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Sample records for cochrane review interventions

  1. Usefulness of Cochrane intervention reviews for the practicing dermatologic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Alam, Murad

    2013-09-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration produces systematic, evidence-based reviews of clinically relevant topics in medicine, including those relevant to dermatologic surgery. To assess the utility of Cochrane reviews for practicing dermatologic surgeons. Search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on February 20, 2012 for topics relevant to dermatologic surgery. Assessment of clinical recommendations with regard to their likelihood to affect medical decision-making in clinical dermatologic surgery. Fifteen Cochrane reviews met the search criteria; three offered positive conclusions regarding the comparative effectiveness of different therapies for the same indications. Cochrane reviews offer outstandingly complete evidence-based summaries of their topics. As such, the methodology of Cochrane reviews is a model for reviews in dermatologic surgery. Because of the dearth of high-level evidence in dermatologic surgery, the ability of Cochrane reviews to provide specific recommendations remains limited. Furthermore, dermatologic surgery may be inherently difficult to study because of the rapid evolution of procedures, intraprocedure complexity and variation, difficulties inherent in randomizing patients to interventions, and intersurgeon skill variation. That being said, the dermatologic surgery literature continues to improve and grow, and investigators are now broaching the special challenges associated with research in this area. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Interventions for tophi in gout: a Cochrane systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sriranganathan, Melonie K; Vinik, Ophir; Falzon, Louise; Bombardier, Claire; van der Heijde, Desiree M; Edwards, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    To systematically review the available literature on the management of tophi in gout. This article is based on the Cochrane Review Interventions for Tophi in Gout published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched using a strategy developed with an experienced librarian. We also searched American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism conference abstracts from 2010-2011. Included articles were reviewed in detail and a risk of bias (using the Cochrane tool) and quality assessment were performed. In total, 3206 references were recovered. Of these, 72 articles were selected based on our inclusion criteria. This included 1 report of 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized studies, and 69 case series and reports. The study with 2 randomized controlled trials looked at pegloticase. This showed improvement in tophi with treatment. One observational prospective trial looked at allopurinol and benzbromarone individually and in combination. It noted that achieving lower serum urate levels was associated with a faster reduction of tophi. An open-label extension trial noted that longterm maintenance of serum uric acid < 6.0 mg/dl with febuxostat led to a reduction in tophi. The case series and reports looked at surgical, pharmacological, and other interventions, as well as combination therapies. All surgical interventions reported improvement in pain and/or function. No report had objective measures of outcome. Treatment with urate-lowering therapy such as allopurinol, benzbromarone, allopurinol + benzbromarone in combination, febuxostat, or pegloticase can lead to reduction in tophi. There is some evidence that achieving a lower serum urate level leads to a faster rate of tophi reduction.

  3. Interventions for bronchiectasis: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Emma J; Evans, David J; Fowler, Stephen J; Spencer, Sally

    2015-07-14

    Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal dilatation of the bronchi, and presents typically with a chronic productive cough (or chronic wet cough in children) and recurrent infective exacerbations. It significantly impacts daily activities and quality of life, and can lead to recurrent hospitalisations, severe lung function impairment, respiratory failure and even death. To provide an overview of the efficacy and safety of interventions for adults and children with bronchiectasis from Cochrane reviews.To identify gaps in the evidence base that will inform recommendations for new research and reviews, and to summarise information on reported outcomes and make recommendations for the reporting of standard outcomes in future trials and reviews. We included Cochrane reviews of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search is current to 11 February 2015. We also identified trials that were potentially eligible for, but not currently included in, published reviews to make recommendations for new Cochrane reviews. We assessed the quality of included reviews using the AMSTAR criteria. We presented an evidence synthesis of data from reviews alongside an evidence map of clinical trials and guideline data. The primary outcomes were exacerbations, lung function and quality of life. We included 21 reviews but extracted data from, and rated the quality of, only nine reviews that reported results for people with bronchiectasis alone. Of the reviews with no usable data, two reviews included studies with mixed clinical populations where data were not reported separately for people with bronchiectasis and 10 reviews did not contain any trials. Of the 40 studies included across the nine reviews, three (number of participants nine to 34) included children. The studies ranged from single session to year-long studies. Each review included from one to 11 trials and 28 (70%) trials in the

  4. The Cochrane review of physiotherapy interventions for ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dagfinrud, Hanne; Kvien, Tore K; Hagen, Kåre B

    2005-10-01

    To update the Cochrane review on the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). All randomized studies available in systematic searches (electronic databases, contact with authors, reference lists) up to February 2004 were included. Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the validity of included trials, and extracted data. Investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Six trials with a total of 561 participants were included. Two trials compared individualized home exercise programs with no intervention. Low quality evidence for effects in favor of the home exercise program was found in physical function and spinal mobility [absolute benefit 10.3 cm on fingertip to floor distance; relative percentage difference (RPD) 37%)]. Further, the trials showed low quality evidence for no group differences in pain. Three trials compared supervised group physiotherapy with an individualized home exercise program. Moderate quality evidence for effectiveness was found in patient global assessment and spinal mobility in favor of the supervised group. The trials showed moderate quality evidence for no differences in pain intensity between the groups. One trial compared a 3-week inpatient spa-exercise therapy followed by weekly outpatient group physiotherapy with weekly outpatient group physiotherapy alone. Moderate quality evidence was found for effects in pain (absolute benefit 0.9 cm on visual analog scale; RPD 19%), physical function (absolute benefit 1 cm; RPD 24%), and patient global assessment (absolute benefit 1.3 cm; RPD 27%), in favor of the combined spa-exercise therapy. The current best available evidence suggests that physiotherapy is beneficial for people with AS. However, it is still not clear which treatment protocol should be recommended in the management of AS.

  5. Statistical multiplicity in systematic reviews of anaesthesia interventions: a quantification and comparison between Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Imberger, Georgina; Vejlby, Alexandra Damgaard; Hansen, Sara Bohnstedt; Møller, Ann M; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analyses often contain many statistical tests. This multiplicity may increase the risk of type I error. Few attempts have been made to address the problem of statistical multiplicity in systematic reviews. Before the implications are properly considered, the size of the issue deserves clarification. Because of the emphasis on bias evaluation and because of the editorial processes involved, Cochrane reviews may contain more multiplicity than their non-Cochrane counterparts. This study measured the quantity of statistical multiplicity present in a population of systematic reviews and aimed to assess whether this quantity is different in Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews. We selected all the systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Anaesthesia Review Group containing a meta-analysis and matched them with comparable non-Cochrane reviews. We counted the number of statistical tests done in each systematic review. The median number of tests overall was 10 (interquartile range (IQR) 6 to 18). The median was 12 in Cochrane and 8 in non-Cochrane reviews (difference in medians 4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-19.0). The proportion that used an assessment of risk of bias as a reason for doing extra analyses was 42% in Cochrane and 28% in non-Cochrane reviews (difference in proportions 14% (95% CI -8 to 36). The issue of multiplicity was addressed in 6% of all the reviews. Statistical multiplicity in systematic reviews requires attention. We found more multiplicity in Cochrane reviews than in non-Cochrane reviews. Many of the reasons for the increase in multiplicity may well represent improved methodological approaches and greater transparency, but multiplicity may also cause an increased risk of spurious conclusions. Few systematic reviews, whether Cochrane or non-Cochrane, address the issue of multiplicity.

  6. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as well as regular dialogue between

  7. Cochrane systematic reviews and co-publication: dissemination of evidence on interventions for ophthalmic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Hawkins, Barbara S; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-09-22

    Systematic reviews of interventions provide a summary of the evidence available on intervention effectiveness and harm. Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) have been published electronically in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) since 1994, and co-publication (publication of a Cochrane review in another journal) has been allowed since that time, as long as the co-publishing journal has agreed to the arrangement. Although standards for co-publication were established in 2008, the frequency of co-publication and adherence to the standards have remained largely unexamined. Our objective was to examine the frequency of co-publication of Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group (CEVG) reviews, adherence to the co-publication policy, the relative numbers of citations of the two modes of publishing, and differences in times cited in CSRs with and without a co-publication. We identified all CEVG reviews published by May 30, 2014 in The Cochrane Library. Using keywords from the title, author names, and "Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group", we searched Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases to identify possible co-publications. We also emailed contact authors of all identified CEVG reviews to ask them whether they had published their CSR elsewhere. We compared each co-publication to the corresponding CEVG review for adherence to the Cochrane Policy Manual (dated June 10, 2014). We recorded the number of times each CEVG review and each co-publication had been cited by others according to Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, as of June 11, 2014. We identified 117 CEVG reviews;19 had been co-published in 22 articles. Adherence to Cochrane policy on co-publication was moderate, with all authors complying with at least one of four requirements we addressed. Co-publications were cited more often than the corresponding CEVG reviews; CEVG reviews with at least one co-publication were cited approximately twice as often as CEVG reviews without a co

  8. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Janine A; Cadogan, Cathal A; Patterson, Susan M; Bradley, Marie C; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarise the findings of an updated Cochrane review of interventions aimed at improving the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people. Design Cochrane systematic review. Multiple electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from inception to November 2013). Hand searching of references was also performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series analyses reporting on interventions targeting appropriate polypharmacy in older people in any healthcare setting were included if they used a validated measure of prescribing appropriateness. Evidence quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Setting All healthcare settings. Participants Older people (≥65 years) with ≥1 long-term condition who were receiving polypharmacy (≥4 regular medicines). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were the change in prevalence of appropriate polypharmacy and hospital admissions. Medication-related problems (eg, adverse drug reactions), medication adherence and quality of life were included as secondary outcomes. Results 12 studies were included: 8 RCTs, 2 cluster RCTs and 2 controlled before-and-after studies. 1 study involved computerised decision support and 11 comprised pharmaceutical care approaches across various settings. Appropriateness was measured using validated tools, including the Medication Appropriateness Index, Beers’ criteria and Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP)/ Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START). The interventions demonstrated a reduction in inappropriate prescribing. Evidence of effect on hospital admissions and medication-related problems was conflicting. No differences in health-related quality of life were reported

  9. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about interventions for autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Lyra, Larissa; Rizzo, Luiz Eduardo; Sunahara, Camila Sá; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Latorraca, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz; Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. We included and summarized the results from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. Seventeen reviews were included. These found weak evidence of benefits from acupuncture, gluten and casein-free diets, early intensive behavioral interventions, music therapy, parent-mediated early interventions, social skill groups, Theory of Mind cognitive model, aripiprazole, risperidone, tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI); this last only for adults. No benefits were found for sound therapies, chelating agents, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, omega-3, secretin, vitamin B6/magnesium and SSRI for children. Acupuncture, gluten and casein-free diets, early intensive behavioral interventions, music therapy, parent-mediated early interventions, social skill groups and the Theory of Mind cognitive model seem to have benefits for patients with autism spectrum disorders (very low to low-quality evidence). Aripiprazole, risperidone, tricyclic antidepressants and SSRI (this last only for adults) also showed some benefits, although associated with higher risk of adverse events. Experimental studies to confirm a link between probable therapies and the disease, and then high-quality long-term clinical trials, are needed.

  10. Efficacy of interventions to combat tobacco addiction: Cochrane update of 2012 reviews.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Stead, Lindsay F; Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for-profit organization which produces and disseminates systematic reviews of health-care interventions. This paper is the first in a series of annual updates of Cochrane reviews on tobacco addiction interventions. It also provides an up-to-date overview of review findings in this area to date and summary statistics for cessation reviews in which meta-analyses were conducted. In 2012, the Group published seven new reviews and updated 13 others. This update summarizes and comments on these reviews. It also summarizes key findings from all the other reviews in this area. New reviews in 2012 found that in smokers using pharmacotherapy, behavioural support improves success rates [risk ratio (RR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.24], and that combining behavioural support and pharmacotherapy aids cessation (RR 1.82, 95% CI = 1.66-2.00). Updated reviews established mobile phones as potentially helpful in aiding cessation (RR 1.71, 95% CI = 1.47-1.99), found that cytisine (RR 3.98, 95% CI = 2.01-7.87) and low-dose varenicline (RR 2.09, 95% CI = 1.56-2.78) aid smoking cessation, and found that training health professionals in smoking cessation improves patient cessation rates (RR 1.60, 95% CI = 1.26-2.03). The updated reviews confirmed the benefits of nicotine replacement therapy, standard dose varenicline and providing cessation treatment free of charge. Lack of demonstrated efficacy remained for partner support, expired-air carbon monoxide feedback and lung function feedback. Cochrane systematic review evidence for the first time establishes the efficacy of behavioural support over and above pharmacotherapy, as well as the efficacy of cytisine, mobile phone technology, low-dose varenicline and health professional training in promoting smoking cessation. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:27462898

  12. Efficacy of interventions to combat tobacco addiction: Cochrane update of 2013 reviews.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Stead, Lindsay F; Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim

    2014-09-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for profit organization which produces and disseminates systematic reviews. This paper is the second in a series of annual updates of Cochrane reviews on tobacco addiction interventions, covering new and updated reviews from 2013. In 2013, the Group published two new reviews and updated 11 others. This update summarizes and comments on these reviews as well as on a review of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation in pregnant women, and presents pooled results from reviews of cessation interventions. New reviews in 2013 found: low-quality evidence that behavioural interventions with mood management components could significantly increase long-term quit rates in people with current [risk ratio (RR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.92) and past (RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.13-1.77] depression; evidence from network meta-analysis that varenicline and combined forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are associated with higher quit rates than bupropion or single-form NRT (varenicline versus single-form NRT odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% credibility interval (CredI) = 1.29-1.91; versus bupropion OR = 1.59, 95% CredI = 1.29-1.96); and no evidence of a significant increase in serious adverse events in trial participants randomized to varenicline or bupropion when compared to placebo controls. New evidence emerging from updated reviews suggests that counselling interventions can increase quit rates in pregnant women and that school-based smoking programmes with social competence curricula can lead to a significant reduction in uptake of smoking at more than a year. Updated reviews also suggested that naltrexone, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and St John's wort do not have a significant effect on long-term smoking cessation. Cochrane systematic review evidence from 2013 suggests that adding mood management to behavioural support may improve cessation outcomes in

  13. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Janine A; Cadogan, Cathal A; Patterson, Susan M; Kerse, Ngaire; Bradley, Marie C; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-12-09

    To summarise the findings of an updated Cochrane review of interventions aimed at improving the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people. Cochrane systematic review. Multiple electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from inception to November 2013). Hand searching of references was also performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series analyses reporting on interventions targeting appropriate polypharmacy in older people in any healthcare setting were included if they used a validated measure of prescribing appropriateness. Evidence quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). All healthcare settings. Older people (≥ 65 years) with ≥ 1 long-term condition who were receiving polypharmacy (≥ 4 regular medicines). Primary outcomes were the change in prevalence of appropriate polypharmacy and hospital admissions. Medication-related problems (eg, adverse drug reactions), medication adherence and quality of life were included as secondary outcomes. 12 studies were included: 8 RCTs, 2 cluster RCTs and 2 controlled before-and-after studies. 1 study involved computerised decision support and 11 comprised pharmaceutical care approaches across various settings. Appropriateness was measured using validated tools, including the Medication Appropriateness Index, Beers' criteria and Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP)/ Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START). The interventions demonstrated a reduction in inappropriate prescribing. Evidence of effect on hospital admissions and medication-related problems was conflicting. No differences in health-related quality of life were reported. The included interventions demonstrated improvements in appropriate polypharmacy based on

  14. Interventions for the prevention of OHSS in ART cycles: an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Selma; Brown, Julie; Farquhar, Cindy

    2017-01-23

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles is a treatment-induced disease that has an estimated prevalence of 20% to 33% in its mild form and 3% to 8% in its moderate or severe form. These numbers might even be higher for high-risk women such as those with polycystic ovaries or a high oocyte yield from ovum pickup. The objective of this overview is to identify and summarise all evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for prevention or treatment of moderate, severe and overall OHSS in couples with subfertility who are undergoing ART cycles. Published Cochrane systematic reviews reporting on moderate, severe or overall OHSS as an outcome in ART cycles were eligible for inclusion in this overview. We also identified Cochrane submitted protocols and title registrations for future inclusion in the overview. The evidence is current to 12 December 2016. We identified reviews, protocols and titles by searching the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Database of Systematic Reviews and Archie (the Cochrane information management system) in July 2016 on the effectiveness of interventions for outcomes of moderate, severe and overall OHSS. We undertook in duplicate selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment. We used the AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool to assess the quality of included reviews, and we used GRADE methods to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome. We summarised the characteristics of included reviews in the text and in additional tables. We included a total of 27 reviews in this overview. The reviews were generally of high quality according to AMSTAR ratings, and included studies provided evidence that ranged from very low to high in quality. Ten reviews had not been updated in the past three years. Seven reviews described interventions that provided a beneficial effect in reducing OHSS rates, and we categorised

  15. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction: a Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Barberio, Amanda M; Sumar, Nureen; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman R C; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-15

    Worldwide, excessive salt consumption is common and is a leading cause of high blood pressure. Our objectives were to assess the overall and differential impact (by social and economic indicators) of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide. This is a Cochrane systematic review. We searched nine peer-reviewed databases, seven grey literature resources and contacted national programme leaders. We appraised studies using an adapted version of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. To assess impact, we computed the mean change in salt intake (g/day) from before to after intervention. Fifteen initiatives met the inclusion criteria and 10 provided sufficient data for quantitative analysis of impact. Of these, five showed a mean decrease in salt intake from before to after intervention including: China, Finland (Kuopio area), France, Ireland and the UK. When the sample was constrained to the seven initiatives that were multicomponent and incorporated activities of a structural nature (e.g. procurement policy), most (4/7) showed a mean decrease in salt intake. A reduction in salt intake was more apparent among men than women. There was insufficient information to assess differential impact by other social and economic axes. Although many initiatives had methodological strengths, all scored as having a high risk of bias reflecting the observational design. Study heterogeneity was high, reflecting different contexts and initiative characteristics. Population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives have the potential to reduce dietary salt intake, especially if they are multicomponent and incorporate intervention activities of a structural nature. It is important to consider data infrastructure to permit monitoring of these initiatives.

  16. Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of gout: a summary of 2 Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Moi, John H Y; Sriranganathan, Melonie K; Falzon, Louise; Edwards, Christopher J; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of lifestyle interventions for treating gout. Two Cochrane systematic reviews assessed the efficacy and safety of lifestyle interventions for the treatment of acute and chronic gout. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to September 2011, and the 2010-2011 American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism conference abstracts. Primary outcomes of interest were joint pain for acute gout, frequency of gout attacks for chronic gout, and withdrawals due to adverse events for both reviews. One trial met inclusion criteria for each review. An unblinded trial (19 participants), at high risk of bias, found that topical ice added to prednisolone and colchicine for acute gout resulted in significantly greater pain reduction at 1 week [mean difference (MD) -3.33 cm, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -5.84 to -0.82 on 10 cm visual analog scale]. Adverse events were not described. The second trial (120 participants), at moderate risk of bias, compared enriched skim milk powder (glycomacropeptide and G600 milk fat extract) to non-enriched skim milk and lactose powders for treating chronic gout. There were no between-group differences in gout attack frequency over 3 months [MD -0.21 (95% CI -0.76 to 0.34)] or withdrawals due to adverse events [relative risk 1.27 (95% CI 0.53 to 3.03)]. While there is observational evidence for an association between lifestyle risk factors and gout development, there are no high quality trials to support or refute the use of lifestyle interventions for treating acute or chronic gout.

