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Sample records for cobitis teleostei cobitidae

  1. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  2. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perdices, Anabel; Bohlen, Joerg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella) or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia) supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses also show

  3. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Perdices, Anabel; Bohlen, Joerg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella) or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia) supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses also show

  4. Cobitis takenoi sp. n. (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae): a new spined loach from Honshu Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of spined loach, Cobitis takenoi sp. n., is described based on the holotype and ten paratypes collected from Tango District, Honshu Island, Japan. The new species is distinguished by a combination of the following character states: 1) the lamina circularis at the base of the pectoral fin in adult male having a simple roundish plate form; 2) a narrowing of the upper segments of the first branched ray of the pectoral fin; 3) a short maxillary barbel whose length equals diameter of the eye; 4) 14 prepelvic myotomes, and 5) L3 and L5 well developed, forming longitudinal obvious stripes in males during the spawning season. PMID:27103876

  5. Ice age cloning--comparison of the Quaternary evolutionary histories of sexual and clonal forms of spiny loaches (Cobitis; Teleostei) using the analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Janko, K; Culling, M A; Ráb, P; Kotlík, P

    2005-09-01

    Recent advances in population history reconstruction offered a powerful tool for comparisons of the abilities of sexual and clonal forms to respond to Quaternary climatic oscillations, ultimately leading to inferences about the advantages and disadvantages of a given mode of reproduction. We reconstructed the Quaternary historical biogeography of the sexual parental species and clonal hybrid lineages within the Europe-wide hybrid complex of Cobitis spiny loaches. Cobitis elongatoides and Cobitis taenia recolonizing Europe from separated refuges met in central Europe and the Pontic region giving rise to hybrid lineages during the Holocene. Cobitis elongatoides due to its long-term reproductive contact with the remaining parental species of the complex--C. tanaitica and C. spec.--gave rise to two clonal hybrid lineages probably during the last interglacial or even earlier, which survived the Würmian glaciation with C. elongatoides. These lineages followed C. elongatoides postglacial expansion and probably decreased its dispersal rate. Our data indicate the frequent origins of asexuality irrespective of the parental populations involved and the comparable dispersal potential of diploid and triploid lineages. PMID:16101769

  6. Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Choleva, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana; Kohoutova-Sediva, Alena; Paces, Jan; Rab, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers - hybrids with Mendelian heredity - are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis) of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species. PMID:24971792

  7. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction. PMID:26808475

  8. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction. PMID:26808475

  9. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  10. The gynogenetic reproduction of diploid and triploid hybrid spined loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei), and their ability to establish successful clonal lineages--on the evolution of polyploidy in asexual vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Janko, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, Dunja; Flajshans, Martin; Epplen, Jörg T; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr; Slechtová, Vera

    2007-10-01

    Polyploidisation is assumed to have played a significant role in the evolution of hybrid asexual lineages. The virtual absence of natural asexual systems in which more than a single ploidy level successfully establishes successful independent clonal lineages is generally explained by the strong effects of polyploidisation on fitness. Experimental crosses were made between diploid and triploid asexual Cobitis elongatoides x C. taenia hybrids (female) and both parental spined loach species (male). Genotyping of the progeny using allozymes and multilocus DNA fingerprinting, along with flow cytometric measurement of ploidy level, demonstrated the occurrence of gynogenetic reproduction in both female biotypes. The incorporation of the sperm genome occurred in some progeny, giving rise to a higher ploidy level, but the rate of polyploidisation differed significantly between the diploid and triploid females. These outcomes are consistent with the existence of developmental constraints on tetraploidy, which determine the rarity of tetraploids in natural populations. No cases of ploidy level reduction were observed. Since diploid and triploid hybrid populations occur where the lack of potential progenitor excludes the possibility of de novo origin, it is probable that both diploid and triploid females can establish successful clonal lineages. Spined loaches represent a unique example, among asexual vertebrates, where more than one ploidy level can establish persistent clonal lineages, which are reproductively independent of one another.

  11. Feeding ecology of Cobitis paludica and Cobitis calderoni in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    Valladolid, Maria; Przybylski, Miroslaw

    2003-01-01

    In total, 253 specimens of Cobitis paludica and 163 Cobitis calderoni were collected in the Lozoya River (Madrid, Spain) in April, May, July, September and December 1990. Both species showed high percentages of empty guts in all months. C. paludica fed mainly on detritus and invertebrates while Cobitis calderoni fed on invertebrates and unicellular algae. Preferred prey items were the larvae of Dipterans (Chironomidae, Simuliidae) and micro crustaceans, with Ephemeroptera (Caenis) in summer. Cobitis calderoni fed on the most abundant prey except in April and July, when it selected invertebrates. C. paludica selected invertebrates throughout all the months. Diet overlapping (Horn's Index) was complete except in September, when the abundance of invertebrates in both diets was similar. For the remaining months, food type (invertebrates, unicellular algae and detritus) abundance differed, minimizing the interspecific competition. PMID:15303353

  12. Pomphorhynchidae and quadrigyridae (Acanthocephala), including a new genus and species (Pallisentinae), from freshwater fishes, Cobitidae and Cyprinodontidae, in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Aydogdu, Ali; Emre, Yilmaz

    2012-09-01

    During a survey of freshwater fishes from Turkey two species of Acanthocephala, one of them new, were found. Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Pomphorhynchidae) is reported at 24% prevalence in 37 Cobitis bilseli (Cobitidae) from Lake Beysehir, Konya, for the first time. The eoacanthoacaphalan Triaspiron aphanii gen. n. et sp. n. (Quadrigyridae), at a prevalence of 90%, is described from 29 Aphanius mento (Cyprinodontidae), from Kirkgöz Springs, Antalya. The new genus most closely resembles Raosentis Datta, 1947, both having a small spindle shaped trunk, and Acanthogyrus Thapar, 1927, both having a proboscis armature of three circles of hooks. Triaspiron differs from Raosentis in proboscis shape, cylindrical not globular, proboscis armature, three circles, a total of 16 hooks in all, not four circles, a total of 26-30 hooks in all, and trunk spination, two fields of spines in the anterior field with spines arranged in up to 40 circular rows, not a single field with 9-17 rows of spines. Triaspiron differs from Acanthogyrus in having fewer proboscis hooks, 16 compared with 18-24, arranged in three circles, one anterior and two posteriorly placed, with an unarmed region between, not three circles of hooks evenly spaced, and two fields of trunk spines, not one.

  13. Clonal diploid sperm of the diploid-triploid mosaic loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei:Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Morishima, Kagayaki; Oshima, Kouzou; Horie, Shin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2004-06-01

    The loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus comprises diploid, triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic individuals in a wild population of the Hokkaido island, Japan. Previous studies revealed the presence of a cryptic clonal lineage among diploid loaches, which is maintained by uniparental reproduction of genetically identical diploid eggs. In the present study, we analyzed distribution and genetic status of diploid and triploid cells in infrequent mosaic males. Flow cytometry, microsatellite genotyping and DNA fingerprinting verified that mosaic males consisted of diploid cells with genotypes identical to the natural clone and triploid cells with diploid genomes of the clonal lineage plus haploid genome from sperm nucleus of the father. Thus, the occurrence of diploid-triploid mosaicism might be caused by accidental fertilization of a diploid blastomere nucleus with haploid sperm after the initiation of clonal development of unreduced eggs. Such mosaic males produced fertile sperm with diploid DNA content. The experimental cross between normal diploid female and diploid-triploid mosaic male gave rise to the appearance of triploid progeny which exhibited two microsatellite alleles identical to the clonal genotype and one allele derived from the normal female. In DNA fingerprinting, such triploid progeny gave not only all the DNA fragments from the clone, but also other fragments from the normal female. Induced androgenesis using UV irradiated eggs and sperm of the mosaic male gave rise to the occurrence of diploid individuals with paternally derived microsatellite genotypes and DNA fingerprints, absolutely identical to the natural clonal lineage. These results conclude that the diploid-triploid mosaic male produced unreduced diploid sperm with genetically identical genotypes. The spermatogenesis in the clonal diploid cells under the mosaic condition suggests that triploid male somatic cells might transform genetically all-female germ cells to differentiate into functionally male gametes. The discovery of the mosaic male producing unreduced sperm suggests the theoretical occurrence of triploids and other polyploids by the syngamy of such paternally derived diploid gametes. PMID:15181644

  14. A new species of Bibarba (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) from Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tie-Jun; Yang, Jian; Xiu, Li-Hui

    2015-01-09

    A new loach species of the genus Bibarba is described from a cave (Hongshuihe River basin) in Guangxi, China. The new species, Bibarba parvoculus, can be distinguished from its only congener Bibarba bibarba by pigmentation patterns on fins and side of the body, shape of snout, counts of fin rays, eye diameter, caudal-peduncle length, and preanal length. 

  15. Range extension of Lepidocephalichthys alkaia (Teleostei: Cobitidae) and notes on its sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    ENDRUWEIT, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The natural distributional range of the cobitid loach Lepidocephalichthys alkaia is extended into Yunnan Province,China. The modified sexually dimorphic pectoral fin in males of L. alkaia is described. PMID:27265657

  16. European colonization by the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) from Ponto-Caspian refugia based on mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Culling, Mark A; Janko, Karel; Boron, Alicja; Vasil'ev, Victor P; Côté, Isabelle M; Hewitt, Godfrey M

    2006-01-01

    In the last 20 years, new species, asexual reproduction, polyploidy and hybridization have all been reported within the genus Cobitis. An understanding of the current distribution and baseline phylogeographical history of 'true' nonhybrid Cobitis species is crucial in order to unravel these discoveries. In the present work, we investigated the phylogeography of the spined loach, Cobitis taenia, using 1126 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 174 individuals collected at 47 sites. In total, 51 haplotypes that differed at 49 positions (4.35%) were detected. We deduce that C. taenia survived European glaciations in at least three refugees in the Ponto-Caspian area. Two of these refugees each provided a major lineage that recolonized Europe in separate directions: one westward to England and the other spreading north into Russia before moving west. A third (minor) lineage that contributed little to the recolonization of Europe was also revealed--remaining near its Black Sea refuge. However, more recent history was difficult to resolve with colonization from a more western refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM) a distinct possibility. Nested clade analysis indicates a pattern of restricted gene flow with isolation by distance at the first two levels and overall. Unlike many other European freshwater fish species, the Danube is not part of the current distribution of C. taenia, nor was it used as either a refuge or a source of colonization of Europe. Low genetic diversity within C. taenia suggests that its colonization of Europe is relatively recent. Demographic analyses revealed a history of recent expansion and isolation by distance.

  17. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur.

  18. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur. PMID:27583576

  19. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Carim, Kellie J.; Paroz, Yvette M.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species’ distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur. PMID:27583576

  20. A cryptic clonal line of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) evidenced by induced gynogenesis, interspecific hybridization, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Kagayaki; Horie, Shin; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2002-05-01

    In Memanbetsu town, Hokkaido island, Japan, a high frequency of natural triploid loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (7.4% on average) was detected by flow cytometry for relative DNA content. Among sympatric diploid females (n=6) from a single population, we found two unique females that laid unreduced diploid eggs. They gave normal diploid progeny even after induction of gynogenesis with genetically inert UV-irradiated sperm. When fertilized with normal loach sperm, some unreduced eggs developed into triploids, but the rest into diploids. Hybridization using goldfish Carassius auratus sperm gave both normal diploid loaches and inviable allotriploid hybrids possessing the diploid loach genome and the haploid goldfish genome. Microsatellite genotyping and DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the diploid progeny developing from the unreduced eggs were genetically identical to the mother, while the triploids had some of the paternal DNA. These results indicate that the diploid eggs reproduced unisexually as a diploid clone and in other cases developed into triploids after accidental incorporation of sperm nucleus. The presence of at least one clonal line in this area was shown by the identical DNA fingerprint detected in five out of 17 diploid loaches examined. PMID:12130809

  1. Multiple factors have shaped the phylogeography of Chinese spiny loach Cobitis sinensis in Taiwan as inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T-Y; Lin, H-D; Shao, K-T; Hsu, K-C

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) in 61 specimens of Chinese spiny loach Cobitis sinensis from 12 drainages in Taiwan were identified as two major clades, exhibiting a southern and a northern distribution, north of TzengWen and south of TzengWen (including TzengWen), respectively. The divergence time between these two phylogroups was estimated at 7.34-9.06 million years before present (B.P.), but these two phylogroups were formed c. 3.41-4.23 and 2.22-2.75 M B.P., respectively. Moreover, geological events have been recalculated that Taiwan Island emerged above sea level at an estimate of c. 4-5 M B.P., and quickly became its present shape at c. 2 M B.P. through mountain building. These results suggest that these two major clades of C. sinensis in Taiwan might originate from two different continental populations, since the island's initial isolation in the Pliocene. Within southern Taiwan, the initial colonization was hypothesized to be in KaoPing River, followed by its northward dispersal. The high divergence between KaoPing and TzengWen was influenced by glaciations and landforms. Within north Taiwan, the colonization was from the Miaoli Plateau through western Taiwan to north-eastern and northern Taiwan. This dispersal pattern is concordant with the previously proposed hypothesis. Apparently, both geological and phylogeographic evidence suggested that river capture of the upper Takia River by the LanYang River promoted range expansion in freshwater fishes and also indicated that the Central Range within Taiwan did not act as a barrier to the dispersal of C. sinensis. PMID:20409169

  2. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely

  3. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic “hot spot”, with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely

  4. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely

  5. Genomic replacement of native Cobitis lutheri with introduced C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm following the artificial connection of river systems

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Ye-Seul; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Won, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    River connections via artificial canals will bring about secondary contacts between previously isolated fish species. Here, we present a genetic consequence of such a secondary contact between Cobitis fish species, C. lutheri in the Dongjin River, and C. tetralineata in the Seomjin River in Korea. The construction of water canals about 80 years ago has unidirectionally introduced C. tetralineata into the native habitat of C. lutheri, and then these species have hybridized in the main stream section of the Dongjin River. According to the divergence population genetic analyses of DNA sequence data, the two species diverged about 3.3 million years ago, which is interestingly coincident with the unprecedented paleoceanographic change that caused isolations of the paleo-river systems in northeast Asia due to sea-level changes around the late Pliocene. Multilocus genotypic data of nine microsatellites and three nuclear loci revealed an extensively admixed structure in the hybrid zone with a high proportion of various post-F1 hybrids. Surprisingly, pure native C. lutheri was absent in the hybrid zone in contrast to the 7% of pure C. tetralineata. Such a biased proportion must have resulted from the dominant influence of continually introducing C. tetralineata on the native C. lutheri which has no supply of natives from other tributaries to the hybrid zone due to numerous low-head dams. In addition, mating experiments indicated that there is no discernible reproductive isolation between them. All the results suggest that the gene pool of native C. lutheri is being rapidly replaced by that of continually introducing C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm for the last 80 years, which will ultimately lead to the genomic extinction of natives in this hybrid zone. PMID:24834340

  6. Evolution and phylogenetic application of the MC1R gene in the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Qiong-Ying; LIANG, Li-Xia; LIU, Fei; YU, Dan; LIU, Huan-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Fish of the superfamily Cobitoidea sensu stricto (namely loaches) exhibit extremely high diversity of color patterns, but so far little is known about their evolutionary mechanism. Melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) plays an important role during the synthesis of melanin and formation of animal body color patterns. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the partial MC1R gene for 44 loach individuals representing 31 species of four families. Phylogenetic analyses yielded a topology congruent with previous studies using multiple nuclear loci, showing that each of the four families was monophyletic with sister relationships of Botiidae+ (Cobitidae+(Balitoridae+Nemacheilidae)). Gene evolutionary analyses indicated that MC1R in loaches was under purifying selection pressure, with various sites having different dN/dS values. Both Botiidae and Cobitidae had lower dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting their evolution might be strongly affected by purifying selection pressure. For Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae, both had larger dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting they had a faster evolutionary rate under more relaxed selection pressure. Consequently, we inferred that the relatively stable color patterns in Botiidae and Cobitidae might result from the strong purifying selection pressure on the MC1R gene, whereas the complicated and diverse color patterns in Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae might be associated with the relaxed selection pressure. Given the easy experimental procedure for the partial MC1R gene and its excellent performance in reconstructing phylogeny, we suggest this gene could be used as a good molecular marker for the phylogenetic study of fish species. PMID:27686787

  7. Evolution and phylogenetic application of the MC1R gene in the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiong-Ying; Shi, Li-Xia; Liu, Fei; Yu, Dan; Liu, Huan-Zhang

    2016-09-18

    Fish of the superfamily Cobitoidea sensu stricto (namely loaches) exhibit extremely high diversity of color patterns, but so far little is known about their evolutionary mechanism. Melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) plays an important role during the synthesis of melanin and formation of animal body color patterns. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the partial MC1R gene for 44 loach individuals representing 31 species of four families. Phylogenetic analyses yielded a topology congruent with previous studies using multiple nuclear loci, showing that each of the four families was monophyletic with sister relationships of Botiidae+ (Cobitidae+(Balitoridae+Nemacheilidae)). Gene evolutionary analyses indicated that MC1R in loaches was under purifying selection pressure, with various sites having different dN/dS values. Both Botiidae and Cobitidae had lower dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting their evolution might be strongly affected by purifying selection pressure. For Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae, both had larger dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting they had a faster evolutionary rate under more relaxed selection pressure. Consequently, we inferred that the relatively stable color patterns in Botiidae and Cobitidae might result from the strong purifying selection pressure on the MC1R gene, whereas the complicated and diverse color patterns in Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae might be associated with the relaxed selection pressure. Given the easy experimental procedure for the partial MC1R gene and its excellent performance in reconstructing phylogeny, we suggest this gene could be used as a good molecular marker for the phylogenetic study of fish species. PMID:27686787

  8. Corrigendum: Redescription of Nemachilichthys rueppelli, a senior synonym of N. shimogensis (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Keskar, Ashwini; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Ali, Anvar; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    In Keskar et al. (2015) we emended the original name Cobitis rupelli Sykes, 1839, because Sykes (1839) specifically mentions that the species was named after Rüppell. The specific epithet 'rupelli', with a single 'p', is an incorrect original spelling and should be emended into 'ruppelli' as required by Article 32.5 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999). However, citing Art 32.5.2.1, we also suggested that because Sykes (1839) named the species after Rüppell, the umlaut 'ü' should be corrected to 'ue' and that the specific epithet should thus be 'rueppelli'. This is an error. Sykes (1839) did not use 'ü' in the original spelling of the species epithet rupelli: hence changing it to 'ue' is incorrect. Therefore, the correct spelling for the species should be 'Nemachilichthys ruppelli', a change that should be reflected in the title and in the rest of the text of Keskar et al. (2015). PMID:27394901

  9. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

    PubMed

    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  10. Data on the multilocus molecular phylogenies of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Frable, Benjamin W; Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    The data presented herein support the article "Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes)" (B.F. Melo, B.L. Sidlauskas, B.W. Frable, K. Hoekzema, R.P. Vari, C. Oliveira, 2016) [1], which inferred phylogenetic relationships of the prochilodontids from an alignment of three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (5279 bp) for all 21 recognized prochilodontid species and 22 related species. Herein, we provide primer sequences, museum voucher information and GenBank accession numbers. Additionally, we more fully describe the maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated dataset, detail the Bayesian species tree analysis, and provide the maximum likelihood topologies congruent with prior morphological hypotheses that were compared with the unconstrained tree using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. PMID:27642619

  11. A cladistic re-analysis of the Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) using three-item analysis.

    PubMed

    Grand, Anaïs; Zaragüeta Bagils, Rene; Vélez, Lina María Duque; Vélez, Lina María; Ung, Visotheary

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe LisBeth, a newly published phylogenetic program. LisBeth implements the cladistic three-item analysis for systematics and biogeography. We show how LisBeth handles character representation, character analysis, exact search functions, reconstruction of the intersection tree and other features, such as retention index, completeness index, character history and link with other programs such as PAUP*, version 4.0b10, TNT and Xper2. Using LisBeth, we reanalyze the phylogeny based on morphological characters of the order Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) published by Endo (2002) and compare our results. We also describe the generation of hypotheses of homology following Endo's guidelines versus 3ia representation schemes. We compare the topologies of all results and show the implications of the interpretation of character history.

  12. [Description of three new monogenean gill parasites from Mormyrus rume (Valenciennes, 1846) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Blahoua, K G; Pariselle, A; N'Douba, V; Kone, T; Kouassi, N J

    2009-03-01

    The study of the gill parasites from elephant fish Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from the Ayamé man-made Lake (Ivory Coast) revealed the presence of three new monogenean species of the genus Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, which can be mainly distinguished from all other species of the genus by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor (dorsal and ventral anchor, dorsal and ventral bar) and by the size and the structure of the male copulatory organ. In this paper, descriptions of Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. and Bouvixella koutouani n. sp. are given. PMID:19353952

  13. Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    McMahan, Caleb D; Geheber, Aaron D; Piller, Kyle R

    2010-12-01

    The genus Vieja represents a group of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) distributed on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of North and Central America from southern Mexico to Panama. Sixteen species of Vieja are presently recognized; however, based on long-standing taxonomic problems, the genus itself appears to be weakly defined. A number of different generic designations have been proposed for members of Vieja, and recent systematic studies of heroine cichlids have not specifically addressed the validity of the grouping and have not included all species in the genus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the monophyly of the genus Vieja by including all nominal species in the genus using the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b gene and nuclear S7-1 intron. Results of Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian inference, and topology tests (constraint tree searches and post-burn-in Bayesian filtering) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic as it is currently recognized. The genus Herichthys was recovered as sister to a clade consisting of a number of Vieja species (V. fenestrata, V. guttulata, V. zonata, V. hartwegi, V. bifasciata, V. breidohri, V. argentea, V. regani, V. melanura, V. synspila, and V. maculicauda, as well as Paraneetroplusbulleri). A clade consisting of V. intermedia, V. godmanni, and V. microphthalma was recovered sister to Theraps. Additionally, V. heterospila and V. tuyrensis were recovered outside of Vieja and Herichthys clades. Based on the results of this comprehensive study, we suggest a revised classification of Vieja species.

  14. A new species of Speleogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Western Mediterraenean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Ordines, Francesc; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-01-15

    A new goby species, Speleogobius llorisi sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the circalittoral sea bed at 46-69 m depth off the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Six specimens, four females and two males, of the new species were collected from beam trawl samples carried out on the red algae beds off the south west coast of Mallorca Island. Among others, the main traits that differentiate the new species from the only congeneric species, S. trigloides, are the presence of preopercular head canal with pores γ, δ, ε vs. preopercular head canal absent; a longer snout, equal or longer than eye vs. shorter than eye; lower lip ending anteriorly slightly in front of upper lip vs. upper lip slightly protruding lower lip; scales in lateral series 28 or 29 vs. 26; scales in transverse series 6 vs.7-8. It also differs from S. trigloides in some non-overlapping morphometrics and in coloration. All individuals of the new species were collected from Peyssonnelia beds, beds of red algae dominated by species of the family Peyssonneliaceae. The generic diagnosis of Speleogobius is revised.

  15. A new species of Speleogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Western Mediterraenean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Ordines, Francesc; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-01-01

    A new goby species, Speleogobius llorisi sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the circalittoral sea bed at 46-69 m depth off the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Six specimens, four females and two males, of the new species were collected from beam trawl samples carried out on the red algae beds off the south west coast of Mallorca Island. Among others, the main traits that differentiate the new species from the only congeneric species, S. trigloides, are the presence of preopercular head canal with pores γ, δ, ε vs. preopercular head canal absent; a longer snout, equal or longer than eye vs. shorter than eye; lower lip ending anteriorly slightly in front of upper lip vs. upper lip slightly protruding lower lip; scales in lateral series 28 or 29 vs. 26; scales in transverse series 6 vs.7-8. It also differs from S. trigloides in some non-overlapping morphometrics and in coloration. All individuals of the new species were collected from Peyssonnelia beds, beds of red algae dominated by species of the family Peyssonneliaceae. The generic diagnosis of Speleogobius is revised. PMID:27395553

  16. Improved resolution and a novel phylogeny for the Neotropical triplefin blennies (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae).

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth Christina; Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Hastings, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    The triplefin blennies (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae) are a diverse group of small-bodied benthic fishes associated with rocky or coral reefs. The Neotropics contain four genera and 26 species, many of which have only been recently described. A recent molecular phylogeny (Lin and Hastings, 2013) contrasts with previous phylogenies based on morphology in recovering the four Neotropical genera as a single clade with respect to the Indo-Pacific genera; however, relationships within and among genera were poorly resolved. This study reports a novel topology based on an expanded seven-loci molecular dataset. Individual gene trees have poor resolution, but concatenated analyses show strong support for most nodes, likely due to emergent support from concatenation. Consistent with Lin and Hastings (2013), three of the Neotropical genera, Axoclinus, Enneanectes, and Crocodilichthys, form a well-supported clade, but relationships of the fourth (Lepidonectes) are not confidently resolved. The monophyly of Axoclinus is well supported, but Enneanectes is paraphyletic with the inclusion of Axoclinus and Crocodilichthys. Improved resolution allows for reinterpretation of the biogeography of the Neotropical Tripterygiidae. Broader taxon sampling is still necessary for resolving the relationships within Tripterygiidae globally. PMID:26718057

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae) Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun-Yong; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Liu, Huanzhang; Tang, Qiongying; Chen, Xianglin; Bang, In-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1), recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), and early growth response 1 gene (egr1), from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia. PMID:24106702

  18. Cytotype-specific ISSR profiles and karyotypes in the Neotropical genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    Moysés, Cinthia Bachir; Daniel-Silva, Maria de Fatima Zambelli; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

    2010-02-01

    The genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes), a widely distributed fish genus from the Neotropical region, presents very complex morphological patterns and many taxonomic problems. It is suggested that this genus harbors a species complex that is hard to differentiate using only morphological characteristics. As a result, many species of Eigenmannia may be currently gathered under a common name. With the objective of providing new tools for species characterization in this group, an analysis of the polymorphism of DNA inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR), combined with karyotype identification, was carried out in specimens sampled from populations of the Upper Paraná, São Francisco and Amazon river basins (Brazil). Specific ISSR patterns generated by primers (AAGC)(4) and (GGAC)(4) were found to characterize the ten cytotypes analyzed, even though the cytotypes 2n = 38 and 2n = 38 XX:XY, from the Upper Paraná basin, share some ISSR amplification patterns. The geographical distribution of all Eigenmannia specimens sampled was inferred, showing the cytotype 2n = 31/2n = 32 as the most frequent and largely distributed in the Upper Paraná basin. The cytotype 2n = 34 was reported for the first time in the genus Eigenmania, restricted to the São Francisco basin. Polymorphic ISSR patterns were also detected for each cytotype. Considering our results and the data reported previously in the literature, it is suggested that many of the forms of Eigenmannia herein analyzed might be regarded as different species. This work reinforces the importance of employing diverse approaches, such as molecular and cytogenetic characterization, to address taxonomic and evolutionary issues. PMID:19779835

  19. Cytotype-specific ISSR profiles and karyotypes in the Neotropical genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    Moysés, Cinthia Bachir; Daniel-Silva, Maria de Fatima Zambelli; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

    2010-02-01

    The genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes), a widely distributed fish genus from the Neotropical region, presents very complex morphological patterns and many taxonomic problems. It is suggested that this genus harbors a species complex that is hard to differentiate using only morphological characteristics. As a result, many species of Eigenmannia may be currently gathered under a common name. With the objective of providing new tools for species characterization in this group, an analysis of the polymorphism of DNA inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR), combined with karyotype identification, was carried out in specimens sampled from populations of the Upper Paraná, São Francisco and Amazon river basins (Brazil). Specific ISSR patterns generated by primers (AAGC)(4) and (GGAC)(4) were found to characterize the ten cytotypes analyzed, even though the cytotypes 2n = 38 and 2n = 38 XX:XY, from the Upper Paraná basin, share some ISSR amplification patterns. The geographical distribution of all Eigenmannia specimens sampled was inferred, showing the cytotype 2n = 31/2n = 32 as the most frequent and largely distributed in the Upper Paraná basin. The cytotype 2n = 34 was reported for the first time in the genus Eigenmania, restricted to the São Francisco basin. Polymorphic ISSR patterns were also detected for each cytotype. Considering our results and the data reported previously in the literature, it is suggested that many of the forms of Eigenmannia herein analyzed might be regarded as different species. This work reinforces the importance of employing diverse approaches, such as molecular and cytogenetic characterization, to address taxonomic and evolutionary issues.

  20. An Anomalous Hatchery-Reared Biwa Rock Catfish, Silurus lithophilus (Teleostei: Siluridae),with an Adipose Fin-Like Projection.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Tetsuro; Hosoya, Kazumi

    2015-10-01

    An anomalous individual with an adipose fin-like projection was discovered during seedling production of Biwa rock catfish, Silurus lithophilus (Teleostei: Siluridae). The external shape of the projection resembled an adipose fin, but soft rays were clearly observed within it. The projection was proximally supported by a series of pterygiophores and by 14 soft rays. The projection can be explained as: I, homologous with a primitive adipose fin, which occurred as a result of localized ontogenetic reversion; II, an extra fin that occurred as a result of abnormal expression of a regeneration mechanism; III, a remnant of a dorsal fin and/or a second dorsal fin; and IV, an inversion phenomenon of the polarity in the formation process of the anal fin. PMID:26428720

  1. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  2. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a).

  3. Dactylogyrid monogeneans parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae) from the Pampas region, Argentina: new and previously described species.

    PubMed

    Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on dactylogyrid monogeneans in Argentina have been carried out during 1980s and 1990s. Many of these species have been later synonymised and other remain under a confusing taxonomic status, particularly those parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae). In order to clarify the identity of dactylogyrids, new material was collected from fishes in Lake Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of four species was found in the gills of C. voga. Two known species, Curvianchoratus singularis (Suriano, 1980) Suriano, 1986 and Palombitrema triangulum (Suriano, 1981) Suriano, 1997, are redescribed and their generic and specific status discussed, and two new species are described. Urocleidoides surianoae n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by having an anterior medial projection in the ventral bar and a laminar ligament connecting the base of the male copulatory organ and accessory piece. Annulotrematoides bonaerensis n. sp. differs from its congeners principally by having a ventral bar with an anterior medial projection. The diversity of dactylogyrids harboured by C. voga indicates the need of further studies in the Pampas region, which will provide interesting and valuable sources of evidence for future zoogeographical and evolutionary research on dactylogyrids in the Neotropics. PMID:27522368

  4. Comparative morphology and cytology of the male sperm-transmission organs in viviparous species of clinid fishes (Clinidae: Teleostei, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev; Gon, Ofer; Holdengreber, Vered; Delarea, Yakob

    2006-12-01

    This work comprises the first comparative study of the morphology and cytology of the sperm transmission organs in males of 14 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei, Teleostei). The form and dimensions of these organs differ among the various species studied. The organs are composed of intra-abdominal ampullae, into which the sperm ducts and urinary bladder anchor, and an external protruding intromittent papilla used for insemination. The form of the ampullae differs among the various species, from pear-shaped to horseshoe-shaped. It increases in dimensions with increasing length of the male. In all the species this organ is covered by a connective-tissue tunic that encompasses both circular and longitudinal striated muscle bundles. The lumina of the ampullae harbor the epididymis, a strongly convoluted and plicated duct, which becomes filled with spermatozeugmata during reproduction. From here, the epididymis continues into the protruding intromittent papillae, where its folds gradually straighten at the apical part of the intromittent organ. The form and dimensions of this copulatory organ also differ in the various species. Papillae bearing taste buds are found on the apical parts of the intromittent organ, and it is probable that these, together with the difference in forms of the organ, help to prevent interspecific copulation.

  5. New Sicydiinae phylogeny (Teleostei: Gobioidei) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: insights on systematics and ancestral areas.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Castelin, Magalie; Lord, Clara; Chabarria, Ryan; Dettaï, Agnès; Keith, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sicydiinae subfamily (Teleostei: Gobioidei) is the biggest contributor to the diversity of fish communities in river systems of tropical islands. These species are found in the Indo-Pacific area, the Caribbean region and West Africa. They spawn in freshwater, their planktotrophic larvae drift downstream to the sea where they develop, before returning to the rivers to grow and reproduce. Hence, they are called amphidromous. Their phylogeny has been explored using a total of 3545 sites from 5 molecular markers (mitochondrial DNA: 16S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b; nuclear DNA: rhodopsin gene and a nuclear marker specially developed for this study, the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1-IRF2PB1). Sequences were obtained for 59 Sicydiinae specimens of 9 known genera. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses support the monophyly of the subfamily as well as the monophylyof all genera except Sicydium, which is paraphyletic. Five major clades were identified within this subfamily. One clade contained the genus Stiphodon. Another clade contained Sicyopterus, Sicydium and Parasicydium with Sicyopterus as sister genus of Sicydium. The non-monophyly of Sicydium subclade, because it includes the monotypic genus Parasicydium, challenged the validity of Parasicydium genus. Ancestral area reconstruction showed that the subfamily emerged in the Central West Pacific region implying that previous hypotheses proposing a dispersal route for Sicydiinae into the Atlantic Ocean are unsupported by the present analysis. Our results suggest that the hypotheses for the dispersal route of the genus Sicydium should be reconsidered.

  6. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pariselle, Antoine; Nyom, Arnold R Bitja; Bilong, Charles F Bilong

    2014-11-05

    The four Cichlidogyrus species (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) found on the gills of Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon are considered new and are described herein. Cichlidogyrus mvogoi n. sp. from Sarotherodon mvogoi, characterised by a long (> 100 µm), thin and spirally coiled penis and a short marginal hook pair I. Cichlidogyrus sigmocirrus n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a short marginal hook pair I, a slightly spirally coiled penis with reduced heel, an accessory piece being a spirally coiled band wrapped round the penis and attached to the penis basal bulb by a very thin filament. Cichlidogyrus chrysopiformis n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by an marginal hook pair I of medium size, a thin spirally coiled penis (1.5 turn) with a developed flared heel, an accessory piece being a large gutter shaped band, ending in a narrow complex extremity, and linked to the basal bulb of the penis by a very thin filament, a short, straight and slightly ringed vagina. Cichlidogyrus djietoi n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a slightly spirally coiled penis (2 turns) with developed heel, an accessory piece being a large gutter shaped band, ending in a narrow folded back extremity, a short funnel shaped vagina. The three latter species are also remarkable by the morphology of their auricles implanted on the anterior side of the dorsal transverse bar which make them (together with the other species described from Tylochromis hosts) a homogeneous and original group within Cichlidogyrus, this distinctive feature seems to be ancestral compared to other Cichlidogyrus species.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2013-02-10

    The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the

  8. Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2013-02-10

    The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the

  9. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a). PMID:25796547

  10. Haliotrema abaddon n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of wild and maricultured West Australian dhufish Glaucosoma hebraicum (teleostei: Glaucosomatidae), in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, D C; Stephens, F

    2001-08-01

    Haliotrema abaddon n. sp. (Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of West Australian dhufish Glaucosoma hebraicum (Teleostei: Glaucosomatidae), from the Indian Ocean near Fremantle, Western Australia. The parasite is recorded from cultured dhufish and from a major portion of the known geographic distribution of its host. In cultured dhufish, H. abaddon causes branchitis and hyperplasia and metaplasia of the lamellar epithelial cells and may be a limiting factor in the development of an economically feasible mariculture industry. Comparable prevalences and densities of the parasite on wild and cultured dhufish were observed. In heavily infested captive fish, clusters of eggs (egg strands) appear to restrict blood flow to localized regions of the gills as a result of entanglement of egg filaments with secondary gill lamellae. Hatching of oncomiracidia occurs in 7-10 days at 20-25 C.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes with analyses of gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Mayden, Richard L; Zhang, Jia-Bo; Yu, Dan; Tang, Qiong-Ying; Deng, Xin; Liu, Huan-Zhang

    2012-10-15

    The superfamily Cobitoidea of the order Cypriniformes is a diverse group of fishes, inhabiting freshwater ecosystems across Eurasia and North Africa. The phylogenetic relationships of this well-corroborated natural group and diverse clade are critical to not only informing scientific communities of the phylogeny of the order Cypriniformes, the world's largest freshwater fish order, but are key to every area of comparative biology examining the evolution of traits, functional structures, and breeding behaviors to their biogeographic histories, speciation, anagenetic divergence, and divergence time estimates. In the present study, two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI, ND4+5) and four single-copy nuclear gene segments (RH1, RAG1, EGR2B, IRBP) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea as reconstructed from maximum likelihood (ML) and partitioned Bayesian Analysis (BA). Analyses of the combined mitochondrial/nuclear gene datasets revealed five strongly supported monophyletic Cobitoidea families and their sister-group relationships: Botiidae+(Vaillantellidae+(Cobitidae+(Nemacheilidae+Balitoridae))). These recovered relationships are in agreement with previous systematic studies on the order Cypriniformes and/or those focusing on the superfamily Cobitoidea. Using these relationships, our analyses revealed pattern lineage- or ecological-group-specific evolution of these genes for the Cobitoidea. These observations and results corroborate the hypothesis that these group-specific-ancestral ecological characters have contributed in the diversification and/or adaptations within these groups. Positive selections were detected in RH1 of nemacheilids and in RAG1 of nemacheilids and genus Vaillantella, which indicated that evolution of RH1 (related to eye's optic sense) and RAG1 (related to immunity) genes appeared to be important for the diversification of these groups. The balitorid lineage (those species inhabiting fast-flowing riverine habitats) had

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Ambastaia sidthimunki (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Wei, Min; Yang, Qichao; Yang, Yingming; Wan, Quan

    2016-09-01

    Ambastaia sidthimunki is a beautiful small-sized fish and it was categorized as Endangered B2ab (iii,v) in the IUCN Red List. In this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of the A. sidthimunki. The mitochondrial genome sequence was a circular molecule with 16,574 bp in length, and it contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, an L-strand replication origin (OL) and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 26.94% for C, 15.55% for G, 31.84% for A and 25.67% for T, with an AT content of 57.51%. This research contributes new molecular data for the conservation of this Endangered species. PMID:25722037

  13. Non-invasive ancient DNA protocol for fluid-preserved specimens and phylogenetic systematics of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    PubMed

    Garrigos, Yareli Esquer; Hugueny, Bernard; Koerner, Kellie; Ibañez, Carla; Bonillo, Celine; Pruvost, Patrice; Causse, Romain; Cruaud, Corinne; Gaubert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Specimens stored in museum collections represent a crucial source of morphological and genetic information, notably for taxonomically problematic groups and extinct taxa. Although fluid-preserved specimens of groups such as teleosts may constitute an almost infinite source of DNA, few ancient DNA protocols have been applied to such material. In this study, we describe a non-invasive Guanidine-based (GuSCN) ancient DNA extraction protocol adapted to fluid-preserved specimens that we use to re-assess the systematics of the genus Orestias (Cyprinodontidae: Teleostei). The latter regroups pupfishes endemic to the inter-Andean basin that have been considered as a 'species flock', and for which the morphology-based taxonomic delimitations have been hotly debated. We extracted DNA from the type specimens of Orestias kept at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris, France, including the extinct species O. cuvieri. We then built the first molecular (control region [CR] and rhodopsin [RH]) phylogeny including historical and recently collected representatives of all the Orestias complexes as recognized by Parenti (1984a): agassizii, cuvieri, gilsoni and mulleri. Our ancient DNA extraction protocol was validated after PCR amplification through an approach based on fragment-by-fragment chimera detection. After optimization, we were able to amplify < 200 bp fragments from both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (CR and RH, respectively) from probably formalin-fixed type specimens bathed entirely in the extraction fluid. Most of the individuals exhibited few modifications of their external structures after GuSCN bath. Our approach combining type material and 'fresh' specimens allowed us to taxonomically delineate four clades recovered from the well-resolved CR tree into four redefined complexes: agassizii (sensu stricto, i.e. excluding luteus-like species), luteus, cuvieri and gilsoni. The mulleri complex is polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic analyses based on both

  14. The basement membrane and the sex establishment in the juvenile hermaphroditism during gonadal differentiation of the Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2015-12-01

    Although there are several studies on morphogenesis in Teleostei, until now there is no research describing the role of the basement membrane in the establishment of the germinal epithelium during gonadal differentiation in Characiformes. In attempt to study these events that result in the formation of ovarian and testicular structures, gonads of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi were prepared for light microscopy. During gonadal development in G. ternetzi, all individuals first developed ovarian tissue. The undifferentiated gonad was formed by somatic cells (SC) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). After successive mitosis, the PGCs became oogonia, which entered into meiosis originating oocytes. An interstitial tissue developed. In half of the individuals, presumptive female, prefollicle cells synthesized a basement membrane around oocyte forming a follicle. Along the ventral region of the ovary, the tissue invaginated to form the ovigerous lamellae, bordered by the germinal epithelium. Stroma developed and the follicle complexes were formed. The gonadal aromatase was detected in interstitial cells in the early steps of the gonadal differentiation in both sexes. In another half of the individuals, presumptive male, there was no synthesis of basement membrane. The interstitium was invaded by numerous granulocytes. Pre-Leydig cells proliferated. Apoptotic oocytes were observed and afterward degenerated. Spermatogonia appeared near the degenerating oocytes and associated to SCs, forming testicular tubules. Germinal epithelium developed and the basement membrane was synthesized. Concomitantly, there was decrease of the gonadal aromatase and increase in the 3β-HSD enzyme expression. Thus, the testis was organized on an ovary previously developed, constituting an indirect gonochoristic differentiation.

