 140 to 400 kb. Isolates of Aeromonas caviae and V cholerae carried bla(NDM-1) on chromosomes. Conjugative transfer was more common at 30°C than at 25°C or 37°C. The presence of NDM-1 β-lactamase-producing bacteria in environmental samples in New Delhi has important implications for people living in the city who are reliant on public water and sanitation facilities. International surveillance of resistance, incorporating environmental sampling as well as examination of clinical isolates, needs to be established as a priority. European Union. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.