  17. Interventions for rosacea: abridged updated Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic facial dermatosis. This update of our Cochrane review on interventions for rosacea summarizes the evidence, including Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group assessments, of the effects of the currently available treatments. Searches included the following: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Science Citation Index, and ongoing trials registries (July 2014). We included 106 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 13 631 participants, a more than 80% increase since the last update in 2011. Pooling of data was feasible for a few outcomes, for topical metronidazole and azelaic acid and both appeared to be more effective than placebo (moderate and high-quality evidence, respectively). Topical ivermectin was more effective than placebo based on two studies (high-quality evidence), and slightly more effective than metronidazole in one study. Brimonidine was more effective than vehicle in reducing erythema in rosacea (high-quality evidence). Ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was effective for ocular rosacea (low-quality evidence). For oral treatments there was moderate-quality evidence for the effectiveness of tetracycline based on two old studies, and high-quality evidence for doxycycline 40 mg compared with placebo according to physician assessments. One study at high risk of bias demonstrated equivalent effectiveness for azithromycin and doxycycline 100 mg. Minocycline 45 mg may be effective for papulopustular rosacea (low-quality evidence). Low-dose isotretinoin appeared to be slightly more effective than doxycycline 50-100 mg (high-quality evidence). Laser and light-based therapies for erythema in rosacea were effective (low-quality evidence). Further RCTs are required for ocular rosacea.

  18. Antenatal and intrapartum interventions for preventing cerebral palsy: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Emily; Salam, Rehana A; Middleton, Philippa; Makrides, Maria; McIntyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Crowther, Caroline A

    2017-08-08

    Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term encompassing disorders of movement and posture, attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing fetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk factors and causes, no one strategy will prevent all cerebral palsy. Therefore, there is a need to systematically consider all potentially relevant interventions for their contribution to prevention. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane reviews regarding the effects of antenatal and intrapartum interventions for preventing cerebral palsy. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on 7 August 2016, for reviews of antenatal or intrapartum interventions reporting on cerebral palsy. Two authors assessed reviews for inclusion, extracted data, assessed review quality, using AMSTAR and ROBIS, and quality of the evidence, using the GRADE approach. We organised reviews by topic, and summarised findings in text and tables. We categorised interventions as effective (high-quality evidence of effectiveness); possibly effective (moderate-quality evidence of effectiveness); ineffective (high-quality evidence of harm or of lack of effectiveness); probably ineffective (moderate-quality evidence of harm or of lack of effectiveness); and no conclusions possible (low- to very low-quality evidence). We included 15 Cochrane reviews. A further 62 reviews pre-specified the outcome cerebral palsy in their methods, but none of the included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reported this outcome. The included reviews were high quality and at low risk of bias. They included 279 RCTs; data for cerebral palsy were available from 27 (10%) RCTs, involving 32,490 children. They considered interventions for: treating mild to moderate hypertension (two) and pre-eclampsia (two); diagnosing and preventing fetal compromise in labour (one); preventing preterm birth (four); preterm fetal maturation or neuroprotection (five); and managing preterm fetal compromise (one). Quality of

  19. Divine intervention? A Cochrane review on intercessory prayer gone beyond science and reason.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-06-10

    We discuss in this commentary a recent Cochrane review of 10 randomised trials aimed at testing the religious belief that praying to a god can help those who are prayed for. The review concluded that the available studies merit additional research. However, the review presented a scientifically unsound mixture of theological and scientific arguments, and two of the included trials that had a large impact on the findings had problems that were not described in the review. The review fails to live up to the high standards required for Cochrane reviews.

  20. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma vis

  1. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Interventions for Improving Upper Limb Function after Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,11:CD010820].

    PubMed

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Torres Cardoso, André; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of the upper limbs is quite frequent after stroke, making rehabilitation an essential step towards clinical recovery and patient empowerment. This review aimed to synthetize existing evidence regarding interventions for upper limb function improvement after Stroke and to assess which would bring some benefit. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Reviews of Effects and PROSPERO databases were searched until June 2013 and 40 reviews have been included, covering 503 studies, 18 078 participants and 18 interventions, as well as different doses and settings of interventions. The main results were: 1- Information currently available is insufficient to assess effectiveness of each intervention and to enable comparison of interventions; 2- Transcranial direct current stimulation brings no benefit for outcomes of activities of daily living; 3- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of constraint-induced movement therapy, mental practice, mirror therapy, interventions for sensory impairment, virtual reality and repetitive task practice; 4- Unilateral arm training may be more effective than bilateral arm training; 5- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of robotics on measures of impairment and ADLs; 6- There is no evidence of benefit or harm for technics such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, music therapy, pharmacological interventions, electrical stimulation and other therapies. Currently available evidence is insufficient and of low quality, not supporting clear clinical decisions. High-quality studies are still needed.

  2. Psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, Kader; McDonough, Suzanne; McCaughan, Eilis; Noyes, Jane; Semple, Cherith; Halstead, Elizabeth J; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer in improving quality of life (QoL), self-efficacy and knowledge and in reducing distress, uncertainty and depression. We searched for trials using a range of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO to October 2013, together with hand searching of journals and reference lists. Randomised controlled trials were eligible if they included psychosocial interventions that explicitly used one or a combination of the following approaches: cognitive behavioural, psycho-educational, supportive and counselling. Interventions had to be delivered or facilitated by trained or lay personnel. Our outcomes were an improvement in QoL, self-efficacy and knowledge and a reduction in distress, uncertainty and depression. Pairs of review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed data using standardised mean differences (SMDs), random-effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In all, 19 studies with a total of 3 204 men, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, comparing psychosocial interventions vs usual care were included in this review. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a small, statistically significant improvement in the physical component of general health-related QoL (GHQoL) at end of intervention (SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.22) based on low quality evidence. There was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for the mental component of GHQoL at end of intervention (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.06) based on moderate quality evidence. At end of intervention, cancer-related QoL showed a small improvement after psychosocial interventions (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). For prostate cancer-specific and symptom-related QoL, the differences between intervention and control groups were not significant. There was no clear evidence that

  3. Systematic review of health literacy in Cochrane database studies on paediatric asthma educational interventions: searching beyond rigorous design.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Mary Beth

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if paediatric asthma educational intervention studies included in the Cochrane Collaboration database incorporated concepts of health literacy. Inclusion criteria were established to identify review categories in the Cochrane Collaboration database specific to paediatric asthma educational interventions. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected from the Cochrane Collaboration database in 2010. The health literacy definition from Healthy People 2010 was used to develop a 4-point a priori rating scale to determine the extent a study reported aspects of health literacy in the development of an educational intervention for parents and/or children. Five Cochrane review categories met the inclusion criteria; 75 studies were rated for health literacy content regarding educational interventions with families and children living with asthma. A priori criteria were used for the rating process. While 52 (69%) studies had no information pertaining to health literacy, 23 (31%) reported an aspect of health literacy. Although all studies maintained the rigorous standards of randomized clinical trials, a model of health literacy was not reported regarding the design and implementation of interventions. While a more comprehensive health literacy model for the development of educational interventions with families and children may have been available after the reviewed studies were conducted, general literacy levels still could have been addressed. The findings indicate a need to incorporate health literacy in the design of client-centred educational interventions and in the selection criteria of relevant Cochrane reviews. Inclusion assures that health literacy is as important as randomization and statistical analyses in the research design of educational interventions and may even assure participation of people with literacy challenges. © 2012 The Author. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2012 The Joanna

  4. Reviewing and interpreting the effects of brief alcohol interventions: comment on a Cochrane review about motivational interviewing for young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Kulesza, Magdalena; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cochrane recently published a systematic review on motivational interviewing (MI) for alcohol misuse in young adults. The review authors concluded that ‘there are no substantive, meaningful benefits of MI interventions for the prevention of alcohol misuse’ (p. 2), as effect sizes were ‘small and unlikely to be of any meaningful benefit in practice’ (p. 27). As most of these interventions were quite brief, we wish to open a dialogue about interpreting effect sizes in this review and of (brief) alcohol interventions more generally. Analysis We analyze four methodological aspects of the review that likely influenced the author's conclusions about intervention effects: (1) risk of bias assessments, (2) search strategies, (3) assessing the quality of the body of evidence and (4) definitions of sustainability and clinical significance. Conclusions We interpret the effect sizes found in this review to indicate modest yet beneficial and potentially meaningful effects of these interventions, given their brevity and low cost. This interpretation is consistent with other reviews on brief, MI‐based interventions and brief interventions more generally. We therefore encourage the field to re‐open dialogue about the clinical importance of the effects of MI on alcohol misuse by young adults. Rather than dismissing interventions with small effects, we believe a more fruitful way forward for the field would be to catalogue effect sizes for various alcohol interventions. Such a catalogue would help stakeholders themselves to choose which interventions meet their minimum desired impact, and thus may be suitable given their targeted populations, setting and resources. PMID:26508301

  5. Current use was established and Cochrane guidance on selection of social theories for systematic reviews of complex interventions was developed.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Maggie; Booth, Andrew; Chandler, Jackie; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Garside, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    To identify examples of how social theories are used in systematic reviews of complex interventions to inform production of Cochrane guidance. Secondary analysis of published/unpublished examples of theories of social phenomena for use in reviews of complex interventions identified through scoping searches, engagement with key authors and methodologists supplemented by snowballing and reference searching. Theories were classified (low-level, mid-range, grand). Over 100 theories were identified with evidence of proliferation over the last 5 years. New low-level theories (tools, taxonomies, etc) have been developed for classifying and reporting complex interventions. Numerous mid-range theories are used; one example demonstrated how control theory had changed the review's findings. Review-specific logic models are increasingly used, but these can be challenging to develop. New low-level and mid-range psychological theories of behavior change are evolving. No reviews using grand theory (e.g., feminist theory) were identified. We produced a searchable Wiki, Mendeley Inventory, and Cochrane guidance. Use of low-level theory is common and evolving; incorporation of mid-range theory is still the exception rather than the norm. Methodological work is needed to evaluate the contribution of theory. Choice of theory reflects personal preference; application of theory is a skilled endeavor. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Analysis of the Cochrane review: Multimedia educational interventions for consumers about prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013;4:CD008416].

    PubMed

    Vaz Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the relevant information is especially important in the area of drug treatment, to guarantee an appropriate and rational use of medications by patients. The relevant information must be delivered in a way that patients understand all aspects of the treatment regimen they are taking. In this systematic review the authors analyzed a set of studies on the effectiveness of multimedia educational interventions about medications (prescribed or not) in patients of all ages, concluding that the aforementioned interventions are more effective than usual care (non-standardized education provided by health professionals as part of usual clinical care) or no education.

  7. High quality of the evidence for medical and other health-related interventions was uncommon in Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Koletsi, Despina; Ioannidis, John P A; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2016-10-01

    To appraise the quality of evidence in systematic reviews (SRs) within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSRs) across diverse topics and to explore the relationship between the strength of evidence using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) and the probability that authors would interpret that an intervention may be of value. We evaluated the SRs published on the CDSR from January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014. Two authors identified relevant SRs by independent searching of the Cochrane register. We further focused on SRs that incorporated tables with GRADE [summary of findings (SoF)]. Data were extracted independently by two authors. The quality of the evidence for the first listed primary outcome in SoF tables in each review and reasons for upgrade or downgrade were recorded. Overall, 1,394 SRs were identified. Of these, 608 (43.6%) incorporated GRADE. Within these reviews, only 13.5% (n = 82) reported a high quality and 30.8% (n = 187) a moderate quality of evidence for the first listed primary outcome, whereas 31.7% (n = 193) had low level and 24% (n = 146) had very low level of evidence. High quality of evidence was more common in updated compared to new reviews and in pharmacologic than other types of interventions. Even when all outcomes listed in the SoFs were considered, only 116/608 (19.1%) of SRs had at least one outcome with high quality of evidence. Overall, only 4.1% (25/608) of SRs incorporating GRADE in SoF tables had high quality of evidence, allied both to significant results and a favorable interpretation of the intervention by the reviewers. Evidence of high quality is uncommon for medical and health-related interventions assessed with GRADE within the CDSR, and favorable evidence of high quality is even more uncommon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Service Engagement in Interventions for Street-Connected Children and Young People: A Summary of Evidence Supplementing a Recent Cochrane-Campbell Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Rosa; Coren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper builds on a Cochrane-Campbell systematic review of interventions that reduce harms and promote reintegration in street-connected children and young people focusing on intervention outcomes. The aim of the present analysis is to explore questions raised in the systematic review over the potential role of service engagement in…

  9. Service Engagement in Interventions for Street-Connected Children and Young People: A Summary of Evidence Supplementing a Recent Cochrane-Campbell Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Rosa; Coren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper builds on a Cochrane-Campbell systematic review of interventions that reduce harms and promote reintegration in street-connected children and young people focusing on intervention outcomes. The aim of the present analysis is to explore questions raised in the systematic review over the potential role of service engagement in…

  10. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: A Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Design We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. Study sample We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. Results One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI – 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed. PMID:24564697

  11. A Systematic Review of Cochrane Anticoagulation Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, David Keith

    2009-01-01

    Context I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered appreciably during the review process. Consequently, I decided to critique all anticoagulation drug-related reviews and protocols in the Cochrane database with feedback letters concerning any issues of potential controversy. Evidence Acquisition Using key words in the search engine of the Cochrane Reviews, I located reviews and protocols involving anticoagulant drugs. I critiqued each anticoagulation review and protocol and sent a total of 57 feedback letters to Cochrane concerning each publication to elicit a response/rebuttal from the authors. Evidence Synthesis Cochrane anticoagulation review editors acknowledged receipt of all letters. As of 12 months after receipt of my last letter, the Cochrane authors have replied to 13 of the 57 and agreed with many of my points. Two protocols were withdrawn after my feedback letters were acknowledged. The 58 Cochrane anticoagulation drug reviews, including mine, contained 9 categories of methodological errors (207 total instances) and 4 types of biases (18 total instances). This review of those Cochrane reviews suggests that the effectiveness of anticoagulants for 30 medical indications is questionable. Conclusions The efficacy of anticoagulants for treatment and prophylaxis for 30 current medical indications should be reconsidered by the scientific community and medical regulatory agencies. At least 50,000 people per year worldwide have fatal bleeding due to anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis for these indications. PMID:19295926

  12. Congruence between patient characteristics and interventions may partly explain medication adherence intervention effectiveness: An analysis of 190 randomized controlled trials from a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Samuel S; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Navarro, Tamara; Haynes, Brian; Hersberger, Kurt E; Arnet, Isabelle

    2017-08-09

    Due to the negative outcomes of medication non-adherence, interventions to improve adherence have been the focus of countless studies. The congruence between adherence-related patient characteristics and interventions may partly explain the variability of effectiveness in medication adherence studies. In their latest update of a Cochrane review reporting inconsistent effects of adherence interventions, the authors offered access to their database for sub-analysis. We aimed to use this database to assess congruence between adherence-related patient characteristics and interventions and its association with intervention effects. We developed a congruence score consisting of six features related to inclusion criteria, patient characteristics at baseline, and intervention design. Two independent raters extracted and scored items from the 190 studies available in the Cochrane database. We correlated overall congruence score and individual features with intervention effects regarding adherence and clinical outcomes using Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Fisher's exact test. Interrater-reliability for newly extracted data was almost perfect with a Cohen's Kappa of 0.92 (95% CI 0.89 - 0.94, p < 0.001). Although present in only six studies, the inclusion of non-adherent patients was the single feature significantly associated with effective adherence interventions (p = 0.003). Moreover, effective adherence interventions were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes (OR = 6.0, CI95% = 3.1 - 12.0, p < 0.0001). However, neither the overall congruence score, nor any other individual feature (i.e. "determinants of non-adherence as inclusion criteria", "tailoring of interventions to the inclusion criteria", "reasons for non-adherence assessed at baseline", "adjustment of intervention to individual patient needs", and "theory based interventions") were significantly associated with intervention effects. The presence of only six studies that included non

  13. Endometriosis: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Farquhar, Cindy

    2014-03-10

    This overview reports on interventions for pain relief and for subfertility in pre-menopausal women with clinically diagnosed endometriosis. The objective of this overview was to summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on treatment options for women with pain or subfertility associated with endometriosis. Published Cochrane systematic reviews reporting pain or fertility outcomes in women with clinically diagnosed endometriosis were eligible for inclusion in the overview. We also identified Cochrane reviews in preparation (protocols and titles) for future inclusion. The reviews, protocols and titles were identified by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Archie (the Cochrane information management system) in March 2014.Pain-related outcomes of the overview were pain relief, clinical improvement or resolution and pain recurrence. Fertility-related outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, miscarriage and adverse events.Selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken in duplicate. Review quality was assessed using the AMSTAR tool. The quality of the evidence for each outcome was assessed using GRADE methods. Review findings were summarised in the text and the data for each outcome were reported in 'Additional tables'. Seventeen systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library were included. All the reviews were high quality. The quality of the evidence for specific comparisons ranged from very low to moderate. Limitations in the evidence included risk of bias in the primary studies, inconsistency between the studies, and imprecision in effect estimates. Pain relief (14 reviews) Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues One systematic review reported low quality evidence of an overall benefit for GnRH analogues compared with placebo or no treatment. Ovulation suppression Five systematic reviews reported on medical treatment using ovulation suppression. There

  14. Telehealthcare for asthma: a Cochrane review

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Susannah; Chandler, David; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Liu, Joseph; Pagliari, Claudia; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Telehealthcare has the potential to provide care for long-term conditions that are increasingly prevalent, such as asthma. We conducted a systematic review of studies of telehealthcare interventions used for the treatment of asthma to determine whether such approaches to care are effective. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and PsycINFO, as well as other electronic resources. We also searched registers of ongoing and unpublished trials. We were interested in studies that measured the following outcomes: quality of life, number of visits to the emergency department and number of admissions to hospital. Two reviewers identified studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We extracted data and used fixedeffect modelling for the meta-analyses. Results: We identified 21 randomized controlled trials for inclusion in our analysis. The methods of telehealthcare intervention these studies investigated were the telephone and video- and Internet-based models of care. Meta-analysis did not show a clinically important improvement in patients’ quality of life, and there was no significant change in the number of visits to the emergency department over 12 months. There was a significant reduction in the number of patients admitted to hospital once or more over 12 months (risk ratio 0.25 [95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.66]). Interpretation: We found no evidence of a clinically important impact on patients’ quality of life, but telehealthcare interventions do appear to have the potential to reduce the risk of admission to hospital, particularly for patients with severe asthma. Further research is required to clarify the cost-effectiveness of models of care based on telehealthcare. PMID:21746825

  15. Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews. PMID:24050381

  16. Are sham acupuncture interventions more effective than (other) placebos? A re-analysis of data from the Cochrane review on placebo effects.

    PubMed

    Linde, Klaus; Niemann, Karin; Meissner, Karin

    2010-10-01

    A recent Cochrane review on placebo interventions for all kinds of conditions found that 'physical placebos' (which included sham acupuncture) were associated with larger effects over no-treatment control groups than 'pharmacological placebos'. We re-analyzed the data from this review to investigate whether effects associated with sham acupuncture differed from those of other 'physical placebos'. All trials included in the Cochrane review as investigating 'physical placebos' were classified as investigating either (sham) acupuncture or other physical placebos. The latter group was further subclassified into groups of similar interventions. Data from the Cochrane review were re-entered into the RevMan 5 software for meta-analysis. The primary analysis was a random-effects analysis of trials reporting continuous outcomes of trials that used either sham acupuncture or other physical placebos. Out of a total of 61 trials which reported a continuous outcome measure, 19 compared sham acupuncture and 42 compared other physical placebos with a no-treatment control group. The trials re-analyzed were highly heterogeneous regarding patients, interventions and outcomes measured. The pooled standardized mean difference was -0.41 (95% confidence interval -0.56, -0.24) between sham acupuncture and no treatment and -0.26 (95% CI -0.37, -0.15) between other physical placebos and no treatment (p value for subgroup differences = 0.007). Significant differences were also observed between subgroups of other physical placebos. Due to the heterogeneity of the trials included and the indirect comparison our results must be interpreted with caution. Still, they suggest that sham acupuncture interventions might, on average, be associated with larger effects than pharmacological and other physical placebos. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Avoidable Ignorance and the Role of Cochrane and Campbell Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations were created to reveal the evidentiary status of claims focusing especially on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Such reviews are constrained by the population of studies available and biases that may influence this availability such as preferred framing of problems. This highlights the…

  18. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  19. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  20. Avoidable Ignorance and the Role of Cochrane and Campbell Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations were created to reveal the evidentiary status of claims focusing especially on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Such reviews are constrained by the population of studies available and biases that may influence this availability such as preferred framing of problems. This highlights the…

  1. Pharmacological interventions for self-injurious behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities: Abridged republication of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gormez, A; Rana, F; Varghese, S

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to determine clinical effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for self-injurious behaviour in adults with intellectual disability. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO; CINAHL; SCI; SSCI; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science and Humanities; ZETOC; World Cat .We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov,ICTRP and the reference lists of included trials. We included randomised controlled trials that examined drug interventions versus placebo for self-injurious behaviour. We found five double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, which included a total of 50 people. Four trials compared the effects of naltrexone versus placebo and one trial clomipramine versus placebo. We did not identify any relevant placebo-controlled trials for other drugs. We presented a narrative summary, as meta-analysis was not appropriate due to differences in study designs, differences between interventions and heterogeneous outcome measures. There was weak evidence in included trials that any active drug was more effective than placebo for people with intellectual disability demonstrating self-injurious behaviour. Due to sparse data, an absence of power and statistical significance, and high risk of bias for four of the included trials, we are unable to reach any definite conclusions about the relative benefits of naltrexone or clomipramine compared to placebo.