  15. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages. PMID:24792929

  16. A new species of Glugea Thélohan, 1891 in the red sea bream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Sun, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Jingzhe; Guo, Zhixun; Ye, Lingtong; Xu, Liwen

    2014-10-01

    A new microsporidian species is described from farmed red sea bream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Sparidae). Large numbers of spherical whitish xenomas were observed throughout the visceral organs of the host. Histological examination showed that the microsporidia caused several xenomas that were embedded in the intestinal muscularis externa or submucosa. Light and transmission electron microscopy examination of the spores also revealed morphological features typical of species of Glugea Thélohan, 1891. This microsporidian parasite has two different types of mature spores: microspores and macrospores. The spores are elongate-ovoid, with a large posterior vacuole. The polaroplast is bi-partite, with anterior and posterior parts comprising densely packed lamellae and loose membranes, respectively, and occupies approximately the anterior half of the spore. The polar filament is anisofilar, with 12-13 coils in a single layer almost touching the posterior spore wall. Comparison of the small subunit rDNA sequences revealed 92.7-98.1% identity with the sequences available from other Glugea spp. from piscine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the microsporidian species studied clustered within the Glugea clade with strong support. Based on the differences in the morphological characteristics and molecular data, the microsporidian infecting P. major is considered to represent a species new to science, Glugea pagri n. sp.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei.

  18. Unique features of pedicellate attachment of the upper jaw teeth in the adult gobiid fish Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidiae): morphological and structural characteristics and development.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2013-05-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), a hill-stream herbivorous gobiid fish, possesses an unusual oral dentition among teleost fishes on account of its feeding habitat. By using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, including vital staining with tetracycline, we examined the development of the attachment tissues of the upper jaw teeth in this fish. The functional teeth of S. japonicus had an asymmetrical dentine shaft. The dentine shaft attached to the underlying uniquely shaped pedicel by means of two different attachment mechanisms. At the lingual base, collagen fiber bundles connected the dentine shaft with the pedicel (hinged attachment), whereas the labial base articulated with an oval-shaped projection of the pedicel (articulate attachment). The pedicel bases were firmly ankylosed to the crest of the thin flange of porous spongy bone on the premaxillary bone, which afforded a flange-groove system on the labial surface of the premaxillary bone. Developmentally, the pedicel and thin flange of spongy bone were completely different mineralized attachment tissues. The pedicel had a dual origin, i.e., the dental papilla cells, which differentiated into odontoblasts that constructed the internal surface of the pedicel, and the mesenchymal cells, which differentiated into osteoblasts that formed the outer face of the pedicel. A thin flange of spongy bone was deposited on the superficial resorbed labial side of the premaxillary bone proper, and later rapid bone remodeling proceeded toward the pedicel base. These unique features of pedicellate tooth attachment for the upper jaw teeth in the adult S. japonicus are highly modified teeth for enhancing the ability of individual functional teeth to move closely over irregularities in the rock surfaces during the scraping of algae.

  19. The basement membrane and the sex establishment in the juvenile hermaphroditism during gonadal differentiation of the Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2015-12-01

    Although there are several studies on morphogenesis in Teleostei, until now there is no research describing the role of the basement membrane in the establishment of the germinal epithelium during gonadal differentiation in Characiformes. In attempt to study these events that result in the formation of ovarian and testicular structures, gonads of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi were prepared for light microscopy. During gonadal development in G. ternetzi, all individuals first developed ovarian tissue. The undifferentiated gonad was formed by somatic cells (SC) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). After successive mitosis, the PGCs became oogonia, which entered into meiosis originating oocytes. An interstitial tissue developed. In half of the individuals, presumptive female, prefollicle cells synthesized a basement membrane around oocyte forming a follicle. Along the ventral region of the ovary, the tissue invaginated to form the ovigerous lamellae, bordered by the germinal epithelium. Stroma developed and the follicle complexes were formed. The gonadal aromatase was detected in interstitial cells in the early steps of the gonadal differentiation in both sexes. In another half of the individuals, presumptive male, there was no synthesis of basement membrane. The interstitium was invaded by numerous granulocytes. Pre-Leydig cells proliferated. Apoptotic oocytes were observed and afterward degenerated. Spermatogonia appeared near the degenerating oocytes and associated to SCs, forming testicular tubules. Germinal epithelium developed and the basement membrane was synthesized. Concomitantly, there was decrease of the gonadal aromatase and increase in the 3β-HSD enzyme expression. Thus, the testis was organized on an ovary previously developed, constituting an indirect gonochoristic differentiation. PMID:26386207

  20. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0) × 2.58 (1.8–3.3) μm. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

  1. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Toguebaye, Bhen Sikina; Quilichini, Yann; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1-4.0) × 2.58 (1.8-3.3) μm. Their wall is 100-300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11-16 coils, 130-155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

  2. Retinal and lenticular ultrastructure in the aestivating salamanderfish, Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Galaxiidae, Teleostei) with special reference to a new type of photoreceptor mosaic.

    PubMed

    Collin, S P; Collin, H B

    1998-10-01

    The salamanderfish, Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Galaxiidae, Teleostei) is endemic to southwestern Australia and inhabits shallow, freshwater pools which evaporate during the hot summer months. Burrowing into the substrate in response to falling water levels allows these fish to aestivate for extended periods of time while encapsulated in a mucous cocoon even when the pools contain no water. Only a few minutes after a major rainfall, these fish emerge into relatively clear water which subsequently becomes laden with tannin, turning the water black and reducing the pH to approximately 4.3. As part of a large study of the visual adaptations of this unique species, the retinal and lenticular morphology of the aestivating salamanderfish is examined at the level of the light and electron microscopes. The inner retina is highly vascularised by a complex system of vitreal blood vessels, while the outer retina receives a blood supply by diffusion from a choriocapillaris. This increased retinal blood supply may be an adaptation for reducing the oxygen tension during critical periods of aestivation. Large numbers of Müller cells traverse the thickness of the retina from the inner to the outer limiting membranes. The ganglion cells are arranged in two ill-defined layers, separated from a thick inner nuclear layer containing two layers of horizontal cells by a soma-free inner plexiform layer. The photoreceptors can be divided into three types typical of many early actinopterygian representatives; equal double cones, small single cones and large rods (2:1:1). These photoreceptors are arranged into a unique regular square mosaic comprising a large rod bordered by four equal double cones with a small single cone located at the corner of each repeating unit. The double cones may optimise perception of mobile prey which it tracks by flexion of its head and "neck" and the large rods may increase sensitivity in the dark tannin-rich waters in which it lives. Each single cone also

  3. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

    PubMed

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones.

  4. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Chang, Mee-mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding—representing the city’s first Mesozoic fish—extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong’s Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones. PMID:25834774

  5. Transcriptome characterization and SSR discovery in large-scale loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cobitidae, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Caijuan; Ling, Qufei; Ge, Chen; Ye, Zhuqing; Han, Xiaofei

    2015-02-25

    The large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus, Cypriniformes) is a bottom-dwelling freshwater species of fish found mainly in eastern Asia. The natural germplasm resources of this important aquaculture species has been recently threatened due to overfishing and artificial propagation. The objective of this study is to obtain the first functional genomic resource and candidate molecular markers for future conservation and breeding research. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated over one hundred million reads that resulted in 71,887 assembled transcripts, with an average length of 1465bp. 42,093 (58.56%) protein-coding sequences were predicted; and 43,837 transcripts had significant matches to NCBI nonredundant protein (Nr) database. 29,389 and 14,419 transcripts were assigned into gene ontology (GO) categories and Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), respectively. 22,102 (31.14%) transcripts were mapped to 302 KEGG pathways. In addition, 15,106 candidate SSR markers were identified, with 11,037 pairs of PCR primers designed. 400 primers pairs of SSR selected randomly were validated, of which 364 (91%) pairs of primers were able to produce PCR products. Further test with 41 loci and 20 large-scale loach specimens collected from the four largest lakes in China showed that 36 (87.8%) loci were polymorphic. The transcriptomic profile and SSR repertoire obtained in this study will facilitate population genetic studies and selective breeding of large-scale loach in the future. PMID:25528212

  6. Morphometric and meristic characteristics of the goldside loach Sabanejewia balcanica (Cobitidae) in Central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Delić, Antun; Kucinić, Mladen; Bucar, Mato; Lazar, Bojan; Mrakovcić, Milorad

    2003-01-01

    We studied sixteen morphometric and eight meristic characteristics of forty-five goldside loaches from two rivers in central Croatia, the Bijela and the Petrinjcica, belonging to the Sava River basin. We found significant differences (P<0.01) in all the morphometric characteristics of the populations from these two rivers. While the mean total length (TL) of the goldside loache population from Petrinjcica (mean TL = 60.4 mm, min-max = 52.8 - 70.2 mm) is comparable with TL in other populations described in Europe, individuals from the Bijela seem to be significantly larger (mean TL = 91.8 mm; min-max = 76.4 mm- 102.4 mm) and are among the longest specimens in Europe. Although we can not be sure if this is a result of phenotype variability or some specific taxonomic quality, the position of the Bijela on the old isolated massif of Mt Papuk may have led to the specific morphometric characteristics of this goldside loach population.

  7. Transcriptome characterization and SSR discovery in large-scale loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cobitidae, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Caijuan; Ling, Qufei; Ge, Chen; Ye, Zhuqing; Han, Xiaofei

    2015-02-25

    The large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus, Cypriniformes) is a bottom-dwelling freshwater species of fish found mainly in eastern Asia. The natural germplasm resources of this important aquaculture species has been recently threatened due to overfishing and artificial propagation. The objective of this study is to obtain the first functional genomic resource and candidate molecular markers for future conservation and breeding research. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated over one hundred million reads that resulted in 71,887 assembled transcripts, with an average length of 1465bp. 42,093 (58.56%) protein-coding sequences were predicted; and 43,837 transcripts had significant matches to NCBI nonredundant protein (Nr) database. 29,389 and 14,419 transcripts were assigned into gene ontology (GO) categories and Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), respectively. 22,102 (31.14%) transcripts were mapped to 302 KEGG pathways. In addition, 15,106 candidate SSR markers were identified, with 11,037 pairs of PCR primers designed. 400 primers pairs of SSR selected randomly were validated, of which 364 (91%) pairs of primers were able to produce PCR products. Further test with 41 loci and 20 large-scale loach specimens collected from the four largest lakes in China showed that 36 (87.8%) loci were polymorphic. The transcriptomic profile and SSR repertoire obtained in this study will facilitate population genetic studies and selective breeding of large-scale loach in the future.

  8. [Effect of environmental factors on fish community structure in the Huntai River Basin at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, fishes was investigated at 65 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. Forty species were collected, belonging to 9 orders, 14 families,33 genera. Cobitidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant fishes in the community structure in the Huntai River basin, accounting for 13. 21% and 65. 83% of the fish community, respectively. There were two types of spatial distribution of fish community, one was distributed in the head water and tributaries in the upstream, and the other was in the plain rivers. Nemachilus nudus, Cobitis granoei and Phoxinus lagowskii dominated the local community in the upper reaches of the Dahuofang Reservoir and shenwo River, while Carassius ayratus and Hemiculter leucisculdus dominated the local community in the plain rivers. CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was used to distinguish the primary environmental variables that affected the fish community structure. The results indicated fish community was mainly affected by environment factors at watershed and reach scales. Proportions of woodland and urban land, and altitude were three important environmental factors affecting the fish community at the watershed scale. Dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, pH and habitat inhomogeneity significantly affected the fish community at the reach scale, whereas substrate didn't show significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Environmental factors at watershed scale explained 7. 66% of the variation of fish community structure, environmental factors at reach scale explained 10. 57% of the variation of fish community structure. Environmental factors at reach scale influenced the fish community more significantly.

  9. Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer. PMID:18629122

  10. Phylogeny of the gudgeons (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Agnew, Mary K; Chen, Wei-Jen; Vincent Hirt, M; Raley, Morgan E; Sado, Tetsuya; Schneider, Leah M; Yang, Lei; Bart, Henry L; He, Shunping; Liu, Huanzhang; Miya, Masaki; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Wood, Robert M; Mayden, Richard L

    2011-10-01

    The members of the cyprinid subfamily Gobioninae, commonly called gudgeons, form one of the most well-established assemblages in the family Cyprinidae. The subfamily is a species-rich group of fishes, these fishes display diverse life histories, appearances, and behavior. The phylogenetic relationships of Gobioninae are examined using sequence data from four loci: cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, opsin, and recombination activating gene 1. This investigation produced a data matrix of 4114 bp for 162 taxa that was analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. The phylogenies our analyses recovered corroborate recent studies on the group. The subfamily Gobioninae is monophyletic and composed of three major lineages. We find evidence for a Hemibarbus-Squalidus group, and the tribes Gobionini and Sarcocheilichthyini, with the Hemibarbus-Squalidus group sister to a clade of Gobionini-Sarcocheilichthyini. The Hemibarbus-Squalidus group includes those two genera; the tribe Sarcocheilichthyini includes Coreius, Coreoleuciscus, Gnathopogon, Gobiocypris, Ladislavia, Paracanthobrama, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, Pungtungia, Rhinogobio, and Sarcocheilichthys; the tribe Gobionini includes Abbottina, Biwia, Gobio, Gobiobotia, Huigobio, Microphysogobio, Platysmacheilus, Pseudogobio, Romanogobio, Saurogobio, and Xenophysogobio. The monotypic Acanthogobio is placed into the synonymy of Gobio. We tentatively assign Belligobio to the Hemibarbus-Squalidus group and Mesogobio to Gobionini; Paraleucogobio and Parasqualidus remain incertae sedis. Based on the topologies presented, the evolution of swim bladder specializations, a distinctive feature among cyprinids, has occurred more than once within the subfamily. PMID:21672635

  11. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Liobagrus marginatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Du, Jun; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Ke, Hongyu; Liu, Chao; Liu, Guangxun

    2014-04-01

    The Liobagrus marginatus is an economic fish which distribute in the upstream of Yangtze river and its distributary. For its taste fresh, environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically and body miniaturization in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liobagrus marginatus was sequenced, which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,497 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to most of other fish. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy-strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in statistics results of different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liobagrus marginatus would contribute to better understand population genetics, evolution of this lineage, and will help administrative departments to make rules and laws to protect it. PMID:23795826

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gobiobotia filifer (Teleostei, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Lai, Jiansheng; Li, Lianman

    2016-09-01

    The Gobiobotia filifer is a small economic fish which distributes in the upstream of Yangtze River and its distributaries. For the environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer was determined with PCR technology, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,613 bp. The order and composition of genes were similar to most of the other teleost fish. Most of the genes were encoded on heavy strand, except for ND6 genes and eight tRNAs. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer would contribute to better understand evolution of this lineage, population genetics, and will help administrative department to make rules and laws to protect this lineage. PMID:25806579

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Percocypris pingi (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Wang, Jinjin; Peng, Zuogang

    2013-02-01

    Percocypris pingi is an endemic and economic fish species only found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. It has become endangered in recent years due to overfishing and/or dam construction. However, the available genetic data are still scarce for this species. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. pingi using long polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence has 16,586 bp and contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 control region, the gene composition and order of which are similar to most of other vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes except ND6 and eight tRNAs are encoded on the heavy strand. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.9% A, 25.7% T, 26.6% C, and 16.8% G with a slight AT bias of 56.6%. There are seven regions of gene overlaps totaling 23 bp and 11 intergenic spacer regions totaling 35 bp. Combined with the COI barcoding region sequences of other 25 cyprinids, the phylogenetic position of P. pingi was estimated using neighbor-joining method. The results showed that P. pingi had a close phylogenetic relationship with the species from genus Schizothorax. This mitogenome sequence data of P. pingi would provide the fundamental genetic data for further conservation genetic studies for this endangered fish species. PMID:22954235

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Jinshaia sinensis (Teleostei, Balitoridae, Balitorinae).

    PubMed

    Que, Yan-fu; Xu, Dong-mei; Xiong, Mei-hua; Yang, Zhi; Gao, Shao-bo; Shi, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Jinshaia sinensis is an endemic and typical fish which is successfully adaptive to mountain torrents in the upper stream of the Yangtze River and its tributaries. In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of J. sinensis has been first sequenced by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,567 base pairs (bp), had typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a noncoding control region (CR). The overall base composition of J. sinensis is 30.37% A, 28.82% C, 16.59% G, and 24.22% T, with a relatively a slight AT bias of 54.59%. CR of 903 bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The complete mitochondrial genome may provide fundamental informative data not only for unravel the population structure and differentiation, but also for further conservation genetics studies on this balitorid species. PMID:24937572

  16. Evolutionary origin and early biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Lavoué, Sébastien; Mayden, Richard L

    2013-08-01

    The biogeography of the mega-diverse, freshwater, and globally distributed Otophysi has received considerable attention. This attraction largely stems from assumptions as to their ancient origin, the clade being almost exclusively freshwater, and their suitability as to explanations of trans-oceanic distributions. Despite multiple hypotheses explaining present-day distributions, problems remain, precluding more parsimonious explanations. Underlying previous hypotheses are alternative phylogenies for Otophysi, uncertainties as to temporal diversification and assumptions integral to various explanations. We reexamine the origin and early diversification of this clade based on a comprehensive time-calibrated, molecular-based phylogenetic analysis and event-based approaches for ancestral range inference of lineages. Our results do not corroborate current phylogenetic classifications of otophysans. We demonstrate Siluriformes are never sister to Gymnotiformes and Characiformes are most likely nonmonophyletic. Divergence time estimates specify a split between Cypriniformes and Characiphysi with the fragmentation of Pangea. The early diversification of characiphysans either predated, or was contemporary with, the separation of Africa and South America, and involved a combination of within- and between-continental divergence events for these lineages. The intercontinental diversification of siluroids and characoids postdated major intercontinental tectonic fragmentations (<90 Mya). Post-tectonic drift dispersal events are hypothesized to account for their current distribution patterns. PMID:23888847

  17. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study) representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself) with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae). The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei) with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei) are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei) cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous). Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth) relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas. PMID:20178642

  18. Rhodeus albomarginatus, a new bitterling (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Arai, Ryoichi

    2014-04-16

    Rhodeus albomarginatus, new species, is described from the Lvjiang River, a tributary flowing into Poyang Lake of Yangtze River basin, in Anhui Province, China. It is distinguished from all congeneric species by unique combination of characters: branched dorsal-fin rays 10; branched anal-fin rays 10-11; longest simple rays of dorsal and anal fins strong and stiff, distally segmented; pelvic fin rays i 6; longitudinal scale series 34-36; transverse scale series 11; pored scales 4-7; vertebrae 33-34; colour pattern of adult males (iris black, belly reddish-orange, central part of caudal fin red, dorsal and anal fins of males edged with white margin).

  19. Reinterpreting recapitulation: systematics of needlefishes and their allies (Teleostei: Beloniformes).

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, N R

    2000-08-01

    As needlefishes (Belonidae) grow, their jaws pass through a "halfbeak" stage that resembles the adult jaw condition of the closely related family of halfbeaks (Hemiramphidae). Based on this pattern, some authors have suggested that halfbeaks are "developmentally arrested" or paedomorphic needlefish derivatives, whereas others have supported the notion that needlefishes are descended from halfbeak-like ancestors and that needlefish ontogeny thereby recapitulates phylogeny. To test these ideas and to better understand evolutionary changes in jaw ontogeny, phylogenetic relationships among genera of needlefishes, sauries (Scomberesocidae), halfbeaks, and flyingfishes (Exocoetidae) were assessed using mitochondrial (cytochrome b and 16S), nuclear (Tmo-4C4), and morphological characters. The resultant tree provides several novel taxonomic findings: (1) flyingfishes appear to be nested within halfbeaks; (2) sauries appear to be nested within needlefishes; and (3) the Indo-West Pacific freshwater halfbeaks appear to be most closely related to the needlefish/saury clade. The structure of the tree falsifies the idea that halfbeaks are paedomorphic needlefishes. Instead, halfbeaks are basal relative to needlefishes, fitting the pattern predicted by the hypothesis of recapitulation. I discuss limitations to phylogenetic perspectives on recapitulation based on discrete character data by comparing aspects of von Baerian and Haeckelian views of the relation between ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:11005301

  20. Garra longchuanensis, a new cyprinid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Wang, Xuzheng; Xiong, Huan; He, Shunping

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Garra is described from the Longchuan Jiang River, a tributary flowing to the Yiluowadi Jiang (Irrawaddy River) basin in Tengchong, Yunnan, South China. Garra longchuanensis is distinct from other Chinese congeners, except for G. qiaojiensis, in having 12 circumpeduncular scales, a well-developed rostral lobe with irregular distributed acanthoid tubercles, a deep groove to form a transverse lobe and a conspicuous, heavily tuberculated quadrate proboscis, and from G. qiaojiensis in having a slightly pointed snout (vs. rounded), a long and slender caudal peduncle (length 17.8-20.6% SL vs. 15.5-17.1%, width 10.9-12.6% SL vs. 11.3-12.6%), pectoral fin with 15-16 (vs. 13) branched rays, pelvic fin with 9 (vs. 8) branched rays, and an anterior position of anus (anus to anal distance 27.2-39.1% of pelvic to anal distance vs. 22.8-28.3%). PMID:27395590

  1. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA in Sorubim lima (Teleostei; Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Sczepanski, T S; Vicari, M R; de Almeida, M C; Nogaroto, V; Artoni, R F

    2013-01-01

    Interspaced repetitive DNA elements and segmental duplications have been extensively analyzed in fishes through physical chromosome mapping methods, providing a better comprehension of the structure and organization of the genome of this group. In order to contribute to this scenario, a sequence integration study of different classes of repetitive DNA with high resolution physical chromosome mapping was performed in Sorubim lima. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber-FISH with probes for 18S and 5S rRNA genes, TTAGGGn sequence and non-LTR retrotransposon family members Rex1, Rex3 and Rex6 showed that non-LTR elements may be dispersed in the chromosome set with relative concentration in heterochromatic regions, as shown by Rex1, or may even intercalate in 45S rDNA and the telomeric sequence, as found for Rex3 and Rex6. These results reinforce the presence of preferential regions of retroelement accumulation and contribute to a better understanding of the genomic organization of some repetitive DNA classes in fishes. PMID:24060610

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Junda; Jiang, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus was determined by the overlapped polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,544 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 28.68% for A, 16.27% for G, 26.00% for T, 29.06% for C, respectively, with a high A+T content (54.68%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The sequence data of T. carolinus can provide useful information for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. carolinus resource.

  3. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin. PMID:26249452

  4. Horabagrus melanosoma: a junior synonym of Horabagrus brachysoma (Teleostei: Horabagridae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Anvar; Katwate, Unmesh; Philip, Siby; Dhaneesh, K V; Bijukumar, A; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-01-01

    Horabagrus melanosoma was described from West Venpala in the lower reaches of the Manimala River, in the state of Kerala, India. It was distinguished from its nearest congener, H. brachysoma based on a combination of characters including darker body colour, shorter pelvic fin and greater number of anal fin rays. Examination of the type material revealed significant morphometric and meristic discrepancies with the original description. Based on multivariate morphometric, and genetic analysis of topotypical specimens, we propose that H. melanosoma should be treated as a junior synonym of H. brachysoma. PMID:25543642

  5. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gobiobotia filifer (Teleostei, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Lai, Jiansheng; Li, Lianman

    2016-09-01

    The Gobiobotia filifer is a small economic fish which distributes in the upstream of Yangtze River and its distributaries. For the environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer was determined with PCR technology, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,613 bp. The order and composition of genes were similar to most of the other teleost fish. Most of the genes were encoded on heavy strand, except for ND6 genes and eight tRNAs. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer would contribute to better understand evolution of this lineage, population genetics, and will help administrative department to make rules and laws to protect this lineage.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Percocypris pingi (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Wang, Jinjin; Peng, Zuogang

    2013-02-01

    Percocypris pingi is an endemic and economic fish species only found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. It has become endangered in recent years due to overfishing and/or dam construction. However, the available genetic data are still scarce for this species. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. pingi using long polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence has 16,586 bp and contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 control region, the gene composition and order of which are similar to most of other vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes except ND6 and eight tRNAs are encoded on the heavy strand. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.9% A, 25.7% T, 26.6% C, and 16.8% G with a slight AT bias of 56.6%. There are seven regions of gene overlaps totaling 23 bp and 11 intergenic spacer regions totaling 35 bp. Combined with the COI barcoding region sequences of other 25 cyprinids, the phylogenetic position of P. pingi was estimated using neighbor-joining method. The results showed that P. pingi had a close phylogenetic relationship with the species from genus Schizothorax. This mitogenome sequence data of P. pingi would provide the fundamental genetic data for further conservation genetic studies for this endangered fish species.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Liobagrus marginatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Du, Jun; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Ke, Hongyu; Liu, Chao; Liu, Guangxun

    2014-04-01

    The Liobagrus marginatus is an economic fish which distribute in the upstream of Yangtze river and its distributary. For its taste fresh, environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically and body miniaturization in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liobagrus marginatus was sequenced, which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,497 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to most of other fish. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy-strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in statistics results of different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liobagrus marginatus would contribute to better understand population genetics, evolution of this lineage, and will help administrative departments to make rules and laws to protect it.

  9. Evolutionary origin and early biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Lavoué, Sébastien; Mayden, Richard L

    2013-08-01

    The biogeography of the mega-diverse, freshwater, and globally distributed Otophysi has received considerable attention. This attraction largely stems from assumptions as to their ancient origin, the clade being almost exclusively freshwater, and their suitability as to explanations of trans-oceanic distributions. Despite multiple hypotheses explaining present-day distributions, problems remain, precluding more parsimonious explanations. Underlying previous hypotheses are alternative phylogenies for Otophysi, uncertainties as to temporal diversification and assumptions integral to various explanations. We reexamine the origin and early diversification of this clade based on a comprehensive time-calibrated, molecular-based phylogenetic analysis and event-based approaches for ancestral range inference of lineages. Our results do not corroborate current phylogenetic classifications of otophysans. We demonstrate Siluriformes are never sister to Gymnotiformes and Characiformes are most likely nonmonophyletic. Divergence time estimates specify a split between Cypriniformes and Characiphysi with the fragmentation of Pangea. The early diversification of characiphysans either predated, or was contemporary with, the separation of Africa and South America, and involved a combination of within- and between-continental divergence events for these lineages. The intercontinental diversification of siluroids and characoids postdated major intercontinental tectonic fragmentations (<90 Mya). Post-tectonic drift dispersal events are hypothesized to account for their current distribution patterns.

  10. Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic percomorph families (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Sanciangco, Millicent D; Carpenter, Kent E; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Percomorphs are a large and diverse group of spiny-finned fishes that have come to be known as the "bush at the top" due to their persistent lack of phylogenetic resolution. Recently, the broader Euteleost Tree of Life project (EToL) inferred a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that groups the diversity of percomorphs into nine well-supported series (supraordinal groups): Ophidiaria, Batrachoidaria, Gobiaria, Syngnatharia, Pelagiaria, Anabantaria, Carangaria, Ovalentaria, and Eupercaria. The EToL also provided, for the first time, a monophyletic definition of Perciformes - the largest order of vertebrates. Despite significant progress made in accommodating the diversity of percomorph taxa into major clades, some 62 families (most previously placed in "Perciformes", as traditionally defined) were not examined by the EToL. Here, we provide evidence for the phylogenetic affinities of 10 of those 62 families, seven of which have largely remained enigmatic. This expanded taxonomic sampling also provides further support for the nine EToL supraordinal series. We examined sequences from 21 genes previously used by the EToL and added two fast-evolving mitochondrial markers in an attempt to increase resolution within the rapid percomorph radiations. We restricted the taxonomic sampling to 1229 percomorph species, including expanded sampling from recent studies. Results of maximum likelihood analysis revealed that bathyclupeids (Bathyclupeidae), galjoen fishes (Dichistiidae), kelpfishes (Chironemidae), marblefishes (Aplodactylidae), trumpeters (Latridae), barbeled grunters (Hapalogenyidae), slopefishes (Symphysanodontidae), and picarel porgies (formerly Centracanthidae) are members of the series Eupercaria ("new bush at the top"). The picarel porgies and porgies (Sparidae) are now placed in the same family (Sparidae). Our analyses suggest a close affinity between the orders Spariformes (including Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae) and Lobotiformes (including the tripletails or Lobotidae, the barbeled grunters, and tigerperches or Datnioididae), albeit support for this group is low. None of the newly examined families belong in the order Perciformes, as recently defined. Finally, we confirm results from other recent studies that place the Australasian salmons (Arripidae) within Pelagiaria, and the false trevallies (Lactariidae) close to flatfishes, jacks, and trevallies, within Carangaria. PMID:26493227

  11. Species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Zanclus cornutus (L.) (Teleostei: Zanclidae) and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Gibson, David I; Yang, Tingbao

    2011-07-01

    Four species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, including three new taxa, are described from the gills of two species of coral reef fishes, Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus) and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål), off the Dongsha Islands in the South China Sea. Haliotrema dongshaense n. sp., from Z. cornutus, is differentiated from other existing congeneric species by its peculiar male copulatory organ, comprising a harp-shaped copulatory tube and a cup-shaped base, and two groups of short longitudinal muscles lying on either side of the vaginal vestibule. Haliotrema zigmoidocirrus n. sp. from Z. cornutus and H. nigrofusci n. sp. from A. nigrofuscus are differentiated from other congeneric species by their male copulatory organ, which has a cup-shaped base, bell-shaped middle and Z-shaped distal part, and the latter can be readily differentiated from the former by its distinctively wider haptor and longer connecting bars. Haliotrema sicklocirrus Wang, 2007, from Z. cornutus, is redescribed with additional details, including the sinistral position of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ, the absence of eyespots and the morphology of the connecting bars. PMID:21643898

  12. Species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Zanclus cornutus (L.) (Teleostei: Zanclidae) and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Gibson, David I; Yang, Tingbao

    2011-07-01

    Four species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, including three new taxa, are described from the gills of two species of coral reef fishes, Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus) and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål), off the Dongsha Islands in the South China Sea. Haliotrema dongshaense n. sp., from Z. cornutus, is differentiated from other existing congeneric species by its peculiar male copulatory organ, comprising a harp-shaped copulatory tube and a cup-shaped base, and two groups of short longitudinal muscles lying on either side of the vaginal vestibule. Haliotrema zigmoidocirrus n. sp. from Z. cornutus and H. nigrofusci n. sp. from A. nigrofuscus are differentiated from other congeneric species by their male copulatory organ, which has a cup-shaped base, bell-shaped middle and Z-shaped distal part, and the latter can be readily differentiated from the former by its distinctively wider haptor and longer connecting bars. Haliotrema sicklocirrus Wang, 2007, from Z. cornutus, is redescribed with additional details, including the sinistral position of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ, the absence of eyespots and the morphology of the connecting bars.

  13. A new jellynose, Ateleopus edentatus, from the western Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae).

    PubMed

    Kaga, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Ateleopus edentatus sp. nov. is described based on 12 specimens collected from the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished from its three known congeners in completely lacking upper-jaw teeth. It is also distinguished from Ateleopus indicus by having 94-130 anal+caudal-fin rays vs. 76-82 in A. indicus, 11-13 gill rakers vs. 7-8, and 26-28+81-107=109-135 vertebrae vs. 22-24+75-80=97-103.

  14. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  15. Phylogeny and biogeography of Triportheidae (Teleostei: Characiformes) based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Mariguela, T C; Roxo, F F; Foresti, F; Oliveira, C

    2016-03-01

    Triportheidae represents a relatively small family of characiform fishes with highly modified morphology. The relationship among characiform families is still unclear, and a phylogenetic analysis for the family including a representative number of Triportheus species has never been performed. Here, we inferred a phylogeny for 19 of the 22 species recognized for this family and two possible new Triportheus species using two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Our results show that (1) Triportheidae is monophyletic and a sister group of the clade consisting of the families Bryconidae and Gasteropelecidae; (2) Triportheus is monophyletic, but some species need to be reviewed and described; (3) all genera in Triportheidae, except for Agoniates originated in the period between Early Oligocene and Early Miocene; and (4) speciation in Triportheidae coincides with important geological events in South America, reinforcing the importance of time-calibrated trees to study fish evolution. PMID:26721557

  16. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum.

  17. Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Juliane D.; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika (“ancient mouthbrooders”) was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  18. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host. PMID:25579021

  19. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  20. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the "karst group", in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary. PMID:27667927

  1. Gaidropsarus (Gadidae, Teleostei) of the North Atlantic Ocean: a brief phylogenetic review.

    PubMed

    Francisco, S M; Robalo, J I; Stefanni, S; Levy, A; Almada, V C

    2014-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the North Atlantic Gaidropsarus and between the three Gaidropsarinae genera Gaidropsarus, Ciliata and Enchelyopus are reviewed with the hitherto most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this group. Phylogenetic results (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) based on nuclear (rhodopsin) and concatenated mitochondrial (12s, 16s and cytb) markers clearly support this subfamily. For the north-eastern Atlantic species of Gaidropsarus, two previously unreported clades were strongly supported, clarifying the relationships within the genus, and revealing fewer distinct taxa in the north Atlantic Gaidropsarus than previously stipulated. The data challenge the specific status of Gaidropsarus mediterraneus and Gaidropsarus guttatus and raise doubts concerning the distinctiveness of other species. A taxonomic revision of the genus is suggested. PMID:24961593

  2. Two new dwarfgobies from the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Jewett, Susan L

    2016-06-13

    Two new species of dwarfgobies are described, Eviota asymbasia from the Sulu Sea, Philippine Islands, south to Java and west to Damar, and E. bipunctata occurring from the Indian Ocean eastward into the western Pacific Ocean. Eviota asymbasia lacks the IT pore of the cephalic sensory-pore system and usually also the POP, has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, has some pectoral-fin rays branched and usually 15 rays, two spots on the pectoral-fin base, no dark spot over the preural centrum, first dorsal fin may be filamentous, six ventral postanal spots, and the male genital papilla is not fimbriate. Eviota bipunctata belongs to the group with cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the IT pore), some pectoral-fin rays branched, pectoral-fin base with 1 or 2 prominent dark spots, dorsal/anal-fin formula usually 8/8, and no occipital spots.

  3. Redescription of Gobio nigrescens from the Hari River drainage (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Ganjbakhsh, Babak; Geiger, Matthias F; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Gobio nigrescens, from the Hari River drainage, is redescribed. It represents a valid species distinguished from congeners in the adjacent Caspian and Aral Sea basins by a combination of characters: a naked breast, 16 circumpeduncular scales and 6-7 irregularly shaped, black or brown blotches on back behind dorsal-fin base. PMID:27395112

  4. Why is Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) reported from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Norén, Michael; Mollah, Abdur Rob

    2015-07-28

    The native distribution of the small labyrinth fish species Pseudosphromenus cupanus includes southern India and Sri Lanka. According to literature it has a range including also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Indonesia (Sumatra) but there are no voucher specimens or reliable observations from those areas. The distribution record of P. cupanus was inflated partly by including P. dayi as a synonym. Pseudosphronemus dayi is native to the Western Ghats in India, but the origin of the aquarium importation in 1907 was reported as both Cochin (=Kochi) and Malacca (=Malaysia), the latter locality obviously in error. The basis for the Sumatra record is an obviously mislabeled sample of P. dayi from Pulau Weh close to Sumatra. The basis for reporting the species from Pakistan, Myanmar or Bangladesh could not be located. Misidentified museum specimens from Myanmar and Pakistan identified as P. cupanus were never published on. Pseudosphromenus cupanus has been considered recently to be extinct in Bangladesh, but in fact it never occurred there.

  5. Morphometric studies of genus Placocheilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from Red River, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Min-Hui; Wang, Chun-Ping; Qi, Mi

    2015-11-18

    It is practically difficult to differentiate Placocheilus robustus and Placocheilus caudofasciatus from Red River drainage of China. Without stated reasons, P. robustus has been assumed as the synonyms of P. caudofasciatus. The present study aims to decipher the morphological differences between two species so as to provide reliable clues for their classification by multivariate morphometry. A total of 72 specimens of two species in genus Placocheilus were examined. Besides morphological character comparisons, 10 anatomic landmarks were utilized and 23 frame structures and 15 general characters measured. The scatter plot results of principal component analysis showed that all specimens were clustered together and could not be defined as two distinct species. No significant morphological differences existed in four diagnostic characters between P. robustus and P. caudofasciatus. Thus the results of the present study fail to support P. robustus as a valid and independent species.

  6. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships.

  7. Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae)

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin W.; Baldwin, Carole; White, Macaulay D.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of genetic data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I) for western Atlantic clingfishes revealed two distinct lineages within a group of individuals originally identified as Acyrtus artius. Subsequent investigation of preserved voucher specimens was conducted to reconcile the genetic data and the existing classification, which is based on morphology. In addition to discovering that one of the genetic lineages is an undescribed species, which we describe as Acyrtus lanthanum, new species, we found that the nominal species Acyrtus artius has a putative venom gland associated with the subopercle that has been overlooked since the species was described nearly 60 years ago. The new species lacks the subopercular gland as does Acyrtus rubiginosus, but one is present in the related Arcos nudus. Venom glands have not been reported previously for the Gobiesocidae, and the venom gland described herein for Acyrtus and Arcos represents the first example in teleost fishes of a venom gland associated with the subopercle. PMID:24825326

  8. Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

  9. The "pseudo-craniovertebral articulation" in the deep-sea fish Stomias boa (Teleostei: Stomiidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Bernstein, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    Many predatory deep-sea fishes show highly specialized modifications of their feeding apparatus, e.g., elongate jaws studded with long daggerlike teeth, often combined with a very distensible stomach, to be capable of swallowing relatively large prey. These striking features can be observed in members of the marine teleost family Stomiidae. The present study gives a detailed morphological description of the mesopelagic predatory fish, Stomias boa, based on a combined approach of clearing and double staining, serial sections and dissection. In this genus, large pads made of dense connective tissue extend from the first enlarged neural arch to the ventral side of the chordal sheath, embracing the prominent exoccipitals and thus constituting a kind of double ball- and socket joint for the head. The notochordal occipito-vertebral gap is enlarged, probably not by loss of vertebral centra as is proposed for other genera of the stomiid family, e.g., in Astronesthes or Photostomias. We conclude that this "pseudo-craniovertebral articulation" serves as a functional substitute for the absent vertebrae and strengthens the flexible, anterior part of the vertebral column during extreme dorsal expansion of the gape during prey capture and swallowing.

  10. Reproductive morphology of Brittanichthys axelrodi (Teleostei: Characidae), a miniature inseminating fish from South America.

    PubMed

    Javonillo, Robert; Burns, John R; Weitzman, Stanley H

    2007-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphology of reproductive characters in a characid fish, Brittanichthys axelrodi. Spermatozoa were found in ovaries of females, thereby confirming insemination in this species. Bony hooks can be found on the fourth unbranched ray and branched rays 1-4 of the anal fin and the unique sigmoidally-curved ray of the caudal fin in mature males. Testes have three distinct regions: an anterior spermatogenic region, an aspermatogenic middle region lined with a simple squamous epithelium and used for storage of mature spermatozoa, and a posterior region of coiled chambers lined with a high simple cuboidal epithelium. The most posterior region appears to be instrumental in the formation and storage of spermatozeugmata, unencapsulated sperm packets. Thus far, this tripartite testis morphology is unique among characids. The mature spermatozoon has an elongate nucleus ( approximately 5 microm in length). A striated rootlet originates at the anterior end of the distal centriole and continues to the anterior tip of the cell. The striated rootlet wraps around the entire ventral area of the anterior part of the nucleus and appears to continue around the anterior tip of the nucleus and down the dorsal side as electron-dense material. Several large, spherical mitochondria ( approximately 0.6 microm in diameter) with lamellar cristae overlap the posterior end of the nucleus and continue beyond together with the cytoplasmic collar that contains the flagellum which lacks axonemal fins. Each spermatozeugma is lanceolate in shape when sectioned mid-sagitally, with the core staining positively for mucopolysaccharides. In both sexes, the gonopore opens posterior to the anus, with the urinary pore having a separate opening posterior to the gonopore. Bands of skeletal muscle were found in the area of the male gonopore. These morphological features are likely linked to the reproductive mode of insemination, a trait that is so far as known, relatively rare among teleost fishes, but is proving increasingly frequent among certain groups of characid fishes. PMID:17146774

  11. A new species of Satyrichthys (Teleostei: Peristediidae) from the Maldives Archipelago (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Pogoreutz, Claudia; Vitecek, Simon; Ahnelt, Harald

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Satyrichthys, Satyrichthys kikingeri sp. nov., is described from the Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives Archipelago. The new species is placed in a group of Satyrichthys with at least three lip barbels and unequal parietal bones. It differs from its congeners in the combination of the following characters: (1) 3/3 lip and 1/0 chin barbels, (2) 15 fin rays in the second dorsal fin, 13 fin rays in the anal fin, (3) 25 bony plates in the dorsal, 29 in the upper lateral and 20 in the lower lateral rows, (4) 21st to 28th bony plates in the upper lateral row with forward directed spines and (5) parietal bones unequal in size on midline. Satyrichthys kikingeri sp. nov. is the first Satyrichthys species reported from the Republic of the Maldives. PMID:26312277

  12. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes place within St Lucia means that adults and juveniles are present in varying numbers throughout the year.