  2. Usefulness of Cochrane Skin Group reviews for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Davila-Seijo, P; Batalla, A; Garcia-Doval, I

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews are one of the most important sources of information for evidence-based medicine. However, there is a general impression that these reviews rarely report results that provide sufficient evidence to change clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of Cochrane Skin Group reviews reporting results with the potential to guide clinical decision-making. We performed a bibliometric analysis of all the systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Skin Group up to 16 August, 2012. We retrieved 55 reviews, which were analyzed and graded independently by 2 investigators into 3 categories: 0 (insufficient evidence to support or reject the use of an intervention), 1 (insufficient evidence to support or reject the use of an intervention but sufficient evidence to support recommendations or suggestions), and 2 (sufficient evidence to support or reject the use of an intervention). Our analysis showed that 25.5% (14/55) of the studies did not provide sufficient evidence to support or reject the use of the interventions studied, 45.5% (25/25) provided sufficient but not strong evidence to support recommendations or suggestions, and 29.1% (16/55) provided strong evidence to support or reject the use of 1 or more of the interventions studied. Most of the systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Skin Group provide useful information to improve clinical practice. Clinicians should read these reviews and reconsider their current practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of Cochrane Reviews on Acupuncture: How Chinese Resources Contribute to Cochrane Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Shuang; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs) are frequently referenced by acupuncture efficacy studies currently. In this study, the CSRs on acupuncture are reviewed, and the disease fields they covered and the conclusions they reached are analyzed. In order to explore the potential contribution to CSRs by Chinese resources, the authors analyzed whether the participation of Chinese reviewers, the utilization of Chinese databases, and the inclusion of Chinese clinical trials would affect the positive conclusion ratios of the CSRs. Methods Acupuncture-related CSRs in the Cochrane Library were searched and classified based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10). The CSRs were further designated as positive or negative according to the conclusion statements. CSRs with the participation of Chinese reviewers, the utilization of Chinese databases, or the inclusion of Chinese clinical trials were extracted, and the positive ratios of conclusions were compared separately with corresponding CSRs without those three Chinese resources. Results Thirty-two (32) CSRs were identified, 9 (28.1%) of which reached positive conclusions. The CSRs with positive conclusions were mainly about multifarious pains, nausea and vomiting, and functional disorders. Seventeen (17; 53.1%) included the participation of Chinese reviewers, 18 (56.3%) involved the utilization of Chinese databases, and 20 (62.5%) included Chinese clinical trials. No differences on the positive conclusion ratios were observed between CSRs with reviewers from Chinese institutions and those that did not (odds ratio [OR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 1.62), the utilization of Chinese databases and those that did not (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11, 2.44), or the inclusion of Chinese clinical trials and those that did not (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.26, 6.49). Conclusions Most CSRs on acupuncture are inconclusive. No significant differences regarding the positive conclusion ratios were found

  4. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Examining Psychological Interventions for Needle-related Procedural Pain and Distress in Children and Adolescents: An Abbreviated Cochrane Review*

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Christine T.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Kisely, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions for children and adolescents undergoing needle-related procedures. Methods A variety of cognitive-behavioral psychological interventions for managing procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years of age were examined. Outcome measures included pain and distress as assessed by self-report, observer report, behavioral/observational measures, and physiological correlates. Results Twenty-eight trials met the criteria for inclusion in the review and provided the data necessary for pooling the results. Together, the trials included 1,039 participants in treatment conditions and 951 in control conditions. The largest effect sizes for treatment improvement over control conditions were found for distraction, combined cognitive-behavioral interventions, and hypnosis, with promising but limited evidence for several other psychological interventions. Conclusions Recommendations for conducting future RCTs are provided, and particular attention to the quality of trial design and reporting is highlighted. PMID:18387963

  5. The Cochrane Library review titles that are important to users of health care, a Cochrane Consumer Network project

    PubMed Central

    Wale, Janet L.; Belizán, María; Nadel, Jane; Jeffrey, Claire; Vij, Sita L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  The Cochrane Consumer Network is an internet‐based community of international users of health care contributing to the work of The Cochrane Collaboration, whose mission is to inform healthcare decision making through development of systematic reviews of best evidence on healthcare interventions. Objective  To prioritize existing review titles listed on The Cochrane Library from a healthcare user perspective, with particular emphasis on patients, carers and health consumers. Design  An online survey was developed and after piloting was made available internationally. The broad dissemination strategy targeted Consumer Network members and Cochrane Review Group editorial staff to identify champions who notified patient support groups and participated in snowballing. The first part of the survey defined criteria that could be applied to review titles and asked survey respondents to rank them. The second part asked respondents to select a health area and prioritize review titles that were of importance to them. Each health area corresponded to a Cochrane Review Group. Results and discussion  Sufficient responses were obtained from 522 valid responses to prioritize review topics in 19 health areas. A total of 321 respondents completed the titles assessment. The types of prioritized interventions were determined by the health area. An important observation was the emphasis on lifestyle and non‐medication therapies in many of the included health areas. The clearest exception to this broad observation was where acute care is required such as antibiotics for acute respiratory tract and HIV‐associated infections and for cardiac conditions. For some cancers, advanced cancer interventions were prioritized. The most important criteria were for the title to convey a clear meaning and the title conveyed that the review would have an impact on health and well‐being. The least important criteria were that the topic was newsworthy or prioritized in

  6. [Systematic reviews on infectious diseases. The Cochrane Collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bonfill, X; Martí, J

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically, doctors update their knowledge from the scientific literature, and bibliographic databases have made it possible to overcome many of the limitations with this information, but not all of them. When faced with a therapeutic issue, the practice of evidence based medicine requires the efficient access to information derived from controlled clinical trials (CCT). Reviews of the scientific literature are of increasing importance. The Cochrane Collaboration is dedicated to preparing, maintaining and disseminating updated, systematic reviews of CCTs of health care interventions, which are published in the Cochrane Library. To describe the Cochrane Collaboration and to locate, with the greatest exhaustiveness possible, CCTs published in the journals "Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica", describe their characteristics and include them in a global database of clinical trials maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The CCTs were identified by systematic manual searches of all issues of the journal. A descriptive analysis of the CCTs located was made. A total of 24 CCTs were published in 15 years (1.6 per year), 10 were original articles and 14 were communications at congresses. All were done in Spain and the majority were done in hospitals. The most frequently researched question was antibiotic prophylaxis and all evaluated pharmaceutical interventions. The majority of the CCTs published had important information missing (phase of study, randomization, blinding, etc.). The identification of CCTs is a prerequisite for the development of systematic reviews. There were few clinical trials published in the 15 years of publication of this journal, and the most common characteristic is, clearly, the absence of basic data. The most common is a lack of on the phase of the clinical trial, the follow-up period, and funding sources. The idea of what experimental clinical investigation in infectious diseases is in our country needs to include the

  7. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Cindy; Rishworth, Josephine R; Brown, Julie; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2013-08-22

    As many as one in six couples will encounter problems with fertility, defined as failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular intercourse for 12 months. Increasingly, couples are turning to assisted reproductive technology (ART) for help with conceiving and ultimately giving birth to a healthy live baby of their own. Fertility treatments are complex, and each ART cycle consists of several steps. If one of the steps is incorrectly applied, the stakes are high as conception may not occur. With this in mind, it is important that each step of the ART cycle is supported by good evidence from well-designed studies. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on procedures and treatment options available to couples with subfertility undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Published Cochrane systematic reviews of couples undergoing ART (in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) were eligible for inclusion in the overview. We also identified Cochrane reviews in preparation, for future inclusion.The outcomes of the overview were live birth (primary outcome), clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, miscarriage and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (secondary outcomes). Studies of intrauterine insemination and ovulation induction were excluded.Selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken in duplicate. Review quality was assessed by using the AMSTAR tool. Reviews were organised by their relevance to specific stages in the ART cycle. Their findings were summarised in the text and data for each outcome were reported in 'Additional tables'. Fifty-four systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library were included. All were high quality. Thirty reviews identified interventions that were effective (n = 18) or promising (n = 12), 13 reviews identified interventions that were either ineffective (n = 3) or possibly ineffective (n=10), and 11 reviews were unable to draw conclusions due to

  8. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Cindy; Rishworth, Josephine R; Brown, Julie; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2014-12-23

    As many as one in six couples will encounter problems with fertility, defined as failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular intercourse for 12 months. Increasingly, couples are turning to assisted reproductive technology (ART) for help with conceiving and ultimately giving birth to a healthy live baby of their own. Fertility treatments are complex, and each ART cycle consists of several steps. If one of the steps is incorrectly applied, the stakes are high as conception may not occur. With this in mind, it is important that each step of the ART cycle is supported by good evidence from well-designed studies. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on procedures and treatment options available to couples with subfertility undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Published Cochrane systematic reviews of couples undergoing ART (in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) were eligible for inclusion in the overview. We also identified Cochrane reviews in preparation, for future inclusion.The outcomes of the overview were live birth (primary outcome), clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, miscarriage and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (secondary outcomes). Studies of intrauterine insemination and ovulation induction were excluded.Selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken in duplicate. Review quality was assessed by using the AMSTAR tool. Reviews were organised by their relevance to specific stages in the ART cycle. Their findings were summarised in the text and data for each outcome were reported in 'Additional tables'. Fifty-eight systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library were included. All were high quality. Thirty-two reviews identified interventions that were effective (n = 19) or promising (n = 13), 14 reviews identified interventions that were either ineffective (n = 3) or possibly ineffective (n=11), and 12 reviews were unable to draw conclusions

  9. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Cindy; Rishworth, Josephine R; Brown, Julie; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2015-07-15

    As many as one in six couples will encounter problems with fertility, defined as failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular intercourse for 12 months. Increasingly, couples are turning to assisted reproductive technology (ART) for help with conceiving and ultimately giving birth to a healthy live baby of their own. Fertility treatments are complex, and each ART cycle consists of several steps. If one of the steps is incorrectly applied, the stakes are high as conception may not occur. With this in mind, it is important that each step of the ART cycle is supported by good evidence from well-designed studies. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on procedures and treatment options available to couples with subfertility undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Published Cochrane systematic reviews of couples undergoing ART (in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) were eligible for inclusion in the overview. We also identified Cochrane reviews in preparation, for future inclusion.The outcomes of the overview were live birth (primary outcome), clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, miscarriage and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (secondary outcomes). Studies of intrauterine insemination and ovulation induction were excluded.Selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken in duplicate. Review quality was assessed by using the AMSTAR tool. Reviews were organised by their relevance to specific stages in the ART cycle. Their findings were summarised in the text and data for each outcome were reported in 'Additional tables'. Fifty-nine systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library up to July 2015 were included. All were high quality. Thirty-two reviews identified interventions that were effective (n = 19) or promising (n = 13), 14 reviews identified interventions that were either ineffective (n = 2) or possibly ineffective (n = 12), and 13 reviews were unable to

  10. Analysis of the reporting of search strategies in Cochrane systematic reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Adriana; McGraw, Kathleen A.; Anderson, Margaret J.; Wellik, Kay E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions provides instructions for documenting a systematic review's electronic database search strategy, listing elements that should be in the description. Complete documentation of the search strategy allows readers to evaluate the search when critically appraising a review's quality. Objective: The research analyzed recently published Cochrane reviews to determine whether instructions for describing electronic database search strategies were being followed. Methods: Eighty-three new reviews added to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the first quarter of 2006 were selected for analysis. Eighteen were subsequently excluded because their searches were conducted only in the specialized registers of Cochrane review groups. The remaining sixty-five reviews were analyzed for the seven elements of an electronic database search strategy description listed in the Cochrane Handbook, using dual review with consensus. Results: Of the 65 reviews analyzed, none included all 7 recommended elements. Four reviews (6%) included 6 elements. Thirty-two percent (21/65) included 5 or more elements, with 68% (44/65) including 4 or fewer. Three included only 2 elements. The 65 reviews represented 41 different Cochrane review groups. Conclusion: The instructions from the Cochrane Handbook for reporting search strategies are not being consistently employed by groups producing Cochrane reviews. PMID:19158999

  11. Prevalence of honorary and ghost authorship in Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Mowatt, Graham; Shirran, Liz; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Rennie, Drummond; Flanagin, Annette; Yank, Veronica; MacLennan, Graeme; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Bero, Lisa A

    2002-06-05

    To determine the prevalence of honorary and ghost authorship in Cochrane reviews, how authorship is assigned, and the ways in which authors and Cochrane editorial teams contribute. Using a Web-based, self-administered survey, corresponding authors for 577 reviews published in issues 1 and 2 from 1999 of The Cochrane Library were invited to report on the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors, contributions by authors listed in the byline and members of Cochrane editorial teams, and identification of methods of assigning authorship. Responses were received for 362 reviews (63% response rate), which contained 913 authors. One hundred forty-one reviews (39%) had evidence of honorary authors, 32 (9%) had evidence of ghost authors (most commonly a member of the Cochrane editorial team), and 9 (2%) had evidence of both honorary and ghost authors. The editorial teams contributed in a wide variety of ways to 301 reviews (83%). Authorship was decided by the group of authors (31%) or lead author (25%) in most reviews. Authorship order was assigned according to contribution in most reviews (76%). The 3 functions contributed to most by those listed in the byline were assessing the quality of included studies (83%), interpreting data (82%), and abstracting data from included studies (77%). A substantial proportion of reviews had evidence of honorary and ghost authorship. The Cochrane editorial teams contributed to most Cochrane reviews.

  12. Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    Foisy, Michelle; Boyle, Robert J.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Simpson, Eric L.; Williams, Hywel C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Eczema is the most common inflammatory skin disease of childhood, characterized by an itchy red rash that usually involves the face and skin folds. There is currently no curative treatment for eczema, so the reduction of eczema incidence through disease prevention is a desirable goal. Potential interventions for preventing eczema include exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas and soy formulas when bottle feeding, maternal antigen avoidance, omega oil supplementation, prebiotics and probiotics. Objectives This overview of reviews aims to present the current body of data from Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews to provide the most up-to-date evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent eczema in infants and children at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. Methods Our pool of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews came from the 2010 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Evidence Skin Disorders Annual Evidence Updates Mapping Exercise on Atopic Eczema. This group used a comprehensive search strategy last conducted in August 2010 to identify all systematic reviews on eczema prevention. We identified all reviews that met our pre-specified inclusion criteria, and data were extracted, analysed, compiled into tables and synthesized using quantitative and qualitative methods. Main results Seven systematic reviews containing 39 relevant trials with 11 897 participants were included in this overview. Overall, there was no clear evidence that any of the main interventions reviewed reduced eczema incidence. In subgroup analyses of infants at high risk of allergic disease, an observational study found that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months compared with introduction of solids at three to six months decreased the incidence of eczema by 60% (risk ratio (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.78), and a randomized controlled trial found that prebiotics compared with no prebiotics decreased

  13. Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews in leading orthodontic journals: a quality paradigm?

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Seehra, Jadbinder; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess and compare the methodological quality of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) published in leading orthodontic journals and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) using AMSTAR and to compare the prevalence of meta-analysis in both review types. A literature search was undertaken to identify SRs that consisted of hand-searching five major orthodontic journals [American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research (February 2002 to July 2011)] and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2000 to July 2011. Methodological quality of the included reviews was gauged using the AMSTAR tool involving 11 key methodological criteria with a score of 0 or 1 given for each criterion. A cumulative grade was given for the paper overall (0-11); an overall score of 4 or less represented poor methodological quality, 5-8 was considered fair and 9 or greater was deemed to be good. In total, 109 SRs were identified in the five major journals and on the CDSR. Of these, 26 (23.9%) were in the CDSR. The mean overall AMSTAR score was 6.2 with 21.1% of reviews satisfying 9 or more of the 11 criteria; a similar prevalence of poor reviews (22%) was also noted. Multiple linear regression indicated that reviews published in the CDSR (P < 0.01); and involving meta-analysis (β = 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.72, 2.07, P < 0.001) showed greater concordance with AMSTAR.

  14. The Cochrane Library: more systematic reviews on nutrition needed.

    PubMed

    Summerbell, C D; Chinnock, P; O'Malley, C; van Binsbergen, J J

    2005-08-01

    The knowledge and relevance of nutrition as well as the demand for well-funded advices increase. The Cochrane Collaboration plays a leading role within the evidence-based medicine and practice. We advocate therefore more specialized nutritional interest within the Cochrane Collaboration. In case 'Nutrition' needs more attention within the Cochrane Library, one of the first priorities is deciding about whether to include non-randomized studies into the Specialized Register and generating lists of journals to handsearch for such a Specialized Register. Preparatory to these activities an inventory of Nutritional content within the Cochrane Library is needed. We estimate that reviews directly related to nutrition and those of borderline interest to nutrition represent less than 4% of all published reviews in The Cochrane Library.

  15. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Design Cross sectional study. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Selection criteria Systematic reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with review content classified as up to date in 2008 or later and with results from one or more randomised controlled trials. Results Of 151 included Cochrane reviews, 46 (30%, 95% confidence interval 24% to 38%) reported information on the funding sources of included trials, including 30 (20%, 14% to 27%) that reported information on trial funding for all included trials and 16 (11%, 7% to 17%) that reported for some, but not all, trials. Only 16 of the 151 Cochrane reviews (11%, 7% to 17%) provided any information on trial author-industry financial ties or trial author-industry employment. Information on trial funding and trial author-industry ties was reported in one to seven locations within each review, with no consistent reporting location observed. Conclusions Most Cochrane reviews of drug trials published in 2010 did not provide information on trial funding sources or trial author-industry financial ties or employment. When this information was reported, location of reporting was inconsistent across reviews. PMID:22906823

  16. Adrenaline for the treatment of anaphylaxis: cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, A; Shehata, Y A; Brown, S G A; Simons, F E R

    2009-02-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Adrenaline is recommended as the initial treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. To assess the benefits and harms of adrenaline in the treatment of anaphylaxis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2007), EMBASE (1966 to March 2007), CINAHL (1982 to March 2007), BIOSIS (to March 2007), ISI Web of Knowledge (to March 2007) and LILACS (to March 2007). We also searched websites listing ongoing trials: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, http://www.controlledtrials.com and http://www.actr.org.au/ and contacted pharmaceutical companies and international experts in anaphylaxis in an attempt to locate unpublished material. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing adrenaline with no intervention, placebo or other adrenergic agonists were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. We found no studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria. On the basis of this review, we are unable to make any new recommendations on the use of adrenaline for the treatment of anaphylaxis. In the absence of appropriate trials, we recommend, albeit on the basis of less than optimal evidence, that adrenaline administration by intramuscular injection should still be regarded as first-line treatment for the management of anaphylaxis.

  17. Risk of bias reporting in Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    Risk of bias is an inherent quality of primary research and therefore of systematic reviews. This column addresses the Cochrane Collaboration's approach to assessing, risks of bias, the meaning of each, indicators of low, high and uncertain, and ways that risk of bias can be represented in a Cochrane systematic review report. The sources of risk of bias that reviewers evaluate include selection, performance, detection, attrition and reporting bias. Each poses threat to the internal validity of the primary studies and requires the reviewer to judge the level of risk as high, low or unclear. Reviewers need to address how studies of higher risk of bias might impact the pooled effect.

  18. Characteristics of the Cochrane Oral Health Group systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Lang, Lisa A; Demko, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG) was formed in 1994 with the aim of producing systematic reviews that primarily include oral health randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to characterize reviews published by the COHG. In September 2013, the COHG database was accessed, and all publications were downloaded. Reviews with no studies identified according to the inclusion criteria were labeled "empty reviews." The complete Cochrane database included a total of 5,697 reviews, of which the COHG database included 142 reviews. Of these 142, 69 (48.6%) did not reach a conclusion, including 20 (14.1%) that were identified as empty reviews. Of the 122 non-empty reviews, 116 (95.1%) were based exclusively on RCTs. The median number of RCTs and patients included in the non-empty reviews were seven and 489, respectively. The median number of included RCTs and patients for reviews that reached conclusions were 12 and 934, respectively, and there were five RCTs and 211 patients for reviews without conclusions. Overall, the characteristics of the Cochrane oral health reviews (OH-CSRs) were similar to Cochrane reviews published in other disciplines (All-CSRs). The authors observed a significant difference in the median number of RCTs and patients included when reviews that reached conclusions were separated from those that did not. A greater proportion of empty reviews were present in OH-CSRs compared with All-CSRs. Turning the Cochrane reviews into a tool that is more relevant in clinical practice will require implementation of a methodology allowing inclusion of non-RCTs while controlling for possible bias.

  19. Herbal Medicine for Low Back Pain: A Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Oltean, Hanna; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Robbins, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Many people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. We searched numerous electronic databases up to September 2014; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included RCTs examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic nonspecific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines that we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared with assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. Fourteen RCTs (2050 participants) were included. Capsicum frutescens (cayenne) reduces pain more than placebo. Although Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Salix alba (white willow bark), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica), and lavender essential oil also seem to reduce pain more than placebo, evidence for these substances was of moderate quality at best. No significant adverse events were noted within the included trials. Additional well-designed large trials are needed to test these herbal medicines against standard treatments. In general, the completeness of reporting in these trials was poor. Trialists should refer to the CONSORT statement extension for reporting trials of herbal medicine interventions. N/A.

  20. Is management of acute traumatic brain injury effective? A literature review of published Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin; Gao, Guo-Yi; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate all the possible therapeutic measures concerning the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mentioned in Cochrane Systematic Reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). An exhausted literature search for all published Cochrane Systematic Reviews discussing therapeutic rather than prevention or rehabilitative interventions of TBI was conducted. We retrieved such databases as CDSR and Cochrane Injury Group, excluded the duplications, and eventually obtained 20 results, which stand for critical appraisal for as many as 20 different measures for TBI patients. The important data of each systematic review, including total population, intervention, outcome, etc, were collected and presented in a designed table. Besides, we also tried to find out the possible weakness of these clinical trials included in each review. Analysis of these reviews yielded meanfuling observations: (1) The effectiveness of most ordinary treatments in TBI is inconclusive except that corticosteroids are likely to be ineffective or harmful, and tranexamic acid, nimodipine and progesterone show a promising effect in bleeding trauma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, TBI or severe TBI. (2) A majority of the systematic reviews include a small number of clinical trials and the modest numbers of patients, largely due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness. (3) The quality of most trials reported in the systematic reviews is more or less questionable. (4) In addition, lots of other complex factors together may lead to the inconclusive results demonstrated in the Cochrane Systematic Reviews. For clinical physicians, to translate these conclusions into practice with caution is essential. Basic medication and nursing care deserve additional attention as well and can be beneficial. For researchers, high quality trials with perfect design and comprehensive consideration of various factors are urgently required.

  1. Poor Reliability between Cochrane Reviewers and Blinded External Reviewers When Applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool in Physical Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Ospina, Maria; da Costa, Bruno R.; Egger, Matthias; Saltaji, Humam; Fuentes, Jorge; Ha, Christine; Cummings, Greta G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the inter-rater reliability of the RoB tool applied to Physical Therapy (PT) trials by comparing ratings from Cochrane review authors with those of blinded external reviewers. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PT were identified by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analysis of PT interventions. RoB assessments were conducted independently by 2 reviewers blinded to the RoB ratings reported in the Cochrane reviews. Data on RoB assessments from Cochrane reviews and other characteristics of reviews and trials were extracted. Consensus assessments between the two reviewers were then compared with the RoB ratings from the Cochrane reviews. Agreement between Cochrane and blinded external reviewers was assessed using weighted kappa (κ). Results In total, 109 trials included in 17 Cochrane reviews were assessed. Inter-rater reliability on the overall RoB assessment between Cochrane review authors and blinded external reviewers was poor (κ  =  0.02, 95%CI: −0.06, 0.06]). Inter-rater reliability on individual domains of the RoB tool was poor (median κ  = 0.19), ranging from κ  =  −0.04 (“Other bias”) to κ  =  0.62 (“Sequence generation”). There was also no agreement (κ  =  −0.29, 95%CI: −0.81, 0.35]) in the overall RoB assessment at the meta-analysis level. Conclusions Risk of bias assessments of RCTs using the RoB tool are not consistent across different research groups. Poor agreement was not only demonstrated at the trial level but also at the meta-analysis level. Results have implications for decision making since different recommendations can be reached depending on the group analyzing the evidence. Improved guidelines to consistently apply the RoB tool and revisions to the tool for different health areas are needed. PMID:24824199

  2. Use of indirect comparison methods in systematic reviews: a survey of Cochrane review authors.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Asmaa S; Loke, Yoon K; Parekh-Bhurke, Sheetal; Chen, Yen-Fu; Sutton, Alex; Eastwood, Alison; Holland, Richard; Song, Fujian

    2012-06-01

    Because of insufficient evidence from direct comparison trials, the use of indirect or mixed treatment comparison methods has attracted growing interest recently. We investigated the views and knowledge of Cochrane systematic review authors regarding the use of indirect comparison and related methods in the evaluation of competing healthcare interventions. An online survey was sent to 84 authors of Cochrane systematic review reviews between January and March 2011. The response rate was 57%. Most respondents (87%) had heard of/had some knowledge of indirect comparison, and 23% actually used indirect comparison methods. Some were suspicious of the methods (9%). Most authors (89%) felt they needed more training, especially in assessing the validity of indirect evidence. Almost all felt that the validity of indirect comparison could potentially be influenced by a large number of effect modifiers. Many reviewers (76%) accepted that indirect evidence is needed as it may be the only source of information for relative effectiveness of competing interventions, provided that review authors and readers are conscious of its limitations. Time commitment and resources needed were identified as an important concern for Cochrane reviewers. In summary, there is an acceptance of the increasing demand for indirect comparison and related methods and an urgent need to develop structured guidance and training for its use and interpretation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Assessing and presenting summaries of evidence in Cochrane Reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane Reviews are intended to help providers, practitioners and patients make informed decisions about health care. The goal of the Cochrane Applicability and Recommendation Methods Group (ARMG) is to develop approaches, strategies and guidance that facilitate the uptake of information from Cochrane Reviews and their use by a wide audience with specific focus on developers of recommendations and on healthcare decision makers. This paper is part of a series highlighting developments in systematic review methodology in the 20 years since the establishment of The Cochrane Collaboration, and its aim is to present current work and highlight future developments in assessing and presenting summaries of evidence, with special focus on Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and Plain Language Summaries. A SoF table provides a concise and transparent summary of the key findings of a review in a tabular format. Several studies have shown that SoF tables improve accessibility and understanding of Cochrane Reviews. The ARMG and GRADE Working Group are working on further development of the SoF tables, for example by evaluating the degree of acceptable flexibility beyond standard presentation of SoF tables, developing SoF tables for diagnostic test accuracy reviews and interactive SoF tables (iSoF). The plain language summary (PLS) is the other main building block for dissemination of review results to end-users. The PLS aims to summarize the results of a review in such a way that health care consumers can readily understand them. Current efforts include the development of a standardized language to describe statistical results, based on effect size and quality of supporting evidence. Producing high quality PLS and SoF tables and making them compatible and linked would make it easier to produce dissemination products targeting different audiences (for example, providers, health policy makers, guideline developers). Current issues of debate include optimal presentation formats of So

  4. Assessing and presenting summaries of evidence in Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Langendam, Miranda W; Akl, Elie A; Dahm, Philipp; Glasziou, Paul; Guyatt, Gordon; Schünemann, Holger J

    2013-09-23

    Cochrane Reviews are intended to help providers, practitioners and patients make informed decisions about health care. The goal of the Cochrane Applicability and Recommendation Methods Group (ARMG) is to develop approaches, strategies and guidance that facilitate the uptake of information from Cochrane Reviews and their use by a wide audience with specific focus on developers of recommendations and on healthcare decision makers. This paper is part of a series highlighting developments in systematic review methodology in the 20 years since the establishment of The Cochrane Collaboration, and its aim is to present current work and highlight future developments in assessing and presenting summaries of evidence, with special focus on Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and Plain Language Summaries.A SoF table provides a concise and transparent summary of the key findings of a review in a tabular format. Several studies have shown that SoF tables improve accessibility and understanding of Cochrane Reviews.The ARMG and GRADE Working Group are working on further development of the SoF tables, for example by evaluating the degree of acceptable flexibility beyond standard presentation of SoF tables, developing SoF tables for diagnostic test accuracy reviews and interactive SoF tables (iSoF).The plain language summary (PLS) is the other main building block for dissemination of review results to end-users. The PLS aims to summarize the results of a review in such a way that health care consumers can readily understand them. Current efforts include the development of a standardized language to describe statistical results, based on effect size and quality of supporting evidence.Producing high quality PLS and SoF tables and making them compatible and linked would make it easier to produce dissemination products targeting different audiences (for example, providers, health policy makers, guideline developers).Current issues of debate include optimal presentation formats of So

  5. Issues in the incorporation of economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methods for systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions have focused mainly on addressing the question of 'What works?’ or 'Is this intervention effective in achieving one or more specific outcomes?’ Addressing the question 'Is it worth it given the resources available?’ has received less attention. This latter question can be addressed by applying an economic lens to the systematic review process. This paper reflects on the value and desire for the consideration by end users for coverage of an economic perspective in a Cochrane review and outlines two potential approaches and future directions. Methods Two frameworks to guide review authors who are seeking to include an economic perspective are outlined. The first involves conducting a full systematic review of economic evaluations that is integrated into a review of intervention effects. The second involves developing a brief economic commentary. The two approaches share a set of common stages but allow the tailoring of the economic component of the Cochrane review to the skills and resources available to the review team. Results The number of studies using the methods outlined in the paper is limited, and further examples are needed both to explore the value of these approaches and to further develop them. The rate of progress will hinge on the organisational leadership, capacity and resources available to the CCEMG, author teams and other Cochrane entities. Particular methodological challenges to overcome relate to understanding the key economic trade-offs and casual relationships for a given decision problem and informing the development of evaluations designed to support local decision-makers. Conclusions Methods for incorporating economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane intervention reviews are established. Their role is not to provide a precise estimate of 'cost-effectiveness’ but rather to help end-users of Cochrane reviews to determine the implications of the

  6. How relevant is the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to nursing care?

    PubMed

    Geurden, Bart J G; Stern, Cindy; Piron, Cécile; Gobert, Micheline

    2012-12-01

    Barriers obstructing evidence-based nursing have been explored in many countries. Lack of resources and evidence has been noted as one of these barriers. We aimed to identify nursing care-related systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1996 until 2009. Using a broad search strategy we identified titles of Cochrane systematic reviews and protocols that focused on nursing care. The abstract of each title was examined and predetermined data were collected and analysed. 1249 titles out of a possible 6244 records were identified as being relevant to nursing care. Most of them focused on newborn and adult populations and related to comparing one intervention with another, and management strategies. The most common nursing specialties represented were internal medicine (34%) and mother and child care (25%). Twenty one percent of reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews are of direct interest to those involved in nursing care however their relevance was not always obvious.

  7. Work of the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Review Group: making sense of complexity.

    PubMed

    Handoll, Helen

    2013-11-01

    This article examines the ways in which members of the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Review Group have tackled the intrinsic complexity of a large clinical area. This features a diversity of injuries in people of all ages, predominantly physical and surgical interventions that are inherently complex interventions, and a huge array of outcome measures. The methods described include a purposeful focus on common injuries, such as fragility fractures in older people; and the generation of groups of "all intervention" reviews whose structure is informed by a systematic approach, incorporating knowledge of clinical pathways and categorization of interventions. The article concludes with some thoughts about the challenges ahead, particularly in terms of selecting the scopes of future reviews. © 2013 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Defining the clinical pathway in cochrane diagnostic test accuracy reviews.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, G; Langendam, Miranda W; Scholten, Rob J P M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Leeflang, Mariska M G

    2016-11-10

    The value of a medical test depends on the context in which it might be used. Ideally, questions, results and conclusions of a diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic review should be presented in light of this context. There is increasing acceptance of the value for knowing the impact a test can have on downstream consequences such as costs, implications for further testing and treatment options however there is currently no explicit guidance on how to address this. Authors of a Cochrane diagnostic review have recently been asked to include the clinical pathway in which a test maybe used. We aimed to evaluate how authors were developing their clinical pathways in the light of this. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for all published DTA reviews. We included only those reviews that included a clinical pathway. We developed a checklist, based on the guidance in the Cochrane Handbook for DTA review authors. To this, we added a number of additional descriptors. We checked if the included pathways fulfilled these descriptors as defined by our checklist. We found 47 reviews, of which 33 (73 %) contained aspects pertaining to a clinical pathway. The 33 reviews addressed the clinical pathway differently, both in content and format. Of these, 21 provided a textual description and 12 include visual and textual descriptions. There was considerable variation in how comprehensively review authors adhered to our checklist. Eighteen reviews (51 %) linked the index test results to downstream clinical management actions and patient consequences, but only eight went on to differentially report on the consequences for false negative results and nine on the consequences for false positive results. There is substantial variation in the clinical pathway descriptions in Cochrane systematic reviews of test accuracy. Most reviews do not link misclassifications (i.e. false negatives and false positive) to downstream patient consequences. Review authors could benefit

  9. Cardiac rehabilitation for people with heart disease: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L J; Taylor, R S

    2014-12-15

    Overviews are a new approach to summarising evidence and synthesising results from related systematic reviews. To conduct an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for cardiac rehabilitation (CR), identify opportunities for merging or splitting existing Cochrane reviews, and identify current evidence gaps to inform new review titles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify reviews that address the objectives of this overview. Data presentation is descriptive with tabular presentations of review- and trial-level characteristics and results. The six included Cochrane systematic reviews were of high methodological quality and included 148 randomised controlled trials in 97,486 participants. Compared to usual care alone, exercise-based CR reduces hospital admissions and improves patient health related quality of life (HRQL) in low to moderate risk heart failure and coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. At 12 months or more follow-up, there was evidence of some reduction in mortality in patients with CHD. Psychological- and education-based interventions appear to have little impact on mortality or morbidity but may improve HRQL. Home- and centre-based programmes are equally effective in improving HRQL at similar costs. Selected interventions can increase the uptake of CR programmes but evidence to support interventions that improve adherence is weak. This overview confirms that exercise-based CR is effective and safe in the management of clinically stable heart failure and post-MI and PCI patients. We discuss the implications of this overview on the future direction of the Cochrane CR reviews portfolio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Bee; Hadley, Gina; Derry, Sheena

    2008-01-01

    Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews in palliative care are well

  11. The Cochrane Library as a resource for evidence on out-of-hospital health care interventions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin; Jennings, Paul; McDonald, Steve; MacPherson, Chris; O'Brien, Troy; Archer, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Although the Cochrane Library is promoted as a rigorous source of evidence, the relevance of this evidence to the out-of-hospital setting has not been assessed. The objective of this study is to identify existing controlled trials and systematic reviews in the Cochrane Library that have been conducted in or are relevant to out-of-hospital health care. The scope of out-of-hospital care, the years and trends of out-of-hospital research publication, and the journals of publication are also examined. Using a search strategy developed by the Cochrane Prehospital and Emergency Health Field, 2 reviewers searched issue 4, 2005 of the Cochrane Library to identify reports of controlled trials and systematic reviews on out-of-hospital interventions. Three independent reviewers screened the titles identified by the search strategy and applied predetermined criteria to classify the reported study as out-of-hospital based or not out-of-hospital based. The out-of-hospital-based studies were then categorized as randomized or nonrandomized trials. Screening of the 19,759 titles retrieved by the search strategy identified 4,016 studies that were potentially out-of-hospital based. Abstract and full-text analysis of the 4,016 studies identified 400 reports of trials and 13 reviews or protocols that were out-of-hospital based. Of the 400 reports of trials identified, 299 (75%) were randomized trials. The number of out-of-hospital trials published increased steadily from the 1970s to the late 1990s, with the majority of trials (63%) covering interventions related to resuscitation and cardiac care. Annals of Emergency Medicine published more out-of-hospital trials than any other journal, followed by Resuscitation and Journal of the American Medical Association. The Cochrane Library provides a useful resource of health care evidence; however, the relatively small number of out-of-hospital-based systematic reviews and trials does not comprehensively cover the broad scope of out

  12. Exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michele; Minozzi, Silvia; Zaina, Fabio; Saltikov, Josette Bettany; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Hennes, Axel Maier; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-06-15

    Systematic review of interventions. To evaluate the efficacy of scoliosis-specific exercise (SSE) in adolescent patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). AIS is a 3-dimensional deformity of the spine. Although AIS can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. The use of SSEs to reduce progression of AIS and postpone or avoid other more invasive treatments is controversial. The following databases (up to March 30, 2011) were searched with no language limitations: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, issue 2), MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), CINHAL (from January 1982), SPORTDiscus (from January 1975), PsycINFO (from January 1887), and PEDro (from January 1929). We screened reference lists of articles and conducted an extensive hand search of gray literature. randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies with a control group comparing exercises with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of exercises. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Two studies (154 participants) were included. There is low-quality evidence from 1 randomized controlled study that exercises as an adjunctive to other conservative treatments to increase the efficacy of these treatments (thoracic curve reduced: mean difference 9.00, [95% confidence interval, 5.47-12.53]; lumbar curve reduced: mean difference 8.00, [95% confidence interval, 5.08-10.92]). There is very low-quality evidence from a prospective controlled cohort study that SSEs structured within an exercise program can reduce brace prescription (risk ratio, 0.24; [95% confidence interval, 0.06-1.04]) as compared with "usual physiotherapy" [many different kinds of general exercises according to the preferences of the

  13. [Primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people: a Cochrane Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Ferri, Marica

    2004-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration is an international no-profit organization established in 1992 in UK. The aim of the Collaboration is the conduction, update and dissemination of systematic reviews about health care. Systematic reviews are electronic documents systematically updated which synthesise the results of randomized controlled studies about treatments. The Cochrane Group on Drugs and Alcohol has the editorial base in Rome (Department of Epidemiology ASL RME) where the Coordinator, the Coordinating Editor and the Trial Search Coordinator, coordinate the work of seven editors based in several countries. As of April 2003 we published 17 reviews and 11 protocols of review. The systematic reviews on primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people, was conducted by David Foxcroft and published by the group in 2002. The objectives of the systematic review were the identification and synthesis of the studies on psychosocial and educational programs for prevention of alcohol abuse and the assessment of long term interventions (over three years).

  14. Potential and Limitations of Cochrane Reviews in Pediatric Cardiology: A Systematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Poryo, Martin; Khosrawikatoli, Sara; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Meyer, Sascha

    2017-02-27

    Evidence-based medicine has contributed substantially to the quality of medical care in pediatric and adult cardiology. However, our impression from the bedside is that a substantial number of Cochrane reviews generate inconclusive data that are of limited clinical benefit. We performed a systematic synopsis of Cochrane reviews published between 2001 and 2015 in the field of pediatric cardiology. Main outcome parameters were the number and percentage of conclusive, partly conclusive, and inconclusive reviews as well as their recommendations and their development over three a priori defined intervals. In total, 69 reviews were analyzed. Most of them examined preterm and term neonates (36.2%), whereas 33.3% included also non-pediatric patients. Leading topics were pharmacological issues (71.0%) followed by interventional (10.1%) and operative procedures (2.9%). The majority of reviews were inconclusive (42.9%), while 36.2% were conclusive and 21.7% partly conclusive. Although the number of published reviews increased during the three a priori defined time intervals, reviews with "no specific recommendations" remained stable while "recommendations in favor of an intervention" clearly increased. Main reasons for missing recommendations were insufficient data (n = 41) as well as an insufficient number of trials (n = 22) or poor study quality (n = 19). There is still need for high-quality research, which will likely yield a greater number of Cochrane reviews with conclusive results.