  13. A new species of redfin (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Pseudobarbus) from the Verlorenvlei River system, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R.; Skelton, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudobarbus verloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except Pseudobarbus skeltoni, Pseudobarbus burchelli, and Pseudobarbus burgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from Pseudobarbus burgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system. PMID:25493062

  14. Chriolepis prolata, a new species of Atlantic goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the North American continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2015-01-08

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from five specimens collected from the continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina in depths of ca 54 to 110 m. The "Platform Goby", Chriolepis prolata, is distinguishable from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis and the morphologically similar genus Varicus in having pelvic-fin rays one through four branched, the fifth (innermost) pelvic-fin ray unbranched and relatively long (longer than the second ray to longer than all other pelvic-fin rays); most lateral body scales ctenoid, extending anteriorly in a wedge to a level anterior to the first dorsal-fin insertion or nearly to the pectoral-fin axil, with two or more rows of small cycloid scales extending anteriorly to near the pectoral-fin axil, cycloid scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, and no scales on the belly; and the first two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It closely resembles C. bilix but differs from that species which has a scaled belly, a shorter fifth pelvic-fin ray, prolonged dorsal-fin spines and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. An earlier report of C. bilix from Florida waters apparently refers to C. prolata. 

  15. Schistura andrewi, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Mizoram, northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Solo, Beihrosa; Lalramliana; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalnuntluanga

    2014-09-05

    Schistura andrewi, a new species of loach, is described from a tributary of Kaladan River in Mizoram, northeastern India. It is distinguished from its congeners in having the following combination of characters: long axillary pelvic lobe; complete lateral line with 82-95 pores; 2 unbranched dorsal and anal fin rays; 6-7 broad, wider than interspace, black bars on the body; 2 rows of black spots horizontally across the dorsal fin; a deeply emarginate caudal fin, with 2 vertical rows of black spots across the fin, and 9 + 8 branched caudal fin rays.

  16. [Growth and mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae) from southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Edwis; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the fish known locally as cuji (H. aurolineatum) in the southwest of Margarita Island, July 2005 to June 2006. A sample of 1,378 males and 1,143 females from artisanal fishing vessels of Boca del Río was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L(2.87). The asymptotic length (L(infinity)) was estimated with Powell's (1979) routine and Wetherall (1986), and the growth coefficient (k) with ELEFAN I - FISAT II (FAO-ICLARM). The modal progression analysis was used after decomposition of lengths frequency according to Bhattacharya, and the estimations of L(infinity), and k optimized according to Gulland and Holt (1959). The growth curve was fitted to von Bertalanffy (1960); it is exponential, with accelerated growth in the first two years and less growth as the fish approaches maximal length. The rate of natural mortality was high (M=1.15 year(-1)), and probably was caused by high depredation. PMID:19637692

  17. Retinal response in the post metamorphic American eel ( Anguilla rostrata) (Pisces, Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed Ather; Dutil, Jean-Denis; Fortier, Lyne

    1987-12-01

    Retinas of light and dark adapted post metamorphic American eel Anguilla rostrata were examined. The retinal epithelial pigment migrates vitreally in light and sclerally in darkness. Two layers of rods and a layer of single cones are present. Some cones elongate slightly in the dark and contract in the light. The cone synaptic ribbons show no difference between the light and dark adapted stages. It appears that this eel stage is capable of functioning in bright and dim environments.

  18. Retroculus acherontos, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei) from the Rio Tocantins basin.

    PubMed

    Landim, Maria Isabel; Moreira, Cristiano R; Figueiredo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Retroculus acherontos is described from the Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. It is distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a nuchal hump in large specimens, an irregular black blotch located on the middle of the anterior soft dorsal-fin rays, fewer pectoral-fin rays (15-16), a deeper body, a convex ventral profile, a more transversely convex ventral surface of the body, and by chest scales similar in size to the scales on the side. An expanded diagnosis for the genus Retroculus is provided.

  19. Comparative cytogenetics and molecular phylogeography in the group astyanax altiparanae--Astyanax aff. bimaculatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Kavalco, K F; Pazza, R; Brandão, K D O; Garcia, C; Almeida-Toledo, L F

    2011-01-01

    The genus Astyanax comprises small characin fish of the neotropical region. The so-called 'yellow-tailed characins' compose one of the most widely distributed Astyanax groups. A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus, are evolutionarily closely related and commonly found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins. In the present work, chromosomal data of specimens of A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus from 4 hydrographic basins in the states of São Paulo (Upper Tietê, Paranapanema, Ribeira de Iguape) and Rio de Janeiro (Guapimirim) are shown. All the populations showed 50 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formula. Although only a single Ag-NOR bearing chromosome pair was observed, all populations possess multiple cistrons of 18S rDNA. FISH with the 5S rDNA probe showed single signals at the interstitial position of one metacentric chromosome pair. C-bands are distributed in the terminal and interstitial regions of several chromosomes. However, the As-51 satDNA are frugally located in a few chromosomes of fishes from Upper Tietê, Paranapanema and Guapimirim Rivers, being absent in individuals of A. aff. bimaculatus from Ribeira de Iguape River basin. Beside these 4 populations, molecular phylogeography studies were also performed in individuals from Middle and Lower Tietê River basin and from 2 additional collection sites in the Paranapanema and Ribeira de Iguape River basins. The phylogeographic analysis using 2 mtDNA regions (totalizing 1.314 bp of ND2 and ATPase6/8 genes) of 8 populations of the group of 'yellow-tailed characins' from 3 major hydrographic basins showed structuring of populations, suggesting a correlation between chromosomal (nuclear) and molecular (mitochondrial) data. PMID:21447941

  20. Chromosomal Diversification Higher Than Molecular Variation in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Kavalco, Karine Frehner; Pazza, Rubens; Brandão, Karina de Oliveira; Garcia, Caroline; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

    2016-08-01

    Comprising a large number of species, the genus Astyanax has been intensively studied by several approaches to elucidate its evolutionary relationships. Such studies have demonstrated that many nominal species are artificial clusters where distinct taxa are grouped under the same denomination. Astyanax aff. fasciatus stands out due to its high karyotypic diversity, since cytogenetic studies have reported three standard cytotypes (2n = 46, 48, and 50), as well as cases of sympatry between cytotypes, variant cytotypes, and B chromosomes. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the reliability of the chromosomal differences in relation to the analysis of the ATPase6/8 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence, thereby providing subsidies to the evolutionary reconstruction of this group. Nine populations from four distinct hydrographic basins along Southeastern Brazil were analyzed. These are the first cytogenetic data collected for four of them. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA probe evidenced the presence of a standard phenotype for the group and the existence of a new arrangement in the individuals from Ribeira de Iguape River. Besides the karyotypic variation, the genetic distance was low among the studied populations and some aspects of the evolutionary relationships among distinct cytotypes/populations could be ascertained by phylogeographic studies. The incipient molecular structuring of certain cytotypes in different hydrographic basins indicates the role of different evolutionary processes on the diversification of the group. PMID:27148810

  1. Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2009-12-01

    Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variability to explore the relationship complexity of Schizothoracine (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    PubMed

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  4. Extensive spreading of interstitial telomeric sites on the chromosomes of Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa-Silva, Guilherme José; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-06-01

    Characidium comprises several species of small freshwater fish that display conserved diploid chromosome numbers and karyotypic formulae. In this study, a comparative cytogenetic analysis using telomeric DNA probes was carried out in nine species of Characidium; a molecular phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial DNA was also performed in order to investigate the direction of the evolutionary chromosome changes observed here. Our results showed the existence of species with several and variable interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs), with other species showing only terminal signals in their chromosomes. Molecular phylogenetic data suggested that these ITSs emerged once in the evolutionary history of Characidium and were later differentially spread in distinct species/populations of this clade. Additionally, the origin of an exclusive acrocentric pair found in C. pterostictum, C. serrano and C. timbuiense was also investigated, revealing that this pair possibly had a common origin to these species. These results evidence the occurrence of intense and continuous genomic changes among species of Characidium.

  5. Herbivory Promotes Dental Disparification and Macroevolutionary Dynamics in Grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae), a Freshwater Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aaron M; Unmack, Peter J; Vari, Richard P; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Trophic shifts into new adaptive zones have played major (although often conflicting) roles in reshaping the evolutionary trajectories of many lineages. We analyze data on diet, tooth, and oral morphology and relate these traits to phenotypic disparification and lineage diversification rates across the ecologically diverse Terapontidae, a family of Australasian fishes. In contrast to carnivores and most omnivores, which have retained relatively simple, ancestral caniniform tooth shapes, herbivorous terapontids appear to have evolved a variety of novel tooth shapes at significantly faster rates to meet the demands of plant-based diets. The evolution of herbivory prompted major disparification, significantly expanding the terapontid adaptive phenotypic continuum into an entirely novel functional morphospace. There was minimal support for our hypothesis of faster overall rates of integrated tooth shape, spacing, and jaw biomechanical evolution in herbivorous terapontids in their entirety, compared with other trophic strategies. There was, however, considerable support for accelerated disparification within a diverse freshwater clade containing a range of specialized freshwater herbivores. While the evolutionary transition to herbivorous diets has played a central role in terapontid phenotypic diversification by pushing herbivores toward novel fitness peaks, there was little support for herbivory driving significantly higher lineage diversification compared with background rates across the family. PMID:26913945

  6. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-01-01

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region. PMID:27515622

  7. Bachea huilensis nov. gen., nov. sp., premier Tselfatioidei (Teleostei) de Colombie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    pÁramo-Fonseca, María E.

    1997-07-01

    Two specimens collected in Turonian beds from Colombia are referred to a new genus and species. Bachea huilensis, of the suborder Tselfatioidei. Their attribution to a familial level requires a revision of the suborder.

  8. The structure and ultrastructure of the rostral cartilage in the spiny eel, Macrognathus siamensis (Teleostei: Mastacembeloidei).

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Sandhu, J S

    1990-01-01

    An elastic, cell-rich cartilage provides flexible support to the highly mobile, rostral tentacle of the mastacembelid, Macrognathus siamensis. Active movement of the tentacle is effected by skeletal muscles, the muscular bellies of which are located outside the organ. The tentacle returns to its original shape by elastic recoil. The cartilage resembles plant supporting tissue and the cartilages of certain invertebrates. It is surrounded by a thick perichondrium and articulates at a synovial joint with the supraethmoid. The chondrocytes are large and shrunken within lacunae. They contain glycogen and cytoplasmic stores of RNA. The matrix is reduced to thin seams between adjacent cells, and stains strongly with alcian blue and a variety of elastic stains. Parts of the matrix are trilaminar, and such an appearance recalls the distinction between the primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells and the intervening middle lamella. The perichondrium consists of an alternating sequence of cells, circularly arranged collagen fibres and a foamy, amorphous material of unknown composition. Deep to the perichondrium, the chondrocytes are packed with intermediate filaments. Membrane-bound organelles are not prominent, though mitochondria are located at the periphery of the cell. The ultrastructural similarities between these chondrocytes and those of hyaline-cell cartilage (chondroid) support the contention that Schaffer's concept of a rigid distinction between 'true' cartilage and 'chondroid' is no longer tenable. The matrix is devoid of collagen and is most distinctive. In the immediate vicinity of the cells it consists of matrix granules and matrix fibers but, where a trilaminar appearance is easily discernible, there is a central zone that consists of large masses of amorphous material that is presumed to contain elastin. Such amorphous material has not previously been seen in any teleostean elastic tissue. By contrast, elastic system fibres, readily demonstrable elsewhere in teleosts, are conspicuously absent. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1696572

  9. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  10. Ultrastructural observations of eu- and paraspermiogenesis in the cottid fish Hemilepidotus gilberti (Teleostei: Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Youichi; Komaru, Akira; Munehara, Hiroyuki

    2002-09-01

    The developmental process of eu- and paraspermatozoa in the cottid fish, Hemilepidotus gilberti, was observed by electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of H. gilberti consist of a thin disk-like sperm head (about 3 microm in length), a short middle piece, and a long flagellum, but lack an acrosome. On the other hand, during spermiogenesis, aberrant spermatids, rich in cytoplasm and possessing binuclei, develop into cysts containing spermatids. The developing aberrant spermatids connect with normal spermatids and euspermatozoa by intercellular bridges. The early phase of chromatin condensation in aberrant spermatids is almost identical to that in normal spermatids, but the nuclei in the later phase develop into a mass of highly electron-dense globules. Since the aberrant spermatids complete karyokinesis but not cytokinesis at telophase of the second meiotic division, they are considered to develop into hyperpyrenic cells due to incomplete cytokinesis of the second meiotic division. These spermatids are oval in shape (5-7 microm in diameter) and lack a flagellum. The aberrant spermatids of H. gilberti are shed along with euspermatozoa and amount to about 50% of semen in volume. Judging from their form and developmental process, aberrant spermatids produced in H. gilberti are considered hyperpyrenic paraspermatozoa.

  11. Phylogenetic position of Scombropidae within teleostei: the complete mitochondrial genome of the gnomefish, Scombrops gilberti.

    PubMed

    Tsunashima, Tadasuke; Yamada, Riko; Abe, Koko; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Itoi, Shiro; Nakai, Shizuko; Takai, Noriyuki; Sugita, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese gnomefish, Scombrops gilberti, was determined using a PCR-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is 16 518 bp, which includes 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of S. gilberti was found to be identical to that of other scombropid and indeed, other teleosts as well. Maximum likelihood analysis revealed that Scombropidae forms a sister group to Pempheriformes.

  12. Distribution and species composition of juvenile and adult scombropids (Teleostei, Scombropidae) in Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Itoi, S; Odaka, J; Yuasa, K; Akeno, S; Nakajima, A; Suenaga, A; Noda, T; Akimoto, S; Myojin, T; Ikeda, Y; Masuda, Y; Takai, N; Yoshihara, K; Sugita, H

    2010-02-01

    Two scombropid fishes, Scombrops boops and Scombrops gilberti, are closely related and commercially important species in Japan. These species are often confused in commercial markets because of their morphological similarity. In this study, scombropid specimens collected from various Japanese coastal waters were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene in mitochondrial DNA. These analyses showed that all the scombropid specimens collected from localities in the Sea of Japan were identified as S. boops, whereas those from the Pacific Ocean included two species, S. boops and S. gilberti. Almost all juvenile (<200 mm standard body length, S(L)) S. gilberti originated from the Pacific coastal waters of the northern Japan, whereas adults (>400 mm S(L)) were found only in deep water off the Izu Peninsula to the Izu Islands. This suggests that S. gilberti might migrate extensively during its life cycle. In addition, differences in the number of specimens and the distribution between the two species suggest that S. gilberti is less abundant than S. boops in Japanese waters.

  13. Breeding behavior and reproductive life history of the Neosho Madtom, Noturus placidus (Teleostei: Ictaluridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulger, Angela G.; Wilkinson, Christopher D.; Edds, David R.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    The Neosho madtom, Noturus placidus, is a small catfish listed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened. Little is known of its breeding biology and behavior because high turbidity and flow during its spawning season prevent direct observation in the field, and captive propagation has met with limited success. We held Neosho madtoms in laboratory aquaria in 1996 and 1998 to study sexual dimorphism during breeding season, courtship and nesting behavior, egg and clutch size, and embryological and larval development. We also attempted to induce spawning. Courtship behaviors were recorded on videotape, including “carousel” and “tail curl” displays in which the fish spun in circles, head to tail, then quivered, with the male's tail wrapped around the female's head. Three clutches were observed, all in nest cavities that had been excavated by the fish under a structure; one clutch (1996) consisted of approximately 60 eggs, with a mean chorion diameter of 3.1 mm, and two (1998) consisted of approximately 30 eggs, with mean diameter of 3.7 mm. In all situations, eggs hatched after eight or nine days, and yolk-sacs were fully depleted seven days later. One spawn (1998) occurred after two days of injection with synthetic hormone. Male parental care of eggs and larvae was observed in 1996. Larvae remained in the nest until yolk-sacs were absorbed, after which they dispersed throughout the tank. Dissection of two females that laid clutches in this study revealed previtellogenic eggs in the lumen of ovaries, with a mean chorion diameter of 0.9 mm. Swollen lips of males, distended abdomen of females, and differences in head shape, premaxillary tooth patch coloring, and genital papillae of breeding males and females were documented during spawning periods.

  14. Pituitary gland morphogenesis and ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Chehade, Chayrra; Costa, Fabiano Gonçalves; Borella, Maria Inês

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we describe for the first time the details of the pituitary gland morphogenesis and the ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells of a South American Characiform species with great importance for Brazilian Aquaculture, Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae), from hatching to 25 days after hatching (dah), by histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The pituitary placode was first detected at hatching (0 dah), and the pituitary anlage became more defined at 0.5 dah. The neurohypophysis (NH) development started at 3 dah, and the early formation of its stalk at 12.5 dah. An increase in adenohypophyseal and NH tissues was also observed, and in juveniles at 25 dah, the pituitary displayed similar morphology to that found in adults of this species, displaying the main features of the teleost pituitary. PRL cells were detected at 0.5 dah, together with ACTH and α-MSH cells, followed by GH and SL cells at 1.5 dah. β-FSH cells were detected at 25 dah, while β-LH cells at 5 dah. The pituitary development in this species comprises a dynamic process similar to other teleosts. Our findings in S. brasiliensis corroborate the heterogeneity in the ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells in teleosts and suggest a role for adenohypophyseal hormones in the early development of this species.

  15. Eidinemacheilus, a new generic name for Noemacheilus smithi Greenwood (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Segherloo, Iraj Hashemzadeh; Ghaedrahmati, Nabiallah; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Eidinemacheilus, new genus, is described for the troglomorphic Noemacheilus smithi Greenwood. The sole species of the genus is endemic to an aquifer in the Karun River drainage in the Iranian Zagros Mountains. Eidinemacheilus smithi was identified as a species in Paracobitis as both genera share an elevated dorsal adipose crest, a character state being widespread in nemacheilid loaches. Eidinemacheilus is distinguished from all other genera of Nemacheilidae in the Middle East by having 7+7 branched caudal-fin rays, a strongly reduced head canal system, no pigmentation and no eyes. Eidinemacheilus smithi is also distinguished from other genera in the Middle East by a combination of the following character states: pelvic-fin origin behind of a vertical of the dorsal-fin origin, anus slightly in front of the anal-fin origin and no sexual dimorphism in the length of the paired fins. Eidinemacheilus, as a valid genus, is supported by the analysis of mitochondrial DNA data that shows no close affinity to Paracobitis or other nemacheilid genera from Europe, the Middle East and Western India. PMID:27515629

  16. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus. PMID:26541240

  17. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  18. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  19. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  20. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats.

    PubMed

    Anteneh, W; Getahun, A; Dejen, E; Sibbing, F A; Nagelkerke, L A J; De Graaf, M; Wudneh, T; Vijverberg, J; Palstra, A P

    2012-07-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L. intermedius) probably spawns in the lake as well as in the rivers. Between the early 1990s and 2000s, the riverine spawners showed a decline of 75% in both biomass and number in both fishery independent surveys and in commercial catches. Reproductive migration makes fishes vulnerable to fisheries and other threats like habitat modifications. Lacustrine spawners are probably more resilient as they are not known to form spawning aggregations that can easily be exploited by fishermen. In addition, upstream rivers and catchments around Lake Tana are highly degraded by erosion and recently subjected to intensive habitat modification for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. This article reviews results of field studies on the Labeobarbus spawning migration from Lake Tana to spawning rivers, giving emphasis on segregation and homing. It also summarizes existing and emerging threats which form potential causes for the decline of the migratory Labeobarbus species. Knowledge gaps on the reproductive biology are identified for further investigation.

  1. Profundulus kreiseri, a new species of Profundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) from northwestern Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Schaefer, Jacob F.; Hernández, Carmen L.; Prosanta Chakrabarty

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras. PMID:23166464

  2. Spermatozoa ultrastructure in Sciaenidae and Polynemidae (Teleostei:Perciformes) with some consideration on Percoidei spermatozoa ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gusmão-Pompiani, P; Oliveira, C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2005-06-01

    Spermatozoa ultrastructure was studied in five marines (Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Larimus breviceps, Cynoscion striatus, Micropogonias furnieri, Menticirrhus americanus, Umbrina coroides, Stellifer rastrifer), and one freshwater (Plagioscion squamosissimus) species of Sciaenidae and one species of Polynemidae (Polydactylus virginicus). The investigation revealed that, in all species, spermatozoa display a round head, a nucleus containing highly condensed, filamentous chromatin clusters, no acrosome, a short midpiece with a short cytoplasmic channel, and a flagellum showing the classic axoneme structure (9+2) and short irregular lateral fins. In Sciaenidae, the spermatozoa are type II, the flagellar axis is parallel to the nucleus, the lateral nuclear fossa is double arched, the centriolar complex is outside the nuclear fossa, the proximal centriole is anterior and perpendicular to the distal centriole, and no more than ten spherical (marine species) or elongate (freshwater species) mitochondria are observed. Polynemidae spermatozoa are of the intermediate type with the flagellar axis eccentric to the hemi-arc-shaped nucleus, and exhibit no nuclear fossa, the centriolar complex close to the upper nuclear end, the proximal centriole lateral and oblique to the distal centriole, and one large ring-shaped mitocondrion. The data available show that no characteristic is exclusively found in the spermatozoa of members of the Sciaenidae family when compared to other Percoidei with type II spermatozoa. However, three characteristics were exclusively found in Polynemidae: (1) the hemi-arched nucleus; the positioning of the centrioles; and (2) the ring-shaped mitocondrion. The interrelationships between Sciaenidae and Polynemidae as well as between these two families and other Percoidei are herein discussed. PMID:15936355

  3. Multilocus resolution of Mugilidae phylogeny (Teleostei: Mugiliformes): Implications for the family's taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-03-01

    The interrelationships among mugilids (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) remain highly debated. Using a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny as criterion, a revised classification with 25 genera in the Mugilidae has recently been proposed. However, phylogenetic relationships of major mitochondrial lineages remain unresolved and to gain a general acceptance the classification requires confirmation based on multilocus evidence and diagnostic morphological characters. Here, we construct a species-tree using twelve nuclear and three mitochondrial loci and infer the evolution of 71 morphological characters. Our multilocus phylogeny does not agree with previous morphology-based hypotheses for the relationships within Mugilidae, confirms the revised classification with 25 genera and further resolves their phylogenetic relationships. Using the well-resolved multilocus phylogeny as the criterion, we reclassify Mugilidae genera into three new subfamilies (Myxinae, Rhinomugilinae, and Cheloninae) and one new, recombined, subfamily (Mugilinae). The Rhinomugilinae subfamily is further divided into four tribes. The revised classification of Mugilidae is supported by morpho-anatomical synapomorphies or a combination of characters. These characters are used to erect a key to the subfamilies and genera.

  4. An integrative approach to reappraising species validity in Pseudexostoma (Teleostei: Sisoridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Kunfeng; Jiang, Wansheng; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Junxing

    2016-01-01

    The catfish genus Pseudexostoma (Sisoridae) currently contains three species: P. yunnanensis from the upper Irrawaddy River (Dayingjiang), and P. brachysoma and P. longipterus from the upper Salween River (Nujiang). We adopted an integrative approach combining both morphology-based (traditional measurements, truss-based and geometric morphometrics, fin skeleton examination and X-ray photography) and molecular approaches (genetic distances, haplotype network, phylogenetic relationships) to reappraise species validity in Pseudexostoma. Our results showed that P. longipterus cannot be distinguished from P. brachysoma from either morphological or molecular analyses, and that the former name should thus be considered a junior synonym of the latter. The two remaining geographically isolated species, P. yunnanensis and P. brachysoma, showed a distinct genetic distance equated to the typical 2% sequence divergence threshold delineating different species of fishes, and with a divergence time dated to approximately 1.22-2.14 million years ago. Although P. yunnanensis and P. brachysoma share some morphological characters that appear gradually diverging (body depth at anus and interorbital distance), some degree of overlap still exists, we suggest the two species are distinct based on the total evidence. PMID:27615890

  5. Huangshan population of Chinese Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) harbors diverse matrilines and high genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Xin; ZHOU, Tian-Qi; WAN, Tao; PERDICES, Anabel; YANG, Jin-Quan; TANG, Xin-Sheng; WANG, Zheng-Ping; HUANG, Li-Qun; HUANG, Song; HE, Shun-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus. PMID:27029868

  6. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Schizopygopsis).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Huang, Yong; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yeyu; Liu, Ya; Liu, Guangxun

    2016-05-01

    Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis is endemic to the Baoxing River in China and may become an endangered species due to its very narrow habitat and the construction of hydropower dams. In this study, we successfully sequenced the first mitochondrial genome of S. c. baoxingensis. The mitogenome is 16,787 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 28.5% A, 26.2% T, 18.4% C, and 26.9% G, with a slight AT bias of 54.7%. The sequenced mtDNA genome of S. c. baoxingensis is similar in gene arrangement to that of other cyprinidaes except for a 191 bp non-coding region found between tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro).

  8. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved.

  9. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:9253615

  10. Delimiting species using multilocus data: diagnosing cryptic diversity in the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae).

    PubMed

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Near, Thomas J; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2012-03-01

    A major challenge facing biodiversity conservation and management is that a significant portion of species diversity remains undiscovered or undescribed. This is particularly evident in subterranean animals in which species delimitation based on morphology is difficult because differentiation is often obscured by phenotypic convergence. Multilocus genetic data constitute a valuable source of information for species delimitation in such organisms, but until recently, few methods were available to objectively test species delimitation hypotheses using genetic data. Here, we use recently developed methods for discovering and testing species boundaries and relationships using a multilocus dataset in a widely distributed subterranean teleost fish, Typhlichthys subterraneus, endemic to Eastern North America. We provide evidence that species diversity in T. subterraneus is currently underestimated and that the picture of a single, widely distributed species is not supported. Rather, several morphologically cryptic lineages comprise the diversity in this clade, including support for the recognition of T. eigenmanni. The high number of cryptic species in Typhlichthys highlights the utility of multilocus genetic data in delimiting species, particularly in lineages that exhibit slight morphological disparity, such as subterranean organisms. However, results depend on sampling of individuals and loci; this issue needs further study. PMID:22380444

  11. Sinocyclocheilus brevifinus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a new species of cavefish from Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Xinhui; Mayden, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Sinocyclocheilus brevifinus sp. nov. is described from a subterranean river at Maohedong Village, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Southern China. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners in having functional eyes, last simple dorsal fin ray soft and without serrations along posterior margin, eye diameter small (3.4-5.0 %SL), tip of depressed dorsal fin not reaching vertical at anal fin origin, tip of depressed pelvic fin far from anus, maxillary barbel not reaching anterior edge of operculum, rostral barbel not reaching posterior edge of operculum, scales of lateral line row significantly larger than those of scale rows immediately above and below lateral line, and flanks with distinct black spots and blotches.  PMID:25544204

  12. A new cavefish species from Southwest China, Sinocyclocheilus gracilicaudatus sp. nov. (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhao, Yahui; Yang, Junxing; Zhang, Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    One new species is added to the genus Sinocyclocheilus, the largest cyprinid genus in China and the largest cavefish genus in the world. Sinocyclocheilus gracilicaudatus sp. nov. is similar to S. donglanensis but differs to other congeners in having normal eyes and scaled body, curved lateral line with 59-64 lateral-line scale rows, half-hard dorsal fin spine, 8 gill rakers and 8 predorsal vertebrae. Compared to S. donglanensis, the new species has a longer and more narrow caudal peduncle (caudal peduncle length 21.3-22.7% vs. 16.8-20.4% of SL; caudal peduncle depth 10.5-12.0% vs. 12.5-15.5% of SL), smaller eyes (eye diameter 5.8-8.3% vs. 6.5-10.9% of SL) and longer barbels (maxillary barbel length 16.6-24.3% vs. 11.1-21.1 % of SL; rictal barbel length 19.5-21.6% vs. 11.3-21.1% of SL). The new species is distributed in a subterranean river, belonging to the Longjiang River system; S. donglanensis occurs in the Hongshuihe River system, a system separate from that where the former species occurs.  PMID:24871195

  13. Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation.

  14. The complete mitogenome of the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii (Mitchell, 1838) (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Croft, Laurence J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the iconic Australian freshwater fish, the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii, was recovered from partial genome sequencing data using the HiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The mitogenome consists of 16,442 bp (58% A + T content) containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 768 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequence for the genus Maccullochella, and the fourth for the family Percichthyidae.

  15. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  16. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  18. Teleocichla preta, a new species of cichlid from the Rio Xingu Basin in Brazil (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Varella, H R; Zuanon, J; Kullander, S O; López-Fernández, H

    2016-09-01

    Teleocichla preta nov. sp. inhabits the rapids along the Rio Xingu and lower portion of the Rio Iriri. It is the largest species in the genus, reaching 121·3 mm standard length (LS ) while others do not reach more than 87·8 mm LS . Teleocichla preta is distinguished from all other species of Teleocichla by the unique blackish (in live specimens) or dark brown (preserved specimens) overall colouration of the body, which masks the faint vertical bars or zig-zag pattern of blotches on the flanks. Teleocichla preta also has a deeper body and a deep laterally compressed caudal peduncle, unlike any other congener, as well as a stout lower pharyngeal tooth plate bearing molariform teeth on its median area.

  19. Complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Zi-Han; Chan, Yen-Fan; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 17 010 bp and 17 101 bp, showing 98.3% identity each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop contains 1302 bp in C. flavissima and 1392 bp in C. eibli and locates between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 45.2% for C. flavissima and 44.9% for C. eibli. Complete mitogenomes of C. flavissima and C. eibli provide essential and important DNA molecular data for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfishes. PMID:26330270

  20. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp. (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2011-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny.

  1. Morphological and molecular evidence for the occurrence of three Hippocampus species (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rosana Beatriz; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-09-16

    For many decades only two species of seahorses were recognized from Brazil: Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933, the long snout seahorse, and H. erectus Perry, 1810, the lined seahorse. The presence of a possible third species, recognized in 2002, brought about the need for a broad revision of the genus in Brazilian waters. A total of 335 specimens of seahorses, obtained from Brazilian and other collections, representing the three putative species from Brazil were analyzed: H. reidi, the species of greatest abundance and occurs in estuaries and the sea; H. erectus, which occurs only in the sea, and Hippocampus patagonicus was also determined to be present based on multiple specimens. Our morphometric / numerical and molecular analysis showed that the species currently identified as H. erectus in Brazil is actually H. patagonicus Piacentino & Luzatto, 2004. The existence of a possible third species, was instead based on the true H. erectus, as confirmed in the present study by the study of classical systematic and mitochondrial analysis. Thus, we recognize three species of seahorses in Brazil: H. erectus, H. reidi and H. patagonicus.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Liao, Yun-Chih

    2013-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse was sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 16,535 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The mitochondrial gene order of the three-spot seahorse also conforms to the distinctive vertebrate mitochondrial gene order. The base composition of the genome is A (32.7%), T (29.3%), C (23.4%), and G (14.6%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Lin, Han-Yang; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2013-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse was sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 16,525 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the tiger tail seahorse is also matching the one observed in the most vertebrate creatures. Base composition of the genome is A (32.8%), T (29.8%), C (23.0%), and G (14.4%) with an A+T-rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  4. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Juliane D; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders") was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis.

  5. Microanatomy of the paired-fin pads of ostariophysan fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).

    PubMed

    Conway, Kevin W; Lujan, Nathan K; Lundberg, John G; Mayden, Richard L; Siegel, Dustin S

    2012-10-01

    Members of the teleost superorder Ostariophysi dominate freshwater habitats on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. Obligate benthic and rheophilic taxa from four different orders of the Ostariophysi (Gonorynchiformes, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, and Siluriformes) frequently exhibit thickened pads of skin along the ventral surface of the anteriormost ray or rays of horizontally orientated paired (pectoral and pelvic) fins. Such paired-fin pads, though convergent, are externally homogenous across ostariophysan groups (particularly nonsiluriform taxa) and have been considered previously to be the result of epidermal modification. Histological examination of the pectoral and/or pelvic fins of 44 species of ostariophysans (including members of the Gonorynchiforms, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, and Siluriformes) revealed a tremendous and previously unrecognized diversity in the cellular arrangement of the skin layers (epidermis and subdermis) contributing to the paired-fin pads. Three types of paired-fin pads (Types 1-3) are identified in nonsiluriform ostariophysan fishes, based on differences in the cellular arrangement of the epidermis and subdermis. The paired-fin pads of siluriforms may or may not exhibit a deep series of ridges and grooves across the surface. Two distinct patterns of unculus producing cells are identified in the epidermis of the paired-fin pads of siluriforms, one of which is characterized by distinct bands of keratinization throughout the epidermis and is described in Amphilius platychir (Amphiliidae) for the first time. General histological comparisons between the paired fins of benthic and rheophilic ostariophysan and nonostariophysan percomorph fishes are provided, and the possible function(s) of the paired-fin pads of ostariophysan fish are discussed.

  6. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  7. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba. PMID:25947808

  8. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses. PMID:25549800

  9. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  10. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trachinotus blochii was determined using the polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,558 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 29.21% for A, 15.74% for G, 26.49% for T, 28.56% for C, respectively, with a high A + T content (55.70%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. blochii can provide a basic data for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. blochii resource.

  12. A new species of torrent catfish, Liobagrus hyeongsanensis (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae), from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Su; Park, Jong-Young

    2015-01-01

    A new species of torrent catfish, Liobargus hyeongsanensis, is described from rivers and tributaries of the southeastern coast of Korea. The new species can be differentiated from its congeners by the following characteristics: a small size with a maximum standard length (SL) of 90 mm; body and fins entirely brownish-yellow without distinct markings; a relatively short pectoral spine (3.7-6.5 % SL); a reduced body-width at pectoral-fin base (15.5-17.9 % SL); 50-54 caudal-fin rays; 6-8 gill rakers; 2-3 (mostly 3) serrations on pectoral fin; 60-110 eggs per gravid female. PMID:26623807

  13. A new species of the genus Pethia from Mizoram, northeastern India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Dishma, Mayanglambam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes Pethia expletiforis, a new cyprinid species from the Ka-ao River, Kaladan drainage, Mizoram, India. It is distinguished from its congeners in the Chindwin-Irrawaddy and Ganga-Brahmaputra drainages by the combination of: a complete lateral line, nine predorsal scales, 12 circumpeduncular scales, ½4/1/3½ transverse scales, a black blotch on the caudal peduncle, and the absence of a humeral mark and barbels.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and conservation priorities of the subfamily Acheilognathinae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peilin; Yu, Dan; Liu, Siqing; Tang, Qiongying; Liu, Huanzhang

    2014-05-01

    It is increasingly accepted that conservation work should consider the evolutionary history of target species. Fishes in the subfamily Acheilognathinae, family Cyprinidae, are, with the exception of three species exclusively distributed in Europe, restricted to Asia and show a distinct spawning behavior in laying their eggs in gill chambers of freshwater mussels. At present, many of the 70 species recognized in this group are facing with serious population decline in China and Japan, and their phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. In the present study, based on mtDNA cyt b and 12S rRNA gene sequences, we reconstructed a more detailed species-level phylogenetic tree of this group, and assessed species conservation priorities based on their evolutionary distinctiveness. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the Acheilognathinae contains two major clades: Acheilognathus clade and Tanakia-Rhodeus clade. Based on this phylogenetic result, conservation priority analyses were conducted using ED (evolutionary distinctiveness)/HED (heightened evolutionary distinctiveness), and EDGE (evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness)/HEDGE (heightened evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness) methods. The results suggested that T. himantegus, T. lanceolata, A. gracilis, A. imberbis, T. tanago, and A. longipinnis should be ranked as the top-priority species for conservation. According to our results, we also discussed the current conservation efforts of the bitterling fishes and gave suggestions for future work.

  15. Redescription of Nemachilichthys rueppelli, a senior synonym of N. shimogensis (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Keskar, Ashwini; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Ali, Anvar; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    The hill-stream loach genus Nemachilichthys, an endemic of the Western Ghats of India, comprises two nominal species, N. rueppelli and N. shimogensis. The validity of the latter has been questioned by several authors. Here we show that there is only a marginal raw mitochondrial genetic distance (0.5% in cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 1.2% in cytochrome b) between topotypic specimens of the two nominal species. Further, although population-level morphometric variations appear in a multivariate morphometric analysis, the two nominal species are morphologically similar, with apparently no significant characters separating them. We therefore consider N. shimogensis to be a junior synonym of N. rueppelli and redescribe the latter, providing further details on population variation and distribution. PMID:26701578

  16. The identity of Pethia punctata, a senior synonym of P. muvattupuzhaensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Baby, Fibin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-01-01

    Francis Day described Pethia punctata from Cochin, on the Malabar (south western) coast of India. Although, the species is now recovered from its synonymy with P. ticto, an accurate diagnosis and description have been lacking. A redescription of P. punctata based on external morphology, osteology and genetics is provided, which revealed that P. muvattupuzhaensis, described from Muvattupuzha River, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, is its junior synonym. Pethia punctata can be diagnosed from other known species in the genus by a combination of characters including lateral line complete, with 23-25 pored scales; 8 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½ scales in transverse line; dorsal fin originating almost opposite to, or slightly before pelvic-fin origin; gill rakers 7 on first ceratobranchial; 4+26 total vertebrae; a small black humeral spot covering anterior half of the fourth scale of the row below the lateral-line row; two minute dark spots below the humeral spot; a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle, surrounded by a golden hoop covering scales 19-21 of the lateral-line row; and dorsal fin with 2-3 longitudinal rows of black spots, third row occupying only anterior portion of the fin.  PMID:25543780

  17. Pethia longicauda, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the northern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Paingankar, Mandar S; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-01-01

    Pethia longicauda, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Hiranyakeshi River, Krishna drainage, Maharashtra, India. It can be distinguished from congeners based on a combination of characters including: a long caudal peduncle, incomplete lateral line, absence of barbels, upper lip thick and fleshy, distinct lateral fold on snout, 22-24 scales in lateral series, 5-6 lateral-line pored scales, nine predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 15-17 preanal scales, ½3/1/3½ transverse scales, 11-15 pairs of serrae on the distal half of the last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, 11-13 branched pectoral fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+5 predorsal vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body iridescent silver in color with a black humeral spot, two black blotches on caudal peduncle and dorsal fin usually without any color bands or blotches but in breeding males with two rows of minute, indistinct black spots.  PMID:25112249

  18. Badis britzi, a new percomorph fish (Teleostei: Badidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Badis britzi, the first species of the genus endemic to southern India, is described from the Nagodi tributary of the west-flowing Sharavati River in Karnataka. It is distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters including a slender body, 21-24 pored lateral-line scales and a striking colour pattern consisting of 11 bars and a mosaic of black and red pigmentation on the side of the body including the end of caudal peduncle, and the absence of cleithral, opercular, or caudal-peduncle blotches, or an ocellus on the caudal-fin base. Badis triocellus Khynriam & Sen is considered a junior synonym of B. singenensis Geetakumari & Kadu. PMID:25947522

  19. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni. PMID:27117920

  20. The role of introgressive hybridization in the evolution of the Gila robusta complex (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Gerber, A S; Tibbets, C A; Dowling, T E

    2001-10-01

    The extent and impact of introgressive hybridization was examined in the Gila robusta complex of cyprinid fishes using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation. Lower Colorado River basin populations of G. robusta, G. elegans, and G. cypha exhibited distinct mtDNAs, with only limited introgression of G. elegans into G. cypha. The impact of hybridization was significant in upper Colorado River basin populations; most upper basin fishes sampled exhibited only G. cypha mtDNA haplotypes, with some individuals exhibiting mtDNA from G. elegans. The complete absence of G. robusta mtDNA, even in populations of morphologically pure G. robusta, indicates extensive introgression that predates human influence. Analysis of the geographic distribution of variation identified two distinctive G. elegans lineages; however, the small number of individuals and localities sampled precluded a comprehensive analysis. Analysis of haplotype and population networks for G. cypha mtDNAs from 15 localities revealed low divergence among haplotypes; however, significant frequency differences among populations within and among drainages were found, largely attributable to samples in the Little Colorado River region. This structure was not associated with G. cypha and G. robusta, as morphotypes from the same location are more similar than conspecific forms in other locations. This indicates that morphological and mtDNA variation are affected by different evolutionary forces in Colorado River Gila and illustrates how both hybridization and local adaptation can play important roles in evolution. PMID:11761063

  1. Effects of aluminum on the energetic substrates in neotropical freshwater Astyanax bimaculatus (Teleostei: Characidae) females.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa A R O; Correia, Tiago G; Moreira, Renata G

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acidic pH and acute aluminum (Al) exposure on the metabolic substrates of Astyanax bimaculatus, and on the ability of these animals to recover in clean water. After an acclimation period, sexually mature A. bimaculatus females were sorted into six glass aquaria with three experimental groups: control in neutral pH (7.0), acidic pH (5.5), and Al (0.5 mg·L(-1)) in acidic pH (5.5). After a 96 h treatment, 10 animals from each experimental group were sampled and the rest were returned to clean water in neutral pH without Al for a recovery period of 96 h. The acidic pH, either alone or combined with Al, decreased T4 levels, whereas Al exposure increased T3 levels. Recovery of T3 levels occurred after 96 h. Al exposure decreased ovary and plasma proteins, muscle glycogen contents, and hepatic lipids due to lipoperoxidation. In the recovery phase, lipids decreased in most tissues, probably to re-establish ovary protein and hepatic glycogen. A. bimaculatus prioritized the use of energetic resources during acclimatization to Al instead of prioritizing reproduction, thereby avoiding the ovulation of impaired eggs. PMID:22960447

  2. Complete mitogenomes of Guinean angelfish (Holacanthus africanus) and Rock beauty (Holacanthus tricolor) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Guinean angelfish (Holacanthus africanus) and Rock beauty (Holacanthus tricolor) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,819 bp and 16,625 bp in length, shows 87% similarity with each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. The D-loop contains 1107 bp in H. africanus and 905 bp in H. tricolor and is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 46.2% for H. africanus and 45.6% for H. tricolor. The complete mitogenome of Guinean angelfish and Rock beauty deduced in this study provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish.

  3. Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2009-12-01

    Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow Aphyocypris kikuchii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919), which is an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,601 bp in size, containing 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The sequence information could play an important role in resolving the conflict on its current taxonomic position and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), in comparison with A. kikuchii.

    PubMed

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Chang, Chia-Hao; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-04-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti, which is known as an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,617 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with most vertebrates. We compared the mitochondrial genome of A. moltrechti with that of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii, which had been considered closely related to A. moltrechti within a same genus. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 11.62%. The detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of two species was done.

  6. Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish endemic to Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Siluridae).

    PubMed

    Sudasinghe, Hiranya; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish, is described from the southwestern lowlands of Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from all other species of Ompok in the Indian subcontinent by a combination of the following characters: body color pattern mottled; predorsal profile uniformly convex; maxillary barbels reach or extend slightly beyond base of dorsal fin; eye diameter 14.2-17.1% head length (HL); body depth at anus 19.8-22.3% standard length (SL); head width 14.3-16.8% SL; caudal peduncle depth 5.6-6.5% SL. Callichrous ceylonensis Günther is shown to be a valid species that is apparently restricted to Sri Lanka, distinguished by a combination of the following characters: distinct concavity in predorsal profile; origin of pelvic fin beneath or slightly posterior to the origin of the dorsal fin; maxillary barbels 108-166 % HL; mandibular barbels 16.1-33.7 % HL; and 58-66 anal-fin rays. PMID:27615884

  7. Intersexuality of Scomberomorus niphonius from the Coastal Area around Jeju Island, Korea (Teleostei: Scombridae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Bin; Chang, Dae Soo; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Ku, Kayeon; Lee, Jung Sick

    2013-01-01

    This study histologically describes the intersexuality of Scomberomorus niphonius collected from the coastal area near Jeju Island. A total of 126 S. niphonius, collected from March to July 2012 with a total length of 62.4 cm (±17.5) and a total weight of 1,701.9 g (±1,528.9) were used for analyses. From a histological perspective, two types of intersex were confirmed. One type had scattered germ cells from the opposite sex within the gonad. The second type developed germ cells from the opposite sex in the connective tissue of the outer gonadal membrane. The intersexuality was 14.3% (n=18/126), with females (21.3%; n=16/75) exhibiting a higher rate than males (3.9%; n=2/51). There was no displayed correlation between intersexuality and the total length and weight. PMID:25949123

  8. Three new species of Alburnoides (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Euphrates River, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, Davut; Kaya, Cüneyt; Ekmekçi, F Güler; Doğan, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Alburnoides, Alburnoides emineae sp. n., Alburnoides velioglui sp. n., Alburnoides recepi sp. n., are described from the Euphrates River drainages (Persian Gulf basin) in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Alburnoides emineae, from Beyazsu Stream (south-eastern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished from all species of Alburnoides in Turkey and adjacent regions by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): a well developed ventral keel between pelvic and anal fins, commonly scaleless or very rarely 1-2 scales covering the anterior portion of the keel; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 31-36% SL); 37-43 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 13½-15½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 41, comprising 20-21 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides velioglui, from Sırlı, Karasu, Divriği and Sultansuyu streams (northern and northeastern Euphrates River drainages), is distinguished by a poorly developed ventral keel, completely scaled; a moderately deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 24-29% SL); 45-53 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 11½ -13½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 42, comprising 20-22 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides recepi, from Merzimen Stream (southern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished by a well developed ventral keel, completely scaleless; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 29-34% SL); 47-56 + 2-3 lateral-line scales; 13½-16½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 38-40, comprising 19-21 abdominal and 18-20 caudal vertebrae.

  9. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the "karst group", in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary.

  10. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the “karst group”, in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary. PMID:27667927

  11. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found. PMID:26372604

  13. Two new dwarfgobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: Eviota flavipinnata and Eviota rubrimaculata.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Greenfield, David W; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Eviota from Yoron Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. Both species belong to the cephalic sensory-canal pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the H [IT] pore); have some pectoral-fin rays branched; have a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 9/8; no dark spot over the ural centrum; no prominent distinct dark spots on the pectoral-fin base; no postocular spots; and no strong dark spots on the caudal fin. The species share the most characters with E. afelei, E. bimaculata and E. punctulata, but differ from Eviota afelei and E. punctulata by having two versus three dark marks over the anal-fin base, and from Eviota bimaculata by lacking the two dark, prominent occipital spots present in that species. Both species differ from all other described species of Eviota in fresh coloration. Eviota flavipinnata has bright golden-yellow dorsal fins and an orange anal fin, and a fifth pelvic-fin ray that is 12% the length of the fourth ray. Eviota rubrimaculata has clear dorsal fins with red spots, large red spots on the body, and lacks the fifth pelvic-fin ray. PMID:26623818

  14. Two new dwarfgobies of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Two species of dwarfgoby are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota flebilis n. sp. belongs to cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only IT pore), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, the 5th pelvic-fin ray 12.9% of the 4th, a distinctive narrow, red-orange line under the eye, and a dark vertical line at the caudal-fin base. Eviota specca n. sp. has a cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 1 (complete), has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, the body heavily sprinkled with chromatophores, and a single dark spot on the upper pectoral-fin base. PMID:24871515

  15. The gulf surgeon, Acanthurus randalli, a junior synonym of the ocean surgeon, Acanthurus bahianus (teleostei: Acanthuridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Randall, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We compared 62 specimens, 48-126.5 mm standard length, of Acanthurus bahianus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico with 95 specimens from other localities to determine if the distinguishing characters in the original description of the Gulf of Mexico endemic surgeonfish Acanthurus randalli were valid. No color pattern or meristic differences were found, and the only measurement that allowed distinction (91% percent concordance) was the shallower caudal concavity of northeastern Gulf of Mexico specimens. Acanthurus chirurgus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico also have shallower caudal concavities (93.7% percent concordance) than do conspecifics from other areas, suggesting that this trend may be correlated with some unknown environmental influence. Considering the extended planktonic larval dispersal capabilities of Atlantic surgeonfishes, and that the single divergent morphological character state is also exhibited in a sympatric northeastern Gulf of Mexico population of A. chirurgus, recognition of A. randalli is untenable, and the name is considered a junior synonym of A. bahianus. An identification key to western Atlantic species of Acanthurus that incorporates the results of this study is given.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Ozuluğ, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods.

  17. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements.

  18. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  19. Adult habitat preferences, larval dispersal, and the comparative phylogeography of three Atlantic surgeonfishes (Teleostei: Acanthuridae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luiz A; Bass, Anna L; Robertson, D Ross; Bowen, Brian W

    2002-02-01

    Although many reef fishes of the tropical Atlantic are widely distributed, there are large discontinuities that may strongly influence phylogeographical patterns. The freshwater outflow of the Amazon basin is recognized as a major barrier that produces a break between Brazilian and Caribbean faunas. The vast oceanic distances between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic ridge islands represent another formidable barrier. To assess the relative importance of these barriers, we compared a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene among populations of three species of Atlantic surgeonfishes: Acanthurus bahianus, A. chirurgus and A. coeruleus. These species have similar life histories but different adult habitat preferences. The mtDNA data show no population structure between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic islands, indicating that this oceanic barrier is readily traversed by the pelagic larval stage of all three surgeonfishes, which spend approximately 45-70 days in the pelagic environment. The Amazon is a strong barrier to dispersal of A. bahianus (d = 0.024, phiST = 0.724), a modest barrier for A. coeruleus (phiST = 0.356), and has no discernible effect as a barrier for A. chirurgus. The later species has been collected on soft bottoms with sponge habitats under the Amazon outflow, indicating that relaxed adult habitat requirements enable it to readily cross that barrier. A limited ability to use soft bottom habitats may also explain the low (but significant) population structure in A. coeruleus. In contrast, A. bahianus has not been collected over deep sponge bottoms, and rarely settles outside shallow reefs. Overall, adult habitat preferences seem to be the factor that differentiates phylogeographical patterns in these reef-associated species. PMID:11856425

  20. Chromosomal location of retrotransposable REX 1 in the genomes in five Prochilodus (Teleostei

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Tatiana Aparecida; Mendonça, Bruna Bueno; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements are repetitive DNA sequences comprising a group of segments able to move and carry sequences within the genome. Studies involving comparative genomics have revealed that most vertebrates have different populations of transposable elements with significant differences among species of the same lineage. Few studies have been conducted in fish, the most diverse group of vertebrates, with the objective to locate different types of transposable elements. Therefore, this study proposed to map the retrotransposable element Rex1 applying Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) in five species of the genus Prochilodus (Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodus brevis, Prochilodus costatus, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus nigricans). After the application of the Rex1 probe, scattered markings were found throughout the genome of analyzed species, and also the presence of small clusters located in the centromeric and telomeric regions coincident with the heterochromatin distribution pattern. This was the first description of the retrotransposable element Rex1 in Prochilodus genome seeking for a better understanding of the distribution pattern of these retrotransposons in the genome of teleost fish. PMID:24195015

  1. Neoniphon pencei, a new species of holocentrid (Teleostei: Beryciformes) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Earle, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neoniphon pencei, n. sp., is described from thirteen specimens, 132-197 mm standard length (SL) collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) at Rarotonga, Cook Islands by divers using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. It differs from all other species of the genus in number of lateral line scales, scales above and below lateral line, elements of life color, and in COI and cytochrome b DNA sequences. Of the five other known species of Neoniphon, it is most similar to the Indo-Pacific N. aurolineatus and the western Atlantic N. marianus both morphologically and genetically. PMID:25698898

  2. Neoniphonpencei, a new species of holocentrid (Teleostei: Beryciformes) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Copus, Joshua M; Pyle, Richard L; Earle, John L

    2015-01-01

    Neoniphonpencei, n. sp., is described from thirteen specimens, 132-197 mm standard length (SL) collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) at Rarotonga, Cook Islands by divers using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. It differs from all other species of the genus in number of lateral line scales, scales above and below lateral line, elements of life color, and in COI and cytochrome b DNA sequences. Of the five other known species of Neoniphon, it is most similar to the Indo-Pacific N.aurolineatus and the western Atlantic N.marianus both morphologically and genetically. PMID:25698898

  3. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. PMID:22967094

  4. Huangshan population of Chinese Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) harbors diverse matrilines and high genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Tian-Qi; Wan, Tao; Perdices, Anabel; Yang, Jin-Quan; Tang, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Huang, Li-Qun; Huang, Song; He, Shun-Ping

    2016-03-18

    Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus. PMID:27029868

  5. Pempheris gasparinii, a new species of sweeper fish from Trindade Island, southwestern Atlantic (Teleostei, Pempheridae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pempheris gasparinii sp. n. is described from five specimens, 59.1–68.0 mm in standard length. It is only known to occur in the shallow reefs of Trindade Island, 1200 km east of the Brazilian coast, in the southwestern Atlantic. Pempheris gasparinii is the third recognized species of Pempheris in the Atlantic Ocean. This new species is morphologically similar to its close relative, Pempheris poeyi, differing by the number of lateral-line scales (51–54 in Pempheris gasparinii vs. 47–49 in Pempheris poeyi), scales below lateral line (10–11 vs. 9), circumpeduncular scales (11–12 vs. 13), head and caudal peduncle lengths (2.7–3.3 vs 3.5–4.0 in head length). Moreover, Pempheris gasparinii shows a 4% genetic divergence from Pempheris poeyi at the cytochrome oxidase I locus (COI), consistent with a lineage split at the beginning of the Pleistocene. This new species represents the 12th endemic fish species from Trindade Island. PMID:27006618

  6. Garra sindhi, a new species from the Jebel Samhan Nature Reserve in Oman (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Lyon, Robert Gary; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Garra sindhi, new species, is described from Wadi Andhur in the Dhofar province of the Sultanate of Oman. It is closely related to G. dunsirei and G. smarti, two other species from the same Omani province. It differs from these species by the following combination of characters: breast covered by scales, a shallow hump on back, eyes normally developed and 8-12 gill rakers on the lower limb of the first gill arch. PMID:27615826

  7. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations. PMID:27309854

  8. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae).

    PubMed

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes.

  9. Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of “Region of origin” and “Tropical conservatism” to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

  10. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-08-04

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region.

  11. Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Britz, Ralf

    2013-10-30

    Channa andrao, new species, from Lefraguri swamp, West Bengal, India, differs from all its congeners except, C. asiatica, C. bleheri and C. burmanica and the recently described C. hoaluensis and C. ninhbinhensis by the absence of pelvic fins. It can be distinguished from all other pelvic fin-less species of snakeheads by its colour pattern, and differs further in its number of vertebrae, dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales from individual snakehead species in this complex. Channa andrao raises the number of snakehead species endemic to the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot to ten, representing almost one third of the known species in the genus.

  12. Ultrastructural aspects of previtellogenic oocyte growth in hermaphrodite sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Çolak, Sibel

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes various aspects of previtellogenic oocyte growth in sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo , is an important marine culture fish species in the Mediterranean. The ultrastructural characteristics of nuclear morphology, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and the starting of the follicle envelope formation were described in detail. These cells do not significantly differ from those of the other teleost species. The ultrastructural aspects provide new information on the reproductive biology of Sparidae. PMID:19584025

  13. Histopathology and cellular response in Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) infections of Diplodus puntazzo (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjá-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2008-06-01

    Enteromyxum leei is an intestinal parasite responsible for serious outbreaks in Mediterranean sharpsnout sea bream Diplodus puntazzo. E. leei infection was experimentally transmitted to healthy D. puntazzo (R) by cohabitation with infected donor fish. Haematological changes and histopathological damage were evaluated in relation to the course of infection. The prevalence of infection in R fish was 100% from day 10 post-exposure (p.e.) onwards, and the infection intensity and histopathological damage increased progressively. Different developmental stages were found in the infected intestines, including proliferative (stages 1-3) and sporogonic (stages 4 and 5) stages. Intestinal damage consisted of vacuolation, necrosis, detachment and sloughing of epithelium, and was correlated with the progression of the infection and with the development of the parasite. Sporogonic stages appeared from day 20 p.e. onwards. Initially, D. puntazzo seems to counteract the infection through the increase in leucocyte numbers, respiratory burst activity, haematopoietic activity and MMC. Two types of eosinophilic granular cells (EGC1 and EGC2) were detected in the intestinal epithelium and lamina propria. EGC1 numbers decreased with the progression of infection, whereas an increase in EGC2 occurred, mainly in the lamina propria. The involvement of the cellular immunity in the response of D. puntazzo to E. leei was demonstrated. The depletion of this response at a certain point of the infection could contribute to the high virulence of this myxozoan in this fish species. PMID:18373973

  14. Laimosemion leticia (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species from the upper Rio Amazonas, Southern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Valdesalici, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Laimosemion leticia is described from the Rio Tacana drainage, upper Rio Amazonas basin, Southern Colombia. The new species was found in a shallow swamp within a tropical rainforest in the vicinity of Leticia, capital of the department of Amazonas and southernmost municipality of Colombia. This miniature species is considered to be a member of the Owiyeye subgenus, which is diagnosed by a unique frontal squamation. Laimosemion leticia can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique colour pattern on the unpaired fins. The new species appears related to L. jauaperi, L. uatuman and L. ubim due to the similar flank colour pattern in males, but is easy distinguished by coloration of the unpaired fins and morphological characters. PMID:27394304

  15. Transcriptome analysis of vertebral bone in the flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes), using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki, Harumi; Wu, Xiaoming; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Sakai, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    The processes underlying vertebral development in teleosts and tetrapods differ markedly in a variety of ways. At present, the molecular basis of teleost vertebral development and growth is poorly understood. Understanding vertebral development at the molecular level is important for aquaculture to prevent vertebral anomalies that can arise from a variety of factors, including excess vitamin A (all-trans retinol, VA) in the diet. To facilitate studies on teloest vertebral development, we performed transcriptome analysis of four month old flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, vertebrae using next-generation sequencing. Expression profile obtained demonstrates that some members of the hh, bmp, fgf, wnt gene families, and their receptors, hox, pax, sox, dlx and tbx gene families and ntl, which are known to function in notochord and somite development in embryos, are expressed in the vertebrae. It was also showed that in addition to the retinoic acid receptor (Rar), the vertebrae express alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and retinal dehydrogenase 2 which convert VA to all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). The assembled contigs also included cytochrome p450 family members, which inactivate RA, as well as phosphatidylcholine-retinol O-acetyltransferase, which converts VA to all-trans-retinyl ester, a stock form of VA. These data suggest that in teleost vertebrae, expression of various signals and transcription factors which function in the notochord and somite development is maintained until adult stage, and RA metabolism and signaling are active to regulate transcription of RA-responsible genes, such as hedgehog and hox genes. This is the first transcriptome analysis of teleost fish vertebrae. PMID:26452303

  16. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available). PMID:26249380

  17. Acanthoplesiops cappuccino, a new species of acanthoclinine fish from the Red Sea (Teleostei: Plesiopidae) .

    PubMed

    Gill, Anthony C; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2013-01-01

    Acanthoplesiops cappuccino is described from the 16.4 mm SL holotype collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from congeners: dorsal-fin rays XVIII,4; anal-fin rays VII,4; pectoral-fin rays 18; caudal fin not connected to last rays of dorsal and anal fins by membrane; and caudal peduncle with a pale yellowish brown bar, which extends broadly on to caudal fin. An underwater photo of the anaesthetised holotype is provided, as well as one of the freshly dead holotype and only known specimen of the similar species A. naka. Tables summarizing diagnostic characters of the six known species of Acanthoplesiops are included. congeners by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 40-42+1 pored scales; ½7-½8/1/3½ scales in transverse line from dorsal-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; 4½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Hypselobarbus kolus is considered a synonym of H. curmuca, which is redescribed: it is distinguished from all congeners by possessing maxillary barbels only; the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; 41-43+1 lateral-line scales; 9-10/1/4½-5 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins; and 5½-6 scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin.  

  18. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area’s geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations. PMID:27309854

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  20. Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knytl, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics the crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) were revealed by means of conventional banding protocols (C, CMA3, AgNOR). The diploid chromosome number (2n) in this species was 100. Its karyotype was composed of 10 pairs of metacentric, 18 pairs of submetacentric and 22 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes without any microchromosomes. C-banding identified blocks of telomeric heterochromatin on seven chromosome pairs. The NORs were situated on the p arms of the 14th pair of submetacentric chromosomes and on the p arms of the 32nd pair of subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes; AgNOR-positive signals corresponded to the CMA3-positive signals. These chromosome characteristics may suggest a paleo-allotetraploid origin of Carassius carassius genome. PMID:24260701

  1. Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

    Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds (Ucrit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below Ucrit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

  2. Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

    2007-11-01

    Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds ( U crit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below U crit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

  3. Origin of Gila seminuda (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) through introgressive hybridization: implications for evolution and conservation.

    PubMed Central

    DeMarais, B D; Dowling, T E; Douglas, M E; Minckley, W L; Marsh, P C

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and genetic characters from cyprinid fishes of the genus Gila were examined to assess a hypothesized hybrid origin of Gila seminuda from the Virgin River, Arizona-Nevada-Utah. The presumed parents, Gila robusta robusta and Gila elegans, are clearly differentiated from one another based on morphology, allozymes, and mtDNA haplotypes. G. seminuda is morphologically intermediate and polymorphic at allozyme loci diagnostic for the parental species. Restriction endonuclease analysis of mtDNA showed G. seminuda nearly identical to G. elegans. These results support an origin of the bisexual taxon G. seminuda through introgressive hybridization. The Gila population in the Moapa River, Nevada, also appears to be of hybrid origin and is considered a distinctive population of G. seminuda. Inter-specific hybridization is potentially an important mode of evolution among western North American fishes, and valid species of hybrid origin may exist in other groups as well. Consideration of this mode of evolution argues for the need to conserve entire species complexes. PMID:1557380

  4. The Infrabranchial Musculature and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Percomorph Fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286

  5. Allopolyploidization is not so simple: evidence from the origin of the tribe Cyprinini (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Zhu, Z-H; Bi, X-Y; Murphy, R W; Wang, S-Y; Gao, Y; Xiao, H; Zhang, Y-P; Luo, J

    2014-01-01

    The identification of allopolyploidization events benefits from molecular dating and divergence assessments of progenitor genomes. Information on gene duplications only, either orthologs or paralogs, provides incomplete information. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA yield insights into matrilineal history, which may differ from patrilineal evolution. Two important food and pet fishes, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), appear to have experienced allotetraploidization sometime from 12 to 20 million years ago (Ma). However, much work is necessary to detail the initial polyploidization event. Herein, we use this group of fishes as a model system to investigate competing scenarios for allopolyploidization. We analyze both the nuclear genes encoding growth hormone (GH), recombination activating protein 1 (RAG1) and HOXA2B gene, and the maternal heredited 12 concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding gene in 19 species of cyprinids and use two species in Balitoridae as outgroup taxa. Our analyses clarify the phylogenetic position of the paternal and maternal ancestors for the common carp and goldfish. The estimation of matrilineal divergence (10.71-12.42 Ma) is significantly younger than the dates of the parental ancestor divergedthat obtained by nuclear genes (16.62-19.64 Ma). Analyses of both genomes date the allopolyploidization event of the common ancestor of Cy. carpio and Ca sp. to about 10.71-12.42 Ma, which is most likely represented by maternal divergent time. The divergence of the two copies of the nuclear genes which was more ancient than the maternal markers might have been included the divergence of the progenitors' genome divergence when the allopolyploidization event occurred. Thus, the scenarios of allopolyploidzation for this group of fish can be suggested as the following: the matrilineal common ancestor of species in tribe Cyprinini might have doubled its genome by mating with a paternal ancestor in the subfamily Cyprininae, which was a sister-group that diverged around 4.20-8.93 Ma. Our work provides new evidence for the divergence dates of allopolyploidization within the Cyprinini, and documents the necessity of considering both matrilineal and patrilineal histories when investigating allopolyploidization. PMID:25470283

  6. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  7. A new species of the genus Pethia from Mizoram, northeastern India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Dishma, Mayanglambam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes Pethia expletiforis, a new cyprinid species from the Ka-ao River, Kaladan drainage, Mizoram, India. It is distinguished from its congeners in the Chindwin-Irrawaddy and Ganga-Brahmaputra drainages by the combination of: a complete lateral line, nine predorsal scales, 12 circumpeduncular scales, ½4/1/3½ transverse scales, a black blotch on the caudal peduncle, and the absence of a humeral mark and barbels. PMID:25112614

  8. Skin toxins in coral-associated Gobiodon species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) affect predator preference and prey survival

    PubMed Central

    Gratzer, Barbara; Millesi, Eva; Walzl, Manfred; Herler, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is high for the many small coral reef fishes, requiring successful sheltering or other predator defence mechanisms. Coral-dwelling gobies of the genus Gobiodon live in close association with scleractinian corals of the genus Acropora. Earlier studies indicated that the low movement frequency of adult fishes and the development of skin toxins (crinotoxicity) are predation avoidance mechanisms. Although past experiments showed that predators refuse food prepared with goby skin mucus, direct predator–prey interactions have not been studied. The present study compares the toxicity levels of two crinotoxic coral gobies – Gobiodon histrio, representative of a conspicuously coloured species, and Gobiodon sp.3 with cryptic coloration – using a standard bioassay method. The results show that toxin levels of both species differ significantly shortly after mucus release but become similar over time. Predator preferences were tested experimentally in an aquarium in which the two gobies and a juvenile damselfish Chromis viridis were exposed to the small grouper Epinephelus fasciatus. Video-analysis revealed that although coral gobies are potential prey, E. fasciatus clearly preferred the non-toxic control fish (C. viridis) over Gobiodon. When targeting a goby, the predator did not prefer one species over the other. Contrary to our expectations that toxic gobies are generally avoided, gobies were often captured, but they were expelled quickly, repeatedly and alive. This unusual post-capture avoidance confirms that these gobies have a very good chance of surviving attacks in the field due to their skin toxins. Nonetheless, some gobies were consumed: the coral shelter may therefore also provide additional protection, with toxins protecting them mainly during movement between corals. In summary, chemical deterrence by crinotoxic fishes seems to be far more efficient in predation avoidance than in physical deterrence involving body squamation and/or strong fin spines. PMID:26074654

  9. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae)

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes. PMID:27074006

  10. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  11. The first molecular phylogeny of Chilodontidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) reveals cryptic biodiversity and taxonomic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Chilodontidae is a small family of eight described characiform species popularly known as headstanders. These small to moderately sized fishes are well known to aquarists, who prize their striking spotted pigmentation and unusual behaviors, and to systematists, who have revised both chilodontid genera in recent memory and studied their phylogenetic relationships using a comprehensive morphological dataset. However, no molecular phylogeny for the family has ever been proposed. Here, we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships for all eight known chilodontid species using three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Results largely agree with the previous morphological hypothesis, and confirm the monophyly of the family as well as its included genera, Caenotropus and Chilodus. The molecular topology differs slightly from the morphological hypothesis by placing Caenotropus maculosus rather than C. mestomorgmatos as the sister to the remaining three congeners, and by reconstructing the Curimatidae as the closest outgroup family, rather than the Anostomidae. However, the topologies supported by the morphological data were only slightly less likely and could not be rejected via Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Within Chilodus, two described species with distinctive pigmentation (C. fritillus and C. zunevei) appear embedded within the broad distributed C. punctatus clade, suggesting the presence of cryptic taxa with polymorphic pigmentation within the present concept of C. punctatus. Future work should combine morphological and molecular data to revisit the taxonomy and systematics of Chilodus and determine species limits within the C. punctatus-group sensu lato.

  12. Microsatellite development for an endangered bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) using 454 sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

    2012-01-01

    Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%-97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  13. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the “karst group”, in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075

  15. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total) and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data. PMID:19117506

  16. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus. PMID:27254444

  17. Evolution of ontogenetic dietary shifts and associated gut features in prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae).

    PubMed

    German, D P; Gawlicka, A K; Horn, M H

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ontogenetic dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory or omnivory, and concomitant changes in the gut facilitating digestion of algae, are synapomorphies of the tribes Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini in the family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks). Previous investigations have revealed that two xiphisterine pricklebacks-Xiphister mucosus and Xiphister atropurpureus-become herbivorous or omnivorous, respectively, as their bodies grow larger, and that their guts show related changes in length and function. In this study we found that, with increase in size, the basal member of the Xiphisterini, Phytichthys chirus, showed an increased proportion of algae in its diet, increased activity of α-amylase and decreased activity of aminopeptidase, all of which support the synapomorphy hypothesis. Cebidichthys violaceus, a herbivore in the Esselenichthyini, shows similar ontogenetic changes in diet and digestive tract length and physiology, but these features were not observed in two derived carnivores, Dictyosoma burgeri and Dictyosoma rubrimaculatum, within the clade. These results suggest that herbivory is isolated to C. violaceus within the Esselenichthyini. Allometric relationships of gut length as a function of body size generally follow diet within the Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini, with herbivores having the longest guts, which become disproportionately longer than body size as the fishes grow, omnivores intermediate gut lengths, and carnivores the shortest. A carnivore from an adjacent clade, Anoplarchus purpurescens, had the shortest gut, which did not change in length relative to body length as the fish grew. Overall, our results clarify the patterns of dietary evolution within the Stichaeidae and lay the foundation for more detailed studies of dietary and digestive specialization in fishes in the family.

  18. Herbivory Promotes Dental Disparification and Macroevolutionary Dynamics in Grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae), a Freshwater Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aaron M; Unmack, Peter J; Vari, Richard P; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Trophic shifts into new adaptive zones have played major (although often conflicting) roles in reshaping the evolutionary trajectories of many lineages. We analyze data on diet, tooth, and oral morphology and relate these traits to phenotypic disparification and lineage diversification rates across the ecologically diverse Terapontidae, a family of Australasian fishes. In contrast to carnivores and most omnivores, which have retained relatively simple, ancestral caniniform tooth shapes, herbivorous terapontids appear to have evolved a variety of novel tooth shapes at significantly faster rates to meet the demands of plant-based diets. The evolution of herbivory prompted major disparification, significantly expanding the terapontid adaptive phenotypic continuum into an entirely novel functional morphospace. There was minimal support for our hypothesis of faster overall rates of integrated tooth shape, spacing, and jaw biomechanical evolution in herbivorous terapontids in their entirety, compared with other trophic strategies. There was, however, considerable support for accelerated disparification within a diverse freshwater clade containing a range of specialized freshwater herbivores. While the evolutionary transition to herbivorous diets has played a central role in terapontid phenotypic diversification by pushing herbivores toward novel fitness peaks, there was little support for herbivory driving significantly higher lineage diversification compared with background rates across the family.

  19. Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

  20. The "pseudo-craniovertebral articulation" in the deep-sea fish Stomias boa (Teleostei: Stomiidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Bernstein, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    Many predatory deep-sea fishes show highly specialized modifications of their feeding apparatus, e.g., elongate jaws studded with long daggerlike teeth, often combined with a very distensible stomach, to be capable of swallowing relatively large prey. These striking features can be observed in members of the marine teleost family Stomiidae. The present study gives a detailed morphological description of the mesopelagic predatory fish, Stomias boa, based on a combined approach of clearing and double staining, serial sections and dissection. In this genus, large pads made of dense connective tissue extend from the first enlarged neural arch to the ventral side of the chordal sheath, embracing the prominent exoccipitals and thus constituting a kind of double ball- and socket joint for the head. The notochordal occipito-vertebral gap is enlarged, probably not by loss of vertebral centra as is proposed for other genera of the stomiid family, e.g., in Astronesthes or Photostomias. We conclude that this "pseudo-craniovertebral articulation" serves as a functional substitute for the absent vertebrae and strengthens the flexible, anterior part of the vertebral column during extreme dorsal expansion of the gape during prey capture and swallowing. PMID:17926347

  1. Pethia sanjaymoluri, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the northern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Katwate, U; Jadhav, S; Kumkar, P; Raghavan, R; Dahanukar, N

    2016-05-01

    Pethia sanjaymoluri, a new cyprinid, is described from the Pavana and Nira tributaries of Bhima River, Krishna drainage, Maharashtra, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characteristics that includes an incomplete lateral line, absence of barbels, upper lip thick and fleshy, 23-25 lateral series scales, 7-12 lateral-line pored scales, 10 predorsal scales, 11-14 prepelvic scales, 17-20 pre-anal scales, 4½ scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line, four scales between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, 8-15 pairs of serrae on distal half of dorsal-fin spine, 12-14 branched pectoral-fin rays, 4 + 26 total vertebrae, 4 + 5 predorsal vertebrae, 4 + 13 abdominal vertebrae, 13 caudal vertebrae and a unique colour pattern comprising a humeral spot positioned below the lateral line and encompassing the third and fourth lateral-line scales and one scale below, one caudal spot on 17th-21st lateral-line scales with a yellow hue on its anterior side and apical half of dorsal fin studded with melanophores making the fin tip appear black. Genetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence suggests that the species is distinct from other known species of Pethia for which data are available. PMID:27098090

  2. Fluctuating asymmetry as a pollution monitor: The Australian estuarine smooth toadfish Tetractenos glaber (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae).

    PubMed

    Lajus, Dmitry; Yurtseva, Anastasia; Birch, Gavin; Booth, David J

    2015-12-30

    The relationship between pollution level in estuarine sediment and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of resident smooth toadfish Tetractenos glaber was evaluated. A total of 188 fish from Sydney and Hawkesbury River estuaries (5 locations from each) were analysed for 28 bilateral skull bone characters. Sediment pollution was quantified based on analysis of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, lindane). Sediment toxicity was characterized using the mean quotient approach (MERMQ) and ranged from low to moderate level for heavy metals and from low to severe for organochlorides. The mean shape and directional asymmetry of fish bones differed among locations, suggesting a response to local environments. FA was positively correlated with organochlorine pesticides across locations, but not with heavy metals. These results suggest that fish FA could be a useful estimator of stress caused by organic toxicity based on the MERMQ approach.

  3. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  4. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  5. Two new dwarfgobies from the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Jewett, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of dwarfgobies are described, Eviota asymbasia from the Sulu Sea, Philippine Islands, south to Java and west to Damar, and E. bipunctata occurring from the Indian Ocean eastward into the western Pacific Ocean. Eviota asymbasia lacks the IT pore of the cephalic sensory-pore system and usually also the POP, has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, has some pectoral-fin rays branched and usually 15 rays, two spots on the pectoral-fin base, no dark spot over the preural centrum, first dorsal fin may be filamentous, six ventral postanal spots, and the male genital papilla is not fimbriate. Eviota bipunctata belongs to the group with cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the IT pore), some pectoral-fin rays branched, pectoral-fin base with 1 or 2 prominent dark spots, dorsal/anal-fin formula usually 8/8, and no occipital spots. PMID:27395247

  6. Amblyceps accari, a new species of torrent catfish (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Ali, Anvar; Britz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    A new species of torrent catfish, Amblyceps accari, is described from the central region of the Western Ghats of India. The new species differs from all its congeners by having 12 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 7-10 in other Amblyceps, rarely 11 in A. tuberculatum). It differs further from all other species of the genus except A. murraystuarti and A. torrentis in having the adipose fin confluent with the dorsal procurrent part of the caudal fin and by the following combination of characters from all its congeners: jaws unequal with lower jaw weakly-projecting, pectoral spine smooth, adipose-fin origin opposite anal-fin origin, dorsal fin to adipose-fin distance more than one fourth of standard length, adipose fin long with its base more than one-fourth of standard length, and deeply forked caudal fin with minute, poorly developed, centrally projecting hooks on the proximal lepidotrichia of central caudal-fin rays. The discovery of the new species represents the first record of this genus from peninsular India. PMID:27394861

  7. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  8. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the redeye mullet Liza haematocheila (Teleostei, Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Li, Yinglei; Chen, Haigang; Yan, Binlun; Meng, Xueping

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence of the redeye mullet Liza haematocheila has been determined. The circle genome is 16,822 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of L. haematocheila was similar to that of most other teleosts. The base composition of H-strand is 26.42% (A), 26.38% (T), 16.72% (G) and 30.47% (C), with an AT content of 52.8%. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of L. haematocheila presented will be in favor of resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Scatophagidae and the Mugiliformes.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of copperband butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Chaetodontidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Hao

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the copperband butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus from Beibu Bay, China, was determined. It is one of the most common coral reef fish in South China Sea. The total length of C. rostratus mitogenome is 16,538 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region, with the genome organization and gene order being identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall nucleotide composition of the H-strand is 28.05% A, 28.94% T, 16.22% G and 26.79% C, with an A + T bias. This study will provide the first complete mitochondrial genome of Chelmon rostratus as useful information for the application of fish phylogenetic relationship analysis within the butterflyfish species.

  11. Microsatellite development for an endangered bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) using 454 sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

    2012-01-01

    Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%-97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species. PMID:22489139

  12. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  13. Genetic Linkage Map of Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, D. C.; Slaugenhaupt, S. A.; Kallman, K. D.; Chakravarti, A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of genotypes of 76 polymorphic loci in more than 2600 backcross hybrid individuals derived from intra- and interspecific genetic crosses of fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) resulted in the identification of 17 multipoint linkage groups containing 55 protein-coding loci and one sex chromosome-linked pigment pattern gene. Multipoint linkage analyses identified highly probable gene orders for 10 linkage groups. The total genome length was estimated to be ~18 Morgans. Comparisons of the Xiphophorus linkage map with those of other fishes, amphibians and mammals suggested that fish gene maps are remarkably similar and probably retain many syntenic groups present in the ancestor of all vertebrates. PMID:2004711

  14. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570

  15. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Diogo Teruo Hashimoto Tatiana Aparecida; Paes, Ana Danyelle Noitel Valim de Arruda; Foresti, Fausto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability. PMID:24260658

  16. An evaluation of fossil tip-dating versus node-age calibrations in tetraodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Arcila, Dahiana; Alexander Pyron, R; Tyler, James C; Ortí, Guillermo; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Time-calibrated phylogenies based on molecular data provide a framework for comparative studies. Calibration methods to combine fossil information with molecular phylogenies are, however, under active development, often generating disagreement about the best way to incorporate paleontological data into these analyses. This study provides an empirical comparison of the most widely used approach based on node-dating priors for relaxed clocks implemented in the programs BEAST and MrBayes, with two recently proposed improvements: one using a new fossilized birth-death process model for node dating (implemented in the program DPPDiv), and the other using a total-evidence or tip-dating method (implemented in MrBayes and BEAST). These methods are applied herein to tetraodontiform fishes, a diverse group of living and extinct taxa that features one of the most extensive fossil records among teleosts. Previous estimates of time-calibrated phylogenies of tetraodontiforms using node-dating methods reported disparate estimates for their age of origin, ranging from the late Jurassic to the early Paleocene (ca. 150-59Ma). We analyzed a comprehensive dataset with 16 loci and 210 morphological characters, including 131 taxa (95 extant and 36 fossil species) representing all families of fossil and extant tetraodontiforms, under different molecular clock calibration approaches. Results from node-dating methods produced consistently younger ages than the tip-dating approaches. The older ages inferred by tip dating imply an unlikely early-late Jurassic (ca. 185-119Ma) origin for this order and the existence of extended ghost lineages in their fossil record. Node-based methods, by contrast, produce time estimates that are more consistent with the stratigraphic record, suggesting a late Cretaceous (ca. 86-96Ma) origin. We show that the precision of clade age estimates using tip dating increases with the number of fossils analyzed and with the proximity of fossil taxa to the node under assessment. This study suggests that current implementations of tip dating may overestimate ages of divergence in calibrated phylogenies. It also provides a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for tetraodontiform systematics and future comparative studies.

  17. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. PMID:25979611

  18. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa.

  19. Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus(Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Michelle L; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Chernoff, Barry

    2011-01-01

    During the last ice age, much of North America far south as 40°N was covered by glaciers (Hewitt 2000). About 20,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized byR. atratulusvia a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut. The mitochondrial DNA exhibits low nucleotide diversity, high haplotype diversity, and a dominant haplotype found across the state. A small percentage of individuals in the Housatonic drainage basin, however, share a haplotype with populations in New York drainage basins, a haplotype not found elsewhere in Connecticut's drainage basins. We calculated a range for the rate of divergence for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) and control region (ctr) of 4.43–6.76% and 3.84–8.48% per million years (my), respectively. While this range is higher than the commonly accepted rate of 2% for mitochondrial DNA, these results join a growing list of publications finding high rates of divergence for various taxa (Peterson and Masel 2009). The data support the conclusion that Connecticut as a whole was recolonized initially by a single founding event that came from a single refugium. Subsequently, the Housatonic basin alone experienced a secondary recolonization event. PMID:22393505

  20. Spatial distribution of a fusiform cell in the optic tectum of Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha).