  15. Cardiac rehabilitation for people with heart disease: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsey; Taylor, Rod S

    2014-12-12

    Overviews are a new approach to summarising evidence and synthesising results from related systematic reviews. To conduct an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for delivery of cardiac rehabilitation, to identify opportunities for merging or splitting existing Cochrane reviews, and to identify current evidence gaps to inform new cardiac rehabilitation systematic review titles. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2014, Issue 10) to identify systematic reviews that addressed the objectives of this overview. We assessed the quality of included reviews using the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) measurement tool and the quality of the evidence for reported outcomes using the GRADE framework. The focus of the data presentation was descriptive with detailed tabular presentations of review level and trial level characteristics and results. We found six Cochrane systematic reviews and judged them to be of high methodological quality. They included 148 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in 98,093 participants. Compared with usual care alone, the addition of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in low-risk people after myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention or with heart failure appeared to have no impact on mortality, but did reduce hospital admissions and improved health-related quality of life. Psychological- and education-based interventions alone appeared to have little or no impact on mortality or morbidity but may have improved health-related quality of life. Home- and centre-based programmes were equally effective in improving quality of life outcomes at similar healthcare costs. Selected interventions can increase the uptake of cardiac rehabilitation programmes whilst there is currently only weak evidence to support interventions that improve adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes. The quality of the primary RCTs in the included

  16. Speech and language therapy for dysarthria due to nonprogressive brain damage: a systematic Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Sellars, Cameron; Hughes, Thomas; Langhorne, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Dysarthria is a common sequel of nonprogressive brain damage (typically stroke and traumatic brain damage). Impairment-based therapy and a wide variety of compensatory management strategies are undertaken by speech and language therapists with this patient population. To determine the efficacy of speech and language therapy interventions for adults with dysarthria following nonprogressive brain damage. Systematic review. This review has drawn on the search strategies developed for the following Cochrane Groups as a whole: Stroke, Injuries, and Infectious Diseases. Relevant trials were identified in the Specialised Registers of Controlled Trials. We also searched the trials register of the Cochrane Rehabilitation and Related Therapies Field. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, and Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts were electronically searched. Hand-searching of the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders and of reference lists from relevant articles and conference proceedings was also undertaken. Colleagues were approached to identify other possible published and unpublished studies. Unconfounded randomized controlled trials. One reviewer assessed trial quality. Two co-reviewers were available to examine any potential trials for possible inclusion in the review. No trials of the required standard were identified. There is no evidence of the quality required by this review to support or refute the effectiveness of speech and language therapy interventions for dysarthria following nonprogressive brain damage. There is an urgent need for good quality research in this area.

  17. Updated method guidelines for cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews and metaanalyses.

    PubMed

    Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Maxwell, Lara J; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Johnston, Renea V; Christensen, Robin D K; Rutjes, Anne W S; Winzenberg, Tania M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Zanoli, Gustavo; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit, international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. It is important that authors conducting CMSG reviews and the readers of our reviews be aware of and use updated, state-of-the-art systematic review methodology. One hundred sixty reviews have been published. Previous method guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions in the musculoskeletal field published in 2006 have been substantially updated to incorporate methodological advances that are mandatory or highly desirable in Cochrane reviews and knowledge translation advances. The methodological advances include new guidance on searching, new risk-of-bias assessment, grading the quality of the evidence, the new Summary of Findings table, and comparative effectiveness using network metaanalysis. Method guidelines specific to musculoskeletal disorders are provided by CMSG editors for various aspects of undertaking a systematic review. These method guidelines will help improve the quality of reporting and ensure high standards of conduct as well as consistency across CMSG reviews.

  18. Methods to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Treweek, Shaun; Lockhart, Pauline; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan A; Kjeldstrøm, Monica; Johansen, Marit; Taskila, Taina K; Sullivan, Frank M; Wilson, Sue; Jackson, Catherine; Jones, Ritu; Mitchell, Elizabeth D

    2013-01-01

    This review is an abridged version of a Cochrane Review previously published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4, Art. No.: MR000013 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub5 (see www.thecochranelibrary.com for information). Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to feedback, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. Objective To identify interventions designed to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials, and to quantify their effect on trial participation. Design Systematic review. Data sources The Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, C2-SPECTR, the National Research Register and PubMed. Most searches were undertaken up to 2010; no language restrictions were applied. Study selection Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials, including those recruiting to hypothetical studies. Studies on retention strategies, examining ways to increase questionnaire response or evaluating the use of incentives for clinicians were excluded. The study population included any potential trial participant (eg, patient, clinician and member of the public), or individual or group of individuals responsible for trial recruitment (eg, clinicians, researchers and recruitment sites). Two authors independently screened identified studies for eligibility. Results 45 trials with over 43 000 participants were included. Some interventions were effective in increasing recruitment: telephone reminders to non-respondents (risk ratio (RR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.46; two studies, 1058 participants), use of opt-out rather than opt-in procedures for contacting potential participants (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84; one study, 152 participants) and open designs where participants know which treatment they are receiving in the trial (RR 1.22, 95

  19. Opioids for cancer pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J; Wee, Bee; Derry, Sheena; Bell, Rae F; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-07-06

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Opioid (morphine-like) drugs are commonly used to treat moderate or severe cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the World Health Organization (WHO) pain treatment ladder. The most commonly-used opioid drugs are buprenorphine, codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, tramadol, and tapentadol. To provide an overview of the analgesic efficacy of opioids in cancer pain, and to report on adverse events associated with their use. We identified systematic reviews examining any opioid for cancer pain published to 4 May 2017 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the Cochrane Library. The primary outcomes were no or mild pain within 14 days of starting treatment, withdrawals due to adverse events, and serious adverse events. We included nine reviews with 152 included studies and 13,524 participants, but because some studies appeared in more than one review the number of unique studies and participants was smaller than this. Most participants had moderate or severe pain associated with a range of different types of cancer. Studies in the reviews typically compared one type of opioid or formulation with either a different formulation of the same opioid, or a different opioid; few included a placebo control. Typically the reviews titrated dose to effect, a balance between pain relief and adverse events. Various routes of administration of opioids were considered in the reviews; oral with most opioids, but transdermal administration with fentanyl, and buprenorphine. No review included studies of subcutaneous opioid administration. Pain outcomes reported were varied and inconsistent. The average size of included studies varied considerably between reviews: studies of older opioids, such as codeine, morphine, and methadone, had low

  20. Cochrane reviews on the benefits/risks of fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Wong, M C M; Clarkson, J; Glenny, A-M; Lo, E C M; Marinho, V C C; Tsang, B W K; Walsh, T; Worthington, H V

    2011-05-01

    This concise review presents two Cochrane Reviews undertaken to determine: (1) the relative effectiveness of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents; and (2) the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and their risk of developing dental fluorosis. To determine the relative effectiveness of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations, we undertook a network meta-analysis utilizing both direct and indirect comparisons from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review examining fluorosis included evidence from experimental and observational studies. The findings of the reviews confirm the benefits of using fluoride toothpaste, when compared with placebo, in preventing caries in children and adolescents, but only significantly for fluoride concentrations of 1000 ppm and above. The relative caries-preventive effects of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations increase with higher fluoride concentration. However, there is weak, unreliable evidence that starting the use of fluoride toothpaste in children under 12 months of age may be associated with an increased risk of fluorosis. The decision of what fluoride levels to use for children under 6 years should be balanced between the risk of developing dental caries and that of mild fluorosis.

  1. Physical rehabilitation for critical illness myopathy and neuropathy: an abridged version of Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, J; Pohl, M; Kugler, J; Burridge, J; Mückel, S; Elsner, B

    2015-10-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) acquired or generalised weakness due to critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are major causes of chronically impaired motor function that can affect activities of daily living and quality of life. Physical rehabilitation of those affected might help to improve activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to assess the effects of physical rehabilitation therapies and interventions for people with CIP and CIM in improving activities of daily living such as walking, bathing, dressing and eating. Secondary objectives were to assess effects on muscle strength and quality of life, and to assess adverse effects of physical rehabilitation. On 16 July 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register and on 14 July 2014 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus. In July 2014, we searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and three trials registries for ongoing trials and further data about included studies with no language restrictions. We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and screened reference lists to identify further trials. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and randomised controlled cross-over trials of any rehabilitation intervention in people with acquired weakness syndrome due to CIP/CIM. We would have extracted data, assessed the risk of bias and classified the quality of evidence for outcomes in duplicate, according to the standard procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. Outcome data collection would have been for activities of daily living (for example, mobility, walking, transfers and self care). Secondary outcomes included muscle strength, quality of life and adverse events. The search strategy retrieved 3587 references. After examination of titles and abstracts, we retrieved the full text of 24 potentially relevant studies. None of these studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. No data were

  2. Does antibiotic prophylaxis at implant placement decrease early implant failures? A Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Loli, Vasiliki; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2010-01-01

    Marco Esposito is the first author of two of the included studies; however, he was not involved in the quality assessment of these trials. This review is based on a Cochrane systematic review entitled 'Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications' published in The Cochrane Library (see http://www.cochrane.org for more information). Cochrane systematic reviews are regularly updated to include new research, and in response to comments and criticisms from readers. If you wish to comment on this review, please send your comments to the Cochrane website or to Marco Esposito. The Cochrane Library should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. The results of a Cochrane Review can be interpreted differently, depending on people's perspectives and circumstances. Please consider the conclusions presented carefully. They are the opinions of the review authors, and are not necessarily shared by the Cochrane Collaboration. To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic/placebo administration and, if antibiotics are of benefit, to find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to 2 June 2010 for randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 3 months comparing the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Meta-analyses were

  3. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Influenza Vaccines for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD005050].

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Daniel; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated to increased risk of cardiovascular events. The systematic review of Cochrane Collaboration evaluated the role of influenza vaccination on primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. The meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials with moderate quality, including 1 682 patients with coronary artery disease, showed a 55% risk reduction on cardiovascular mortality. Data evaluating the role of vaccination in primary cardiovascular prevention were not robust. Portuguese and international recommendations for influenza vaccination in patients with coronary artery disease are then supported by this systematic review.

  4. Peripheral Nerve Blocks for Hip Fractures: A Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Guay, Joanne; Parker, Martyn J; Griffiths, Richard; Kopp, Sandra L

    2017-10-04

    This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerve blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia, or as a supplement to general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery and tries to determine if they offer any benefit in terms of pain on movement at 30 minutes after block placement, acute confusional state, myocardial infarction/ischemia, pneumonia, mortality, time to first mobilization, and cost of analgesic. Trials were identified by computerized searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to 2016 August week 1), Embase (Ovid SP, 1988 to 2016 August week 1), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCO, 1982 to 2016 August week 1), trials registers, and reference lists of relevant articles. Randomized controlled trials involving the use of nerve blocks as part of the care for hip fractures in adults aged 16 years and older were included. The quality of the studies was rated according to the Cochrane tool. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of evidence was judged according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations Working Group scale. Based on 8 trials with 373 participants, peripheral nerve blocks reduced pain on movement within 30 minutes of block placement: standardized mean difference, -1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.14 to -0.67; equivalent to -3.4 on a scale from 0 to 10; I statistic = 90%; high quality of evidence). The effect size was proportional to the concentration of local anesthetic used (P < .00001). Based on 7 trials with 676 participants, no difference was found in the risk of acute confusional state: risk ratio, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.38-1.27; I statistic = 48%; very low quality of evidence). Based on 3 trials with 131 participants, the risk for pneumonia was decreased: risk ratio, 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19-0.89; I statistic = 3%; number needed-to-treat for additional beneficial outcome, 7 [95% CI, 5

  5. Evidence-based treatments for female pattern hair loss: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z; Carter, B

    2012-11-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) or androgenic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss affecting women with reduced hair density and can have a serious psychological impact. It is characterized by progressive replacement of slow cycling terminal hair follicles by miniaturized, rapidly cycling vellus hair follicles. The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of the treatments available for FPHL. Searches included: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO, LILACS and several ongoing trials registries (October 2011). Randomized controlled trials in women with FPHL were identified. Twenty-two trials, comprising 2349 participants, were included. A range of interventions was evaluated, with 10 studies examining varying concentrations of minoxidil. Pooled data from four studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants treated with minoxidil reported a moderate increase in their hair regrowth compared with placebo (relative risk 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·42-2·43). There was no difference between the number of adverse events experienced in the twice daily minoxidil and the placebo intervention groups, except for a reported increase with minoxidil 5% twice daily. Single studies accounted for most of the other comparisons, which were assessed as either having high risk of bias and/or they did not address the prespecified outcomes for this review and provided limited evidence of either the effectiveness or safety of these interventions. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials investigating other treatment options are still required. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Pharmacotherapy for Hyperuricemia in Hypertensive Patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4:CD008652.

    PubMed

    Bigotte Vieira, Miguel; Baptista, Rute Baeta; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2017-05-31

    Arterial hypertension is a public health problem that affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The association between hypertension and hyperuricemia has been shown on epidemiological and experimental studies. However, it is unclear whether lowering serum uric acid might lower blood pressure. This Cochrane systematic review - a revised edition of a previously published one - intended as primary objective to evaluate the effect of hypouricemic drugs in patients with primary hypertension or prehypertension. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hypouricemic drugs. A systematic search until February 2016 on controlled, randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing the effect of hypouricemic drug versus placebo in hypertensive or prehypertensive patients was performed on the following databases: The Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, The World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, e ClinicalTrials.gov. LILACS database up to March 2016 was also searched and the authors of relevant studies were contacted. There were 349 identified papers, 21 were preselected and three randomized clinical trials (211 patients) were included in the qualitative analysis and in the meta-analysis. Two of the trials were conducted exclusively on adolescents. The authors conclude that hypouricemic drugs are not effective in lowering blood pressure in patients with hyperuricemia and primary prehypertension or hypertension. However, this strategy might be more effective in the specific population of adolescents with prehypertension or mild primary hypertension recently diagnosed. Hypouricemic drugs effectively reduce serum uric acid level and withdrawals of therapy due to adverse effects were not superior in the treated group, comparing to placebo; however, one patient withdrew due to a severe cutaneous reaction.

  7. Celebrating methodological challenges and changes: reflecting on the emergence and importance of the role of qualitative evidence in Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane systematic reviews have proven to be beneficial for decision making processes, both on a practitioner and a policy level, and there are current initiatives to extend the types of evidence used by them, including qualitative research. In this article we outline the major achievements of the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group. Although the Group has encountered numerous challenges in dealing with the evolution of qualitative evidence synthesis, both outside and within the Cochrane Collaboration, it has successfully responded to the challenges posed in terms of incorporating qualitative evidence in systematic reviews. The Methods Group will continue to advocate for more flexible and inclusive approaches to evidence synthesis in order to meet the exciting challenges and opportunities presented by mixed methods systematic reviews and reviews of complex interventions. PMID:24135194

  8. The impact of Cochrane Reviews: a mixed-methods evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the National Institute for Health Research.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha; Alderson, Phil; Hamilton, Laura; Martin, Alice; Pinkney, Emma; Iliffe, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The last few decades have seen a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by Cochrane, have been a key component of this movement. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) in the UK and it is important that this funding represents value for money. The overall aim was to identify the impacts and likely impacts on health care, patient outcomes and value for money of Cochrane Reviews published by 20 NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007-11. We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, undertook interviews with guideline developers (GDs) and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane Reviews. The evaluation was guided by a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). A total of 3187 new and updated reviews were published on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews between 2007 and 2011, 1502 (47%) of which were produced by the 20 CRGs funded by the NIHR. We found 40 examples where reviews appeared to have influenced primary research and reviews had contributed to the creation of new knowledge and stimulated debate. Twenty-seven of the 60 reviews had 100 or more citations in Google Scholar™ (Google, CA, USA). Overall, 483 systematic reviews had been cited in 247 sets of guidance. This included 62 sets of international guidance, 175 sets of national guidance (87 from the UK) and 10 examples of local guidance. Evidence from the interviews suggested that Cochrane Reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although reviews being a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and GDs were barriers to their use. Cochrane Reviews appeared to have led

  9. Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis: Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choo, K J L; Simons, E; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-10-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may result in death. A number of guidelines recommend glucocorticoids for the treatment of people experiencing anaphylaxis. We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to September 2009), EMBASE (Ovid) (1988 to September 2009), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (to September 2009) and The Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) (1945 to September 2009). We also searched the UK National Research Register and websites listing ongoing trials and contacted international experts in anaphylaxis in an attempt to locate unpublished material. We sought to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing glucocorticoids with any control (either placebo, adrenaline (epinephrine), an antihistamine, or any combination of these). Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. None of the 2496 reports identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. We conclude that there is no evidence from high-quality studies for the use of steroids in the emergency management of anaphylaxis. Therefore, we can neither support nor refute the use of these drugs for this purpose.

  10. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-01-14

    Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning.Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence.We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3) psychological function, (4) quality of

  11. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-04-24

    Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning.Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence.We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3) psychological function, (4) quality of

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine in paediatrics: a systematic overview/synthesis of Cochrane Collaboration reviews.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sascha; Gortner, Ludwig; Larsen, Alexander; Kutschke, Georg; Gottschling, Sven; Gräber, Stefan; Schroeder, Nicole

    2013-05-27

    A high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has been documented in children with chronic illnesses. Conversely, evidence-based medicine is considered an important contributor in providing the best quality of care. We performed a systematic overview/synthesis of all Cochrane reviews published between 1995 and 2012 in paediatrics that assessed the efficacy, and clinical implications and limitations of CAM use in children. Main outcome variables were: percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention provides a benefit, percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention should not be performed, and percentage of studies that concluded that the current level of evidence is inconclusive. A total of 135 reviews were included - most from the United Kingdom (29/135), Australia (24/135) and China (24/135). Only 5/135 (3.7%) reviews gave a recommendation in favour of a certain intervention; 26/135 (19.4%) issued a conditional positive recommendation, and 9/135 (6.6%) reviews concluded that certain interventions should not be performed. Ninety-five reviews (70.3%) were inconclusive. The proportion of inconclusive reviews increased during three, a priori-defined, time intervals (1995-2000: 15/27 [55.6%]; 2001-2006: 33/44 [75%]; and 2007-2012: 47/64 [73.4%]). The three most common criticisms of the quality of the studies included were: more research needed (82/135), low methodological quality (57/135) and small number of study participants (48/135). Given the disproportionate number of inconclusive reviews, there is an ongoing need for high quality research to assess the potential role of CAM in children. Unless the study of CAM is performed to the same science-based standards as conventional therapies, CAM therapies risk being perpetually marginalised by mainstream medicine.