    PubMed

    Saidel, William M; Mandau, Marek K; Haynes, Paul T

    2008-12-01

    Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish, inhabits an ecological niche just below the water surface. At that position, each eye necessarily views into the air through the surface of the water and into the water. Since Pantodon is an obligatory surface feeder, the ventral retina viewing the aerial environment provides all visual information for prey acquisition. The visual pathway of this fish reflects the divided visual field with structural differences in the retina and brain corresponding to the different views. In this study, we describe a specific type of neuron in the tectum that, due to its intrinsic structure, likely integrates visual and mechanoreceptor inputs. Because of its spatial distribution, this type of neuron is a candidate as a basic element in a network involved with prey acquisition.

  1. Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Santos, H B; Thomé, R G; Arantes, F P; Sato, Y; Bazzoli, N; Rizzo, E

    2008-12-01

    We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression. Follicular atresia was analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for HSP70 and PCNA. During early regression, atretic follicles exhibited zona pellucida breakdown, yolk degeneration, and hypertrophied follicular cells (e.g., granulosa in mammals). Intense heterophagy to engulf the yolk, and autophagy were detected in the follicular cells during advanced and late atresia. The TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation, mainly in late follicular atresia. The apoptosis rate of the follicular cells increased up to 10% during follicular atresia in both species and was negatively correlated with follicular area. Immunohistochemistry reaction for HSP70 stained the follicular cells strongly during advanced atresia, when they are intensively involved in yolk engulfment, whereas the reaction for PCNA labelled theca cells. We inferred that heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis contributed to follicular atresia in teleost ovaries, thereby achieving a more efficient removal of the degenerating oocyte and dying follicular cells. Additionally, HSP70 may protect the follicular cells before apoptosis when they are involved in yolk engulfment, and cell proliferation in the theca contributed to ovarian remodelling. PMID:18701155

  2. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Šlechtová, Vera; Sember, Alexandr; Ráb, Petr

    2016-01-01

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies), since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species ‘Botia’ zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather ‘B.’ zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of ‘B.’ zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of ‘B.’ zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that ‘B.’ zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae) and Sinibotia (Botiinae). In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between ‘B.’ zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between ‘B.’ zebra and S. pulchra, not between ‘B.’ zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of ‘B.’ zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes) differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44%) and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%), and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L. guilinensis and S. pulchra. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear RAG-1 gene invariably places ‘Botia’ zebra as sister species to S. pulchra, while L. guilinensis is only distantly related. The presented combination of genetic data demonstrates that ‘B.’ zebra is not the result of a hybridisation, but a species of tetraploid genus Sinibotia with a striking morphological evolution towards an enormous similarity with a co-occurring, but not directly related species. The complete lack of knowledge of the ecology of these species, their main predators or their ecological interactions hampers any conclusion regarding the evolutionary advantage of such adaptation. PMID:27442252

  3. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  4. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  5. A new species of Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911 (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) from deep-sea chemosynthetic environments in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M Eric; Somerville, Russell; Copley, Jonathan T

    2016-01-01

    The 28th species of the eelpout genus Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911, is described from specimens collected from an active hydrothermal vent field at a depth of about 2300 m at the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre of the Caribbean Sea. A tentatively identified early juvenile is recorded at a methane seep at a depth of 1049 m near Tobago. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by its few pectoral fin rays, low vertebral counts, single, mediolateral branch of the lateral line system and presence of scales on the nape and cheeks.

  6. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations.

    PubMed

    Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Azevedo, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli on the peripheral cytoplasm. Several life-cycle stages, including mature spores, were observed. An envelope formed by numerous fine and anastomosed microfibrils was observed at the spore surface. The spore body presented an ellipsoidal shape and was about 13.1 microm long, 7.8 microm wide, and 3.9 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size, measuring 5.2 microm in length, 3.2 microm in width, and possessing a polar filament with 8-9 turns around the longitudinal axis. The binucleated sporoplasm contained a vacuole and numerous sporoplasmosomes. These were circular in cross-section, showing an adherent eccentric, dense structure, with a half-crescent section. Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp.

  7. Comparative cytogenetics of ten species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Araguaia River system, Brazil, by conventional cytogenetic methods

    PubMed Central

    Valente, G. Targino; Vitorino, C. de Andrade; Cabral-de-Mello, D.C.; Oliveira, C.; Souza, I. Lima; Martins, C.; Venere, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cichlids represent one of the most species-rich families of fishes and have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists due to the rapid radiation occurring in some groups and the importance of some species in the world aquaculture. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted in 10 cichlid species from the Araguaia River, Amazon Basin, Brazil. The chromosome number was 2n=48 for all analyzed species except for Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni et Costa, 2009 (2n=44). Chromosomal polymorphism was detected only in Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855), which exhibits an extra large submetacentric and and a dot-like chromosomes. Moreover, the C-banding revealed a general pericentromeric heterochromatic pattern and some additional blocks for some species. The heterochromatic blocks corresponding to AgNOR bearing regions were observed in all species and also corresponded to CMA3 positive blocks, which were observed in terminal regions. Besides the general conserved chromosomal and heterochromatin patterns for South American cichlids, the presence of GC-rich heterochromatin was quite different in the species Biotodoma cupido (Heckel, 1840), Geophagus proximus, Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau, 1855), Crenicichla strigata Günther, 1862 and Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840. The results suggest that independent events of heterochromatin modification occurred during chromosome evolution in the group, regardless of the conservation of macro-chromosomal structure. PMID:24260660

  8. Biomarkers of exposure and effect in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus (Teleostei: Paralichthyidae) from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Amado, Lílian Lund; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Geracitano, Laura; Monserrat, José M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2006-02-01

    Biomarkers of exposure (liver metallothionein-like proteins content and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities) and effect (liver lipoperoxidation and blood cell DNA damage) of contaminants were analyzed in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil). Flounders were collected for a year in two sites: "Coroa do Boi" (polluted site) and "Saco do Justino" (non-polluted site). Results indicated that micronucleated cells frequency was the best biomarker to distinguish flounders from the two sites. Taken together, data from DNA damage analyses (micronucleus test and comet assay) indicated that flounders from the non-polluted site efficiently repaired the DNA breaks, contrary to those from the polluted site, which probably had their DNA repair system inhibited or exhausted. Furthermore, data from enzyme activities (catalase and GST) and lipid peroxidation indicated that flounders from the polluted site were under oxidative stress in summer and autumn.

  9. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania.

  10. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa auratae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae), a parasite infecting the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (Teleostei: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Rangel, Luís; Castro, Ricardo; Severino, Ricardo; Azevedo, Carlos; Santos, Maria João

    2015-10-01

    A new myxosporean parasite is described from the gall bladder of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata in a Southern Portuguese fish farm, with basis on light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as in molecular procedures. In the bile, young and mature mono- to disporic plasmodia were elliptical and presented smooth surface membranes. Crescent-shaped myxospores measured 6.7±0.7 (5.3-7.6) μm in length and 27.0±3.0 (19.7-31.2) μm in thickness. The myxospore wall was constituted by two symmetrical valves united along a slightly curved suture line, each presenting a lateral projection with a rounded end. Two equal-sized subspherical polar capsules, measuring 3.6±0.2 (2.9-3.8) μm in length and 3.5±0.3 (2.9-3.8) μm in width, were located at the same level, each displaying a polar filament coiled in 5 turns. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene confirmed the parasite as a new member of the genus Ceratomyxa, making this the fourth report of Ceratomyxa from the gall bladder of S. aurata in the Iberian Peninsula. This reinforces the assumption that species richness of ceratomyxids in South European sparids is high, but the phylogenetic analysis performed disagrees with the existence of a common ancestor for Ceratomyxa species infecting sparid hosts, as well as their clustering according to geographical location. The main Ceratomyxa clade is not monophyletic due to the inclusion of Palliatus indecorus and Pseudoalatospora kovalevae; a situation that will probably be resolved by the taxonomic revision of these genera.

  11. A New Species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Abril; Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Llopis-Belenguer, Cristina; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A new monogenean species, Ligophorus yucatanensis n. sp. from the gills of the flathead mullet Mugil cephalus from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is described. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Ligophorus by the morphology of the accessory piece of the copulatory organ. Its main lobe is cylindrical, tunnelled expanded distally, slightly bowed with a characteristic membranous opening at level of medial bifurcation of the accessory piece, forming a thick-walled bulbshaped expansion that ends in a round labium. The secondary lobe is spatulate, straight, and shorter than the main lobe. In addition, the new species can be distinguished from other species by the morphology of the haptoral ventral bar, and the distal end of the vaginal duct. Furthermore the ventral anchors are shorter than those of all other species of Ligophorus reported in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. In addition, the zoogeographical records of Ligophorus spp. on the M. cephalus species complex are briefly reviewed and updated.

  12. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Jucá-Chagas, Ricardo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horácio

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range. PMID:27668281

  13. Temperature sex determination in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., 1758) (Teleostei, Perciformes, Moronidae): critical sensitive ontogenetic phase.

    PubMed

    Koumoundouros, George; Pavlidis, Michalis; Anezaki, Lina; Kokkari, Constantina; Sterioti, Aspasia; Divanach, Pascal; Kentouri, Maroudio

    2002-05-01

    The temperature sex determination (TSD) mechanism in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) was studied in respect to: a) the TSD sensitivity during the different developmental stages; and b) the intrapopulation correlation of sex determination with the growth rate up to the end of the TSD-sensitive period. At the stage of half-epiboly, eggs from the same batch were divided into four groups and subjected to different thermal treatments: a) 15 degrees C (G15 group) and b) 20 degrees C (G20 group) up to the middle of metamorphosis stage; c) 15 degrees C up to the end of yolk-sac larval stage and subsequently to 20 degrees C (G15-5 group); and d) 15 degrees C up to the end of the preflexion stage and then to 20 degrees C (G15-10 group). At the end of the treatments, size grading was applied and four additional populations were established from the upper (L) and lower (S) size portions of the G15 and G20 populations: G15L, G15S, G20L, and G20S. During the following growing phase, all populations were subjected to common rearing conditions. The sex ratios of each population were macroscopically determined at 190-210 mm mean total length. Female incidence was significantly affected (P < 0.05) by the different thermal treatments: 66.1% in the G15, 47.1% in the G15-10, 37.6% in the G15-5, and 18.1% in the G20 group. In addition, sex ratio was correlated with the growth rate of the fish up to the end of the TSD-sensitive period, with the larger fish presenting a significantly higher (P < 0.01) female incidence than the smaller fish in both thermal regimes tested: 73.1% in G15L vs. 57% in G15S, and 36.6% in G20L vs. 22.5% in G20S group. Results provide, for the first time, clear evidence that the sea bass is sensitive to TSD during all different ontogenetic stages up to metamorphosis, and that sex ratio is correlated with the growth rate of the fish well before the differentiation and maturation of the gonads.

  14. [Association of sardine fishery, Sardinella aurita (Teleostei: Clupeidae) and environmental variability of the coastal upwelling ecosystem of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gonzźlez, Leo W; Euán, Jorge; Eslava, Nora; Suniaga, Jesús

    2007-03-01

    The present research is an analysis of Spanish sardine fishing (Sardinella aurita) associated with some climatic and meteorologic parameters of the ecosystem from El Morro Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. The catch and environmental data from the area were taken in the period 1996-2000. Catch data as a function of wind speed, sea surface temperature, air temperature and rain were analyzed by means of simple lineal regression and multiple models. We found a positive correlation of catch with wind speed, and a negative correlation with sea surface temperature, air temperature, and rain. The multiple regression model with intercept had a poor fit, therefore, we made a model without intercept, which improve greatly the fit. A selection of the variables using the forward procedure verified that the independent variables "wind speed" and "air temperature" have a significant relation with catch (p < 0.001) at real time. This method suggests that sea surface temperature and rain have little influence on the catch, and suggests a major availability of resources in the months with low air temperature and the highest wind speed (January-June). Rev. PMID:18457137

  15. [Growth and natural mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae) in the Southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Edwis; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo

    2009-09-01

    We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the cují (Haemulon aurolineatum) in the southwest of Margarita Island, from July 2005 through June 2006. A sample of 1,378 males and 1,143 females collected from Boca del Río artisanal fishing vessels was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L(2.87). From the frequency data, a preliminary asymptotic length (L(infinity)) was estimated applying the routine of Powell and Wetherall, and the coefficient of growth (k) through ELEFAN I using program FISAT II (FAO-ICLARM). The modal progression analysis was used, previous decomposition of the frequency of lengths according to Bhattacharya, and it optimized the estimations of L(infinity) and k according to the procedure of Gulland and Holt. The curve of growth in length was fit to the model of von Bertalanffy, and described an exponential curve, where growth accelerated until the two years of age. The rate of natural mortality was high (M = 1.15 year(-1)), probably from high predation. PMID:19928464

  16. ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in the endangered fish Lignobrycon myersi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1956 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Triportheidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Medrado, Aline Souza; Diniz, Débora; Oliveira, Claudio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lignobrycon myersi is an endemic fish species from a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Based on molecular evidence, Lignobrycon myersi and genera Triportheus Cope, 1872, Agoniates Müller & Troschel, 1845, Clupeacharax Pearson, 1924 and Engraulisoma Castro, 1981 were placed in the family Triportheidae. In the present work, we report the first cytogenetic data for Lignobrycon myersi to test the hypothesis that Lignobrycon and Triportheus are closely related. Studied specimens presented 2n=52 with 28 metacentric (m), 18 submetacentric (sm) and six subtelocentric (st) chromosomes for males and 27 m, 19 sm and 6 st for females, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The Z chromosome corresponds to the largest chromosome in karyotype while the W is about 50% smaller than the Z and largely heterochromatic. Terminal nucleolus organizer regions, GC-rich sites and 18S rDNA signals were detected on pair 14. However, additional 18S rDNA sites were observed in the W chromosome. The 5S rDNA was mainly detected on long arms of pair 7. The apparent synapomorphic chromosomal traits of Triportheus and Lignobrycon myersi reinforce their close phylogenetic relationship, suggesting that the ZZ/ZW chromosome system in both genera has arisen before cladogenic events. PMID:27551346

  17. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Wood, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  18. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.

  19. Pluvial Drainage Patterns and Holocene Desiccation Influenced the Genetic Architecture of Relict Dace, Relictus solitarius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek D.; Evans, R. Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K.

    2015-01-01

    Changing drainage patterns have played a significant role in the evolution of western North American aquatic taxa. Relict dace, Relictus solitarius, is a Great Basin endemic cyprinid with a native range that is restricted to four valleys in eastern Nevada. Relictus solitarius now occupies spring systems that are the remnants of Pleistocene-era pluvial lakes, although it may have occurred in the area for much longer. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to assess range-wide genetic diversity of R. solitarius, and to estimate divergence times to determine whether pluvial drainages played an important role in shaping intraspecific genetic diversity. Genetic diversification within R. solitarius began during the early to mid-Pleistocene, separating populations within two sets of valleys (Butte/Ruby and Goshute/Steptoe). Additional diversification in each of the two sets of valleys occurred more recently, in the mid- to late-Pleistocene. Holocene desiccation has further isolated populations, and each population sampled contains unique mtDNA haplotypes. Pluvial drainage patterns did contribute to the genetic structure observed within R. solitarius, but most of the intraspecific diversification does not appear to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Holocene desiccation has also contributed to the observed genetic structure. The relict dace populations we sampled are all unique, and we recommend that future management efforts should strive to preserve as much of the genetic diversity as possible. PMID:26394395

  20. Oogenesis: From Oogonia to Ovulation in the Flagfish, Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean, 1879 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; García-Alarcón, Adriana; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-10-01

    We provide histological details of the development of oocytes in the cyprinodontid flagfish, Jordanella floridae. There are six stages of oogenesis: Oogonial proliferation, chromatin nucleolus, primary growth (previtellogenesis [PG]), secondary growth (vitellogenesis), oocyte maturation and ovulation. The ovarian lamellae are lined by a germinal epithelium composed of epithelial cells and scattered oogonia. During primary growth, the development of cortical alveoli and oil droplets, are initiated simultaneously. During secondary growth, yolk globules coalesce into a fluid mass. The full-grown oocyte contains a large globule of fluid yolk. The germinal vesicle is at the animal pole, and the cortical alveoli and oil droplets are located at the periphery. The disposition of oil droplets at the vegetal pole of the germinal vesicle during late secondary growth stage is a unique characteristic. The follicular cell layer is composed initially of a single layer of squamous cells during early PG which become columnar during early vitellogenesis. During primary and secondary growth stages, filaments develop among the follicular cells and also around the micropyle. The filaments are seen extending from the zona pellucida after ovulation. During ovulation, a space is evident between the oocyte and the zona pellucida. Asynchronous spawning activity is confirmed by the observation that, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain follicles in both primary and secondary growth stages; in contrast, when the seasonal activity of oogenesis and spawning ends, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain only follicles in the primary growth stage. J. Morphol. 277:1339-1354, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A New Species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Abril; Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Llopis-Belenguer, Cristina; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A new monogenean species, Ligophorus yucatanensis n. sp. from the gills of the flathead mullet Mugil cephalus from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is described. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Ligophorus by the morphology of the accessory piece of the copulatory organ. Its main lobe is cylindrical, tunnelled expanded distally, slightly bowed with a characteristic membranous opening at level of medial bifurcation of the accessory piece, forming a thick-walled bulbshaped expansion that ends in a round labium. The secondary lobe is spatulate, straight, and shorter than the main lobe. In addition, the new species can be distinguished from other species by the morphology of the haptoral ventral bar, and the distal end of the vaginal duct. Furthermore the ventral anchors are shorter than those of all other species of Ligophorus reported in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. In addition, the zoogeographical records of Ligophorus spp. on the M. cephalus species complex are briefly reviewed and updated. PMID:26408603

  2. A new species of Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911 (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) from deep-sea chemosynthetic environments in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M Eric; Somerville, Russell; Copley, Jonathan T

    2016-01-01

    The 28th species of the eelpout genus Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911, is described from specimens collected from an active hydrothermal vent field at a depth of about 2300 m at the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre of the Caribbean Sea. A tentatively identified early juvenile is recorded at a methane seep at a depth of 1049 m near Tobago. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by its few pectoral fin rays, low vertebral counts, single, mediolateral branch of the lateral line system and presence of scales on the nape and cheeks. PMID:27395531

  3. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D. Ross; Baldwin, Carole C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats. PMID:27408581

  4. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats.

  5. Reproductive histology of Tomeurus gracilis Eigenmann, 1909 (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Poeciliidae) with comments on evolution of viviparity in atherinomorph fishes.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Lynne R; LoNostro, Fabiana L; Grier, Harry J

    2010-11-01

    Tomeurus gracilis is a species long considered pivotal in understanding the evolution of livebearing in atherinomorph fishes. Tomeurus gracilis is a zygoparous or embryoparous poeciliid: internal fertilization is followed by females laying fertilized eggs singly or retaining fertilized eggs until or near hatching. Tomeurus was hypothesized as the sister group of the viviparous poeciliids until it was proposed as a close relative of a derived viviparous poeciliid, Cnesterodon, hence nested among viviparous taxa rather than near the root of the tree. Here, we describe and compare reproductive morphological characters of the little-known Tomeurus with those of representative atherinomorphs. In Tomeurus and Cnesterodon, sperm are packaged in naked sperm bundles, or spermatozeugmata, in a configuration considered here diagnostic of viviparous poeciliids. Testes are single and free sperm are stored in the ovary in both taxa in contrast to oviparous atherinomorphs in which testes are paired and sperm are not packaged and not stored in the ovary. Efferent ducts in Cnesterodon testes and other viviparous poeciliids have a PAS-positive secretion demonstrating presence of a glycoprotein that inactivates sperm or prevents final sperm maturation. No PAS-positive staining secretion was observed in Tomeurus or oviparous atherinomorphs. Tomeurus shares apomorphic reproductive characters, such as sperm bundle and testis morphology and a gonopodium, with viviparous poeciliids and plesiomorphic characters, such as a thick zona pellucida with filaments, with oviparous taxa. We do not postulate loss or reversal of viviparity in Tomeurus, and we corroborate its phylogenetic position as sister to the viviparous poeciliids. PMID:20862693

  6. Introduction and spread of non-native parasites with Silurus glanis L. (Teleostei: Siluridae) in UK fisheries.

    PubMed

    Reading, A J; Britton, J R; Davies, G D; Shinn, A P; Williams, C F

    2012-12-01

    Despite growing concern of the ecological risks posed by the European catfish Siluris glanis L. in freshwater fisheries, little information exists on the parasite fauna of this silurid catfish in Britain. Parasitological examinations of released S. glanis from four still-water fisheries in England revealed the presence of Thaparocleidus vistulensis (Siwak, 1932) and Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832), both non-native parasites, the latter known to be an important fish pathogen. This represents the first record of T. vistulensis from British freshwater fish. The human-assisted movement of S. glanis between UK recreational still-water fisheries provides a clear avenue for the introduction and spread of non-native parasites. PMID:22130112

  7. Light and transmission electron microscopy study of the peripheral olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae).

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Ciani, Franco; Franceschini, Valeria

    2007-09-01

    A study of the peripheral olfactory organ, with special attention to the olfactory epithelium, has been carried out in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Guppy is well known to have a vision-based sexual behavior. The olfactory chamber caudally opens directly in an accessory nasal sac, which is bent medially and gives rise to two recesses that can be considered secondary accessory nasal sacs, antero-medial and postero-medial, respectively. The sensory epithelium, which lines only the medial wall of the nasal cavity, is basically flat rising in a very low lamella only in the posterior part. The olfactory receptors are not evenly distributed in the olfactory mucosa, but aggregate in shallow folds separated by epithelial cells with evident microridges. Ciliated olfactory sensory neurons and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons are clearly identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scarce crypt olfactory neurons are found throughout the sensory folds. The nasal sacs indicates the capacity to regulate the flow of odorant molecules over the sensory epithelium, possibly through a pump-like mechanism associated with gill ventilation. The organization of the olfactory organ in guppy is simple and reminds what is found in early posthatching stages of fish which at the adult state have a well developed olfactory organ. This simple organization supports the idea that the guppy rely on olfaction less than other fish species provided with more extended olfactory receptorial surface.

  8. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines (Herichthys, Theraps, Vieja, and Paratheraps) and the genera Tomocichla, Herotilapia, and Thorichthys, together with three unnamed genera (the 'Heros' umbriferus group, the 'Heros' grammodes group, and the 'Heros' salvini group). Amphilophines are prevalent in southern Mesomerica south of the Motagua fault. Herichthyines have basal linages in Central America, whereas crown-group herichthyines and three related genera are found north from the Motagua fault. At least two independent origins are required to explain current Mesoamerican heroine distribution. Dispersal of heroines from South America into Mesoamerica was dated between 24 and 16 million years ago (MYA) based on geological calibrations and on standard fish mitochondrial cytochrome b rates, respectively. These datings cannot be reconciled with currently known geological evidence, and the existence of a connection between Central America and South America in the Miocene needs to be postulated in order to explain the origins of Mesoamerican heroine lineages. However, our datings agree with those estimated for the dispersal of other secondary freshwater fishes (Rivulidae, Synbranchus) into Mesoamerica, and predate the invasion of primary freshwater fishes by at least 10 myr.

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Voltolin, Diogo Teruo Hashimoto Tatiana Aparecida; Paes, Ana Danyelle Noitel Valim de Arruda; Foresti, Fausto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability. PMID:24260658

  10. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa. PMID:21943181

  11. †Kenyaichthyidae fam. nov. and †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. - First Record of a Fossil Aplocheiloid Killifish (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Altner, Melanie; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes) with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group), a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised.

  12. Glomerular disease associated with Polysporoplasma sparis (Myxozoa) infections in cultured gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L. (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, O; Alvarez-Pellitero, P; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A

    1999-03-01

    Polysporoplasma sparis infection was studied in gilthead sea bream from different mariculture systems of the Spanish coasts. Culture conditions influenced the infection dynamics, as the parasite appeared only in semi-intensive cultures and was not found in intensive closed systems nor in open ones. No clear seasonal pattern was observed. No fish weighing less than 51 g was found parasitized in any group. A statistically significant dependence between infection prevalence and host weight was observed in some growing stocks. Light and transmission electron microscope observations revealed serious damage in the trunk kidney. Glomerular disease was provoked by the progressive occupation of the glomerular capillaries by P. sparis spores. Tubular epithelial cells were also affected. Inflammatory responses appeared towards the end of the infection, and consisted mainly of melanomacrophages and eosinophils. Rodlet cells were common close to infected capillaries and debris of rodlet sacs formed a belt encircling capillary vessels. Cytochemistry demonstrated the lipidic nature of these sacs and the glycogen and glycoprotein composition of the cytoplasmic granules of rodlet cells.

  13. Concerted Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondria of Species of the Flatfish Family Bothidae (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-He; Shi, Wei; Munroe, Thomas A; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mitogenomes of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit the greatest diversity of gene rear-rangements in teleostean fishes. Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been found in the mito-genomes of two flatfishes, Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Laeops lanceolata (Bothidae), which is rare in teleosts. It has been reported that duplicate CRs have evolved in a concerted fashion in fishes and other animals, however, whether concerted evo-lution exists in flatfishes remains unknown. In this study, based on five newly sequenced and six previously reported mitogenomes of lefteye flounders in the Bothidae, we explored whether duplicate CRs and concerted evolution exist in these species. Results based on the present study and previous reports show that four out of eleven bothid species examined have duplicate CRs of their mitogenomes. The core regions of the duplicate CRs of mitogenomes in the same species have identical, or nearly identical, sequences when compared to each other. This pattern fits the typical characteristics of concerted evolution. Additionally, phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis also provided evidence to support the hypothesis that duplicate CRs evolved concertedly. The core region of concerted evolution is situated at the conserved domains of the CR of the mitogenome from the termination associated sequences (TASs) to the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Commonly, this region is con-sidered to regulate mitochondrial replication and transcription. Thus, we hypothesize that the cause of concerted evolution of the duplicate CRs in the mtDNAs of these four bothids may be related to some function of the conserved sequences of the CRs during mitochondrial rep-lication and transcription. We hope our results will provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms related to replication and evolution of mitogenomes.

  14. Allozyme relationships in hypostomines (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Itaipu Reservoir, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Renesto, Erasmo; dos Reis, Roberto Esser; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Mateus, Rogério Pincela

    2005-03-01

    In an allozyme electrophoresis survey of 15 hypostomine species from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, 25 loci from 14 enzyme systems were scored. Allozyme data allowed recording diagnostic genetic markers for all species analyzed and for some species groups within Hypostomus, a taxon which is taxonomically still unresolved in the Upper Rio Paraná basin. The mean expected heterozygosity of the species was considerably variable and hypotheses to tentatively explain this variation are discussed. A cladogram based upon the allelic frequencies of the species analyzed was produced by the continuous maximum likelihood method: Rhinelepis aspera and M. parananus were separated from the species of Hypostominae by a long branch length. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was the sister of all the representatives of the genus Hypostomus. Within Hypostomus, two main clades were produced: in the first, H. cochliodon was the sister of the species comprising the H. plecostomus group, and in the second, the tree showed the following relationships: (H. albopunctatus (H. regani + Hypostomus sp. 3) + (H. margaritifer (H. microstomus (Hypostomus sp. 1 (H. ternetzi + Hypostomus sp. 2)). Hypostomus ternetzi and Hypostomus sp. 2 are referred to here as representatives of the H. ternetzi group.

  15. [Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, a new species of golden-line fish from the Red River drainage in Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Fu; Li, Lie; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, a new species of the genus Sinocyclocheilus Fang 1936, Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, was described from the Ganhaizi tributary of Chouyang River, Red River drainage, located in southeast Yunnan, China. This species has normal eyes and a strong dorsal spine with serrations on the lower 3/5 part. In general, this species is similar in morphology to S. macrophthalmus, S. guishanensis, S. angustiporus, S. lateristritus, S. qiubeiensis, S. grahami, S. qujingensis, S. maculatus and S. purpureus distributed in the Nanpanjiang River, and S. qiubeiensis distributed in the Red River. It is distinguished from S. macrophthalmus by possessing fewer than 9 gill rakers. However, S. xichouensis can be distinguished from S. guishanensis by its interorbital width/SL of 8.1~9.9%, rostral barbels extended to posterior margin of eye and maxillary barbels extended to posterior preopercular. It is distinct from S. lateristritus by dorsal-fin origin opposite of pelvic fin origin, with no a black stripe along the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. grahami by 74~88 lateral-line scales, 20 scale rows above the lateral line, and 16 scale rows below the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. qujingensis by a curved lateral line, 74-88 lateral-line scales, 48 circumpeduncular scales. It can be distinguished from S. yimenensis by the ratio of predorsal length, dorsal-fin base length, preanal length, anal fin length, prepectoral length, caudal-peduncle length and lower jaw length to SL, 47.1%-53.7%, 12.8%-15.8%, 66.0%-71.0%, 13.7%-17.1%, 26.0%-29.5%, 19.3%-24.7%, 4.7%-7.0%, respectively. It is distinguished from S. maculatus and S. purpureus by possession of lateral line and scaled body and distinguished from S. angustiporus and S. qiubeiensis by 35~39 predorsal scales, 6 gill rakers, and interorbital width/SL of 8.1%-9.9%. PMID:23913886

  16. Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects of oceanography do not necessarily suppress its influence on effective dispersal. PMID:19040766

  17. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-10-02

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  18. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2015-10-01

    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and dangerous desiccation.

  19. Interrelationships of the subgenera of Coryphaenoides (Teleostei: Gadiformes: Macrouridae): synthesis of allozyme, peptide mapping, and DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Raymond R; Attia, Phoebe

    2003-05-01

    DNA sequences of the 12s rRNA mitochondrial gene from 12 species key to the question of the monophyly of the deep-sea fish genus Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) were analyzed phylogenetically using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood. The results were compared with those of three previous studies in which allozyme, peptide mapping, and DNA sequence data were similarly analyzed. The allozyme and DNA sequence data suggested that the largest subgenus (Coryphaenoides), which contained most of the species inhabiting continental slopes between approximately 600 and 2000m depth, is monophyletic. Two of the three subgenera containing the species inhabiting abyssal ocean basins below approximately 2000m together formed a sister group to subgenus Coryphaenoides. The macrourids of the abyssal basins and those of the continental slopes thus appear to have experienced separate radiations from a common ancestor. PMID:12695096

  20. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  1. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  2. ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in the endangered fish Lignobrycon myersi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1956 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Triportheidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Alexandre Dos Santos; Medrado, Aline Souza; Diniz, Débora; Oliveira, Claudio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is an endemic fish species from a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Based on molecular evidence, Lignobrycon myersi and genera Triportheus Cope, 1872, Agoniates Müller & Troschel, 1845, Clupeacharax Pearson, 1924 and Engraulisoma Castro, 1981 were placed in the family Triportheidae. In the present work, we report the first cytogenetic data for Lignobrycon myersi to test the hypothesis that Lignobrycon and Triportheus are closely related. Studied specimens presented 2n=52 with 28 metacentric (m), 18 submetacentric (sm) and six subtelocentric (st) chromosomes for males and 27 m, 19 sm and 6 st for females, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The Z chromosome corresponds to the largest chromosome in karyotype while the W is about 50% smaller than the Z and largely heterochromatic. Terminal nucleolus organizer regions, GC-rich sites and 18S rDNA signals were detected on pair 14. However, additional 18S rDNA sites were observed in the W chromosome. The 5S rDNA was mainly detected on long arms of pair 7. The apparent synapomorphic chromosomal traits of Triportheus and Lignobrycon myersi reinforce their close phylogenetic relationship, suggesting that the ZZ/ZW chromosome system in both genera has arisen before cladogenic events. PMID:27551346

  3. Crenicichla gillmorlisi, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná river drainage in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; De Lucena, Carlos A Santos

    2013-01-01

    Crenicichla gillmorlisi, new species, is described from the río Acaray, a right bank tributary to the río Paraná. It is most similar to C. mandelburgeri in proportional measurements and meristics, but differs in colour pattern, adults having the body covered with small spots.

  4. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy.

    PubMed

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-04-01

    Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  5. †Kenyaichthyidae fam. nov. and †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. - First Record of a Fossil Aplocheiloid Killifish (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Altner, Melanie; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes) with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group), a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised. PMID:25923654

  6. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  7. Mapping of the Retrotransposable Elements Rex1 and Rex3 in Chromosomes of Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Sternopygidae).

    PubMed

    de Sene, Viviani F; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Ferreira, Daniela C; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements constitute a remarkable fraction of the eukaryote genome and show particular capacity to move and insert in specific regions of the genome. This study identified the retrotransposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 in the genomes of 6 cytotypes of Eigenmannia. The sequences were isolated by PCR, sequenced and physically mapped in the chromosomes of these cytotypes, aiming to investigate the organization and distribution of these elements in this fish group, mainly in the sex chromosomes. The FISH physical mapping revealed that both Rex1 and Rex3 elements are dispersed in small clusters throughout the chromosomes of all cytotypes analyzed. However, conspicuous blocks occur in several samples, including an accentuated accumulation of the Rex3 element in X(1) and X(2) chromosomes of Eigenmannia sp. 2 and in the X chromosome of E. virescens. The accumulations are coincident with heterochromatin-rich regions, suggesting that Rex3 played a role in the differentiation process of the sex chromosomes. PMID:26559509

  8. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  9. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats. PMID:27408581

  10. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile. PMID:27491056

  11. Oogenesis: From Oogonia to Ovulation in the Flagfish, Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean, 1879 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; García-Alarcón, Adriana; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-10-01

    We provide histological details of the development of oocytes in the cyprinodontid flagfish, Jordanella floridae. There are six stages of oogenesis: Oogonial proliferation, chromatin nucleolus, primary growth (previtellogenesis [PG]), secondary growth (vitellogenesis), oocyte maturation and ovulation. The ovarian lamellae are lined by a germinal epithelium composed of epithelial cells and scattered oogonia. During primary growth, the development of cortical alveoli and oil droplets, are initiated simultaneously. During secondary growth, yolk globules coalesce into a fluid mass. The full-grown oocyte contains a large globule of fluid yolk. The germinal vesicle is at the animal pole, and the cortical alveoli and oil droplets are located at the periphery. The disposition of oil droplets at the vegetal pole of the germinal vesicle during late secondary growth stage is a unique characteristic. The follicular cell layer is composed initially of a single layer of squamous cells during early PG which become columnar during early vitellogenesis. During primary and secondary growth stages, filaments develop among the follicular cells and also around the micropyle. The filaments are seen extending from the zona pellucida after ovulation. During ovulation, a space is evident between the oocyte and the zona pellucida. Asynchronous spawning activity is confirmed by the observation that, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain follicles in both primary and secondary growth stages; in contrast, when the seasonal activity of oogenesis and spawning ends, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain only follicles in the primary growth stage. J. Morphol. 277:1339-1354, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418385

  12. The Inner Ear and its Coupling to the Swim Bladder in the Deep-Sea Fish Antimora rostrata (Teleostei: Moridae)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaohong; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Popper, Arthur N.

    2011-01-01

    The inner ear structure of Antimora rostrata and its coupling to the swim bladder were analyzed and compared with the inner ears of several shallow-water species that also have similar coupling. The inner ear of Antimora has a long saccular otolith and sensory epithelium as compared to many other fishes. Some parts of the membranous labyrinth are thick and rigid, while other parts are thinner but attached tightly to the bony capsule. The partially rigid membranous labyrinth, along with its intimate connection to the swim bladder, may help the inner ear follow the sound oscillations from the swim bladder with better precision than would occur in a less rigid inner ear. In addition, the saccular sensory epithelium has an elaborate structure and an anterior enlargement that may be correlated with increased hearing sensitivity. Some of the features in the inner ear of Antimora may reflect the functional specialization of deep-water living and support the hypothesis that there is enhanced inner ear sensitivity in some deep-sea fishes. PMID:21532967

  13. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior.

  14. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch.

  15. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories. PMID:22537107

  17. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100 million year time span without fossil evidence. This formidable ghost range partially reflects a genuine difference between the estimated ages of stem group origin (molecular divergence time) and crown group morphological diversification (fossil divergence time); the ghost range, however, would be filled with discoveries of older fossils that can be used as more reasonable time constraints as well as with developments of more realistic models that capture the rates of molecular sequences accurately. PMID:21693066

  18. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes): Genomic Organization and Diversification of ZW Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Scacchetti, Priscilla C; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Vicari, Marcelo R; Artoni, Roberto F; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    The speciose neotropical genus Characidium has proven to be a good model for cytogenetic exploration. Representatives of this genus often have a conserved diploid chromosome number; some species exhibit a highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system, while others do not show any sex-related chromosome heteromorphism. In this study, chromosome painting using a W-specific probe and comparative chromosome mapping of repetitive sequences, including ribosomal clusters and 4 microsatellite motifs - (CA)15, (GA)15, (CG)15, and (TTA)10 -, were performed in 6 Characidium species, 5 of which possessed a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome system. The W-specific probe showed hybridization signals on the W chromosome of all analyzed species, indicating homology among the W chromosomes. Remarkably, a single major rDNA-bearing chromosome pair was found in all species. The 18S rDNA localized to the sex chromosomes in C. lanei, C. timbuiense and C. pterostictum, while the major rDNA localized to one autosome pair in C. vidali and C. gomesi. In contrast, the number of 5S rDNA-bearing chromosomes varied. Notably, minor ribosomal clusters were identified in the W chromosome of C. vidali. Microsatellites were widely distributed across almost all chromosomes of the karyotypes, with a greater accumulation in the subtelomeric regions. However, clear differences in the abundance of each motif were detected in each species. In addition, the Z and W chromosomes showed the differential accumulation of distinct motifs. Our results revealed variability in the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their possible association with sex chromosome diversification in Characidium species. PMID:26277929

  19. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica.

  20. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  1. Sperm ultrastructure of the digenean Aphallus tubarium (Rudolphi, 1819) Poche, 1926 (Platyhelminthes, Cryptogonimidae) intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of a cryptogonimid digenean, Aphallus tubarium, a parasite of Dentex dentex, is described. The spermatozoon possesses the elements found in other digeneans: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation and spine-like bodies. However, the mitochondrion appears as a cord with a bulge; this characteristic has never been described in other studied cryptogonimid and in other digeneans except in one lepocreadiid, Holorchis micracanthum. Likewise, the presence of a thin cytoplasm termination in the anterior part of the spermatozoon has never been pointed out in the cryptogonimids.

  2. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, S.W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  3. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania. PMID:23398527

  4. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  5. Schistura sexnubes, a new diminutive river loach from the upper Mekong basin, Yunnan Province, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An ichthyofaunistic survey of Mekong tributaries in Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China yielded a new species of nemacheilid loach, herein described as Schistura sexnubes species nova. The new species is readily distinguishable from its congeners by the following combination of characters: 8+8 branched caudal fin rays, an incomplete lateral line, a dissociated caudal bar, a shallow caudal peduncle depth (7.6%−9.6% SL; respectively caudal peduncle 1.76−1.95 times longer than deep), a diminutive size of less than 50 mm SL, and no sexual dimorphism. A dorsocephalic pattern consisting of a black, forward directed V-shaped formation located between the nares, and a white, ovoid blotch on the upper operculum serves as an autapomorphy. PMID:24470455

  6. Capillostrongyloides morae sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from deep-sea fish (Teleostei, Moridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Carrassón, Maite; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

    2014-02-01

    A new capillariid nematode, Capillostrongyloides morae sp. n., is described from specimens collected from the stomach and intestine of the common mora, Mora moro (Risso), and the Mediterranean codling, Lepidion lepidion (Risso) (both Gadiformes, Moridae), off the Mediterranean coasts of Spain. The new species shows similar morphological features as other congeneric species occurring in freshwater and marine fishes, but it differs in the length of the body and spicules, the size of the caudal bursa, and the presence of an elevated anterior vulvar lip. Capillostrongyloides morae sp. n. is the second species within the genus for which the presence of a stylet is reported, and the first one in which this structure along with the distribution of cephalic papillae and oral structures (e.g. lips and lobes) are clearly shown by using scanning electron microscopy.