  13. Non-prescription (OTC) oral analgesics for acute pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Maguire, Terry; Roy, Yvonne M; Tyrrell, Laila

    2015-11-04

    Non-prescription (over-the-counter, or OTC) analgesics (painkillers) are used frequently. They are available in various brands, package sizes, formulations, and dose. They can be used for a range of different types of pain, but this overview reports on how well they work for acute pain (pain of short duration, usually with rapid onset). Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. To examine published Cochrane reviews for information about the efficacy of pain medicines available without prescription using data from acute postoperative pain. We identified OTC analgesics available in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the USA by examining online pharmacy websites. We also included some analgesics (diclofenac potassium, dexketoprofen, dipyrone) of importance in parts of the world, but not currently available in these jurisdictions.We identified systematic reviews by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. From individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also calculated the success rate to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief. We also examined the number of participants experiencing any adverse event, and whether the incidence was different from placebo. We found information on 21 different OTC analgesic drugs, doses, and formulations, using information from 10 Cochrane reviews, supplemented by information from one non-Cochrane review with additional information on ibuprofen formulations (high quality evidence). The lowest (best) NNT values were for combinations of

  14. Information retrieval for the Cochrane systematic reviews: the case of breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Cognetti, Gaetana; Grossi, Laura; Lucon, Antonio; Solimini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are fundamental sources of knowledge on the state-of-the-art interventions for various clinical problems. One of the essential components in carrying out a systematic review is that of developing a comprehensive literature search. Three Cochrane systematic reviews published in 2012 were retrieved using the MeSH descriptor breast neoplasms/surgery, and analyzed with respect to the information sources used and the search strategies adopted. In March 2014, an update of one of the reviews retrieved was also considered in the study. The number of databases queried for each review ranged between three and seven. All the reviews reported the search strategies adopted, however some only partially. All the reviews explicitly claimed that the searches applied no language restriction although sources such as the free database Lilacs (in Spanish and Portuguese) was not consulted. To improve the quality it is necessary to apply standards in carrying out systematic reviews (as laid down in the MECIR project). To meet these standards concerning literature searching, professional information retrieval specialist staff should be involved. The peer review committee in charge of evaluating the publication of a systematic review should also include specialists in information retrieval for assessing the quality of the literature search.

  15. Effectiveness of sinus lift procedures for dental implant rehabilitation: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Rees, Jonathan; Karasoulos, Dimitrios; Felice, Pietro; Alissa, Rami; Worthington, Helen; Coulthard, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marco Esposito, Pietro Felice and Paul Coulthard are among the authors of four of the included trials, however, they were not involved in the quality assessment of these trials. This review is based on a Cochrane systematic review entitled 'Interventions for replacing missing teeth: augmentation procedures of the maxillary sinus' published in The Cochrane Library (see http:// www.cochrane.org/ for information). Cochrane systematic reviews are regularly updated to include new research and in response to comments and criticisms from readers. If you wish to comment on this review, please send your comments to the Cochrane website or to Marco Esposito. The Cochrane Library should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. The results of a Cochrane Review can be interpreted differently, depending on people's perspectives and circumstances. Please consider the conclusions presented carefully. They are the opinions of the review authors, and are not necessarily shared by the Cochrane Collaboration. Insufficient bone volume is a common problem encountered in the rehabilitation of the edentulous posterior maxillae with implant supported prostheses. Bone volume is limited by the presence of the maxillary sinus together with loss of alveolar bone height. Sinus lift procedures increase bone volume by augmenting the sinus cavity with autogenous bone and/or commercially available biomaterials. To test whether and when augmentation of the maxillary sinus is necessary and which are the most effective augmentation techniques for rehabilitating patients with implant-supported prostheses. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Several dental journals were hand searched. The bibliographies of review articles were checked, and personal references were searched. More than 55 implant manufacturing companies were also contacted. The last electronic search was conducted

  16. A qualitative study into the difficulties experienced by healthcare decision makers when reading a Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy review.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Garside, Ruth; Hyde, Christopher

    2013-05-16

    Cochrane reviews are one of the best known and most trusted sources of evidence-based information in health care. While steps have been taken to make Cochrane intervention reviews accessible to a diverse readership, little is known about the accessibility of the newcomer to the Cochrane library: diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTARs). The current qualitative study explored how healthcare decision makers, who varied in their knowledge and experience with test accuracy research and systematic reviews, read and made sense of DTARs. A purposive sample of clinicians, researchers and policy makers (n = 21) took part in a series of think-aloud interviews, using as interview material the first three DTARs published in the Cochrane library. Thematic qualitative analysis of the transcripts was carried out to identify patterns in participants' 'reading' and interpretation of the reviews and the difficulties they encountered. Participants unfamiliar with the design and methodology of DTARs found the reviews largely inaccessible and experienced a range of difficulties stemming mainly from the mismatch between background knowledge and level of explanation provided in the text. Experience with systematic reviews of interventions did not guarantee better understanding and, in some cases, led to confusion and misinterpretation. These difficulties were further exacerbated by poor layout and presentation, which affected even those with relatively good knowledge of DTARs and had a negative impact not only on their understanding of the reviews but also on their motivation to engage with the text. Comparison between the readings of the three reviews showed that more accessible presentation, such as presenting the results as natural frequencies, significantly increased participants' understanding. The study demonstrates that authors and editors should pay more attention to the presentation as well as the content of Cochrane DTARs, especially if the reports are aimed at readers with

  17. Tweeting links to Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, C E; Jayaram, M; Bodart, A Y M; Sampson, S; Zhao, S; Montgomery, A A

    2016-03-08

    To assess the effects of using health social media on web activity. Individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. Twitter and Weibo. 170 Cochrane Schizophrenia Group full reviews with an abstract and plain language summary web page. Three randomly ordered slightly different 140 character or less messages, each containing a short URL to the freely accessible summary page sent on specific times on one single day. This was compared with no messaging. The primary outcome was web page visits at 1 week. Secondary outcomes were other metrics of web activity at 1 week. 85 reviews were randomised to each of the intervention and control arms. Google Analytics allowed 100% follow-up within 1 week of completion. Intervention and control reviews received a total of 1162 and 449 visits, respectively (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.3). Fewer intervention reviews had single page only visits (16% vs 31%, OR 0.41, 0.19 to 0.88) and users spent more time viewing intervention reviews (geometric mean 76 vs 31 s, ratio 2.5, 1.3 to 4.6). Other secondary metrics of web activity all showed strong evidence in favour of the intervention. Tweeting in this limited area of healthcare increases 'product placement' of evidence with the potential for that to influence care. ISRCTN84658943. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Have we drawn the wrong conclusions about the value of care pathways? Is a Cochrane review appropriate?

    PubMed

    Vanhaecht, Kris; Ovretveit, John; Elliott, Martin J; Sermeus, Walter; Ellershaw, John; Panella, Massimiliano

    2012-03-01

    Care pathways are used increasingly worldwide to organize patient care. However, different views exist about their effectiveness. One of the reasons for this is that pathways are complex interventions. A recent Cochrane review was published which reported positive results, but although the Cochrane team performed excellent work with an enormous commitment, the conclusions may be inappropriate. To fully understand the potential and problems of care pathways, it is important to define (a) exactly what we are talking about (b) whether the study methods are appropriate, and (c) whether we can properly define the outcomes.

  19. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: thrombolysis for acute deep vein thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,1: CD002783].

    PubMed

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Torres Cardoso, André; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2015-01-01

    The standard treatment for acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) targets to reduce immediate complications, however thrombolysis could reduce the long-term complications of post-thrombotic syndrome in the affected limb. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of thrombolytic therapy and anticoagulation versus anticoagulation in people with deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb through the effects on pulmonary embolism, recurrent deep vein thrombosis, major bleeding, post-thrombotic complications, venous patency and venous function. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last search in April 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 4). A total of 17 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 1103 participants were included. In the experimental group receiving thrombolysis, complete clot lysis occurred more frequently and there was greater improvement in venous patency. The incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome decreased by a 1/3 and venous ulcers were less frequent. There were more bleeding complications and 3 strokes occurred in less recent studies, yet there seemed to be no significant effect on mortality. Data on the occurrence of pulmonary embolism and recurrent deep vein thrombosis were inconclusive. There are advantages to thrombolysis, yet the application of rigorous criteria is warranted to reduce bleeding complications. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is the current preferred method, as opposed to systemic thrombolysis in the past, and other studies comparing these procedures show that results are similar.

  20. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Incentives for Smoking Cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD004307].

    PubMed

    Vaz-Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2016-01-01

    Material incentives for alteration or reinforcement of healthy behaviours have been widely used in several health systems. These incentives, which are used in various contexts such as workplaces, health facilities or community programs, have been successfully implemented in smoking cessation programs. This systematic review - a third updated version of two published previously - sought to determine if a given set of incentives increased abstinence rates in smokers of medium and high risk (pregnant women). The authors searched several databases until December 2014: the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Two trials published in 2105 were included. The main results were: - In mixed populations (medium risk) six months after the onset there is a greater probability of withdrawal in patients subject to incentives. Direct payments to smokers - through different forms - were particularly effective (North American studies); - In populations of pregnant women (high risk), incentives caused a higher abstinence rate either during pregnancy or in the long term (up to 24 weeks postpartum). The authors conclude that the incentives appear to be effective in increasing the rate of smoking cessation in medium-risk as well as high-risk populations (e.g. pregnant women).

  1. [What can we expect of Collaborative Review Groups of Cochrane Collaboration in neuropaediatrics?].

    PubMed

    González de Dios, J; Balaguer-Santamaría, J A

    Cochrane Collaboration (CC) contains detailed, critical and up-to-date systematic reviews (SR) of the best scientific evidence available. To analyse the bibliometric characteristics of the SR related to paediatric neurology published in the 50 Collaborative Review Groups (CRG) of the CC. Bibliometric analysis of the Database of Systematic Reviews in Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2005 (n = 2.231 SR). The variables recorded were: number of SR and protocols in any CRG, authors and clusters of secondary research, dates (late review and update), type of study, critical review of the SR and conclusions. Nine published SR about neuropaediatrics: the Epilepsy Group (24 SR), the Neuromuscular Disease Group (16), the Neonatal Group (16), the Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group (10), the Pain, Palliative Care and Supportive Care Group (4), the Movement Disorders Group (3), the Injuries Group (3), the Infectious Disease Group (3) and the Acute Respiratory Infections Group (2). The three main thematic areas were treatment of epilepsy (pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic), neonatal neurology (mainly intraventricular haemorrhage and perinatal asphyxia) and miscellanea (autism spectrum disorder, headache, cerebral palsy, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Bell's palsy and bacterial meningitis). All the SR were about treatment interventions. Paediatric neurology SR are infrequent (3.6% of the 2.231 SR published in CC), and helps an evidence-based decision-making in a few areas: pharmacologic treatment of epilepsy, management of intraventricular haemorrhage of preterm infants and bacterial meningitis. Many therapies in paediatric neurology persist with no supporting evidence, and we detected no SR about important neurological issues in childhood as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, mental retardation and hypotonia.

  2. Systematic Reviews Published in the October 2016 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2017-03-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews has been published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The final October 2016 issue (4th DVD for 2016) contains 7068 complete reviews and 2467 protocols for reviews in production. In addition, there are citations of 973,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 16,000 citations. One hundred and seventeen new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which three have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 6.1. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest, as only a brief commentary is provided. The CD version of the Cochrane Library will be discontinued and the Library will only available online in the future.

  3. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%. For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning. Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. Objectives To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. Methods We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence. We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3

  4. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha; Alderson, Phil; Hamilton, Laura; Martin, Alice; Iliffe, Steve

    2014-10-27

    There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007-2011. We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation. Impacts on knowledge production and clinical

  5. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation

  6. Stretch for the treatment and prevention of contracture: an abridged republication of a Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lisa A; Katalinic, Owen M; Herbert, Robert D; Moseley, Anne M; Lannin, Natasha A; Schurr, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Is stretch effective for the treatment and prevention of contractures in people with neurological and non-neurological conditions? A Cochrane Systematic Review with meta-analyses of randomised trials. People with or at risk of contractures. Trials were considered for inclusion if they compared stretch to no stretch, or stretch plus co-intervention to co-intervention only. The stretch could be administered in any way. The outcome of interest was joint mobility. Two sets of meta-analyses were conducted with a random-effects model: one for people with neurological conditions and the other for people with non-neurological conditions. The quality of evidence supporting the results of the two sets of meta-analyses was assessed using GRADE. Eighteen studies involving 549 participants examined the effectiveness of stretch in people with neurological conditions, and provided useable data. The pooled mean difference was 2 deg (95% CI 0 to 3) favouring stretch. This was equivalent to a relative change of 2% (95% CI 0 to 3). Eighteen studies involving 865 participants examined the effectiveness of stretch in people with non-neurological conditions, and provided useable data. The pooled standardised mean difference was 0.2 SD (95% CI 0 to 0.3) favouring stretch. This translated to an absolute mean increase of 1 deg (95% CI 0 to 2) and a relative change of 1% (95% CI 0 to 2). The GRADE level of evidence was high for both sets of meta-analyses. Stretch does not have clinically important effects on joint mobility. [Harvey LA, Katalinic OM, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Lannin NA, Schurr K (2017) Stretch for the treatment and prevention of contracture: an abridged republication of a Cochrane Systematic Review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 67-75]. Copyright © 2017 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  8. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  9. Traditional chinese herbal products for coronary heart disease: an overview of cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this overview was to evaluate and summarize Cochrane reviews of traditional Chinese herbal products (TCHPs) as the treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods. We searched the Cochrane Database that was concerned with the effectiveness of TCHPs for CHD. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reviews and primary studies of TCHP as the treatment of any type of CHD were included. Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. Six Cochrane reviews were included. They related to a wide range of TCHPs for different types of CHD. Four reviews were concerned with angina pectoris (unstable or stable), one review was concerned with heart failure, and for acute myocardial infarction. No reviews concluded that TCHPs were definitely effective for CHD because of the weak evidence. Eight primary studies were TCHPs from CHD. These studies also maybe result in bias, but better than before. Conclusion. Several Cochrane reviews of TCHPs for the treatment of different types of CHD have recently been published. None of these reviews got definite conclusion favoring the effectiveness of TCHPs due to the weak evidence. With the improved quality of the new registered RCTs. The potential role of TCHPs in treating CHD is anticipated to be detected.

  10. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Antihistamines for the Common Cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;11:CD009345].

    PubMed

    Sterrantino, Carmel; Duarte, Gonçalo; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2016-03-01

    The common cold is an acute, self-limiting inflammation of the mucosa of the upper airways, which may involve one or all the sinuses, nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx. It is common to have at least one episode per year. Common cold symptoms, which may include sore throat, sneezing, nasal congestion, runny nose, headache, malaise and mild fever usually disappear within a few days without treatment. The causative agent of most colds is rhinovirus. Although not associated with mortality, common cold is associated with significant morbidity. There is no vaccine or cure for common cold and, therefore, their treatment is centered on relieving the symptoms. This Cochrane review aimed to synthesize the existing evidence about the clinical benefit of antihistamines, used as monotherapy, compared with placebo or no treatment in children and adult patients with common cold. A total of 18 randomized clinical trials with 4342 participants were included. Main results were: 1) Antihistamines have a small (days one and two) beneficial effect in the short term on the severity of overall symptoms in adult patients, although this effect is not present in the medium to long term; 2) antihistamines were not associated with a clinically significant beneficial effect on the individual symptoms (nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sneezing); 3) Antihistamines are not associated with an increased risk of adverse effects; 4) No conclusion can be made about the effectiveness of antihistamines in pediatric populations. Our interpretation of the results is that the available evidence is insufficient to support the prescription or buying OTC antihistamines to relieve the symptoms of common cold without allergic component.

  11. Evaluation of the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized clinical trials: overview of published comments and analysis of user practice in Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Lars; Paludan-Müller, Asger S; Laursen, David R T; Savović, Jelena; Boutron, Isabelle; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Higgins, Julian P T; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-05-10

    The Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials was introduced in 2008 and has frequently been commented on and used in systematic reviews. We wanted to evaluate the tool by reviewing published comments on its strengths and challenges and by describing and analysing how the tool is applied to both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. A review of published comments (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Methodology Register and Google Scholar) and an observational study (100 Cochrane and 100 non-Cochrane reviews from 2014). Our review included 68 comments, 15 of which were categorised as major. The main strengths of the tool were considered to be its aim (to assess trial conduct and not reporting), its developmental basis (wide consultation, empirical and theoretical evidence) and its transparent procedures. The challenges of the tool were mainly considered to be its choice of core bias domains (e.g. not involving funding/conflicts of interest) and issues to do with implementation (i.e. modest inter-rater agreement) and terminology. Our observational study found that the tool was used in all Cochrane reviews (100/100) and was the preferred tool in non-Cochrane reviews (31/100). Both types of reviews frequently implemented the tool in non-recommended ways. Most Cochrane reviews planned to use risk of bias assessments as basis for sensitivity analyses (70 %), but only a minority conducted such analyses (19 %) because, in many cases, few trials were assessed as having "low" risk of bias for all standard domains (6 %). The judgement of at least one risk of bias domain as "unclear" was found in 89 % of included randomized clinical trials (1103/1242). The Cochrane tool has become the standard approach to assess risk of bias in randomized clinical trials but is frequently implemented in a non-recommended way. Based on published comments and how it is applied in practice in systematic reviews, the tool may be further improved by a revised structure and

  12. Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation: an abridged version of a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Laver, K; George, S; Thomas, S; Deutsch, J E; Crotty, M

    2015-08-01

    Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as new treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation settings over the last ten years. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality on upper limb function and activity after stroke. The impact on secondary outcomes including gait, cognitive function and activities of daily living was also assessed. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing virtual reality with an alternative intervention or no intervention were eligible to be included in the review. The authors searched a number of electronic databases including: the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, clinical trial registers, reference lists, Dissertation Abstracts and contacted key researchers in the field. Search results were independently examined by two review authors to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials with a total of 1019 participants were included in the review. Virtual reality was found to be significantly more effective than conventional therapy in improving upper limb function (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.28, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.08 to 0.49) based on 12 studies and significantly more effective than no therapy in improving upper limber function (SMD 0.44 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.73]) based on nine studies. The use of virtual reality also significantly improved activities of daily living function when compared to more conventional therapy approaches (SMD 0.43 [95% CI 0.18 to 0.69]) based on eight studies. While there are a large number of studies assessing the efficacy of virtual reality they tend to be small and many are at risk of bias. While there is evidence to support the use of virtual reality intervention as part of upper limb training programs, more research is required to determine whether it

  13. Educational games for mental health professionals: a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Bhoopathi, P S; Sheoran, R; Adams, C E

    2007-05-01

    Learning in general can be been a passive process. This review is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of educational games as a teaching strategy in mental health professionals. We searched for all relevant randomised control trials (RCT) that compared educational games as teaching strategies with other methods of learning using electronic and reference searching, and by contacting trial authors. Data were extracted from selected trials and, individual person data was analysed using fixed effect Peto Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). If appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) or number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences. We identified one trial (n = 34) of an educational game for mental health nursing students which followed up participants only over a few hours. For an outcome we arbitrarily defined ('no academically important improvement [a 10% improvement in scores]'), those allocated to educational games fared considerably better than students in the standard education techniques group (OR 0.06 CI 0.01 to 0.27, NNT 3 CI 2 to 4). On average those in the games group scored six more points than the control students on a test of questions relevant to psychosis set to the standard of the mental health nursing curriculum of the day (WMD 6 CI 2.63 to 9.37). Current limited evidence suggests educational games could help mental health students gain more points in their tests; however this interesting study should be refined and repeated.