  7. A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rangel, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus, endemic to Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, is described. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. differs from its congeners in color pattern and anal-ray counts. A recent study shows a close relationship between H. brasil sp. n. and H. fissicornis. This new species is recorded from 3 to 15 m depth, solitary or in small groups (up to 10 individuals), always in small holes or associated with sea-urchins and sponges on the rocky reefs. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. is the eleventh recognized species of Hypleurochilus and the third species of this genus reported from the Brazilian Province. PMID:26240899

  8. Psilorhynchus tysoni, a new species of torrent minnow from the Salween River drainage, western Thailand (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Conway, Kevin W; Pinion, Amanda K

    2016-01-01

    Psilorhynchus tysoni, new species, is described on the basis of 10 specimens, 23.3-53.8 mm SL from the Mae Nam Moei and Hue Mae Song Rivers, in the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. It belongs to the P. nudithoracicus species group and can be distinguished from other members of this group by a combination of characters, including features of body and fin coloration, head shape, and caudal fin-ray, vertebrae, and cephalic lateral-line canal pore counts. Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial DNA data set (comprising 642 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 1140 bp of cytochrome b) for 12 species of Psilorhynchus and one outgroup taxon resulted in phylogenetic hypotheses in which P. tysoni is a member of a clade equivalent to the P. nudithoracicus species group. Within this group P. tysoni is placed as the sister taxon of a putatively undescribed species of Psilorhynchus from Myanmar. PMID:27395735

  9. Capoeta anamisensis, a new species from the Minab and Hasan Langhi River drainages in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Zareian, Halimeh; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta anamisensis, from the Minab and Hasal Langhi River drainages in southern Iran, belongs to the C. trutta species group. Capoeta anamisensis is distinguished from other species of the C. trutta species group by the combination of the following characters: flank silvery without black spots; 56-67 scales in total along the lateral series; 11-12 scales above the lateral line and 21-25 gill rakers. Capoeta anamisensis is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin by having four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region and five fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA cyt b region. The type of Capoeta barroisi persica is identified as an aberrant individual of C. trutta and is considered as a synonym of that species. PMID:27394223

  10. A new species of Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the western Pacific, with comments on the P. triphanos species complex.

    PubMed

    Harold, Antony S; Kemp, Iris M; Shore, Sarah K

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the teleostean family Sternoptychidae, Polyipnus notatus n. sp., is described based on material collected mainly off Taiwan in the South China Sea. The new species is most similar to P. triphanos, based on the presence of a single posttemporal spine, lack of scale spination, and the second and third ACA (=supra-anal) photophores elevated relative to the first and connected to each other in a common organ. These characters typify other members of the P. asteroides species group that occur in various tropical to temperate ocean basins. Based on a limited sample of 27 specimens, P. notatus (maximum observed size 30.7 mm SL) appears to be smaller than most other congeners. It is also characterized by an unusual lateral pigment bar, which is narrow and distinctly triangular. Based on the material examined, the geographical distribution of the species appears to be restricted to the South China Sea and adjacent minor ocean basins. PMID:27395102

  11. An evaluation of fossil tip-dating versus node-age calibrations in tetraodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Arcila, Dahiana; Alexander Pyron, R; Tyler, James C; Ortí, Guillermo; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Time-calibrated phylogenies based on molecular data provide a framework for comparative studies. Calibration methods to combine fossil information with molecular phylogenies are, however, under active development, often generating disagreement about the best way to incorporate paleontological data into these analyses. This study provides an empirical comparison of the most widely used approach based on node-dating priors for relaxed clocks implemented in the programs BEAST and MrBayes, with two recently proposed improvements: one using a new fossilized birth-death process model for node dating (implemented in the program DPPDiv), and the other using a total-evidence or tip-dating method (implemented in MrBayes and BEAST). These methods are applied herein to tetraodontiform fishes, a diverse group of living and extinct taxa that features one of the most extensive fossil records among teleosts. Previous estimates of time-calibrated phylogenies of tetraodontiforms using node-dating methods reported disparate estimates for their age of origin, ranging from the late Jurassic to the early Paleocene (ca. 150-59Ma). We analyzed a comprehensive dataset with 16 loci and 210 morphological characters, including 131 taxa (95 extant and 36 fossil species) representing all families of fossil and extant tetraodontiforms, under different molecular clock calibration approaches. Results from node-dating methods produced consistently younger ages than the tip-dating approaches. The older ages inferred by tip dating imply an unlikely early-late Jurassic (ca. 185-119Ma) origin for this order and the existence of extended ghost lineages in their fossil record. Node-based methods, by contrast, produce time estimates that are more consistent with the stratigraphic record, suggesting a late Cretaceous (ca. 86-96Ma) origin. We show that the precision of clade age estimates using tip dating increases with the number of fossils analyzed and with the proximity of fossil taxa to the node under assessment. This study suggests that current implementations of tip dating may overestimate ages of divergence in calibrated phylogenies. It also provides a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for tetraodontiform systematics and future comparative studies. PMID:25462998

  12. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

  13. Comparative phylogeography of sympatric sister species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.

    PubMed

    Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C

    2002-06-01

    It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric sister species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric sister taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric sister species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this sister-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species. PMID:12030983

  14. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-01-01

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae.  PMID:25283928

  15. Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. PMID:19152117

  16. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  17. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  18. Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the regulation of growth hormone in Cichlasoma dimerus (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pérez Sirkin, D I; Cánepa, M M; Fossati, M; Fernandino, J I; Delgadin, T; Canosa, L F; Somoza, G M; Vissio, P G

    2012-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the main pituitary hormone involved in somatic growth. In fish, the neuroendocrine control of GH is multifactorial due to the interaction of multiple inhibitors and stimulators. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide involved in skin color regulation of fish. In addition, MCH has been related to the regulation of food intake in both mammals and fish. There is only one report presenting evidences on the GH release stimulation by MCH in mammals in experiments in vitro, but there are no data on non-mammals. In the present work, we report for the first time the sequence of MCH and GH cDNA in Cichlasoma dimerus, a freshwater South American cichlid fish. We detected contacts between MCH fibers and GH cells in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland by double label confocal immunofluorescence indicating a possible functional relationship. Besides, we found that MCH increased GH transcript levels and stimulated GH release in pituitary cultures. Additionally, C. dimerus exposed to a white background had a greater number of MCH neurons with a larger nuclear area and higher levels of MCH transcript than those fish exposed to a black background. Furthermore, fish reared for 3 months in a white background showed a greater body weight and total length compared to those from black background suggesting that MCH might be related to somatic growth in C. dimerus. Our results report for the first time, that MCH is involved in the regulation of the synthesis and release of GH in vitro in C. dimerus, and probably in the fish growth rate.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt

    2014-11-01

    The Gonorynchiformes are the sister lineage of the species-rich Otophysi and provide important insights into the diversification of ostariophysan fishes. Phylogenies of gonorynchiforms inferred using morphological characters and mtDNA gene sequences provide differing resolutions with regard to the sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms (Chanos vs. Gonorynchus) and support for monophyly of the two miniaturized lineages Cromeria and Grasseichthys. In this study the phylogeny and divergence times of gonorynchiforms are investigated with DNA sequences sampled from nine nuclear genes and a published morphological character matrix. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal substantial congruence among individual gene trees with inferences from eight genes placing Gonorynchus as the sister lineage to all other gonorynchiforms. Seven gene trees resolve Cromeria and Grasseichthys as a clade, supporting previous inferences using morphological characters. Phylogenies resulting from either concatenating the nuclear genes, performing a multispecies coalescent species tree analysis, or combining the morphological and nuclear gene DNA sequences resolve Gonorynchus as the living sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms, strongly support the monophyly of Cromeria and Grasseichthys, and resolve a clade containing Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys. The morphological dataset, which includes 13 gonorynchiform fossil taxa that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene, was analyzed in combination with DNA sequences from the nine nuclear genes and a relaxed molecular clock to estimate times of evolutionary divergence. This "tip dating" strategy accommodates uncertainty in the phylogenetic resolution of fossil taxa that provide calibration information in the relaxed molecular clock analysis. The estimated age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of living gonorynchiforms is slightly older than estimates from previous node dating efforts, but the molecular tip dating estimated ages of Kneriinae (Kneria, Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys) and the two paedomorphic lineages, Cromeria and Grasseichthys, are considerably younger.

  20. Molecular cloning of cone opsin genes and their expression in the retina of a smelt, Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Isamu

    2005-02-01

    Five cone opsin genes of landlocked ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) were cloned, and the expression patterns of these genes were investigated. AYU-LWS, -RH2-1, -RH2-2, -SWS1-1, and -SWS1-2 were isolated and had high (more than 75%) identity with red, green, green, UV, and UV-sensitive opsin, respectively, genes of other fish reported previously. The results of Southern blotting experiments showed that each gene is present as a single copy. Gene expression was measured by RT-PCR using four populations collected from rivers and a lake in spring and summer. The results of the RT-PCR experiment showed that AYU-SWS1-2 was highly expressed, whereas AYU-SWS1-1 was scarce. Two RH2 opsins were expressed simultaneously in the same individual, and the expression ratio between these opsins changed among populations. In situ hybridization revealed that AYU-LWS and -RH2-1 were expressed in the double cones and that AYU-RH2-2 and -SWS1-2 were expressed in the long and short single cones (LSC and SSC), respectively. It was shown that an individual ayu expresses two RH2 opsins simultaneously in different types of cone cells.

  1. Three cone opsin genes determine the properties of the visual spectra in the Japanese anchovy, Engraulis japonicus (Engraulidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, Sergei L; Miyazaki, Taeko; Lamash, Nina E; Tsuchiya, Tohru

    2013-03-15

    A complement of cone visual pigments was identified in the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, one of the engraulid fish species that has a retina specialized for polarization and color vision. The nature of the chromophore bound to opsin proteins was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. The opsin genes were then cloned and sequenced, and the absorption spectra of different types of cones were obtained by microspectrophotometry. Two green (EJ-RH2-1, EJ-RH2-2) and one red (EJ-LWS) cone opsin genes were identified and are presumably related to the vitamin A1-based visual pigments (i.e. rhodopsins) with λmax values of 492, 474 and 512 nm, respectively. The long and short cones from the ventro-temporal retinal zone consisted of a pure population of RH2 class gene-based pigments (λmax=492 nm). The long and short cones from other retinal areas and the lateral components of the triple cones possessed a mixture of RH2 and LWS class gene-based pigments that exhibited a λmax of ~502 nm. The central component of the triple cones contained only RH2 class gene-based pigments (λmax=474 nm). Thus, E. japonicus possesses a middle-wave range of spectral sensitivity and acquires different color vision systems in distinct visual fields.

  2. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group. PMID:18817455

  3. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch. PMID:26249379

  4. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), from the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Nabais, Catarina; Rampin, Massimiliano; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs)) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe) protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species. PMID:24260688

  5. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested.

  6. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the effect of climate change. Based on the faunal comparisons, predictions can be made in relation to the structure and diversity of the parasite communities in the North East Atlantic regions studied. PMID:18638387

  7. Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farm, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

  8. Species-level phylogeny of 'Satan's perches' based on discordant gene trees (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Satanoperca Günther 1862).

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; López-Fernández, Hernán; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Ortí, Guillermo

    2012-06-01

    Neotropical rivers are home to the largest assemblage of freshwater fishes, but little is known about the phylogeny of these fishes at the species level using multi-locus molecular markers. Here, we present a phylogeny for all known species of the genus Satanoperca, a widespread group of Neotropical cichlid fishes, based on analysis of six unlinked genetic loci. To test nominal and proposed species limits for this group, we surveyed mtDNA sequence variation among 320 individuals representing all know species. Most nominal species were supported by this approach but we determined that populations in the Xingu, Tapajós, and Araguaia+Paraná Rivers are likely undescribed species, while S. jurupari and S. mapiritensis did not show clear genetic distinction. To infer a phylogeny of these putative species, we conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian non-clock and relaxed clock analyses of concatenated data from three genes (one mitochondrial, two nuclear). We also used a multi-species coalescent model to estimate a species tree from six unlinked loci (one mitochondrial, five nuclear). The topologies obtained were congruent with other results, but showed only minimal to moderate support for some nodes, suggesting that more loci will be needed to satisfactorily estimate the distribution of coalescent histories within Satanoperca. We determined that this variation results from topological discordance among separate gene trees, likely due to differential sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. PMID:22406409

  9. Description of three new species of Moenkhausia (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) with the definition of the Moenkhausia jamesi species complex.

    PubMed

    Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-01-01

    From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla. PMID:26250196

  10. Morphological evidence for a permeability barrier in the testis and spermatic duct of Gymnotus carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae).

    PubMed

    Meneguelli De Souza, Lara C; Retamal, Claudio A; Rocha, Gustavo M; Lopez, Maria Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Cell-cell interactions play essential roles in the regulation of gametogenesis. The involvement of junctional complexes in permeability barriers, for example, provides structural and physiological support for male germ-cell development. This study describes morphological characteristics of the reproductive system of Gymnotus carapo, a neo-tropical freshwater fish widely distributed in South and Central America, focusing on the detection of permeability barriers using morphological and biochemical approaches. Ultrastructural analysis of testes treated with the lanthanum nitrate exclusion technique showed that the tracer penetrated the interstitial compartment of the testis, surrounding and appearing within cysts containing spermatogonia and spermatocytes in early stages of meiosis, but was not detected in the spermatid cysts or inside the lumen of spermatogenic tubules. These results suggest the presence of a permeability barrier that is stabilized after meiosis is completed and serves to protect the haploid cells from the vascular system. In the spermatic-duct region, the tracer was obstructed near the lumen of the duct. Junctional complexes and focal tight junctions between adjacent cells were observed in the testis and spermatic duct. Freeze-fracture methods indeed confirmed the presence of tight junctions, which were visualized as parallel rows of individual particles between adjacent cells. More evidence supporting the existence of a permeability barrier was gathered from differences observed in the electrophoretic protein profiles of testis and spermatic-duct fluids compared to blood plasma. Together, these observations demonstrate the existence of a permeability barrier formed by tight junctions in the testis and spermatic duct of G. carapo. PMID:26073744

  11. Cryptomyrus: a new genus of Mormyridae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) with two new species from Gabon, West-Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John P.; Lavoué, Sébastien; Hopkins, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to show that three weakly electric mormyrid fish specimens collected at three widely separated localities in Gabon, Africa over a 13-year period represent an unrecognized lineage within the subfamily Mormyrinae and determine its phylogenetic position with respect to other taxa. We describe these three specimens as a new genus containing two new species. Cryptomyrus, new genus, is readily distinguished from all other mormyrid genera by a combination of features of squamation, morphometrics, and dental attributes. Cryptomyrus ogoouensis, new species, is differentiated from its single congener, Cryptomyrus ona, new species, by the possession of an anal-fin origin located well in advance of the dorsal fin, a narrow caudal peduncle and caudal-fin lobes nearly as long as the peduncle. In Cryptomyrus ona, the anal-fin origin is located only slightly in advance of the dorsal fin, the caudal peduncle is deep and the caudal-fin lobes considerably shorter than the peduncle. Continued discovery of new taxa within the “Lower Guinea Clade” of Mormyridae highlights the incompleteness of our knowledge of fish diversity in West-Central Africa. We present a revised key to the mormyrid genera of Lower Guinea. PMID:27006619

  12. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  13. The involvement of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids in the ovulatory dysfunction of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii (Teleostei: Characidae) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Melo, Renato Garcia; Narcizo, Amanda de Moraes; Amaral, Juliane Suzuki; Araújo, Ronaldo de Carvalho; Hilsdorf, Alexandre Wagner Silva

    2015-12-01

    Potamodromous teleosts that require migration to reproduce show dysfunctions that block ovulation and spawning while in captivity. To understand the physiological basis of these reproductive dysfunctions, follicle-stimulating hormone b subunit (fshb) and luteinizing hormone b subunit (lhb) gene expression analyses by real-time quantitative PCR, together with measurements of estradiol (E 2), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-DHP) levels, were carried out throughout the reproductive cycle of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii. The following reproductive stages were evaluated in captive and wild females: previtellogenic (PV), advanced maturation/mature (AM) and regression/spent (REG/SPENT). In the wild females, fshb expression decreased from the PV to the AM stage, and the opposite pattern was detected for E 2, which increased from the PV to the AM stage. fshb was expressed at lower levels in captive than in wild females, and this difference did not change during the reproductive cycle. lhb expression also increased from the PV to the AM stage in both groups, but the wild females at the AM and REG/SPENT stages showed higher lhb expression levels than the captive females. The concentrations of 17α-OHP did not change during the reproductive cycle, and the levels were higher in the captive than in the wild females at all reproductive stages. 17α,20β-DHP levels did not change between wild and captive females. However, in captive females, the transition from PV to AM stage was followed by an increase in 17α,20β-DHP levels. These data indicate that dysfunctions in the gonadotropins and steroids synthesis pathways cause the ovulation failure in captive S. hilarii.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Percomorpha resolves Trichonotus as the sister lineage to Gobioidei (Teleostei: Gobiiformes) and confirms the polyphyly of Trachinoidei.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Christine E; Satoh, Takashi P; Katayama, Eri; Harrington, Richard C; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    The percomorph fish clade Gobiiformes is a worldwide, tropical and temperate radiation with species occupying nearly all aquatic, and some semi-terrestrial, habitats. Early molecular phylogenetic studies led to the discovery of Gobiiformes, which contains Gobioidei, the gobies and sleepers, and a clade (Apogonoidei) consisting of Apogonidae and Kurtus, the cardinalfishes and nurseryfishes. Gobioidei is consistently resolved as monophyletic in molecular studies, and includes eight families whose members range from waterfall climbing stream gobies to several prominent lineages inhabiting coral reefs. The sister taxon to Gobioidei is also reliably resolved as Apogonoidei. Despite the consistent support for gobiiform monophyly in molecular studies, it is not known if percomorph lineages unsampled in molecular phylogenetic studies are closely related to Gobioidei or Apogonoidei. Here we assemble a large dataset of DNA sequence from ten protein-coding genes, sampling widely across Acanthomorpha and Percomorpha, including Gobioidei, Apogonidae, and Kurtus, along with representatives of all twelve families comprising the former Trachinoidei. The phylogenies inferred from the nuclear gene sequences show that Trachinoidei is polyphyletic, with constituent lineages spread widely among several major percomorph clades. Most notably, the sanddivers (Trichonotus) are resolved as the sister lineage of Gobioidei. This study clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of lineages previously classified in Trachinoidei, identifies Trichonotus as the sister lineage of gobies, provides a molecular phylogeny of the major lineages of Gobioidei, and offers suggested changes to percomorph classification. PMID:26265255

  15. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Jucá-Chagas, Ricardo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horácio

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range.

  16. A new species of Polyipnus (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the western Pacific, with comments on the P. triphanos species complex.

    PubMed

    Harold, Antony S; Kemp, Iris M; Shore, Sarah K

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the teleostean family Sternoptychidae, Polyipnus notatus n. sp., is described based on material collected mainly off Taiwan in the South China Sea. The new species is most similar to P. triphanos, based on the presence of a single posttemporal spine, lack of scale spination, and the second and third ACA (=supra-anal) photophores elevated relative to the first and connected to each other in a common organ. These characters typify other members of the P. asteroides species group that occur in various tropical to temperate ocean basins. Based on a limited sample of 27 specimens, P. notatus (maximum observed size 30.7 mm SL) appears to be smaller than most other congeners. It is also characterized by an unusual lateral pigment bar, which is narrow and distinctly triangular. Based on the material examined, the geographical distribution of the species appears to be restricted to the South China Sea and adjacent minor ocean basins.

  17. Two new species of Haliotrema (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Acanthurus olivaceus (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Kritsky, Delane C; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-08-01

    Haliotrema leporinus n. sp. and Haliotrema pratasensis n. sp. are described from the gills of surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) off the Pratas Islands in the South China Sea. Haliotrema leporinus n. sp. differs from all other members of the genus by possessing a rabbit-head-shaped sclerotized piece in the haptor. Haliotrema pratasensis n. sp. differs from its congeners by having a copulatory organ with a clockwise coil and a funnel-shaped base and by lacking an accessory piece.

  18. 77 FR 43107 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... analysis for ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), and jaguar (Panthera onca.../absence surveys and monitoring of loach minnow (Tiaroga cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) within New... for research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys and monitoring for...

  19. 75 FR 15454 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 14 Southwestern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ..., 1991 (56 FR 49646). Gila trout Oncorhynchus gilae Threatened........ U.S.A. (AZ, NM)... May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24750). ] Hualapai Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus Endangered........ U.S.A. (AZ)....... October 1, 1987 hualpaiensis. (52 FR 36776). Loach minnow Tiaroga cobitis... Threatened........ U.S.A....

  20. The Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) parasite fauna of freshwater sand gobies (Teleostei, Gobioidei) in their centre of endemism, with description of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Economou, Alcibiades N; Zogaris, Stamatis; Giakoumi, Sofia; Zanella, Davor; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2014-02-01

    While Gobioidei comprises showcases of (adaptive) radiation, the scientific interest they yielded did not ensure full understanding of goby biodiversity. Even in a well-studied region like Europe, wide knowledge gaps remain. Sand gobies represent one of the few clades whose monogenean parasites have been thoroughly studied. However, in the Balkans, part of the sand gobies' centre of endemism, these parasites were unstudied. We focus on Greek and Croatian freshwater gobies. From five sand goby species, the first parasites are reported, describing seven new Gyrodactylus species. Economidichthys pygmaeus harbours Gyrodactylus benedeni sp. n. and Gyrodactylus dorlodoti sp. n. Its congener E. trichonis hosts G. meelkopae sp. n. Knipowitschia milleri was found to host G. charon sp. n., K. thessala is infected by G. bios sp. n., and K. croatica by G. douglasadamsi sp. n. and G. hellemansi sp. n. Gyrodactylus bubyri was found on its type host K. caucasica. A diverse parasite fauna is expected for a region known for its biodiversity and endemism. The contribution of parasites to species richness in such hotspots is overlooked. The observed species richness per host is rather low compared to the better-studied eastern Atlantic sand gobies. Host vicariance is considered to mediate parasite specificity in this fauna. Some new flatworm species display unique morphological features, such as the remarkable size of the marginal hook sickle proper compared to its foot in the Economidichthys parasites, or a characteristically kinked marginal hook sickle in G. douglasadamsi sp. n. These features reflect their hosts' endemism in the Balkans. PMID:24288050

  1. Evaluating the resolution power of new microsatellites for species identification and stock delimitation in the Cape hakes Merluccius paradoxus and Merluccius capensis (Teleostei: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Hoareau, T B; Klopper, A W; Dos Santos, S M R; Oosthuizen, C J; Bloomer, P

    2015-05-01

    The utility of 15 new and 17 previously published microsatellite markers was evaluated for species identification and stock delimitation in the deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus and the shallow-water hake Merluccius capensis. A total of 14 microsatellites were polymorphic in M. paradoxus and 10 in M. capensis. Two markers could individually discriminate the species using Bayesian clustering methods and a statistical power analysis showed that the set of markers for each species is likely to detect subtle genetic differentiation (FST < 0·006) that will be valuable to delimit and characterize genetic stocks. PMID:25943151

  2. Two deep evolutionary lineages in the circumtropical glasseye Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Teleostei, Priacanthidae) with admixture in the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gaither, M R; Bernal, M A; Fernandez-Silva, I; Mwale, M; Jones, S A; Rocha, C; Rocha, L A

    2015-09-01

    A phylogeographic study of the circumtropical glasseye Heteropriacanthus cruentatus was conducted. Molecular analyses indicate two mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) lineages that are 10·4% divergent: one in the western Atlantic (Caribbean) and another that was detected across the Indo-Pacific. A fixed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected at a nuclear locus (S7 ribosomal protein) and is consistent with this finding. There is evidence of recent dispersal from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean with individuals of mixed lineages detected in South Africa and the Mozambique Channel. Using coalescent analyses of the mitochondrial dataset, time of divergence between lineages was estimated to be c. 15·3 million years. The deep divergence between these two lineages indicates distinct evolutionary units, however, due to the lack of morphological differences and evidence of hybridization between lineages, taxonomic revision is not suggested at this time.

  3. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in the southern Chilean Altiplano: the relevance of ancient and recent divergence processes in speciation.

    PubMed

    Vila, I; Morales, P; Scott, S; Poulin, E; Véliz, D; Harrod, C; Méndez, M A

    2013-03-01

    This study presents phylogenetic molecular data of the Chilean species of Orestias to propose an allopatric divergence hypothesis and phylogeographic evidence that suggests the relevance of abiotic factors in promoting population divergence in this complex. The results reveal that diversification is still ongoing, e.g. in the Ascotán salt pan, where populations of Orestias ascotanensis restricted to individual freshwater springs exhibit strong genetic differentiation, reflecting putative independent evolutionary units. Diversification of Orestias in the southern Altiplano may be linked to historical vicariant events and contemporary variation in water level; these processes may have affected the populations from the Plio-Pleistocene until the present.

  4. Changes in the amount of kidney pigmented macrophage aggregates throughout the breeding cycle of female Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica Kar. (Teleostei, Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rocha, Maria João; Rebok, Katerina; Rocha, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Changes in fish macrophages (Macs) are useful indicators of environmental pressures, but responses due to chemical and nonchemical stresses may be confounded by natural sources of variability. These may include sex and gonadal stage. In this study, we start addressing the following question: is the seasonally dependent ovary stage a factor to consider when using kidney Macs as biomarkers? To tackle this problem, the relative amount of pigmented Macs in kidney (head, trunk, and tail portions) was stereologically estimated in Ohrid trout, and related with the breeding status. The amount of Macs significantly increased from pre vitellogenesis to late vitellogenesis and showed a decreasing trend then after, with lower values noted after spawning in the head (1.9% versus 7.5% versus 2.0%), trunk (1.8% versus 7.5% versus 2.5%), and tail (2.5% versus 6.7% versus 2.9%) kidney. The decrease seen at spawning was significant in head and trunk kidney, and at post spawning it was significant for all kidney portions. The amounts of Macs were positively correlated with the ovary relative weights and plasma estradiol levels. We proved for the first time that fish kidney pigmented Macs can vary in amount during the breeding cycle. Our data, combined with literature, strongly support that the sex-steroid profile and kidney status-seasonal remodeling both influence the Macs pool; likely not only in female trout. So, while increases in Macs may warn of ecosystem problems, we show that using kidney Macs for biomonitoring should also take into account seasonally, particularly that related with ovary maturation.

  5. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches. PMID:17957496

  6. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

  7. Description and redescription of Haliotrema species (Monogenoidea: Poloyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Laetitia; Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge

    2004-05-01

    Haliotrema species are described and/or reported from the gills of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific islands: Moorea (French Polynesia), Palau (Micronesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), New Caledonia, Lizard Island and Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Haliotrema angelopterum sp. nov., a new species of Monogenoidea parasite from seven species of Chaetodon Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae), is described. A new redescription and statute are given for Haliotrema aurigae (Yamaguti, 1968) comb. nov., a parasite from ten species of Chaetodon and one species of Heniochus Cuvier, 1816 (Chaetodontidae). New records of Haliotrema scyphovagina Yamaguti, 1968 are reported from two localities and from several host species belonging to the genera Chaetodon and Forcipiger Jordan and McGregor, 1898 (Chaetodontidae).

  8. Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 α-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fshβ and lhβ gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper.

  9. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil.Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of Hypostomus regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of Hypostomus regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin. PMID:24260625

  10. Morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) a parasite of Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei: Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Suellen A; Naldoni, Juliana; Silva, Márcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-10-01

    Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. has been found infecting the gill filaments of Prochilodus costatus (Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of the species was 18.7%. Mature spores were rounded from a frontal view, with elongated polar capsules of equal size, and had polar filaments with 9-10 turns. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that sporogenesis patterns followed those of other Myxobolus species. The plasmodium walls had numerous invaginations and protrusions, and few pinocytic channels. Numerous mitochondria, generative cells and young pansporoblasts were observed in the peripherical areas of the plasmodia, and mature spores were found in deeper layers. A layer of collagenic fibrils surrounded the plasmodia. The morphological data and molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA identified this parasite as a new species. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed M. curimatae n. sp., as a sister species of Thelohanellus marginatus, in a basal branch of the subclade composed by parasites with tropism to different organs and host families. PMID:26002517

  11. Description of Danio absconditus, new species, and redescription of Danio feegradei (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), from the Rakhine Yoma hotspot in south-western Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Britz, Ralf

    2015-04-21

    Danio feegradei Hora is redescribed based on recently collected specimens from small coastal streams on the western slope of the Rakhine Yoma, ranging from the Thade River drainage southward to slightly north of Kyeintali. Danio absconditus, new species, is described from the Kyeintali Chaung and small coastal streams near Gwa, south of the range of D. feegradei. Both species are distinguished from other Danio by the presence of a dark, elongate or round spot at the base of the caudal fin and a cleithral marking composed of a small black spot margined by a much smaller orange spot. Danio feegradei is characterized by the colour pattern, with series of white spots along the otherwise dark side; D. absconditus by about 7--11 dark vertical bars on the abdominal side. Within Danio, the presence of a complete lateral line, cleithral spot, and 14 circumpeduncular scales is shared with D. dangila and similar species, but these character states may be plesiomorphic as suggested by the shared presence of cleithral spot and complete lateral line in Devario and Betadevario. In other Danio the cleithral spot is absent, the lateral line is short or absent, and the circumpeduncular scale count is lower (10-12). Twenty teleost species are reported from streams on the western slope of the Rakhine Yoma, all probably endemic. The parapatric distribution of D. absconditus and D. feegradei is unique within the genus, and may be partly explained by changes in eustatic sea levels.

  12. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  13. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  14. Cryptic speciation within the Neotropical cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Teleostei Cichlidae): a new paradigm in karyotypical and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Alves-Silva, Ana Paula; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-02-01

    The family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich taxa in the Neotropics. However, the factors that determine these high levels of biodiversity remain unexplored. We have analyzed the morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular data from 62 specimens of a widespread cichlid, Geophagus brasiliensis, from three adjacent basins in southeastern Brazil. Morphological analyses did not show differences among specimens. The cytogenetic data indicate the occurrence of multiple nucleolar organizer regions and four sympatric karyotypes that differ in the first pair of chromosome morphology, in the Doce River Basin; whereas the karyotype from the Paraíba do Sul Basin is widely divergent. The molecular data--616 bp fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I--revealed two haplogroups with the deepest genetic divergence (6.4%) ever reported within a nominal species in the Neotropical Region: One of the haplogroups is restricted to the quaternary lakes in the middle portion of the Doce Basin and the Mucuri River, whereas the other haplogroup is composed of haplotypes from elsewhere in the Doce Basin and the Paraíba do Sul Basin. These patterns suggest that G. brasiliensis undergoes a cryptic speciation process involving three major lineages that differ from the African explosive cichlid radiation.

  15. Expression of a low-molecular-weight (10 kDa) calcium binding protein in glial cells of the brain of the trout (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Manso, M J; Becerra, M; Becerra, M; Anadón, R

    1997-11-01

    Calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand family are widely distributed in the vertebrate central nervous system. In the present study of the trout brain, immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against chick gut calbindin-28k and a polyclonal antibody against bovine S100 protein specifically stained ependymocytes and radial glia cells with identical patterns. Western blot analysis of trout brain extracts with the antibodies to S100 and calbindin stained the same low-molecular-weight (10 kDa) protein band. In rat brain extracts, however, the monoclonal antibody to calbindin recognized a major protein band with molecular weight corresponding to that of calbindin-28k. This indicates that the trout protein is a new calcium-binding-like (calbindin-like) molecule that is immunologically related to both S100 and calbindin. Immunocytochemical studies of the trout brain using the antibodies to CaB and S100 showed that ependymocytes were stained in most ventricular regions, except in a few specialized ependymal areas of the ventral telencephalon, epithalamus, hypothalamus (including the paraventricular organ and saccus vasculosus) and brain stem. Immunocytochemistry also indicated the presence of calbindin-like protein in radial glia cells of several regions of the brain (thalamus, pretectal region, optic tectum, and rhombencephalon). Differences in immunoreactivity between neighbouring ependymal areas suggest that this protein may be a useful marker of different territories. All immunoreactive glial cells were nicotin-adenin-dinucleotide-phosphate diaphorase-positive, although this enzymohistochemical reaction is not specific for these glial cells since it reveals oligodendrocytes and some neurons. Immunoreactivity appears at different developmental stages in the different brain regions, with a broadly caudorostral gradient, suggesting that the expression of this protein is developmentally regulated. Comparison of the distribution of the calbindin-like protein with that of glial acidic fibrillary protein indicates that calbindin-like immunocytochemistry is a specific technique for revealing radial glia and ependymocytes in the trout. PMID:9406842

  16. Morphological aspects of Henneguya aequidens n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Azevedo, Rodney; Silva, Reinaldo; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya aequidens sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), was described based on its ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus, in the Peixe-boi River, Pará, Brazil. This parasite was found in the gills, in the form of whitish ellipsoid cysts with mature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15 ± 0.9 μm in length (n = 30) and 6 ± 0.8 μm in width (n = 30), and the tail measured 27 ± 0.5 μm in length (n = 15). The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 3 ± 0.3 μm in length and 2 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament forming a helix from the apical region to the polar caps, with four to six turns. Based on the ultrastructural differences in morphology of these spores, the location of the parasite, and its host specificity, this parasite was described as a new species.

  17. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2003-02-01

    Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes).

  18. Modifications of the falciform process in the eye of beloniformes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha): evolution of a curtain-like septum in the eye.

    PubMed

    Reckel, Frank; Melzer, Roland R

    2004-04-01

    In order to comparatively analyze curtain-like septa in the eyes of visually orientated "close-to-surface-predators" among atherinomorph teleosts, we examined the eyes of 24 atherinomorph species under a binocular microscope with regard to the falciform process and related structures in the vitreous cavity. Additionally, falciform process samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All the studied representatives of the Cyprinodontiformes and Atheriniformes, and of one of the beloniform suborder, Adrianichthyioidei, possess a "typical" processus falciformis. In the eyes of the representatives of the other beloniform suborder, Belonoidei, however, pigmented structures that originate in the region of the optic disc and protrude into the vitreous cavity were noted. In the Hemiramphidae (halfbeaks) and Exocoetidae (flying fishes) these pigmented structures have a more cone-like shape, whereas in the Belonidae (needlefishes) and Scomberesocidae (sauries) horizontally oriented heavily pigmented curtain-like septa occur that divide the vitreous cavity dorsoventrally. It is suggested that the "typical" processus falciformis represents a plesiomorphic feature within the Atherinomorpha, whereas the pigmented modifications of the falciform process must be seen as a synapomorphic character state of the Belonoidei. The curtain-like septum of the Belonidae and Scomberesocidae might have evolved from the cone-like structures that are found in the Exocoetoidea. The functional significance of the pigmented structures in the eye is as yet not clear, except for the curtain-like septum found in Belonidae. It might play a role in visual orientation near the water surface at Snell's window.

  19. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy. PMID:24824751

  1. Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: Comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Three populations of non-native Asian swamp eels are established in peninsular Florida (USA), and comprise two different genetic lineages. To assess potential for these fish to penetrate estuarine habitats or use coastal waters as dispersal routes, we determined their salinity tolerances. Swamp eels from the three Florida populations were tested by gradual (chronic) salinity increases; additionally, individuals from the Miami population were tested by abrupt (acute) salinity increases. Results showed significant tolerance by all populations to mesohaline waters: Mean survival time at 14 ppt was 63 days. The Homestead population, a genetically distinct lineage, exhibited greater tolerance to higher salinity than Tampa and Miami populations. Acute experiments indicated that swamp eels were capable of tolerating abrupt shifts from 0 to 16 ppt, with little mortality over 10 days. The broad salinity tolerance demonstrated by these experiments provides evidence that swamp eels are physiologically capable of infiltrating estuarine environments and using coastal waters to invade new freshwater systems. ?? 2009 US Government.

  2. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the Nocomis biguttatus species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): nuclear and mitochondrial introgression and a cryptic Ozark species.

    PubMed

    Echelle, Anthony A; Schwemm, Michael R; Lang, Nicholas J; Nagle, Brett C; Simons, Andrew M; Unmack, Peter J; Fisher, William L; Hoagstrom, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    The Nocomis biguttatus species group ranges widely across North America from the Red River in Oklahoma and Arkansas north to Minnesota and east-west from Wyoming to Ontario. The group includes three traditionally recognized allopatric species: the wide-ranging N. biguttatus and two geographically more restricted species, N. asper from the western Ozarks (Arkansas River system) and two disjunct locations in the Red River system, and N. effusus from the Green, Cumberland, and lower Tennessee rivers. Separate analyses of the mitochondrial cytb gene and two nuclear genes (S7 intron 1 and a portion of the gene for growth hormone, GH), each resolved a cryptic species previously treated as N. biguttatus from the southern Ozarks (White River). Relationships among the four species were unresolved because of conflicts between cytb and S7 and a lack of resolution for GH. A previously indicated N. biguttatus-N. effusus sister-relationship appears to reflect past hybridization and mtDNA capture by N. effusus. Nocomis biguttatus includes four primary cytb clades with unresolved inter-relationships. A Northern Ozarks-Great Plains-Upper Midwest Clade and an Ohio River-Eastern Great Lakes Clade presumably represent late Quaternary dispersal from glacial refugia in, respectively, the northern Ozarks and an unglaciated portion of the Ohio River system. Other clades include one from the Meramec River and a Black River-St. Francis River Clade. There was evidence in N. effusus for a phylogeographic break between the lower Tennessee River and the Green-Cumberland basins. Geographic structure is weak in N. asper, indicating relatively recent contact between now disjunct populations in the Arkansas and Red river basins. The Blue River population of N. asper appears to reflect late Pleistocene or Holocene hybridization and genetic swamping of a resident native population of N. biguttatus by an invading population of N. asper. This postulates past occurrence of N. biguttatus far south of its present range.

  3. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family. PMID:21637480

  4. No need to open the jar: a comparative study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging results on fresh and alcohol preserved common carps (Cyprinus carpio (L. 1758), Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chanet, Bruno; Fusellier, M; Baudet, J; Madec, S; Guintard, C

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examinations have been conducted both on fresh and alcohol-preserved common carps (Cyprinus carpio). The images have been compared to those of a sagittally-cut frozen animal of the same species. This work shows that the images obtained are globally similar, and that the MRI technique can be applied to investigate the gross anatomy of alcohol-preserved specimens without destroying them. Unfortunately, this kind of study does not provide precise enough anatomical data for small specimens (less than 10 cm in total length) with a 1 Tesla magnetic field. Nevertheless, leaving the specimen in the jar during MRI examinations does not affect the quality of the final images.

  5. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  6. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2003-02-01

    Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes). PMID:12565036

  7. Modifications of the falciform process in the eye of beloniformes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha): evolution of a curtain-like septum in the eye.

    PubMed

    Reckel, Frank; Melzer, Roland R

    2004-04-01

    In order to comparatively analyze curtain-like septa in the eyes of visually orientated "close-to-surface-predators" among atherinomorph teleosts, we examined the eyes of 24 atherinomorph species under a binocular microscope with regard to the falciform process and related structures in the vitreous cavity. Additionally, falciform process samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All the studied representatives of the Cyprinodontiformes and Atheriniformes, and of one of the beloniform suborder, Adrianichthyioidei, possess a "typical" processus falciformis. In the eyes of the representatives of the other beloniform suborder, Belonoidei, however, pigmented structures that originate in the region of the optic disc and protrude into the vitreous cavity were noted. In the Hemiramphidae (halfbeaks) and Exocoetidae (flying fishes) these pigmented structures have a more cone-like shape, whereas in the Belonidae (needlefishes) and Scomberesocidae (sauries) horizontally oriented heavily pigmented curtain-like septa occur that divide the vitreous cavity dorsoventrally. It is suggested that the "typical" processus falciformis represents a plesiomorphic feature within the Atherinomorpha, whereas the pigmented modifications of the falciform process must be seen as a synapomorphic character state of the Belonoidei. The curtain-like septum of the Belonidae and Scomberesocidae might have evolved from the cone-like structures that are found in the Exocoetoidea. The functional significance of the pigmented structures in the eye is as yet not clear, except for the curtain-like septum found in Belonidae. It might play a role in visual orientation near the water surface at Snell's window. PMID:15052593

  8. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences.