  14. Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Coronary Heart Disease: Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsey; Oldridge, Neil; Thompson, David R; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rees, Karen; Martin, Nicole; Taylor, Rod S

    2016-01-05

    Although recommended in guidelines for the management of coronary heart disease (CHD), concerns have been raised about the applicability of evidence from existing meta-analyses of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The goal of this study is to update the Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise-based CR for CHD. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Science Citation Index Expanded were searched to July 2014. Retrieved papers, systematic reviews, and trial registries were hand-searched. We included randomized controlled trials with at least 6 months of follow-up, comparing CR to no-exercise controls following myocardial infarction or revascularization, or with a diagnosis of angina pectoris or CHD defined by angiography. Two authors screened titles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Studies were pooled using random effects meta-analysis, and stratified analyses were undertaken to examine potential treatment effect modifiers. A total of 63 studies with 14,486 participants with median follow-up of 12 months were included. Overall, CR led to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality (relative risk: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 0.86) and the risk of hospital admissions (relative risk: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.96). There was no significant effect on total mortality, myocardial infarction, or revascularization. The majority of studies (14 of 20) showed higher levels of health-related quality of life in 1 or more domains following exercise-based CR compared with control subjects. This study confirms that exercise-based CR reduces cardiovascular mortality and provides important data showing reductions in hospital admissions and improvements in quality of life. These benefits appear to be consistent across patients and intervention types and were independent of study quality, setting, and publication date. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology

  15. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Langford, Rebecca; Bonell, Christopher; Jones, Hayley; Pouliou, Theodora; Murphy, Simon; Waters, Elizabeth; Komro, Kelli; Gibbs, Lisa; Magnus, Daniel; Campbell, Rona

    2015-02-12

    Healthy children achieve better educational outcomes which, in turn, are associated with improved health later in life. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework is a holistic approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school. The effectiveness of this approach has not yet been rigorously reviewed. We searched 20 health, education and social science databases, and trials registries and relevant websites in 2011 and 2013. We included cluster randomised controlled trials. Participants were children and young people aged four to 18 years attending schools/colleges. HPS interventions had to include the following three elements: input into the curriculum; changes to the school's ethos or environment; and engagement with families and/or local communities. Two reviewers identified relevant trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We grouped studies according to the health topic(s) targeted. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses. We identified 67 eligible trials tackling a range of health issues. Few studies included any academic/attendance outcomes. We found positive average intervention effects for: body mass index (BMI), physical activity, physical fitness, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, and being bullied. Intervention effects were generally small. On average across studies, we found little evidence of effectiveness for zBMI (BMI, standardized for age and gender), and no evidence for fat intake, alcohol use, drug use, mental health, violence and bullying others. It was not possible to meta-analyse data on other health outcomes due to lack of data. Methodological limitations were identified including reliance on self-reported data, lack of long-term follow-up, and high attrition rates. This Cochrane review has found the WHO HPS framework is effective at improving some aspects of student health. The effects are small but potentially important at a population level.

  16. Systematic Reviews Published in the July 2016 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2016-12-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The July 2016 issue (third DVD for 2016) contains 6963 complete reviews, 2457 protocols for reviews in production. In addition, there are citations of 945,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 16,000 citations. One hundred and twenty-one new reviews have been published in the previous three months, of which four have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 6.1. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest, as only a brief commentary is provided.

  17. Treadmill training for patients with Parkinson Disease. An abridged version of a Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Kugler, Joachim; Storch, Alexander; Pohl, Marcus; Hirsch, Kathleen; Elsner, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Treadmill training is used in rehabilitation might improve gait parameters of patients with Parkinson Disease. Aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of treadmill training in improving the gait of patients with Parkinson Disease and the acceptability and safety of this type of therapy. We searched the Cochrane Movement Disorders Group Specialized Register (last searched September 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2014), and EMBASE (1980 to September 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, and checked reference lists (last searched September 2014). We contacted trialists, experts and researchers in the field and manufacturers of commercial devices. We included all randomized controlled trials comparing treadmill training with no treadmill training in patients with Parkinson Disease. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Treadmill training improved gait speed (MD=0.09 m/s; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.14; P=0.001; I2=24%; moderate quality of evidence), stride length (MD=0.05 meters; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.09; P=0.01; I2=0%; low quality of evidence), but walking distance (MD=48.9 meters; 95% CI -1.32 to 99.14; P=0.06; I2=91%; very low quality of evidence) and cadence did not improve (MD=2.16 steps/minute; 95% CI -0.13 to 4.46; P=0.07; I2=28%; low quality of evidence) at the end of study. Treadmill training did not increase the risk of patients dropping out from intervention (RD=-0.02; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02; P=0.32; I2=13%; moderate quality of evidence) and adverse events were not reported. This systematic review provides evidence from eighteen trials with moderate to low risk of bias that the use of treadmill training in patients with PD may improve clinically relevant gait parameters such as gait speed and stride length. This apparent

  18. Survey of new 2007 and 2011 Cochrane reviews found 37% of prespecified outcomes not reported.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Gargon, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    To survey the outcomes used in Cochrane Reviews, as part of our work within the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials Initiative. A descriptive survey of Cochrane Reviews, divided by Cochrane Review Group (CRG), published in full for the first time in 2007 and 2011. Outcomes specified in the methods section of each review and outcomes reported in the results section of each review were of interest, in this exploration of the common use of outcomes and core outcome sets (COS). Seven hundred eighty-eight reviews, specifying 6,127 outcomes, were included. When we excluded specified outcomes from the 86 reviews that did not include any studies, we found that 1,996 (37%) specified outcomes were not reported. Of the 361 new reviews with studies from 2011, 113 (31%) had a "summary of findings" table (SoF). Fifteen broad outcome categories were identified and used to manage the outcome data. We found consistency in the use of these categories across CRGs but inconsistency in outcomes within these categories. COS have been used rarely in Cochrane Reviews, but the introduction of SoF makes the development and application of COS timelier than ever. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Aldington, Dominic; Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-09-28

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane overview published in Issue 9, 2011. That overview considered both efficacy and adverse events, but adverse events are now dealt with in a separate overview.Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. This overview brings together the results of those individual reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. To summarise the efficacy of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic. We identified systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews, we extracted the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, and the percentage of participants remedicating by six, eight, 12, or 24 hours. Where there was adequate information for pairs of drug and dose (at least 200 participants, in at least two studies), we defined the addition of four comparisons of typical size (400 participants in total) with zero effect as making the result potentially subject to publication bias and therefore unreliable. The overview included 39 separate Cochrane Reviews with 41 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 50,000 participants in approximately 460 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design

  20. Light therapies for acne: abridged Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    PubMed

    Barbaric, J; Abbott, R; Posadzki, P; Car, M; Gunn, L H; Layton, A M; Majeed, A; Car, J

    2017-03-24

    We undertook a Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of light-based interventions for acne vulgaris. We searched the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, and grey literature sources (September 2015). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group approach to assess the quality of evidence (QE). We included 71 RCTs (4211 participants, median sample size 31). Results from a single study (n = 266, low QE) showed little or no difference in effectiveness on participants' assessment of improvement between 20% aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT), activated by blue light, versus vehicle plus blue light, whereas another study (n = 180) of a comparison of ALA-PDT (red light) concentrations showed 20% ALA-PDT was no more effective than 15%, but better than 10% and 5% ALA-PDT. Pooled data from three studies, (n = 360, moderate QE) showed that methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT, activated by red light, had a similar effect on changes in lesion counts, compared with placebo cream with red light. Several studies compared yellow light to placebo or no treatment, infrared light to no treatment, gold-microparticle suspension to vehicle, and clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide (C/BPO) combined with pulsed dye laser to C/BPO alone. None of these showed any clinically significant effects. Most studies reported adverse effects, but inadequately, with scarring reported as absent, and blistering only in studies on intense pulsed light, infrared light and PDT (very low QE). Carefully planned studies, using standardised outcome measures, and common acne treatments as comparators are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Cluster Randomised Trials in Cochrane Reviews: Evaluation of Methodological and Reporting Practice

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marty; Garner, Paul; Donegan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systematic reviews can include cluster-randomised controlled trials (C-RCTs), which require different analysis compared with standard individual-randomised controlled trials. However, it is not known whether review authors follow the methodological and reporting guidance when including these trials. The aim of this study was to assess the methodological and reporting practice of Cochrane reviews that included C-RCTs against criteria developed from existing guidance. Methods Criteria were developed, based on methodological literature and personal experience supervising review production and quality. Criteria were grouped into four themes: identifying, reporting, assessing risk of bias, and analysing C-RCTs. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched (2nd December 2013), and the 50 most recent reviews that included C-RCTs were retrieved. Each review was then assessed using the criteria. Results The 50 reviews we identified were published by 26 Cochrane Review Groups between June 2013 and November 2013. For identifying C-RCTs, only 56% identified that C-RCTs were eligible for inclusion in the review in the eligibility criteria. For reporting C-RCTs, only eight (24%) of the 33 reviews reported the method of cluster adjustment for their included C-RCTs. For assessing risk of bias, only one review assessed all five C-RCT-specific risk-of-bias criteria. For analysing C-RCTs, of the 27 reviews that presented unadjusted data, only nine (33%) provided a warning that confidence intervals may be artificially narrow. Of the 34 reviews that reported data from unadjusted C-RCTs, only 13 (38%) excluded the unadjusted results from the meta-analyses. Conclusions The methodological and reporting practices in Cochrane reviews incorporating C-RCTs could be greatly improved, particularly with regard to analyses. Criteria developed as part of the current study could be used by review authors or editors to identify errors and improve the quality of published

  2. A qualitative study into the difficulties experienced by healthcare decision makers when reading a Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cochrane reviews are one of the best known and most trusted sources of evidence-based information in health care. While steps have been taken to make Cochrane intervention reviews accessible to a diverse readership, little is known about the accessibility of the newcomer to the Cochrane library: diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTARs). The current qualitative study explored how healthcare decision makers, who varied in their knowledge and experience with test accuracy research and systematic reviews, read and made sense of DTARs. Methods A purposive sample of clinicians, researchers and policy makers (n = 21) took part in a series of think-aloud interviews, using as interview material the first three DTARs published in the Cochrane library. Thematic qualitative analysis of the transcripts was carried out to identify patterns in participants’ ‘reading’ and interpretation of the reviews and the difficulties they encountered. Results Participants unfamiliar with the design and methodology of DTARs found the reviews largely inaccessible and experienced a range of difficulties stemming mainly from the mismatch between background knowledge and level of explanation provided in the text. Experience with systematic reviews of interventions did not guarantee better understanding and, in some cases, led to confusion and misinterpretation. These difficulties were further exacerbated by poor layout and presentation, which affected even those with relatively good knowledge of DTARs and had a negative impact not only on their understanding of the reviews but also on their motivation to engage with the text. Comparison between the readings of the three reviews showed that more accessible presentation, such as presenting the results as natural frequencies, significantly increased participants’ understanding. Conclusions The study demonstrates that authors and editors should pay more attention to the presentation as well as the content of Cochrane DTARs

  3. Cochrane Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology: What is the Contribution of Indian Studies?

    PubMed

    Radhika, A G; Pandey, Garima; Singh, Nilanchali; Sinha, Anju

    2016-10-01

    Cochrane reviews aim to produce evidence for health care practice globally including India. We wanted to assess the contribution of Indian origin studies in developing these systematic reviews in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. The objective of this study is to determine the number of Indian origin studies in obstetrics and gynecology which provided conclusive data and hence contributed toward formulating Cochrane Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. A total of 910 Cochrane reviews were accessed from gynecology and pregnancy and child birth list from Cochrane health topics. The details of studies included for each review were accessed from references section. Indian origin studies were then identified from this for further analysis. Of the total 910 Cochrane reviews available on the subject of obstetrics and gynecology, 93 reviews had 225 studies of Indian origin. In the subject-wise categorisation, there were 404 and 506 systematic reviews in Gynecology and Obstetrics respectively. Indian studies were included in 32 and 61 systematic reviews of Gynecology and Obstetrics respectively. Regarding the details of 225 Indian studies included for our analysis, 162 were related to Obstetrics and 63 to Gynecology. The place of study could be ascertained in 81 of the 225 studies despite extensive search. Studies published after 1980 are available in the electronic databases while the earlier studies are difficult to access. Studies with duplicate mentions were counted once. There is an urgent continuing need for high quality research and its publication in India in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. Awareness building measures amongst Obstetricians and Gynecologists in this regard need to be addressed. Better quality studies are especially required in specific areas posing a challenge to our country, to improve the health care practices.

  4. Inclusion criteria for outcomes of studies not clearly reported in Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Jos; Ijaz, Sharea; Mischke, Christina

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to survey how outcomes in recent Cochrane reviews were defined and used for inclusion of studies and how this compares with guidance on preventing outcome reporting bias. A survey of Cochrane reviews. We extracted data on the outcomes and how the outcomes were used for inclusion of studies in the review. We included 52 reviews with a mean of 8.4 (standard deviation, 4.3) outcomes. Of all reviews, 47 (90%) used primary and secondary outcomes as the names for their review's outcomes but without further definition. None reported using a core outcome set. Forty reviews (77%) did not explain if they used outcomes for inclusion of studies, 8 (15%) stated that studies were included if they reported either primary or secondary outcomes, 1 (2%) reported that outcomes were not used for inclusion, and for 3 (6%), this was unclear. In a sample of Cochrane reviews, most reviews did not state if outcomes were used for inclusion of studies. Better explanation of inclusion decisions is needed to be able to understand the risk of outcome reporting bias in a review. Consistent guidance in names and definitions for different types of outcomes used in systematic reviews is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    PubMed Central

    Piehl, Janet H; Green, Sally; Silagy, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent). Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112). The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent), lack of financial support (36 percent), methodological problems (23 percent) and problems with group dynamics (10 percent). Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review. PMID:12057022

  6. Motor Control Exercise for Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Saragiotto, Bruno T; Maher, Christopher G; Yamato, Tiê P; Costa, Leonardo O P; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Macedo, Luciana G

    2016-08-15

    A systematic review. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of motor control exercise (MCE) in patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP). MCE is a common form of exercise used for managing LBP. MCE focuses on the activation of the deep trunk muscles and targets the restoration of control and coordination of these muscles, progressing to more complex and functional tasks integrating the activation of deep and global trunk muscles. We conducted electronic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, five other databases, and two trials registers from their inception up to April 2015. Two independent review authors screened the search results, assessed risk of bias, and extracted the data. A third reviewer resolved any disagreement. We included randomized controlled trials comparing MCE with no treatment, another treatment, or as a supplement to other interventions in patients with nonspecific LBP. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Back and Neck (CBN) Review Group 12-item criteria. We combined results in a meta-analysis expressed as mean difference and 95% confidence interval. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 32 trials (n = 2628). Most included trials had a low risk of bias. For acute LBP, low to moderate quality evidence indicates no clinically important differences between MCE and spinal manipulative therapy or other forms of exercise. There is very low-quality evidence that the addition of MCE to medical management does not provide clinically important improvements. For recurrence at one year, there is very low-quality evidence that MCE and medical management decrease the risk of recurrence. For chronic LBP, there is low to moderate quality evidence that MCE is effective for reducing pain compared with minimal intervention. There is low to high-quality evidence that MCE is not clinically more effective than other exercises or manual

  7. ω-3 Fatty acids for major depressive disorder in adults: an abridged Cochrane review

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs; also known as ω-3 fatty acids) compared with comparator for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries searched to May 2015. CINAHL searched to September 2013. Trial selection Inclusion criteria: a randomised controlled trial (RCT); that provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and was conducted in adults with MDD. Outcomes Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology and adverse events. Results 20 trials encompassing 26 relevant studies were found. For n-3PUFAs versus placebo, n-3PUFA supplementation resulted in a small-to-modest benefit for depressive symptomology: SMD=−0.32 (95% CI −0.52 to −0.12; 25 studies, 1373 participants, very low-quality evidence), but this effect is unlikely to be clinically meaningful, is very imprecise and, based on funnel plot inspection, sensitivity analyses and comparison with large well-conducted trials, is likely to be biased. Considerable evidence of heterogeneity between studies was also found, and was not explained by subgroup or sensitivity analyses. Numbers of individuals experiencing adverse events were similar in intervention and placebo groups (OR=1.24, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.62; 19 studies, 1207 participants; very low-quality evidence). For n-3PUFAs versus antidepressants, no differences were found between treatments in depressive symptomology (MD=−0.70 (95% CI −5.88 to 4.48); 1 study, 40 participants, very low-quality evidence). Conclusions At present, we do not have sufficient evidence to determine the effects of n-3PUFAs as a treatment for MDD. Further research in the form of adequately powered RCTs is needed. PMID:26936905

  8. Heterogeneity in application, design, and analysis characteristics was found for controlled before-after and interrupted time series studies included in Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Polus, Stephanie; Pieper, Dawid; Burns, Jacob; Fretheim, Atle; Ramsay, Craig; Higgins, Julian P T; Mathes, Tim; Pfadenhauer, Lisa M; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2017-07-25

    The aim of the study was to examine the application, design, and analysis characteristics of controlled before-after (CBA) and interrupted time series (ITS) studies and their use in Cochrane reviews. We searched the Cochrane library for reviews including these study designs from May 2012 to March 2015 and purposively selected, where available, two reviews each across 10 prespecified intervention types. We randomly selected two CBA and two ITS studies from each review. Two researchers independently extracted information from the studies and the respective reviews. Sixty-nine reviews considered CBA and ITS studies for inclusion. We analyzed 21 CBA and 16 ITS studies from 11 to 8 reviews, respectively. Cochrane reviews inconsistently defined and labeled CBA and ITS studies. Many studies did not meet the Cochrane definition or the minimum criteria provided by Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care. The studies present a heterogeneous set of study features and applied a large variety of analyses. While CBA and ITS studies represent important study designs to evaluate the effects of interventions, especially on a population or organizational level, unclear study design features challenge unequivocal classification and appropriate use. We discuss options for more specific definitions and explicit criteria for CBA and ITS studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Aldington, Dominic; Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-10-13

    This is an update of a Cochrane overview published in Issue 9, 2011; that overview considered both efficacy and adverse events. This overview considers adverse events, with efficacy dealt with in a separate overview.Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the adverse events associated with individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. This overview brings together the results of those individual reviews. To provide an overview of adverse event rates associated with single-dose oral analgesics, compared with placebo, for acute postoperative pain in adults. We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group. We extracted information related to participants experiencing any adverse event, and reports of serious adverse events, and deaths from the individual reviews. Information was available from 39 Cochrane reviews for 41 different analgesics or analgesic combinations (51 drug/dose/formulations) tested in single oral doses in participants with moderate or severe postoperative pain. This involved around 350 unique studies involving about 35,000 participants. Most studies involved younger participants with pain following removal of molar teeth.For most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol, and combinations not containing opioids, there were few examples where participants experienced significantly more or fewer adverse events than with placebo. For aspirin 1000 mg and diflunisal 1000 mg, opioids, or fixed-dose combination drugs containing opioids, participants typically experienced significantly more adverse events than with placebo. Studies of combinations of ibuprofen and paracetamol reported significantly fewer adverse events.Serious adverse events were rare, occurring a rate of about 1 in 3200 participants.Most reviews did not report specific adverse events. Despite

  10. Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates. A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results. There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates. PMID:24886533

  11. Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram.

    PubMed

    Stovold, Elizabeth; Beecher, Deirdre; Foxlee, Ruth; Noel-Storr, Anna

    2014-05-29

    Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates.A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results.There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates.

  12. Cochrane Airways Group reviews were prioritized for updating using a pragmatic approach.

    PubMed

    Welsh, E; Stovold, E; Karner, C; Cates, C

    2015-03-01

    Cochrane Reviews should address the most important questions for guideline writers, clinicians, and the public. It is not possible to keep all reviews up-to-date, so the Cochrane Airways Group (CAG) decided to prioritize updates and new reviews without requesting additional resources. The aim of the objective was to develop pragmatic and transparent prioritization techniques to identify 25 to 35 high-priority updates from a total of 270 CAG Reviews and become more selective over which new reviews we publish. We used elements from existing prioritization processes, including existing health care uncertainties, expert opinion, and a decision tool. We did not conduct a full face-to-face workshop or an iterative group decision-making process. We prioritized 30 reviews in need of updating and aimed to update these within 2 years. Within the first 18 months, nine of these have been published. A pragmatic approach to prioritization can indicate priority reviews without an excessive drain on time and resources. The steps provide us with better control over the reviews in our scope and can be built on in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Have we drawn the wrong conclusions about the value of care pathways? Is a Cochrane review appropriate? Response to the commentary article published by Kris Vanhaecht et al.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; James, Erica; Machotta, Andreas; Willis, Jon; Snow, Pamela; Kugler, Joachim

    2012-03-01

    The commentary provided by Vanhaecht et al. from the European Pathways Association (EPA) questions whether conclusions derived from the review of effects of clinical pathways in hospitals are appropriate. They provide some methodological discussion that indicates a poor appreciation of the detailed content of the review as published in the Cochrane Library and a lack of understanding of the methodological requirements for complex interventions of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group. In addition, Vanhaecht et al. misrepresent some important points from the review relating to the intervention reviewed. The critical commentary offered by Vanhaecht et al. is a misrepresentation of the process and content of the review and suggests they have not taken the time and effort to thoroughly read and understand this comprehensive review.