    PubMed

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus. PMID:24260631

  9. Redefining the genus Spraguea based on ultrastructural and phylogenetic data from Spraguea gastrophysus n. sp. (phylum Microsporidia), a parasite found in Lophius gastrophysus (Teleostei) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casal, Graça; Clemente, Sérgio C S; Matos, Patrícia; Knoff, Marcelo; Matos, Edilson; Abdel-Baki, Abdel A; Azevedo, Carlos

    2012-07-01

    The ultrastructure of the fish-infecting microsporidium Spraguea gastrophysus found in the dorsal ganglia and kidney of the anglerfish, Lophius gastrophysus (family Lophiidae) collected on the Brazilian Atlantic coast is described. Each whitish xenoma (up to 3.1 × 1.8 mm) contains several groups of parasites. The host cells are hypertrophied and contain various parasite life stages including mature spores and several developmental stages with unpaired nuclei. Monomorphic spores are ellipsoidal, lightly curved and measure about 3.35 × 1.71 μm. The spore contains a gradually tapering isofilar polar filament with five to six coils arranged in a single row. The nucleus occupies a central zone of the sporoplasm where also several polyribosomes are presented. The posterior vacuole contains a voluminous spherical and granular posterosome measuring up to ~0.65 μm in diameter. The partial small subunit, intergenic spacer and partial large subunit rRNA gene were sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis places the microsporidian described here in the clade that includes all sequences of the Spraguea genus. The ultrastructural morphology of the xenoma and the spores of this microsporidian parasite, as well as the molecular and phylogenetic analysis, suggest the description of a new species. A redefining of the genus Spraguea is also done. PMID:22223036

  10. Ontogeny of corticotropin-releasing factor and of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis responsiveness to stress in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus; Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pepels, Peter P L M; Balm, Paul H M

    2004-12-01

    The ontogeny of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and of the ability of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis to respond to stressors (capture or confinement), or to cortisol treatment was investigated in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In 2 days post hatching (dph) larvae, the first developmental stage used for immunohistochemistry, CRF-immunoreactivity (ir) was observed in the nucleus preopticus (npo), and in two hypothalamic nuclei (nlt and nrl). In this stage, CRF- and AVT-ir was found in the neural part of the pituitary, and endocrine cells in the pars distalis and pars intermedia contained POMC-derived peptides. In the ventral telencephalon, CRF-ir cells were first observed 5 dph, whereas projections from these cells into the anterior part of the latero-dorsal telencephalon (Dla) from 7 dph onwards. CRF, ACTH, alpha-MSH, and cortisol were quantified by radioimmunoassays in homogenates of the anterior-cranial region of the larvae containing brain, pituitary, and headkidneys. CRF contents increased from 43 +/- 3 to 1070 +/- 70 pg/larvae between 5 and 110 dph. Larvae of age 5, 12, 24, and 42 dph were captured sequentially from a group. All life stages were able to rapidly increase their cortisol content in response to this stressor (ANOVA: P < 0.001). Overall, the developmental stage affected cortisol content (ANOVA: P < 0.001), but developmental stage did not influence the cortisol reaction to stress (ANOVA: P > 0.162). Whole brain CRF content did not change during the 20 min stress period and the relationship between CRF-producing neurons and the initial HPI stress response in early life stages remains to be established. Cortisol feeding of 18 and 29 dph larvae for periods ranging from 2 to 24 days resulted in elevations of the CRF content (P < 0.003) in comparison to controls. In 18 dph larvae cortisol feeding abolished the cortisol response to capture stress as observed in control fed larvae (P < 0.008). We propose that cortisol induced upregulation of CRF takes place in the telencephalon and is restricted to a time period during larval development, characterised by the absence of glucocortoid receptor (GR) expression in the telencephalic Dm region in these larvae. Finally, the stress response to 24 h confinement was compared between saltwater adapted and freshwater adapted juveniles (age 77 dph). Confinement stress (24 h) affected cortisol and CRF content (ANOVA: P < 0.001, P < 0.008, respectively), but not ACTH content. Interactions were observed between salinity and confinement regarding cortisol and alpha-MSH contents (ANOVA: P < 0.02), but not regarding CRF and ACTH contents. The increase in cortisol levels induced by confinement was remarkably high in freshwater adapted larvae (five times higher than in saltwater adapted larvae). Regarding the cortisol response it is concluded that during and after the period of mouth breeding tilapia larvae respond to capture stress in a similar fashion (onset and height) as adults. Previously, we reported that the initial plasma cortisol response to capture stress in adult tilapia occurred independently from changes in plasma ACTH levels. The current finding that also brain CRF contents do not alter during the initial cortisol response in larvae further indicates that the initial cortisol response in this species may be regulated independently from CRF and ACTH. PMID:15560872

  11. Henneguya nagelii n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Cyphocharax nagelii (Steindachner, 1881) (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from the Peixe's River, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Rodney Kozlowiski; Abdallah, Vanessa Doro; Paes, Jaciara Vanessa Krüger; Da Silva, Reinaldo José; Matos, Patrícia; Velasco, Michele; Matos, Edilson

    2013-10-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya nagelii n. sp., is described parasitizing the gills of Cyphocharax nagelii collected from Peixe's River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Among the fish examined, 16.7% had gills parasitized by myxosporeans. The plasmodia were white, round, or oval and measured 150-250 μm. The mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were the following: total length, 34.5 ± 4.2 (26.4-39.9) μm; body length, 12.0 ± 0.5 (11.2-11.9) μm; body width, 4.9 ± 0.3 (4.4-5.5) μm; and caudal process length, 22.4 ± 4.0 (14.7-27.3) μm. The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 4.9 ± 0.4 (4.0-5.9) μm and 5.2 ± 0.4 (4.6-6.0) μm for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.8 ± 0.2 (1.5-2.2) μm. Each capsule contained a polar filament with six to eight turns. There was no mucous envelope or iodinophilous vacuole. Morphometric differences between this parasite and other species of the genus Henneguya indicated that the parasite observed in C. nagelii is a new species. This is the first species of Myxosporea described in Peixe's River.

  12. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  13. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  14. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships.

  15. A new deep-reef scorpionfish (Teleostei, Scorpaenidae, Scorpaenodes) from the southern Caribbean with comments on depth distributions and relationships of western Atlantic members of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Pitassy, Diane E; Robertson, D Ross

    2016-01-01

    A new species of scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin, sp. n. which is described, was collected during submersible diving in the southern Caribbean as part of the Smithsonian's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). It differs from the other two western Atlantic species of the genus, Scorpaenodes caribbaeus and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus, in various features, including its color pattern, having an incomplete lateral line comprising 8-10 pored scales, tending to be more elongate, usually having the 11(th)-12(th) pectoral-fin rays elongate, and by 20-23% divergence in the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. It further differs from one or the other of those species in head spination and in numbers of soft dorsal-fin rays, pectoral-fin rays, and precaudal + caudal vertebrae. Inhabiting depths of 95-160 m, the new species is the deepest western Atlantic member of the genus (Scorpaenodes caribbaeus occurs at depths < 35 m and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus from 7 to 82 m). DNA barcode data do not rigorously resolve relationships among the ten species of the genus for which those data are available.

  16. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP).

  17. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2015-01-01

    A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopteruscurasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterusdicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopteruscurasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10-11, usually 11, in Coryphopteruscurasub, 10 in Coryphopterusdicrus). Coryphopteruscurasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopteruspunctipectophorus and Coryphopterusvenezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopteruscurasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterusvenezuelae at depths of 65-69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopteruscurasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented.

  18. A new deep-reef scorpionfish (Teleostei, Scorpaenidae, Scorpaenodes) from the southern Caribbean with comments on depth distributions and relationships of western Atlantic members of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Pitassy, Diane E.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin, sp. n. which is described, was collected during submersible diving in the southern Caribbean as part of the Smithsonian’s Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). It differs from the other two western Atlantic species of the genus, Scorpaenodes caribbaeus and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus, in various features, including its color pattern, having an incomplete lateral line comprising 8–10 pored scales, tending to be more elongate, usually having the 11th–12th pectoral-fin rays elongate, and by 20–23% divergence in the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. It further differs from one or the other of those species in head spination and in numbers of soft dorsal-fin rays, pectoral-fin rays, and precaudal + caudal vertebrae. Inhabiting depths of 95–160 m, the new species is the deepest western Atlantic member of the genus (Scorpaenodes caribbaeus occurs at depths < 35 m and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus from 7 to 82 m). DNA barcode data do not rigorously resolve relationships among the ten species of the genus for which those data are available. PMID:27551226

  19. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal). PMID:23885596

  20. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of ‘Gnathochromis’ and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    PubMed Central

    Gelnar, Milan; Koblmüller, Stephan; Vanhove, Maarten P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Monogenea is one of the most species-rich groups of parasitic flatworms worldwide, with many species described only recently, which is particularly true for African monogeneans. For example, Cichlidogyrus, a genus mostly occurring on African cichlids, comprises more than 100 nominal species. Twenty-two of these have been described from Lake Tanganyika, a famous biodiversity hotspot in which many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, including monogeneans, underwent unique and spectacular radiations. Given their often high degrees of host specificity, parasitic monogeneans were also used as a potential tool to uncover host species relationships. This study presents the first investigation of the monogenean fauna occurring on the gills of endemic ‘Gnathochromis’ species along the Burundese coastline of Lake Tanganyika. We test whether their monogenean fauna reflects the different phylogenetic position and ecological niche of ‘Gnathochromis’ pfefferi and Gnathochromis permaxillaris. Worms collected from specimens of Limnochromis auritus, a cichlid belonging to the same cichlid tribe as G. permaxillaris, were used for comparison. Morphological as well as genetic characterisation was used for parasite identification. In total, all 73 Cichlidogyrus individuals collected from ‘G.’ pfefferi were identified as C. irenae. This is the only representative of Cichlidogyrus previously described from ‘G.’ pfefferi, its type host. Gnathochromis permaxillaris is infected by a species of Cichlidogyrus morphologically very similar to C. gillardinae. The monogenean species collected from L. auritus is considered as new for science, but sample size was insufficient for a formal description. Our results confirm previous suggestions that ‘G.’ pfefferi as a good disperser is infected by a single monogenean species across the entire Lake Tanganyika. Although G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are placed in the same tribe, Cichlidogyrus sp. occurring on G. permaxillaris is morphologically more similar to C. irenae from ‘G.’ pfefferi, than to the Cichlidogyrus species found on L. auritus. Various evolutionary processes, such as host-switching or duplication events, might underlie the pattern observed in this particular parasite-host system. Additional samples for the Cichlidogyrus species occuring on G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are needed to unravel their evolutionary history by means of (co-)phylogenetic analyses. PMID:26855869

  1. Destructive and non-destructive microanalysis of biocarbonates applied to anomalous otoliths of archaeological and modern sciaenids (Teleostei) from Peru and Chile.

    PubMed

    Béarez, Philippe; Carlier, Gabriel; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Parodi, Gian-Carlo

    2005-03-01

    Anomalous otoliths were discovered among modern and archaeological (8th millennium BP) sciaenids. The two species concerned, Cilus gilberti and Sciaena deliciosa, are common on the Peruvian-Chilean coast and do not seem to be affected by this morphological anomaly that maintained in their populations for thousands of years. The carbonates of the anomalous forms, determined by X-ray diffraction, are different from that of the normal otoliths, i.e. calcite and vaterite instead of aragonite. A method of non-destructive analysis by cathodoluminescence is tested and assumptions on the origin of the anomaly and its possible implications on environmental studies are advanced.

  2. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches.

  3. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  4. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control. PMID:21637697

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data highlights uncertainty in the relationships of fossil and living species of Elopomorpha (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt; Near, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Elopomorpha is one of the three main clades of living teleost fishes and includes a range of disparate lineages including eels, tarpons, bonefishes, and halosaurs. Elopomorphs were among the first groups of fishes investigated using Hennigian phylogenetic methods and continue to be the object of intense phylogenetic scrutiny due to their economic significance, diversity, and crucial evolutionary status as the sister group of all other teleosts. While portions of the phylogenetic backbone for Elopomorpha are consistent between studies, the relationships among Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes, and Anguilliformes remain contentious and difficult to evaluate. This lack of phylogenetic resolution is problematic as fossil lineages are often described and placed taxonomically based on an assumed sister group relationship between Albula and Pterothrissus. In addition, phylogenetic studies using morphological data that sample elopomorph fossil lineages often do not include notacanthiform or anguilliform lineages, potentially introducing a bias toward interpreting fossils as members of the common stem of Pterothrissus and Albula. Here we provide a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear genes that include representative taxa from Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes and Anguilliformes. We integrate our molecular dataset with a morphological character matrix that spans both living and fossil elopomorph lineages. Our results reveal substantial uncertainty in the placement of Pterothrissus as well as all sampled fossil lineages, questioning the stability of the taxonomy of fossil Elopomorpha. However, despite topological uncertainty, our integration of fossil lineages into a Bayesian time calibrated framework provides divergence time estimates for the clade that are consistent with previously published age estimates based on the elopomorph fossil record and molecular estimates resulting from traditional node-dating methods.

  6. Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene sequence analysis in six flatfish species (Teleostei, Pleuronectidae) of Far East Russia with inferences in phylogeny and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kartavtsev, Yuri Ph; Sharina, Svetlana N; Goto, Tadasuke; Chichvarkhin, Anton Y; Balanov, Andrey A; Vinnikov, Kirill A; Ivankov, Vyacheslav N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA at the cytochrome oxidase 1 (Co-1) gene region was sequenced for six flatfish species (in total, 11 sequences of at least 539 base pairs) from the Far East of Russia and compared with other sequences of Pleuronectiformes, comprising altogether 26 flatfish sequences and two outgroup sequences (Perciformes). An analysis of the protein-coding Co-1 gene revealed a statistically substantiated bias in (T + C):(A + G) content, supporting earlier findings. Average scores of the p-distances for different scales of the evolutionary history at the Co-1 gene revealed a clear pattern of increased nucleotide diversity at four different levels: (1) intraspecies, (2) intragenus, (3) intrafamily, and (4) intra-order. Scores of average p-distances of the four categories of comparison in flatfishes were (1) 0.17 +/- 0.09%, (2) 10.60 +/- 1.57%, (3) 12.40 +/- 0.27%, and (4) 19.93 +/- 0.05%, respectively (mean +/- standard error). These data jointly with current knowledge support the concept that speciation in the order Pleuronectiformes mostly follows a geographic mode through accumulation of numerous small genetic changes over a long period of time. A phylogenetic tree for 26 sequences of flatfishes and two other fishes belonging to ray-finned fishes (Actinopterigii) was developed using the Co-1 gene and four different analytical approaches: neighbour-joining, Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood. The analysis revealed a monophyletic origin for the representatives of Pleuronectidae, which is the principal flatfish family investigated (73-100% support level in our MP and BA analyses). According to the current and literary data, the monophyletic origin for the six compared flatfish families was well supported. Species identification on a per-individual basis (barcoding tagging) was high.

  7. Allozyme differentiation of two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 (Teleostei, Loricariidae) from the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reusing, Ana Flávia; Renesto, Erasmo; Roxo, Fábio F.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.

    2011-01-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis was used to examine 12 enzymatic systems in two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus from the Paraná River basin. Samples of Neoplecostomus sp. 1 were collected in Paraitinguinha stream of the Tietê River basin, in the municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo State, and those of Neoplecostomus sp. 2 from São Domingos stream of the Rio Grande River basin, in the municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability of the two populations was estimated by Nei’s expected heterozygosity and was considered lower than average for populations of freshwater fish. The proportion of polymorphic loci was low (only 5.26% for the locus Idh). The low frequency of heterozygosity for both populations revealed a high fixation of alleles for each locus. Homozygote excess was observed in both populations. The values of Nei’s genetic identity and the presence of loci with different allele frequencies in both populations may imply that the two populations belong to different species. The genetic variability between populations was compared to other data for loricariids. PMID:21931525

  8. Effects of climatic and geological processes during the pleistocene on the evolutionary history of the northern cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea (teleostei: amblyopsidae).

    PubMed

    Niemiller, Matthew L; McCandless, James R; Reynolds, R Graham; Caddle, James; Near, Thomas J; Tillquist, Christopher R; Pearson, William D; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-04-01

    Climatic and geological processes associated with glaciation cycles during the Pleistocene have been implicated in influencing patterns of genetic variation and promoting speciation of temperate flora and fauna. However, determining the factors promoting divergence and speciation is often difficult in many groups because of our limited understanding of potential vicariant barriers and connectivity between populations. Pleistocene glacial cycles are thought to have significantly influenced the distribution and diversity of subterranean invertebrates; however, impacts on subterranean aquatic vertebrates are less clear. We employed several hypothesis-driven approaches to assess the impacts of Pleistocene climatic and geological changes on the Northern Cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea, whose current distribution occurs near the southern extent of glacial advances in North America. Our results show that the modern Ohio River has been a significant barrier to dispersal and is correlated with patterns of genetic divergence. We infer that populations were isolated in two refugia located north and south of the Ohio River during the most recent two glacial cycles with evidence of demographic expansion in the northern isolate. Finally, we conclude that climatic and geological processes have resulted in the formation of cryptic forms and advocate recognition of two distinct phylogenetic lineages currently recognized as A. spelaea. PMID:23550752

  9. Population genetic structure of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis (Atherinidae, Atheriniformes, Teleostei), inhabiting marine lakes and adjacent lagoons in Palau: marine lakes are "Islands" for marine species.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Chiba, Satoru N; Goto, Tadasuke V; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Although evidence for the evolution of terrestrial species on islands continues to rapidly accumulate, little is known about the evolution of marine species in geographically isolated environments such as islands as ocean currents often facilitate gene flow among populations. In this study, we focused on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, which are considered to be true analogues of terrestrial islands for marine species. To examine evolutionary processes in marine lakes, we conducted population genetic analyses on marine lake and lagoon populations of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis, using two mitochondrial DNA markers differing in evolutionary rate, the cytochrome b gene and the control region. The analyses revealed that the amount of genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations and high levels of genetic differentiation occur among marine lake and lagoon populations. The present study has shown that marine lake populations have been completely isolated and have differentiated from lagoon populations, and each marine lake population is experiencing different evolutionary processes. These findings clearly demonstrate that marine lakes are excellent environments for the evolutionary study of marine species.

  10. First detailed data on metazoan parasites of the rare species short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi (Teleostei: Belonidae) from Tunisian coast, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-01-01

    Forty five specimens of the short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi, a rare belonid species largely confused with the garfish Belone belone from Tunisian coast Sea were examined for metazoan parasite. Nine metazoan parasites species were identified: one monogenean (Axine sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus retroflexus, Tergestia acanthocephala, Aponurus laguncula and Condylocotyla pilodora metacercaria), one copepod (Bomolochus bellones), one isopod (Irona nana), one acanthocephalan (Telosentis exiguus) and one nematod Hysterotylacium sp. Most of parasite species were new records for B. svetovidovi in Tunisia. In the parasite fauna of B. svetovidovi, digenean C. pilodora metacercaria was the most prevalent species (42%) followed by Monogenea Axine sp. (36%). The total length of the host did not influence parasitic infection in B. svetovidovi. The metazoan parasite composition of B. svetovidovi revealed great similarity than those of B. belone from Tunisia supporting same ecological behavior of both hosts. PMID:27262955

  11. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  12. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    PubMed

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone as two management units. PMID:27463811

  13. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Hemiurus appendiculatus (Digenea, Hemiuroidea, Hemiuridae), a parasite of Boops boops (Pisces, Teleostei, Sparidae) off Senegal.

    PubMed

    Dione, Ayatoulaye; Quilichini, Yann; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The mature spermatozoon of Hemiurus appendiculatus exhibits the general pattern described in most of the digenean namely, two axonemes of the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, a filiform mitochondrion, external ornamentations of the plasma membrane and parallel cortical microtubules located on one side of the spermatozoon. In this study, we show for the second time in a digenean spermatozoon the presence of microtubules of the second axoneme associated each in a short length with an external ornamentation, seven cortical microtubules, a terminal bulge in the anterior spermatozoon extremity separate from the remainder of the spermatozoon by a transverse constriction and the simultaneous presence of the external ornamentation of the plasma membrane with a filamentous ornamentation. The external ornamentations have a differentiated distribution, cover almost the anterior region of the spermatozoon, are more abundant around the first axoneme and extend backwards over a short distance around the second axoneme. This study also allowed us to reveal for the first time the existence in the Hemiuroidea of an axoneme that begins to disrupt before reaching the front end of the mitochondrion. PMID:26881736

  14. Intraspecific variability of the pulse-type discharges of the African electric fishes, Pollimyrus isidori and Petrocephalus bovei (Mormyridae, Teleostei), and their dependence on water conductivity.

    PubMed

    Bratton, B O; Kramer, B

    1988-01-01

    The electric organ discharge (EOD) of the mormyrid Pollimyrus isidori is a short pulse with three phases: (1) weak head positive (P1); (2) strong head negative (N); (3) weak head positive (P2). 1. At a stable water conductivity (100 microS/cm), which is near the upper end of the natural range in tropical Africa, there was a statistically significant difference between the sexes only in one of five EOD parameters, the P-ratio. The P1-amplitude was lower than the P2-amplitude (i.e. P1/P2 less than 1) in males (N = 10), while, on average, the opposite (P1/P2 greater than 1) was true for females (N = 14). Because of wide overlapping we do not consider this sex difference to be a sexual dimorphism. The difference between males and females could be due to well-known biophysical and physiological reasons (discussed later) and need not be the result of intraspecific selection (such as female choice). 2. Water conductivity seriously affected the EOD waveform. The P-ratio decreased in 2/3 of our fish (16 out of 24), as conductivity increased from 5 to 200 microS/cm, causing 6 out of 14 females to change from a P-ratio of greater than 1 to a P-ratio of less than 1, becoming more "male-like". P1 amplitude increased with decreasing conductivity in the EODs of 5 out of 10 males to a more "female-like" shape (P-ratio greater than 1). The P-ratio changed only slightly when above a conductivity of 200 microS/cm. The N-wave duration increased with decreasing conductivity, while the peak amplitude frequency of an EOD amplitude spectrum decreased. 3. Long-term stability was found to be poor in the EOD of 1 female (better in 2 other fish), which changed from a "female-like" waveform (P-ratio greater than 1) to a "male-like" waveform (P-ratio less than 1 over the whole conductivity range) without apparent reason within 120 days. 4. The EOD waveform of Petrocephalus bovei did not show a sex difference. Decreasing conductivity affected the EOD of P. bovei in a similar way to most P. isidori: the P1-wave increased and the P2-wave decreased, while the N-wave broadened strongly. 5. The occurrence of multiple discharges per primary neural command signal at very low conductivities, indicates that P. isidori is adapted to conductivities above 17 microS/cm, and P. bovei to those above 5 microS/cm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. A new species of Comephoronema (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from the stomach of the abyssal halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Teleostei) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Klimpel, Sven

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode Comephoronema macrochiri n. sp. (Cystidicolidae), is described from the stomach of the marine deep-sea fish Halosauropsis macrochir (abyssal halosaur) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The new species, studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy, is characterized mainly by 6 pairs of preanal papillae, by which it principally differs from members of Ascarophis; the spicules are 297-375 microm and 99-120 microm long and fully developed eggs possess 2 long filaments on 1 pole. Rhabdochona beatriceinsleyae is transferred to Comephoronema as C. beatriceinsleyae (Holloway and Klewer, 1969) n. comb. Comephoronema macrochiri differs from all other congeners mainly in having eggs with filaments on 1 pole only, and from individual species by some additional features such as the number of preanal papillae, the shape of pseudolabial projections, and the body and organ measurements. PMID:17918373

  16. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal).

  17. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included. PMID:23532542

  18. A new deep-reef scorpionfish (Teleostei, Scorpaenidae, Scorpaenodes) from the southern Caribbean with comments on depth distributions and relationships of western Atlantic members of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Pitassy, Diane E; Robertson, D Ross

    2016-01-01

    A new species of scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin, sp. n. which is described, was collected during submersible diving in the southern Caribbean as part of the Smithsonian's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). It differs from the other two western Atlantic species of the genus, Scorpaenodes caribbaeus and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus, in various features, including its color pattern, having an incomplete lateral line comprising 8-10 pored scales, tending to be more elongate, usually having the 11(th)-12(th) pectoral-fin rays elongate, and by 20-23% divergence in the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. It further differs from one or the other of those species in head spination and in numbers of soft dorsal-fin rays, pectoral-fin rays, and precaudal + caudal vertebrae. Inhabiting depths of 95-160 m, the new species is the deepest western Atlantic member of the genus (Scorpaenodes caribbaeus occurs at depths < 35 m and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus from 7 to 82 m). DNA barcode data do not rigorously resolve relationships among the ten species of the genus for which those data are available. PMID:27551226

  19. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy.

  20. New species of Diplectanum (Monogenoidea:Diplectanidae), and proposal of a new genus of the Dactylogyridae from the gills of gerreid fishes (Teleostei) from Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Roche, Dominique G; Torchin, Mark E

    2008-09-01

    While investigating the parasites of several marine fishes from the Western Atlantic, the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Central America (Panama), the following monogenoidean species from the gills of gerreid fishes (Gerreidae) were found: Diplec-tanum gatunense sp. n. (Diplectanidae) and Octouncuhaptor eugerrei gen. et sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) in Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) from Gatun Lake in the Panama Canal Watershed, and Diplectanum mexicanum sp. n. in Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) from the coast of Campeche State, Mexico. New diplectanid species are distinguished from other species of the genus by the general morphology of the copulatory complex and by the shape of the anchors and bars on the haptor. Octouncuhaptor gen. n. is proposed for its new species having slightly overlapping gonads (testis posterodorsal to the ovary), a dextrolateral vaginal aperture, a copulatory complex consisting of a coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings with the base articulated to the accessory piece, 8 pairs of hooks and the absence of anchors and bars on haptor. Our analysis of morphological features of Diplectanum species on gerreids evidences that these parasites more closely resemble each other than the known species from sciaenids suggesting that split between gerreids and sciaenids resulted in parasite speciation. PMID:19202675

  1. Morphological development of the structures related to annualism in the ovarian follicle of the killifish Millerichthys robustus (Costa,1995) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Ovaries of five females of the annual fish teleost species Millerichthys robustus were processed, and the development of the cortical alveoli, zona pellucida and secondary envelope during oogenesis were described. We also documented the origin of the cortical alveoli in time and space similar to the Balbiani body; the synthesis of three generations of cortical alveoli and an active zona pellucida prior to vitellogenesis, which is implicated in the entry of oils to the interior of the oocyte. We found that in this species, the diameter of the alveoli is greater than in the other teleost fish species reported in the literature, except for Fundulus heteroclitus, in which the diameter is similar. The thickness of the zona pellucida recorded in M. robustus is the greatest reported to date. Likewise, two periods of secondary envelope deposition were documented: filaments during pre-vitellogenesis and, subsequently, trapeze-shaped projections during the maturation of the oocytes. We report about development of structures that are considered key for the survival of embryos in annual fish during the long periods of diapause in their extreme habitats. The development of peripheral structures described here probably reflects the changes in the physiology of the oocytes in M. robustus. J. Morphol. 277:1219-1230, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27313073

  2. Pathological and histometric analysis of the gills of female Hyphessobrycon eques (Teleostei:Characidae) exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide Dimilin(®).

    PubMed

    Marcon, Lucas; Lopes, Diego Senra; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Goulart, Amara Manarino Andrade; Leandro, Mila Vasques; Dos Anjos Benjamin, Laércio

    2016-09-01

    Female individuals of Hyphessobrycon eques were exposed to Diflubenzuron (Dimilin(®)) in order to determine whether exposure to sublethal levels of this insecticide causes changes in gill morphology. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0mgL(-1) for 96h and 17 days and then submitted to pathological and histometric evaluation. Pathological lesions, such as hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, vascular congestion, secondary lamellar disarray, vasodilatation, hemorrhage and increased lamellar epithelium, were significantly more common in the gills of fish exposed to Dimilin(®) than the control. Histometric analysis documented significant changes in blood vessel diameter, primary lamellae width and secondary lamellae length, and the appearance of hemorrhage foci in all concentrations tested. Even at low Dimilin(®) concentrations, the histopathological alteration index was mild to moderate, thereby indicating that the function of this tissue was compromised. These findings indicate that indiscriminate use of Dimilin(®) can adversely affect the structural integrity of the gills of H. eques, which can cause numerous problems for fish farming systems.

  3. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopterus curasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterus dicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopterus curasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10–11, usually 11, in Coryphopterus curasub, 10 in Coryphopterus dicrus). Coryphopterus curasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopterus punctipectophorus and Coryphopterus venezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopterus curasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterus venezuelae at depths of 65–69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopterus curasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented. PMID:26257572

  4. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions.

  5. Two new species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) and A. triostegus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Yang, Chaopin; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-07-01

    Haliotrema nanhaiense n. sp. and Haliotrema triostegum n. sp. are described respectively from the gills of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) and Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus) in the South China Sea. Haliotrema nanhaiense n. sp. differs from other existing congeneric species by its male copulatory complex, comprising a C-shaped copulatory tube, a saucer-shaped base and a sickle-shaped accessory piece. Haliotrema triostegum n. sp. can be differentiated from all other members of Haliotrema by having a unique copulatory complex, a cup-shaped base, inverted L-shaped copulatory tube with a small sclerotised piece arising from its distal portion, and a large accessory piece from the proximal portion of copulatory tube.

  6. Cytogenetic characterization of species of the family Heptapteridae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from the Cuiabá and Ivaí River Basins, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L M; Ferreira, G E B; Prizon, A C; Portela-Castro, A L B; Martins-Santos, I C

    2015-01-01

    We cytogenetically characterized three species of Heptapteridae (Pimelodella sp, Pimelodella taenioptera, and Imparfinis schubarti) by investigating the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NOR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pimelodella sp showed had a diploid number (2n) = 46 chromosomes, 26m + 10sm + 10st, and FN = 92; P. taenioptera, 2n = 52 chromosomes, 26m + 22sm + 4st, and FN = 104; and I. schubarti, 2n = 58 chromosomes, 28m + 28sm + 2st, and FN = 116. The two Pimelodella species had Ag-NORs sites on the submetacentric pair 14, located on the short arm in terminal position. In I. schubarti, the Ag-NORs sites were in an interstitial position on the long arm of the metacentric pair 1. C-banding revealed that Pimelodella sp contained a small amount of constitutive heterochroma-tin, whereas P. taenioptera contained a higher number of heterochromatic regions, in the pericentromeric, interstitial, and telomeric positions. I. schubarti had markers in centromeric and telomeric regions of a few chromosomes, and a large pericentromeric block on pair 1. Fluorochrome chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining revealed positive signals on pair 14 in both Pimelodella species. Treatment with 4ꞌ,6-diamidino- 2-phenylindole (DAPI) revealed no markings in P. taenioptera, but an interstitial marking on the long arm of pair 14 in Pimelodella sp. In I. schubarti, positive signals of CMA3 were detected in the first pair, but negative signals were detected for DAPI staining. These results con-tribute to the karyotypic description of the less-studied species in the Brazilian Midwest. PMID:26345795

  7. Morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) a parasite of Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei: Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Suellen A; Naldoni, Juliana; Silva, Márcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-10-01

    Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. has been found infecting the gill filaments of Prochilodus costatus (Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of the species was 18.7%. Mature spores were rounded from a frontal view, with elongated polar capsules of equal size, and had polar filaments with 9-10 turns. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that sporogenesis patterns followed those of other Myxobolus species. The plasmodium walls had numerous invaginations and protrusions, and few pinocytic channels. Numerous mitochondria, generative cells and young pansporoblasts were observed in the peripherical areas of the plasmodia, and mature spores were found in deeper layers. A layer of collagenic fibrils surrounded the plasmodia. The morphological data and molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA identified this parasite as a new species. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed M. curimatae n. sp., as a sister species of Thelohanellus marginatus, in a basal branch of the subclade composed by parasites with tropism to different organs and host families.

  8. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil.Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of Hypostomus regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of Hypostomus regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin.

  9. Two new species of the tooth-carp Aphanius (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) and the evolutionary history of the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species .

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Teimori, Azad; Gholami, Zeinab; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Aphanius are described from the Kol drainage in southern Iran (Aphanius darabensis n. sp.) and the endorheic Kavir Basin in northern Iran (A. kavirensis n. sp.), and compared with eight closely related species. Aphanius darabensis n. sp. is sister to A. shirini, from which it is distinguished by molecular characters (cytochrome b) and the combination of three morphological characters: 9-18 flank bars in males (vs. 7-10), females with irregular vertical patches of brown color on the flank (vs. prominent dark brown blotches of round or irregular shape), and symmetrically-shaped triangular to trapezoid otoliths with a rostrum distinctly longer than the antirostrum (vs. quadrangular to trapezoid otoliths with short and equally sized rostrum and antirostrum). Aphanius kavirensis n. sp. is closely related to a group containing A. sophiae, A. mesopotamicus and A. pluristriatus, from which it is distinguished by cytochrome b characters and the combination of three morphological characters: females with irregularly arranged large blotches of dark brown color on the flank, short pectoral fin in both sexes (13.4-18.1% SL in males, 11.2-18.3% SL in females), and asymmetrically shaped triangular to trapezoid otoliths with a pronounced predorsal region. Our tree based on the cytochrome b data demonstrates that the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species (IIRAS) form a monophyletic clade with three subclades (A. vladykovi -, A. shirini -, A. sophiae subclades). The A. sophiae subclade, which is the most diverse of the three subclades, can be further divided into three lineages (A. isfahanensis -, A. farsicus -, A. sophiae lineages). The temporal diversification of the IIRAS clade is discussed and two evolutionary groups of Aphanius are depicted. Aphanius vladykovi, together with A. shirini, A. darabensis n. sp. and A. isfahanensis characterize the "old" evolutionary group. Their divergences may have happened 10-5 m.y. ago (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene). Aphanius farsicus, A. arakensis, A. sophiae, A. mesopotamicus, and A. pluristriatus, together with Aphanius kavirensis n. sp., represent the "young" evolutionary group, which developed in the Late Pleistocene (100,000-11,700 y. ago) and Early to Middle Holocene (c. 11,700-4,000 y. ago).

  10. Omanicotyle heterospina n. gen. et n. comb. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the Sea of Oman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Sultanate of Oman’s aquaculture industry is expanding with an on-going assessment of potential new fish species for culture. The king soldier bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål) (Sparidae), is one such species that is under consideration. During a routine health assessment of specimens caught in the Sea of Oman throughout the period November 2009 to March 2011, a number of gill polyopisthocotylean monogeneans were recovered. Methods A subsequent study of the monogeneans using a range of morphology-based approaches indicated that these were Bivagina heterospina Mamaev et Parukhin, 1974. In the absence of pre-existing molecular data, an expanded description of this species is provided, including a differential diagnosis with other species and genera belonging to the subfamily Microcotylinae Monticelli, 1892 with the subsequent movement of this species to a new genus to accommodate it. Results The polyopisthocotyleans collected from the gills of A. spinifer appear to be unique within the family Microcotylidae Taschenberg, 1879 in that, morphologically, they possess a pair of large, muscular vaginae each armed with a full crown of 16–18 robust spines and a unique dorsal region of folded tegument, which permits their discrimination from species of Bivagina Yamaguti, 1963. Sequencing of the SSU rDNA (complete 1968 bp) and LSU rDNA (partial 949 bp) places the specimens collected during this study within the subfamily Microcotylinae, but the LSU rDNA sequence differs from Bivagina and also from other microcotylid genera. Morphological features of B. heterospina sensu Mamaev et Parukhin, 1974 and the specimens collected from the current study are consistent with one another and represent a single species. The vaginal armature of these worms is unique and differs from all other genera within the Microcotylinae, including Bivagina, and its movement to Omanicotyle n. gen. to accommodate this species is proposed. Conclusions A new genus, Omanicotyle n. gen., is erected to accommodate Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina n. comb. which represents the first monogenean to be described from Omani marine waters. Given the pathogenic potential of microcotylids on captive held fish stocks, a full assessment of Omanicotyle heterospina n. gen. et n. comb. is now required before large-scale production commences. PMID:23758894

  11. First detailed data on metazoan parasites of the rare species short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi (Teleostei: Belonidae) from Tunisian coast, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-01-01

    Forty five specimens of the short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi, a rare belonid species largely confused with the garfish Belone belone from Tunisian coast Sea were examined for metazoan parasite. Nine metazoan parasites species were identified: one monogenean (Axine sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus retroflexus, Tergestia acanthocephala, Aponurus laguncula and Condylocotyla pilodora metacercaria), one copepod (Bomolochus bellones), one isopod (Irona nana), one acanthocephalan (Telosentis exiguus) and one nematod Hysterotylacium sp. Most of parasite species were new records for B. svetovidovi in Tunisia. In the parasite fauna of B. svetovidovi, digenean C. pilodora metacercaria was the most prevalent species (42%) followed by Monogenea Axine sp. (36%). The total length of the host did not influence parasitic infection in B. svetovidovi. The metazoan parasite composition of B. svetovidovi revealed great similarity than those of B. belone from Tunisia supporting same ecological behavior of both hosts.

  12. Seven new species within western Atlantic Starksia atlantica, S. lepicoelia, and S. sluiteri (Teleostei, Labrisomidae), with comments on congruence of DNA barcodes and species

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Castillo, Cristina I.; Weigt, Lee A.; Benjamin C., Victor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Specimens of Starksia were collected throughout the western Atlantic, and a 650-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase-c subunit I (COl) was sequenced as part of a re-analysis of species diversity of western Central Atlantic shorefishes. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from the sequence data suggests the existence of several cryptic species. Voucher specimens from each genetically distinct lineage and color photographs of vouchers taken prior to dissection and preservation were examined for diagnostic morphological characters. The results suggest that Starksia atlantica, Starksia lepicoelia, and Starksia sluiteri are species complexes, and each comprises three or more species. Seven new species are described. DNA data usually support morphological features, but some incongruence between genetic and morphological data exists. Genetic lineages are only recognized as species if supported by morphology. Genetic lineages within western Atlantic Starksia generally correspond to geography, such that members of each species complex have a very restricted geographical distribution. Increasing geographical coverage of sampling locations will almost certainly increase the number of Starksia species and species complexes recognized in the western Atlantic. Combining molecular and morphological investigations is bringing clarity to the taxonomy of many genera of morphologically similar fishes and increasing the number of currently recognized species. Future phylogenetic studies should help resolve species relationships and shed light on patterns of speciation in western Atlantic Starksia. PMID:21594143

  13. A new genus and species of blind sleeper (Teleostei: Eleotridae) from Oaxaca, Mexico: First obligate cave gobiiform in the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Chakrabarty, Prosanta

    2016-01-01

    Caecieleotris morrisi, new genus and species of sleeper (family Eleotridae), is described from a submerged freshwater cave in a karst region of the northern portion of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, Río Papaloapan drainage, Gulf of Mexico basin. The new species represents the first cave-adapted sleeper known from the Western Hemisphere and is one of only 13 stygobitic gobiiforms known worldwide, with all others limited in distribution to the Indo-Pacific region. The new taxon represents a third independent evolution of a hypogean lifestyle in sleepers, the others being two species ofOxyeleotris (O. caeca and O. colasi) from New Guinea and a single species, Bostrychus microphthalmus, from Sulawesi. Caecieleotris morrisi, new species, is distinguished from epigean eleotrids of the Western Atlantic in lacking functional eyes and body pigmentation, as well as having other troglomorphic features. It shares convergent aspects of morphology with cave-dwelling species of Oxyeleotris and B. microphthalmus but differs from those taxa in lacking cephalic pores and head squamation, among other characters. Description of C. morrisi, new species, brings the total number of eleotrid species known from Mexico to 12. Seven of these, including the new species, occur on the Atlantic Slope.

  14. An invasive lineage of sculpins, Cottus sp. (Pisces, Teleostei) in the Rhine with new habitat adaptations has originated from hybridization between old phylogeographic groups

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Arne W; Freyhof, Jörg; Stemshorn, Kathryn C; Tautz, Diethard

    2005-01-01

    Fish abundance surveys in the Rhine system have shown in the past two decades that there is a rapid upriver invasion of a freshwater sculpin of the genus Cottus. These fish are found in habitats that are atypical for the known species Cottus gobio, which is confined to small cold streams within the Rhine drainage. Phylogeographic analysis based on mitochondrial haplotypes and diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms indicates that the invasive sculpins are hybrids between two old lineages from the River Scheldt drainage and the River Rhine drainage, although it is morphologically more similar to the Scheldt sculpins. Most importantly, however, the invasive population possesses a unique ecological potential that does not occur in either of the source populations from the Rhine or the Scheldt, which allows the colonization of new habitats that have previously been free of sculpins. Microsatellite analysis shows that the new lineage is genetically intermediate between the old lineages and that it forms a distinct genetic group across its whole expansion range. We conclude that hybridization between long separated groups has lead to the fast emergence of a new, adaptationally distinct sculpin lineage. PMID:16243698

  15. †Kenyaichthyidae fam. nov. and †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. – First Record of a Fossil Aplocheiloid Killifish (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Altner, Melanie; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes) with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group), a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised. PMID:25923654

  16. The median-fin skeleton of the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean clingfishes Lepadogaster lepadogaster (Bonnaterre) and Gouania wildenowi (Risso) (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae).

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Peter; Conway, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    Previous research on the osteology of the Gobiesocidae focused mostly on the neurocranium and the thoracic sucking disc (formed by the paired-fin girdles). Little attention has been paid to the skeleton of the median fins. The dorsal- and anal-fin skeleton of Lepadogaster lepadogaster and other gobiesocids (excluding Alabes, which lacks these fins) are characterized by the absence of spines, branched fin-rays, and middle radials. In gobiesocids, the distal radials never ossify and consist of elastic hyaline-cell cartilage. Gouania wildenowi is unique among gobiesocids in having further reductions of the dorsal- and anal-fin skeleton, including a notable decrease in the size of the proximal-middle radials in an anterior-posterior direction. Unlike L. lepadogaster, which exhibits a one-to-one relationship between the dorsal- and anal-fin rays and proximal-middle radials, G. wildenowi has a higher number of proximal-middle radials than distal radial cartilages and fin rays in the dorsal and anal fins. In G. wildenowi, the dorsal- and anal-fin rays do not articulate with the distal tip of the proximal-middle radials but are instead positioned between proximal-middle radials, which is unusual for teleosts. Previously unrecognized dorsal and ventral pads of elastic hyaline-cell cartilage are also present in the caudal skeleton of L. lepadogaster, G. wildenowi, and all other gobiesocids examined.

  17. Variation in thermal tolerance and routine metabolism among spring- and stream-dwelling freshwater sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, S.J.; Haney, D.C.; Timmerman, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that some aquatic organisms may adapt by directional selection to limiting physical environmental conditions, yet empirical data are conflicting. We sought to test the assumption that sculpins (family Cottidae) inhabiting thermally stable springs of the southeastern United States differ in temperature tolerance and metabolism from populations inhabiting more thermally labile stream habitats. Spring populations of pygmy sculpins (Coitus pygmaeus) and Ozark sculpins (C. hypselurus) differed interspecifically in thermal tolerance from populations of stream-dwelling mottled (C. bairdi) and Tallapoosa sculpins (C. tallapoosae), and both stream and spring populations of banded sculpins (C. carolinae). No intra- or interspecific differences in thermal tolerance were found among populations of C. bairdi, C. tallapoosae, or C. carolinae. Coitus pygmaeus acclimated to 15??C differed intraspecifically in routine metabolism from fish acclimated to 20?? and 25??C. Cottus pygmaeus and stream-dwelling C. bairdi and C. carolinae acclimated to temperatures of 20?? and 25??C showed no interspecific differences in routine metabolism. Our results suggest that some spring-adapted populations or species may be more stenothermal than stream-dwelling congeners, but a greater understanding of the interactions of other physical and biological factors is required to better explain micro- and macrohabitat distributions of eastern North American sculpins.

  18. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    PubMed Central

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus. PMID:24260631

  19. Sasanidus, a new generic name for Noemacheilus kermanshahensis Bănărescu & Nalbant, with discussion of Ilamnemacheilus and Schistura (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Geiger, Matthias F; Golzarianpour, Kiavash; Patimar, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Sasanidus, new genus, is described for Noemacheilus kermanshahensis Bănărescu & Nalbant, endemic to the Karkheh and Karun drainages in Iran. Sasanidus kermanshahensis was initially identified as a species in Oxynoemacheilus, from which it is distinguished by the absence of an external sexual dimorphism (i.e. longer pectoral fin, and nuptial tubercles on fins, head and back in males). Sasanidus is distinguished from all other genera of Nemacheilidae in the Middle East by a combination of the following character states: pelvic-fin origin behind of a vertical of the dorsal-fin origin, anus about one eye diameter in front of the anal-fin origin, dorsal adipose keel absent, a high crest on the bony capsule of the swim bladder present and colour pattern marbled or mottled or with an irregularly shaped midlateral stripe. Ilamnemacheilus longipinnis was examined and no difference could be found between Ilamnemacheilus and Oxynoemacheilus. Therefore, Ilamnemacheilus is treated as a synonym of Oxynoemacheilus. COI barcode sequences from all nemacheilid loach genera occurring in the Middle East and western India are analysed jointly for the first time. The view that Schistura is a paraphyletic assemblage is supported by the clustering of DNA sequences from 45 specimens placed in at least 20 species in the genus Schistura analysed here. PMID:27394805

  20. Revised diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Labeonini) with redescription of G. latius (Hamilton) and revalidation of G. wattanah (Sykes).

    PubMed

    Ciccotto, Patrick J; Page, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    A new diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland 1838 from South Asia is proposed. Seven species are contained in the genus: G. latius (Hamilton 1822), G. diplochilus (Heckel 1838), G. wattanah (Sykes 1839), G. macmahoni (Zugmayer 1912), G. burmanicus (Hora 1936), G. bicornis (Wu 1977), and G. periyarensis (Menon & Jacob 1996). Gonorhynchus latius, a senior synonym of the type species G. brevis M'Clelland 1839 is redescribed. Crossocheilus gohama (M'Clelland 1839) and Crossochilus rostratus Günther 1868 are considered junior synonyms of G. latius, and a neotype is designated for G. latius. Gonorhynchus wattanah (Sykes 1839) from the Krishna and Godavari River basins in western India is revalidated and redescribed with the designation of a neotype. Akrokolioplax Zhang & Kottelat 2006 is a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus. PMID:27395636

  1. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-04-12

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented.

  2. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jahdali, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

  3. Infrapopulations of Procamallanus elatensis Fusco & Overstreet, 1979 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Mohammed O

    2012-09-01

    Factors regulating gastrointestinal nematode infrapopulations are to a great extent density-dependent. Here, 23 natural infrapopulations (41-281 individuals) of the viviparous nematode Procamallanus elatensis (Camallanidae) from the fish Siganus rivulatus were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (posterior 55% of the intestine). Immature worms were mostly found in the anterior third of this niche, while mature worms were found in aggregations posterior to them and followed by gravid females in the posterior 20% of the intestine. This distribution strongly suggests that worms migrate towards the posterior intestine while they mature, copulate and reproduce. In small infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly female-biased and the number of gravid females was low. In large infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly male-biased and the number of gravid females was high. However, the mean lengths of both immature males and females and mature females decreased dramatically as the infrapopulation size increased, while those of mature males increased significantly. These results strongly suggest intraspecific competition and density-dependent regulation of mean worm length, and the increase in the mean length of mature males strongly suggests intense sexual selection and competition between mature males. Production of larvae by female worms decreased significantly as the infrapopulation size increased, suggesting a density-dependent reduction in female worm fertility. The results are statistically significant and strongly suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which development of immature worms, infrapopulation size, sex ratio, sexual selection and carrying capacity of the fundamental niche play essential roles in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations.

  4. The relationship between the position of the retinal area centralis and feeding behaviour in juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed Central

    Shand, J; Chin, S M; Harman, A M; Collin, S P

    2000-01-01

    The topography of the neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri changes during development. The region of high cell density the area centralis (AC), relocates from a temporal (central) to a dorsal (peripheral) position within the dorso-temporal retinal quadrant. To ascertain whether the differences in the position of the AC during development are related to feeding behaviour, we monitored fishes that were given a choice of food. A range of feeding behaviour patterns was recorded in individual fishes. The smallest fishes (8-15 mm standard length (SL)) took live food from the water column. Following weaning onto pellets, fishes exhibited a preference for taking food from either the substrate or the surface (but not both). When greater than 20 mm SL, a number of individuals then divided their time between surface and substrate feeding before all fishes became exclusive benthic feeders at a stage between 50 and 80 mm SL. Three individual fishes, for which behaviour patterns were categorized, were killed and the topography of the retinal ganglion cell layer analysed. A range of positions for the AC was found with the smallest fish (12 mm SL) possessing a region of high cell density in the temporal retina. In a larger fish (70 mm SL), feeding from both the substrate and the surface, the AC was found in an intermediate dorso-temporal position. The AC of a fish (51 mm SL) preferentially taking food from the substrate was located in a dorsal position. PMID:11079394

  5. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). PMID:23794919

  6. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2015-01-01

    A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopteruscurasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterusdicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopteruscurasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10-11, usually 11, in Coryphopteruscurasub, 10 in Coryphopterusdicrus). Coryphopteruscurasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopteruspunctipectophorus and Coryphopterusvenezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopteruscurasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterusvenezuelae at depths of 65-69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopteruscurasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented. PMID:26257572

  7. Re-description of two species of the cardinalfish genus Archamia (Teleostei: Apogonidae) from the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Gouws, Gavin; Mwale, Monica; Mwaluma, James

    2013-01-01

    The cardinalfishes Archamia bilineata and A. pallida were originally described from a small number of specimens collected in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea and Oman, respectively. Both species are re-described using specimens collected recently in Yemen and Kenya, including the first known adult of A. pallida. These new collections increased the geographical range of both species considerably. Differences between the two populations now known for each of the species are discussed. PMID:24614490

  8. Delimiting the Origin of a B Chromosome by FISH Mapping, Chromosome Painting and DNA Sequence Analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Duílio M. Z. de A.; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism. PMID:24736529

  9. Status of Gobiosoma (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Brazil: description of a new species, redescription of G. hemigymnum, molecular phylogeny of the genus, and key to Atlantic species.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, James L; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael Mariano; Tornabene, Luke

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how many species of Gobiosoma occur in Brazil and what their geographic distributions are. Here we combine data from a comprehensive morphological survey and a molecular analysis to clarify this uncertain taxonomy and place Brazilian Gobiosoma within a phylogenetic framework. Recent collections in Brazil, from the states of Ceará to Santa Catarina, and in Uruguay yielded two allopatric species of Gobiosoma that are distinct in genetics, meristics, morphometrics, scale pattern and coloration. Comparisons were made with types and specimens of Gobiosoma hemigymnum, Garmannia mediocricula, Gobiosoma spilotum and Gobiosoma parri and all other known species of Gobiosoma. We place G. parri in synonomy with G. hemigymnum with a distribution of Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay and Argentina. The northern species, that extends from the states of Espírito Santo to Ceará, is described as a new species, Gobiosoma alfiei. A key to the Atlantic species of Gobiosoma is provided. PMID:26623827

  10. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  11. Henneguya melini n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), a parasite of Corydoras melini (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Amazon region: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Patrick D; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2016-09-01

    A new species of myxozoan, Henneguya melini sp. n. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), was described based on morphologic and ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the ornamental freshwater fish C. melini from the Rio Negro, and it was found in five of 30 (16.7 %) C. melini examined. The parasite was found in the gill filaments, and the plasmodia had form of round to ellipsoid, with mature and immature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15.5 ± 0.2 μm in length, 4.7 ± 0.1 μm in width, and the tail measured 25.3 ± 0.1 μm in length. The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya, with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 4.8 ± 0.7 μm in length and 1.7 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament with five to six turns. Based on morphology (morphologic and ultrastructural data) of the plasmodia and spores and the fact that this is the first report of a Henneguya species in a fish species of the genus Corydoras, it was considered a new myxozoan species. PMID:27206653

  12. Pathological and histometric analysis of the gills of female Hyphessobrycon eques (Teleostei:Characidae) exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide Dimilin(®).

    PubMed

    Marcon, Lucas; Lopes, Diego Senra; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Goulart, Amara Manarino Andrade; Leandro, Mila Vasques; Dos Anjos Benjamin, Laércio

    2016-09-01

    Female individuals of Hyphessobrycon eques were exposed to Diflubenzuron (Dimilin(®)) in order to determine whether exposure to sublethal levels of this insecticide causes changes in gill morphology. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0mgL(-1) for 96h and 17 days and then submitted to pathological and histometric evaluation. Pathological lesions, such as hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, vascular congestion, secondary lamellar disarray, vasodilatation, hemorrhage and increased lamellar epithelium, were significantly more common in the gills of fish exposed to Dimilin(®) than the control. Histometric analysis documented significant changes in blood vessel diameter, primary lamellae width and secondary lamellae length, and the appearance of hemorrhage foci in all concentrations tested. Even at low Dimilin(®) concentrations, the histopathological alteration index was mild to moderate, thereby indicating that the function of this tissue was compromised. These findings indicate that indiscriminate use of Dimilin(®) can adversely affect the structural integrity of the gills of H. eques, which can cause numerous problems for fish farming systems. PMID:27232206

  13. A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Ketmaier, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated.

  14. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, M O

    2012-08-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40% of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for cross fertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by self-fertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size.

  15. Use of dynamic occupancy models to assess the response of Darters (Teleostei: Percidae) to varying hydrothermal conditions in a southeastern United States tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shea, C.P.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Potoka, K. M.; Saylor, C. F.; Shute, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    During the past 100 years, most large rivers in North America have been altered for flood control, hydropower, navigation or water supply development. Although these activities clearly provide important human services, their associated environmental disturbances can profoundly affect stream-dwelling organisms. We used dynamic multi-species occupancy models combined with a trait-based approach to estimate the influence of site-level and species-level characteristics on patch dynamic rates for 15 darter species native to the Elk River, a large, flow-regulated Tennessee River tributary in Tennessee and Alabama. Dynamic occupancy modelling results indicated that for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, darters were 3.94 times more likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. Additionally, large-bodied darter species were 3.72 times more likely to colonize stream reaches compared with small-bodied species, but crevice-spawning darter species were 5.24 times less likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. In contrast, darters were 2.21 times less likely to become locally extinct for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, but high stream discharge conditions elevated the risk of local extinction. Lastly, the presence of populations in neighbouring upstream study reaches contributed to a lower risk of extinction, whereas the presence of populations in neighbouring downstream study reaches contributed to higher rates of colonization. Our study demonstrates the application of a trait-based approach combined with a metapopulation framework to assess the patch dynamics of darters in a regulated river. Results from our study will provide a baseline for evaluating the ecological consequences of alternative dam operations.

  16. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala.

  17. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Cavisomidae), from Siganus lineatus (Pisces, Teleostei, Siganidae) (Valenciennes, 1835) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an ultrastructural study of Cavisoma magnum (Acanthocephala, Cavisomatidae) with a Transmission Electron Microscopy tool. This parasite of the fish Siganus lineatus is here reported for the first time from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. It is the first study describing the ultrastructure, spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of a species of the family Cavisomatidae. The young spermatid of C. magnum possesses a centriole constituted of doublets without a central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Then the flagellum migration occurs and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The distribution and the size of the protein granules are reported and the posterior extremity appears like a chromatin lamina wave. Comparative ultrastructural data are presented on sperm and spermiogenesis of the Acanthocephala and Rotifers examined to date and the phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  18. Infrapopulations of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said

    2012-03-01

    In infrapopulations of helminth parasites, density-dependent effects, through some form of intra- and interspecific competition, play an important role in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. The mechanisms responsible for these processes have often been observed in laboratory studies and rarely studied under natural conditions. Here, 24 natural infrapopulations (77-447 individuals) of the acanthocephalan Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisted of cystacanths, newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms, distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 60% of the intestine). Each of these stages exhibited a significantly different longitudinal distribution within this niche. In small infrapopulations, cystacanths and newly excysted juveniles were found in the sixth 10% of the intestine, immature worms in the fifth 10% and mature worms in the anterior 40% of the intestine. However, their proportions followed a clear ascending order in each infrapopulation, and the female-male ratios of both immature and mature worms were distinctly female-biased. In large infrapopulations, mature worms existed partially in the site of immature ones, where a differential mortality among immature females was constantly observed. However, the proportions of immature worms increased significantly and those of mature worms decreased significantly, the mean lengths of immature and mature females decreased dramatically and the female-male ratios were distinctly male-biased. The mean sizes of immature and mature males seemed stable through all infrapopulations. The distribution of mature males and females suggests intense male-male competition for access to females, and reveals that larger females are copulated prior to the smaller ones. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which immature females may play a key role.

  19. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included.

  20. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  1. Multi-locus sequence data reveal a new species of coral reef goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota), and evidence of Pliocene vicariance across the Coral Triangle.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, L; Valdez, S; Erdmann, M V; Pezold, F L

    2016-05-01

    Here, multi-locus sequence data are coupled with observations of live colouration to recognize a new species, Eviota punyit from the Coral Triangle, Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimation indicates a Pliocene origin for the new species, and the current distribution of the new species and its sister species Eviota sebreei supports a scenario of vicariance across the Indo-Pacific Barrier, followed by subsequent range expansion and overlap in the Coral Triangle. These results are consistent with the 'centre of overlap' hypothesis, which states that the increased diversity in the Coral Triangle is due in part to the overlapping ranges of Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas. These findings are discussed in the context of other geminate pairs of coral reef fishes separated by the Indo-Pacific Barrier. PMID:27021219

  2. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala. PMID:22307764

  3. Ultrastructural Studies of Germ Cell Development and the Functions of Leydig Cells and Sertoli Cells associated with Spermatogenesis in Kareius bicoloratus (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Kim, Sung Hwan; Chung, Jae Seung

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructures of germ cells and the functions of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis inmale Kareius bicoloratus (Pleuronectidae) were investigated by electron microscope observation. Each of the well-developed Leydig cells during active maturation division and before spermiation contained an ovoid vesicular nucleus, a number of smooth endoplasmic reticula, well-developed tubular or vesicular mitochondrial cristae, and several lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. It is assumed that Leydig cells are typical steroidogenic cells showing cytological characteristics associated with male steroidogenesis. No cyclic structural changes in the Leydig cells were observed through the year. However, although no clear evidence of steroidogenesis or of any transfer of nutrients from the Sertoli cells to spermatogenic cells was observed, cyclic structural changes in the Sertoli cells were observed over the year. During the period of undischarged germ cell degeneration after spermiation, the Sertoli cells evidenced a lysosomal system associated with phagocytic function in the seminiferous lobules. In this study, the Sertoli cells function in phagocytosis and the resorption of products originating from degenerating spermatids and spermatozoa after spermiation. The spermatozoon lacks an acrosome, as have been shown in all teleost fish spermatozoa. The flagellum or sperm tail of this species evidences the typical 9+2 array of microtubules. PMID:27294207

  4. Genetic Heterogeneity Reveals On-Going Speciation and Cryptic Taxonomic Diversity of Stream-Dwelling Gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Middle Danubian Hydrosystem (Hungary)

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy. PMID:24824751

  5. Three new species of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the longtail silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Galli, Paolo; Kritsky, Delane C

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-one specimens of the longtailed silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Gerreidae) were examined for dactylogyrid parasites from the Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area, Ras Mohammed National Park (Red Sea) near Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. The diagnosis of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 was amended, and three new species, P. federicae n. sp., P. zullinii n. sp. and P. alatus n. sp., were recovered and described; the prevalence of each species was 100%. P. federicae most closely resembled P. alienus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, but differed from it by possessing two anteromedial projections on the ventral bar, a claw-like ventral anchor sclerite and spatulate dorsal bars. P. zullini was most similar to P. quadratus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, from which it differed by having a distal hook on the superficial root of the dorsal anchor, an evenly curved ventral anchor shaft and point, and a flange on the bulbous base of the male copulatory organ. P. alatus was closest to P. youngi Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, from which it differed by having delicate anchors and two prominent anteromedial processes on the ventral bar.

  6. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mayden, Richard L.; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  7. Comparative histochemistry of the mucoproteic cells of the hypophysis from Rhamdia hilarii, Hypostomus punctatus, Prochilodus scrofa and Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei). Immunohistochemical identification of the gonadotropic cells.

    PubMed

    Val-Sella, M V; Fava-De-Moraes, F; Wakabayashi, K

    1988-01-01

    Adenohypophyseal cells showing positive histochemical reactions for mucosubstances were classified as type I-IV in Hypostomus (Plecostomus) punctatus (Loricariidae), Rhamdia hilarii (Pimelolidae), Prochilodus scrofa (Prochilodontidae) and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) according to cell shape, size, cytological characteristics and adenohypophyseal distribution. Cell types I and II are common to the four species, with each cell type showing very similar cytological and histochemical characteristics, in spite of different adenohypophyseal distribution of cell type II, according to the teleost species. Type I cells are globular basophils located in the proximal pars ditalis and are positive to PAS and Alcian blue pH 2.5 (AB) reactions, showing cytoplasmic vacuoles and changes in granule concentration in the mature phase of the gonadal cycle. The smaller type II cells are fusiform or oval basophils exhibiting a strong AB reaction but also reacting to PAS. Type III cells are located in the pars intermedia showing PAS-positive reaction. Considering different teleost species, these cells exhibit some variations specially in relation to cell size and shape which are not detected in mature male C. carpio. Otherwise cell type IV is only present in the rostral pars distalis of P. scrofa. They are weakly basophilic and negative to PAS, reacting strongly to AB. Only cell type I showed unequivocally positive immunohistochemical results with anti-salmon gonadotropin.

  8. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683

  9. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil.Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of Hypostomus regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of Hypostomus regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin. PMID:24260625

  10. Larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the sole fish Paralichthys isosceles Jordan, 1890 (Pisces: Teleostei) from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Felizardo, N N; Menezes, R C; Tortelly, R; Knoff, M; Pinto, R M; Gomes, D C

    2009-12-01

    Sixty specimens of Paralichthys isosceles captured in the southeastern Brazilian coast were investigated for helminths from October 2006 to March 2008. One thousand eight hundred and twenty larvae (third and fourth stages) of Hysterothylacium sp. were recovered from the abdominal cavity, free or inserted in the mesentery, intestine, stomach, stomach wall, liver, spleen, ovaries, and serosas of heart, kidneys, ovaries and abdominal musculature. Gross lesions appeared as nodules in the stomach mucosa and intestinal serosa. Histological examination of these nodules revealed sections of Hysterothylacium sp. larvae inserted in the abdominal musculature, in the submucosa, muscular and serosa layers of the stomach and intestine. Associated granulomas consisted of fibrous connective tissue, macrophages and lymphocytes that surrounded, besides the larvae, necrotic material and tunnels with acidophilic lining, sometimes devoid of inflammatory reaction. The pathological alterations as well as the occurrence of Hysterothylacium sp. are reported for the first time in this host. The parasitic indexes refer to a prevalence of 100%, mean intensity of 30.3, mean abundance of 32 and range of intensity variation from 1 to 596. PMID:19713041

  11. Sequence and expression of an α-amylase gene in four related species of prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and species-level effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kelly H; Horn, Michael H; Sosa, Abraham E; German, Donovan P

    2014-02-01

    Partial α-amylase gene sequences were determined and α-amylase gene expression was quantified in four species of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous prickleback fishes (family Stichaeidae) to assess the effects of ontogeny, diet, and species on expression of this gene. Pairwise comparison of α-amylase nucleotide sequences revealed 96-98 % identity, and comparison of amino acid portions revealed 93-95 % similarity among the four prickleback species. Expression was determined using in situ hybridization and intensity of expression quantified using image analysis. Alpha-amylase expression level was compared in three feeding categories of the four species: (1) small, wild-caught carnivorous juveniles; (2) larger, wild-caught juveniles of the carnivorous species and the three that had shifted to herbivory or omnivory; and (3) larger, juveniles produced by feeding a low-starch artificial diet to small juveniles until they reached the size of the larger wild-caught juveniles. The results showed no dietary effect in any species but significant ontogenetic and species-level effects in Cebidichthys violaceus, as well as in the sister species Xiphister mucosus and X. atropurpureus. Based on a phylogeny for the Stichaeidae produced for this study using two mtDNA genes and one nuclear gene, the ontogenetic dietary shifts to herbivory/omnivory evolved independently in C. violaceus and in the clade containing the two species of Xiphister. All three of these species increased α-amylase gene expression with increase in size and had higher expression than Anoplarchus purpurescens, which is a member of a third, stichaeid clade comprising carnivores. These results show the importance of α-amylase in the herbivores and omnivores.

  12. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions. PMID:22786649

  13. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    PubMed

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone as two management units.

  14. A new species of Ituglanis from the Rio Xingu Basin, Brazil, and the evolution of pelvic fin loss in trichomycterid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the trichomycterid catfish genus Ituglanis is described from the Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Rio Amazonas drainage, Brazil. Ituglanis apteryx, new species, is promptly distinguished from congeners, except some specimens of I. parahybae (Eigenmann), by the absence of pelvic fins, girdle, and muscles. The new species differs from I. parahybae in the pattern of the cephalic laterosensory system; the absence of a posterior cranial fontanel; the presence of an epural; and the number of branchiostegal rays, ribs, and vertebrae. Ituglanis apteryx is one among the several trichomycterids lacking pelvic fins. Analysis reveals that pelvic fin loss independently evolved several times during the trichomycterid radiation. PMID:24869879

  15. Salmo kottelati, a new species of trout from Alakır Stream, draining to the Mediterranean in southern Anatolia, Turkey (Teleostei, Salmonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Davut; Doğan, Esra; Kaya, Cüneyt; Kanyılmaz, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Salmo kottelati sp. n., is described from Alakır Stream (Mediterranean basin) in Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Salmo species by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): general body colour greenish to silvery in life; 7–9 parr marks along lateral line; four dark bands on flank absent in both sexes; black ocellated spots few, present only on upper part of flank in individuals smaller than 160 mm SL but in larger both males and females black spots numerous and located on back and middle and upper part of flank; red spots few to numerous, scattered on median, and half of lower and upper part of flank; head long (length 29–33% SL in males, 26–32 in females); mouth large (length of mouth gape 13–19% SL in males, 12–15 in females); maxilla long (length 10–13% SL in males, 8–12 in females); 105–113 lateral line scales; 24–29 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin, 17–19 scale rows between lateral line and anal-fin origin; 13–15 scales between lateral line and adipose-fin insertion. PMID:25589858

  16. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  17. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  18. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here.

  19. Balitora chipkali, a new species of stone loach (Teleostei: Balitoridae) from the northern Western Ghats of India, with a note on the distribution of B. laticauda.

    PubMed

    Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Balitora chipkali, a new species of stone loach, is described from the westward-flowing Astoli tributary of the Kali River system in the northern part of the Western Ghats, India. The species differs from its congeners in a combination of characters that includes: a single pair of maxillary barbels; a large eye, of diameter greater than 15% head length (HL); snout length less than 4 times eye diameter; gape of mouth less than 30% HL; upper lip with 9-12 papillae in first series and 3-8 papillae in second series; flattened body, of depth less than 15% standard length; caudal-peduncle length less than three times its depth, 66-68 lateral line scales, 11 caudal vertebrae excluding compound centrum, third infraorbital sensory canal tube straight; and a distinct color pattern with almost round 7 dorsal saddles not reaching lateral irregular crossbar markings. Balitora chipkali forms a monophyletic group with B. laticauda as its sister taxon in a phylogeny based on a concatenated cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene fragments. Raw genetic distance between B. chipkali and B. laticauda was 1.9-2.2% based on COI and 3.4-4.3% based on Cytb partial gene sequences, which was far more than the intra-species variation in widely separated populations of B. laticauda. Based on molecular and morphological analysis, we also provide new locality records for B. laticauda and delimit its distribution to eastward-flowing tributaries of the Krishna River system in the northern Western Ghats. PMID:27470757

  20. Revision of Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) with the description of A. zhangi n. sp. from Epinephelus fasciatus (Teleostei: Serranidae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun

    2004-11-01

    Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 is revised to include capsalid species with five radial septa in the haptor. Megalocotyloides Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967 and Allosprostonia Lawler & Hargis, 1968 are considered junior synonyms of Allobenedenia. Eight described species comprise the genus: A. convoluta (Yamaguti, 1937) Yamaguti, 1963 (type-species), A. epinepheli (Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967) n. comb., A. patagonica (Evdokimova, 1969) n. comb., A. pedunculata Raju & Rao, 1980, A. pseudomarginata (Bravo-Hollis, 1958) n. comb., A. sebastodi (Egorova, 1994) n. comb., A. yamagutii (Egorova, 1994) n. comb. and A. zhangi n. sp. A. ishikawae (Goto, 1894) Yamaguti, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda; Megalocotyloides hongkongensis Wu, Lu & Woo, 2002 is placed in synonymy with A. yamagutii; M. grandiloba (Paperna & Kohn, 1964) Egorova & Aleshkina, 1984 is provisionally returned to Megalocotyle as M. grandiloba Paperna & Kohn, 1964; and specimens identified as M. grandiloba from Serranus cabrilla (Serranidae) by Buhrnheim et al. (1973) are considered an undescribed species of Allobenedenia. A. zhangi n. sp. is described from the external surface of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) of Allobenedenia. A. zhangi n. sp. is described from the external surface of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) in the South China Sea and is characterised by having an elongtate proximally uncoiled male copulatory organ extending to near the level of the anterior margin of the ovary, a large prostatic reservoir apparently external to the male copulatory canal, and a submedial protuberance on the dorsal surface of the accessory sclerite of the haptor.

  1. Partitioning of Habitat and Prey by Abundant and Similar-sized Species of the Triglidae and Pempherididae (Teleostei) in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platell, M. E.; Potter, I. C.

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether certain co-occurring and abundant species of the teleost families Triglidae and Pempherididae are segregated spatially and/or by diet, and are thus less likely to be susceptible to competition for resources. Nocturnal otter trawling in shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters in four regions along ˜200 km of the south-western Australian coastline collected large numbers of a wide size range of the triglids Lepidotrigla modestaand Lepidotrigla papilioand the pempheridids Pempheris klunzingeriand Parapriacanthus elongatus. Although these four species frequently co-occurred at several sites, each species attained its highest density at different sites, thereby representing a partial segregation of these species by habitat. This even occurred with the congeneric triglid species, with L. modestabeing most abundant in the four deep, offshore sites, while L. papiliowas most numerous at three sites which varied in depth and distance from shore. Although triglids and pempheridids both consumed substantial amounts of amphipods and mysids, only the members of the latter family ingested a large amount of errant polychaetes. The latter difference is assumed to reflect the fact that, in comparison with triglids, pempheridids can swim faster, have a mouth adapted for feeding upwards in the water column and feed at night when errant polychaetes emerge from the substratum. Although the dietary compositions of L. modestaand L. papiliodid not differ significantly when analyses were based on dietary data for all sites, they did differ significantly when analyses were restricted to dietary data obtained when both species were abundant and co-occurred. The likelihood of competition for food is thus reduced in the latter circumstances. In comparison with P. klunzingeri, P. elongatusconsumed a relatively larger volume of amphipods and a relatively smaller volume of mysids, which are more mobile, implying that P. elongatusfeeds to a greater extent on rather than above the substratum surface. The diets of all species underwent ontogenetic changes, which were particularly marked in P. klunzingeriwhere an increase in body size was accompanied by a reduced consumption of mysids and an increased ingestion of errant polychaetes and amphipods. The fact that L. modesta, L. papilio, P. klunzingeriand P. elongatusare partially segregated by habitat and feed on suites of prey which differ in composition, allied with an interfamilial difference in the time of feeding, would reduce the likelihood of competition for resources amongst these four species, when they co-occur and are abundant. Furthermore, ontogenetic changes in diet would reduce the potential for intraspecific competition for food.

  2. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a broad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions. PMID:25297074

  3. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  4. The Gastric Phenotype in the Cypriniform Loaches: A Case of Reinvention?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Odete; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Smolka, Adam J.; Fontainhas, António

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2–3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade. In the present study, the foregut regions of Cobitidae, Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae and the ancestral Botiidae family members were examined for the presence of gastric glands and gastric proton pump (Atp4a) α subunit expression by histology and immunohistochemistry respectively. Atp4a gene expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gastric glands expressing apical H+/K+-ATPase α subunit and isolated partial sequences of atp4a, identified using degenerate primers showing clear orthology to other vertebrate atp4a sequences, were detected in representative species from Nemacheilidae/ Balitoridae and Botiidae, but not Cobitidae (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). In summary, we provide evidence for an uninterrupted gastric evolutionary lineage in the Cobitoidea, making it highly improbable that the stomach was reinvented in the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae clade consistent with Dollo’s principle. These results also indicate that the gastric trait may be present elsewhere in the Cobitoidea. PMID:27783698

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    PubMed

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. PMID:21457476

  6. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  7. [Fish infection with Opisthorchis larvae in Russia and some contiguous countries (by the materials of the "Cadaster of opisthorchis infection foci in Russia in 1994"].

    PubMed

    Fattakhov, R G

    2002-01-01

    A cadastre of opisthorchiasis foci with places under study and specious fish invasion with larvae of this helminthiasis has been first drawn up. Opisthorchis larvae have been found to be recorded in 23 species and 2 subspecies of the Cyprinidae family and 1 species of the Cobitidae family. The cadastre permits the areas epidemiologically hazardous due to opisthorchiasis to be determined. The data on fish species-specific infection in different river basins may render a great deal of aid to sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance workers in implementing preventive measures in specific regions. PMID:12224260

  8. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Palau, Moorea, Wallis, New Caledonia, and Australia: species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and Aliatrema n. gen.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Laetitia; Kritsky, Delane C

    2004-04-01

    Seven species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and 1 species of Aliatrema n. gen. (Monogenoidea; Dactylogyridae) are described and reported from the gills of 15 species of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Moorea (French Polynesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), Heron and Lizard (Australia), Palau (Micronesia), and New Caledonia: Aliatrema cribbi n. sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chaetodon ulietensis, Chaetodon vagabundus, Forcipiger flavisissimus, and Heniochus chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides annulocirrus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. lunula, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides aspistis n. sp. from C. auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, C. lunula, Chaetodon reticulatus, C. ulietensis, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides berenguelae n. sp. from C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ornatissimus, and F. flavisissimus; Euryhaliotrematoides grandis n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon kleinii, Chaetodon lineolatus, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides microphallus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. reticulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides pirulum n. sp. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. lunula, C. trifasciatus, and C. vagabundus; and Euryhaliotrematoides triangulovagina n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, H. chrysostomus, and Hemitaurichthys polylepis. All reports of previously described species are new locality records. With exceptions of E. grandis and E. annulocirrus on C. auriga and C. lunula and E. triangulovagina and E. microphallus on C. auriga, all reports are new host records. Haliotrema hainanensis and H. affinis are considered junior subjective synonyms of E. triangulovagina and E. annulocirrus, respectively. Aliatrema n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids with tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base but lacking an accessory piece, and a dextral vaginal pore. Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids having tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base, a vas deferens looping the left intestinal cecum, and a dextral vaginal pore.

  9. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. PMID:25557749

  10. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  11. Cytogenetic comparison between two allopatric populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti et Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae), with emphasis on the localization of 18S and 5S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Rosiley Berton; da Rosa, Renata; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Júlio Jr., Horácio Ferreira; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000) of the Água dos Patos stream/SP and lake Igapó/PR were analyzed. All individuals showed 2n = 50, however, different karyotypic formulae were observed. The population of the Água dos Patos stream showed 8m +24sm+6st+12a (NF=88) and the population of lake Igapó, 8m+28sm+4st+10a (NF=90). Nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) were observed in the terminal position on the short and long arm of different chromosomes of both populations, showing a variation from 3 to 4 chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probes revealed only one pair of chromosomes with fluorescent signals in the terminal site on the short arm in the Igapó lake population, while the population of Água dos Patos stream showed 4 fluorescence terminal signals, characterizing a system of simple and multiple NORs, respectively. 5S rDNA fluorescent signals were detected in the interstitial position of a pair of chromosomes in the two studied populations. Some AgNOR sites revealed to be GC-rich when stained with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), however, AT positive regions were not observed. The data obtained show that, despite the conservation of the diploid number and location of 5S DNAr, differences in both the distribution of 18S rDNA and karyotypic formula among the populations were found, thus corroborating the existing data on chromosome variability in Astyanax altiparanae that can be significant for cytotaxonomy in this group. PMID:24260632

  12. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus’ revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus’ within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus’ within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus’ within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone as two management units. PMID:27463811

  13. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dohle, Angelika; Schmahl, Günter; Raether, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Hartmut; Ritter, Günter

    2002-09-01

    When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g/1000 g food) or salinomycin (0.075 g/1000 g food) was given once a day to naturally infected fish in a food chain via water fleas ( Daphnia spp) for a period of 3, 6, or 9 days. From the monitored feeding of the tapir fish and weight determinations of the water fleas, it was calculated that gross uptake was 18.5 micro g/kg body weight fish daily for pure salinomycin and was 1.25 mg/kg body weight daily for quinine. After the end of the experiments, the fish were sacrificed and the plasmodia were carefully prepared from the gill arches and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As seen by ultrastructure investigations, for both substances the grade of damage in the parasites correlated positively with the period of application. When quinine was given for a 3-day period, the trophozoite ecto- and endoplasm exerted numerous vacuoles, caused by the drug, and the presporogonous and the pansporoblastic stages were malformed. Following a 6-day period, numerous abortive polar capsules were found in the trophozoite cytoplasm. To a large extent, the limiting membranes of the polaroblasts and valvogenic cells were destroyed. In addition, deep clefts between the polaroblasts, the valvogenic cells and between the two sporoblasts were observed. Following a 9-day treatment, all damage increased and, in addition, generative cells and two-cell stages were no longer detectable. As a first sign for the effects of salinomycin, following a 3-day treatment, a shrinking of the whole plasmodia occurred and the sutures in the pansporoblasts were enlarged. The polar capsules were malformed and the zonar structures of the polar filament were no longer detectable. The sporoplasmosomes were more electron-pale than those of the control samples. After a 9-day treatment, the pansporoblasts were completely destroyed. Under the experimental conditions chosen, both compounds were very well tolerated by the fishes.

  14. Cytogenetic comparison between two allopatric populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti et Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae), with emphasis on the localization of 18S and 5S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Rosiley Berton; da Rosa, Renata; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Júlio, Horácio Ferreira; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000) of the Água dos Patos stream/SP and lake Igapó/PR were analyzed. All individuals showed 2n = 50, however, different karyotypic formulae were observed. The population of the Água dos Patos stream showed 8m +24sm+6st+12a (NF=88) and the population of lake Igapó, 8m+28sm+4st+10a (NF=90). Nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) were observed in the terminal position on the short and long arm of different chromosomes of both populations, showing a variation from 3 to 4 chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probes revealed only one pair of chromosomes with fluorescent signals in the terminal site on the short arm in the Igapó lake population, while the population of Água dos Patos stream showed 4 fluorescence terminal signals, characterizing a system of simple and multiple NORs, respectively. 5S rDNA fluorescent signals were detected in the interstitial position of a pair of chromosomes in the two studied populations. Some AgNOR sites revealed to be GC-rich when stained with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), however, AT positive regions were not observed. The data obtained show that, despite the conservation of the diploid number and location of 5S DNAr, differences in both the distribution of 18S rDNA and karyotypic formula among the populations were found, thus corroborating the existing data on chromosome variability in Astyanax altiparanae that can be significant for cytotaxonomy in this group.

  15. Deep-sea bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes (Teleostei: Stephanoberycoidei) off Brazil: new records, range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean and remarks on the taxonomy of Poromitra.

    PubMed

    Mincarone, M M; Di Dario, F; Costa, P A S

    2014-11-01

    The Stephanoberycoidei includes 23 genera and c. 94 species of deep-sea teleosts commonly known as bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes. Stephanoberycoidei is one of the least known groups of deep-sea fishes, in spite of their apparent relative abundance in meso and bathypelagic depths. Nine species of the Stephanoberycoidei are reported here for the first time in Brazilian waters, and most of them represent new range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Those species are Melamphaes polylepis, Melamphaes typhlops, Poromitra sp. and Scopeloberyx robustus (Melamphaidae), Acanthochaenus luetkenii and Stephanoberyx monae (Stephanoberycidae), Rondeletia bicolor and Rondeletia loricata (Rondeletiidae) and Gyrinomimus sp. (Cetomimidae). Occurrences of the pricklefish Scopelogadus mizolepis (Melamphaidae), the gibberfish Gibberichthys pumilus (Gibberichthyidae) and the velvet whalefish Barbourisia rufa (Barbourisiidae) are confirmed in the Brazilian exclusive economic zone, but previously published records of Poromitra capito and Melamphaes simus (Melamphaidae) in the region most likely represent misidentifications. Validities of the recently described Poromitra kukuevi and Poromitra indooceanica are discussed in light of new specimens of the genus collected in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. An identification key for the 13 species of Stephanoberycoidei reported off Brazil is also provided.

  16. Deep-sea bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes (Teleostei: Stephanoberycoidei) off Brazil: new records, range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean and remarks on the taxonomy of Poromitra.

    PubMed

    Mincarone, M M; Di Dario, F; Costa, P A S

    2014-11-01

    The Stephanoberycoidei includes 23 genera and c. 94 species of deep-sea teleosts commonly known as bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes. Stephanoberycoidei is one of the least known groups of deep-sea fishes, in spite of their apparent relative abundance in meso and bathypelagic depths. Nine species of the Stephanoberycoidei are reported here for the first time in Brazilian waters, and most of them represent new range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Those species are Melamphaes polylepis, Melamphaes typhlops, Poromitra sp. and Scopeloberyx robustus (Melamphaidae), Acanthochaenus luetkenii and Stephanoberyx monae (Stephanoberycidae), Rondeletia bicolor and Rondeletia loricata (Rondeletiidae) and Gyrinomimus sp. (Cetomimidae). Occurrences of the pricklefish Scopelogadus mizolepis (Melamphaidae), the gibberfish Gibberichthys pumilus (Gibberichthyidae) and the velvet whalefish Barbourisia rufa (Barbourisiidae) are confirmed in the Brazilian exclusive economic zone, but previously published records of Poromitra capito and Melamphaes simus (Melamphaidae) in the region most likely represent misidentifications. Validities of the recently described Poromitra kukuevi and Poromitra indooceanica are discussed in light of new specimens of the genus collected in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. An identification key for the 13 species of Stephanoberycoidei reported off Brazil is also provided. PMID:25315883

  17. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  18. Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Francisco J DE; Ribeiro, Douglas R M

    2016-09-01

    †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632). The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines). Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.