  14. Equity issues were not fully addressed in Cochrane human immunodeficiency virus systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Aves, Theresa; Kredo, Tamara; Welch, Vivian; Mursleen, Sara; Ross, Stephanie; Zani, Babalwa; Motaze, Nkengafac Villyen; Quinlan, Leah; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    To describe and summarize equity reporting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) systematic reviews and explore the extent to which equity issues are addressed and reported in HIV reviews using the PROGRESS Plus framework. Application of the PROGRESS Plus framework to a bibliometric analysis of HIV reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The analysis included 103 reviews published as of March 2014, with a median of five studies per review (first quartile; Q1 = 2; third quartile; Q3 = 11). Reporting of PROGRESS Plus factors was as follows: Place of residence (low, middle, and high income; 55.3%), place of residence (urban or rural; 24.3%), race or ethnicity (20.4%), occupation (10.7%), gender (65.0%), religion (1.9%), education (7.8%), socioeconomic position (10.7%), social networks and capital (1.0%), age (1.9%), and sexual orientation (3.8%). Gaps in the reporting of relevant equity indicators were identified within Cochrane HIV systematic review indicating that research is not consistently conducted through an equity lens. There is a need to incorporate PROGRESS Plus factors into both primary and secondary studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. User involvement in a Cochrane systematic review: using structured methods to enhance the clinical relevance, usefulness and usability of a systematic review update.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Baer, Gillian; Choo, Pei Ling; Morris, Jacqui; Forster, Anne

    2015-04-20

    This paper describes the structured methods used to involve patients, carers and health professionals in an update of a Cochrane systematic review relating to physiotherapy after stroke and explores the perceived impact of involvement. We sought funding and ethical approval for our user involvement. We recruited a stakeholder group comprising stroke survivors, carers, physiotherapists and educators and held three pre-planned meetings during the course of updating a Cochrane systematic review. Within these meetings, we used formal group consensus methods, based on nominal group techniques, to reach consensus decisions on key issues relating to the structure and methods of the review. The stakeholder group comprised 13 people, including stroke survivors, carers and physiotherapists with a range of different experience, and either 12 or 13 participated in each meeting. At meeting 1, there was consensus that methods of categorising interventions that were used in the original Cochrane review were no longer appropriate or clinically relevant (11/13 participants disagreed or strongly disagreed with previous categories) and that international trials (which had not fitted into the original method of categorisation) ought to be included within the review (12/12 participants agreed or strongly agreed these should be included). At meeting 2, the group members reached consensus over 27 clearly defined treatment components, which were to be used to categorise interventions within the review (12/12 agreed or strongly agreed), and at meeting 3, they agreed on the key messages emerging from the completed review. All participants strongly agreed that the views of the group impacted on the review update, that the review benefited from the involvement of the stakeholder group, and that they believed other Cochrane reviews would benefit from the involvement of similar stakeholder groups. We involved a stakeholder group in the update of a Cochrane systematic review, using clearly

  16. Topical analgesics for acute and chronic pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Kalso, Eija A; Bell, Rae F; Aldington, Dominic; Phillips, Tudor; Gaskell, Helen; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-05-12

    Topical analgesic drugs are used for a variety of painful conditions. Some are acute, typically strains or sprains, tendinopathy, or muscle aches. Others are chronic, typically osteoarthritis of hand or knee, or neuropathic pain. To provide an overview of the analgesic efficacy and associated adverse events of topical analgesics (primarily nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), salicylate rubefacients, capsaicin, and lidocaine) applied to intact skin for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in adults. We identified systematic reviews in acute and chronic pain published to February 2017 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (the Cochrane Library). The primary outcome was at least 50% pain relief (participant-reported) at an appropriate duration. We extracted the number needed to treat for one additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for efficacy outcomes for each topical analgesic or formulation, and the number needed to treat for one additional harmful outcome (NNH) for adverse events. We also extracted information on withdrawals due to lack of efficacy or adverse events, systemic and local adverse events, and serious adverse events. We required information from at least 200 participants, in at least two studies. We judged that there was potential for publication bias if the addition of four studies of typical size (400 participants) with zero effect increased NNT compared with placebo to 10 (minimal clinical utility). We extracted GRADE assessment in the original papers, and made our own GRADE assessment. Thirteen Cochrane Reviews (206 studies with around 30,700 participants) assessed the efficacy and harms from a range of topical analgesics applied to intact skin in a number of acute and chronic painful conditions. Reviews were overseen by several Review Groups, and concentrated on evidence comparing topical analgesic with topical placebo; comparisons of topical and oral analgesics were rare.For at least 50% pain relief, we considered evidence was

  17. Exploring Treatment by Covariate Interactions Using Subgroup Analysis and Meta-Regression in Cochrane Reviews: A Review of Recent Practice

    PubMed Central

    Donegan, Sarah; Williams, Lisa; Tudur-Smith, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment by covariate interactions can be explored in reviews using interaction analyses (e.g., subgroup analysis). Such analyses can provide information on how the covariate modifies the treatment effect and is an important methodological approach for personalising medicine. Guidance exists regarding how to apply such analyses but little is known about whether authors follow the guidance. Methods Using published recommendations, we developed criteria to assess how well interaction analyses were designed, applied, interpreted, and reported. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched (8th August 2013). We applied the criteria to the most recently published review, with an accessible protocol, for each Cochrane Review Group. We excluded review updates, diagnostic test accuracy reviews, withdrawn reviews, and overviews of reviews. Data were summarised regarding reviews, covariates, and analyses. Results Each of the 52 included reviews planned or did interaction analyses; 51 reviews (98%) planned analyses and 33 reviews (63%) applied analyses. The type of analysis planned and the type subsequently applied (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analysis) was discrepant in 24 reviews (46%). No review reported how or why each covariate had been chosen; 22 reviews (42%) did state each covariate a priori in the protocol but no review identified each post-hoc covariate as such. Eleven reviews (21%) mentioned five covariates or less. One review reported planning to use a method to detect interactions (i.e., interaction test) for each covariate; another review reported applying the method for each covariate. Regarding interpretation, only one review reported whether an interaction was detected for each covariate and no review discussed the importance, or plausibility, of the results, or the possibility of confounding for each covariate. Conclusions Interaction analyses in Cochrane Reviews can be substantially improved. The proposed criteria can be used to

  18. Dealing with substantial heterogeneity in Cochrane reviews. Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dealing with heterogeneity in meta-analyses is often tricky, and there is only limited advice for authors on what to do. We investigated how authors addressed different degrees of heterogeneity, in particular whether they used a fixed effect model, which assumes that all the included studies are estimating the same true effect, or a random effects model where this is not assumed. Methods We sampled randomly 60 Cochrane reviews from 2008, which presented a result in its first meta-analysis with substantial heterogeneity (I2 greater than 50%, i.e. more than 50% of the variation is due to heterogeneity rather than chance). We extracted information on choice of statistical model, how the authors had handled the heterogeneity, and assessed the methodological quality of the reviews in relation to this. Results The distribution of heterogeneity was rather uniform in the whole I2 interval, 50-100%. A fixed effect model was used in 33 reviews (55%), but there was no correlation between I2 and choice of model (P = 0.79). We considered that 20 reviews (33%), 16 of which had used a fixed effect model, had major problems. The most common problems were: use of a fixed effect model and lack of rationale for choice of that model, lack of comment on even severe heterogeneity and of reservations and explanations of its likely causes. The problematic reviews had significantly fewer included trials than other reviews (4.3 vs. 8.0, P = 0.024). The problems became less pronounced with time, as those reviews that were most recently updated more often used a random effects model. Conclusion One-third of Cochrane reviews with substantial heterogeneity had major problems in relation to their handling of heterogeneity. More attention is needed to this issue, as the problems we identified can be essential for the conclusions of the reviews. PMID:21349195

  19. [The effect of zinc therapy on common cold--a survey of a Cochrane review].

    PubMed

    Valentiner-Branth, Palle

    2012-01-09

    The Cochrane review "Zinc and the common cold" included 15 randomized controlled double-blind trials. It was concluded, that zinc would shorten the duration of the episode of common cold and also could be used as a prevention so that the risk of developing an episode of common cold would be decreased. It is too early to give general recommendations for the use of zinc as we do not have sufficient knowledge about the optimal dose, formulation and duration of treatment. Further research should focus on the effect of zinc in patients who are at increased risk of developing complications after common cold.

  20. Sumatriptan (all routes of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults - overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-05-28

    Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. It is available for administration by four different routes: oral, subcutaneous, intranasal, and rectal. To summarise evidence from four Cochrane intervention reviews on the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults by four routes of administration (oral, subcutaneous, intranasal, and rectal) compared with both placebo and active comparators. The included reviews were written by the authors of this overview; no additional searching was carried out. All included reviews were conducted according to a standard protocol and reported a standard set of outcomes. From each individual review we extracted results for pain relief at different levels, and adverse events. No additional statistical comparison was undertaken as part of the overview. We focused on the most important findings for doses and routes licensed in North America or Europe (oral 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg; subcutaneous 4 mg, 6 mg; intranasal 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg; rectal 25 mg). Included reviews provided data for 18 different dose and route of administration combinations in 52,236 participants. Data for the primary outcomes sought were generally well reported, and involved adequate numbers of participants to give confidence in the results, except for the rectal route of administration, where numbers were low.Subcutaneous administration was the most effective, with pain reduced from moderate or severe to none by two hours in almost 6 in 10 people (59%) taking 6 mg sumatriptan, compared with approximately 1 in 7 (15%) taking placebo; the number needed to treat (NNT) was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 2.4) with 2522 participants in the analysis. The most commonly used doses of oral, rectal, and intranasal sumatriptan also

  1. Reporting and handling missing outcome data in mental health: a systematic review of Cochrane systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Spineli, Loukia M; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by three Cochrane Review Groups relating to mental health were included. One hundred ninety systematic reviews were considered. Missing outcome data were present in at least one included study in 175 systematic reviews. Of these 175 systematic reviews, 147 (84%) accounted for missing outcome data by considering a relevant primary or secondary outcome (e.g., dropout). Missing outcome data implications were reported only in 61 (35%) systematic reviews and primarily in the discussion section by commenting on the amount of the missing outcome data. One hundred forty eligible meta-analyses with missing data were scrutinized. Seventy-nine (56%) of them had studies with total dropout rate between 10 and 30%. One hundred nine (78%) meta-analyses reported to have performed intention-to-treat analysis by including trials with imputed outcome data. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete outcome data was implemented in less than 20% of the meta-analyses. Reporting of the techniques for handling missing outcome data and their implications in the findings of the systematic reviews are suboptimal. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Evidence-based topical treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z; El-Gohary, M

    2015-03-01

    Tinea cruris and tinea corporis are common fungal infections. Most can be treated with a variety of topical antifungals. This review aimed to assess the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of topical treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis. Searches included the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, LILACS and ongoing trials registries (August 2013). One hundred and twenty-nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 18 086 participants evaluated a range of interventions - mostly azoles. Pooling of data for several outcomes was only possible for two individual treatments. In five studies, terbinafine showed a statistically significant higher clinical cure rate compared with placebo [risk ratio (RR) 4·51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·10-6·56]. Data for mycological cure could not be pooled owing to substantial heterogeneity. Across three studies, mycological cure rates favoured naftifine (1%) compared with placebo (RR 2·38, 95% CI 1·80-3·14) but the quality of the evidence was low. Combinations of azoles with corticosteroids were slightly more effective than azoles for clinical cure, but there was no statistically significant difference with regard to mycological cure. Sixty-five studies were assessed as 'unclear' and 64 as being at 'high risk' of bias; many were over 20 years old, and most were poorly designed and inadequately reported. Although most active interventions showed sufficient therapeutic effect, this review highlights the need for further, high-quality, adequately powered RCTs to evaluate the effects of these interventions, which can ultimately provide reliable evidence to inform clinical decision making.

  3. Cochrane review: social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2013-03-07

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  4. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer: an updated Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony; Johnson, Nick; Kitchener, Henry C; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2012-11-07

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in stage I endometrial cancer has changed in recent years. This updated Cochrane systematic review aimed to reexamine the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy vs no treatment in stage I endometrial cancer. We searched various databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) for randomized controlled trials that met the predefined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS); secondary outcomes were endometrial cancer-specific survival, locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and toxicity. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and pooled if possible; otherwise, dichotomous data were extracted. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of the eight included trials, seven trials (3628 women) compared external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and no EBRT (or vaginal brachytherapy [VBT]), and one trial (645 women) compared VBT and no additional treatment. EBRT statistically significantly reduced locoregional recurrence compared with no EBRT (or VBT alone) (HR = 0.36, 95% confidence Interval [CI] = 0.25 to 0.52; P < .001), but this did not translate into an improvement in OS (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.20; P = .95), endometrial cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.72 to 1.28; P = .80), or distant recurrence rates (risk ratio = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.35; P = .77). EBRT was associated with an increased risk of severe acute toxicity, severe late toxicity, and reduced quality of life scores. EBRT reduces the risk of locoregional recurrence but has no statistically significant impact on cancer-related deaths or OS. However, EBRT is associated with clinically and statistically significant morbidity and a reduction in quality of life.

  5. Cochrane Corner: Extracts from The Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Richard; Hopkins, Clair; Philpott, Carl; Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2017-03-01

    The Cochrane Corner is a section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a pair of related Cochrane Reviews on intranasal steroids for chronic rhinosinusitis, which identify low- to moderate-quality evidence for a beneficial effect on overall symptoms, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea. There is no evidence, however, to suggest superiority of any particular steroid preparation or drug delivery system. The related expert commentary should help clinicians make the best treatment decisions based on the studies and outcomes identified in these Cochrane Reviews.

  6. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S.; Worthington, Helen; Dwan, Kerry; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG) on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Study Design and Setting All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently. Results One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, p<0.001). The risk of reporting significant results was lower for both downgraded outcomes [RR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.58, p = 0.24] and upgraded or newly introduced outcomes [RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.64, p = 0.50] compared to outcomes with no discrepancies. The risk of reporting significant results was higher for upgraded or newly introduced outcomes compared to downgraded outcomes (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.16, p = 0.57). None of the comparisons reached statistical significance. Conclusion While no evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in this study, based on the present analysis of SRs published within COHG systematic reviews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored. PMID:26368938

  7. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Worthington, Helen; Dwan, Kerry; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG) on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently. One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, p<0.001). The risk of reporting significant results was lower for both downgraded outcomes [RR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.58, p = 0.24] and upgraded or newly introduced outcomes [RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.64, p = 0.50] compared to outcomes with no discrepancies. The risk of reporting significant results was higher for upgraded or newly introduced outcomes compared to downgraded outcomes (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.16, p = 0.57). None of the comparisons reached statistical significance. While no evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in this study, based on the present analysis of SRs published within COHG systematic reviews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored.

  8. Sedation protocols to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation in the ICU: a Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Leanne M; Bucknall, Tracey; Kent, Bridie; Mitchell, Marion; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Keogh, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    Assess the effects of protocol-directed sedation management on the duration of mechanical ventilation and other relevant patient outcomes in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients. Sedation is a core component of critical care. Sub-optimal sedation management incorporates both under- and over-sedation and has been linked to poorer patient outcomes. Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, LILACS, Current Controlled Trials and US National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Studies (1990-November 2013) and reference lists of articles were used. Randomized controlled trials conducted in intensive care units comparing management with and without protocol-directed sedation were included. Two authors screened titles, abstracts and full-text reports. Potential risk of bias was assessed. Clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity were examined and the random-effects model used for meta-analysis where appropriate. Mean difference for duration of mechanical ventilation and risk ratio for mortality, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. Two eligible studies with 633 participants comparing protocol-directed sedation delivered by nurses vs. usual care were identified. There was no evidence of differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or hospital mortality. There was statistically significant heterogeneity between studies for duration of mechanical ventilation. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of protocol-directed sedation as results from the two randomized controlled trials were conflicting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Celebrating 20 years of evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration: what has been the impact of systematic reviews on nephrology?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Craig, Jonathan C; Jones, Ann; Higgins, Gail; Willis, Narelle; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-06-01

    It has been 20 years since the Cochrane Collaboration started the global effort to synthesize evidence to improve healthcare. Since 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group has produced over 100 systematic reviews that have collectively had an important impact on nephrology care, guidelines and policy. In this article, we reflect on the ongoing need for randomized trials and systematic reviews in contemporary nephrology and the achievements of the Cochrane Collaboration so far. We also describe some of the challenges in clinical research still faced by the nephrology community today.

  10. Validity of a Cochrane Systematic Review and meta-analysis for determining the safety of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Christopher J; Myers, Stephen P

    2017-08-16

    The public safety of α-tocopherol has been called in question by several meta-analyses which have raised concern among regulatory authorities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2012 (CD007176) which concludes that α-tocopherol forms of vitamin E have a statistically significant effect on mortality, by assessing the trials and datasets used and determining their effect upon the primary outcome.The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC), a factorial design study of Finnish smokers was a pivotal paper in the Cochrane Review owing to the high mortality rate observed which resulted in a substantial weighting (42.6%) in the meta-analysis. The Cochrane meta-analysis used a 3 cell analytical method comparing all vitamin E cells (vitamin E alone plus vitamin E + β-carotene) to the placebo only cell. This had the unfortunate effect of incorrectly inflating the mortality risk attributed to vitamin E by not balancing the contribution to mortality of the β-carotene intervention. Re-analysis of the ATBC trial using data derived from the more generally accepted 'inside the table' (2 cell - vitamin E versus placebo) or 'at the margins' (4 cell - all vitamin E versus all non-vitamin E) analytical methods demonstrates a statistically non-significant result.The data from the ATBC study has been given in 5 datasets (the trial alone and four extended post-trial follow-up time periods). Using the 3 cell analysis method only the 6 and 8-year (used in the meta-analysis) follow-up periods were statistically significant. Using the 2 or 4 cell method the outcome remains non-significant over all time periods.The impartiality of excluding trials with zero mortality is also examined and questioned.This paper raises concerns overall as to the appropriateness of datasets chosen, the validity of methods and generalisability of results when using meta-analysis as a tool to determine safety. Issues raised in this paper

  11. Producing Cochrane systematic reviews-a qualitative study of current approaches and opportunities for innovation and improvement.

    PubMed

    Turner, Tari; Green, Sally; Tovey, David; McDonald, Steve; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Pestridge, Charlotte; Elliott, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Producing high-quality, relevant systematic reviews and keeping them up to date is challenging. Cochrane is a leading provider of systematic reviews in health. For Cochrane to continue to contribute to improvements in heath, Cochrane Reviews must be rigorous, reliable and up to date. We aimed to explore existing models of Cochrane Review production and emerging opportunities to improve the efficiency and sustainability of these processes. To inform discussions about how to best achieve this, we conducted 26 interviews and an online survey with 106 respondents. Respondents highlighted the importance and challenge of creating reliable, timely systematic reviews. They described the challenges and opportunities presented by current production models, and they shared what they are doing to improve review production. They particularly highlighted significant challenges with increasing complexity of review methods; difficulty keeping authors on board and on track; and the length of time required to complete the process. Strong themes emerged about the roles of authors and Review Groups, the central actors in the review production process. The results suggest that improvements to Cochrane's systematic review production models could come from improving clarity of roles and expectations, ensuring continuity and consistency of input, enabling active management of the review process, centralising some review production steps; breaking reviews into smaller "chunks", and improving approaches to building capacity of and sharing information between authors and Review Groups. Respondents noted the important role new technologies have to play in enabling these improvements. The findings of this study will inform the development of new Cochrane Review production models and may provide valuable data for other systematic review producers as they consider how best to produce rigorous, reliable, up-to-date reviews.

  12. [Analysis of the Cochrane review: Anticoagulation versus placebo for heart failure in sinus rhythm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;3:CD003336].

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Daniel; Vaz-Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic and embolic events contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated to Chronic Heart Failure (HF). Differently from patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and HF, in which the benefit of anticoagulation is well documented, the use of these drugs in those with HF in sinus rhythm (without AF history) is controversial. In this systematic review from the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors evaluated the benefits and risks associated with oral anticoagulation (versus placebo) in this population. Only 2 randomized controlled trials were published (one with open-label design) enrolling a total of 324 patients. The results of the meta-analysis based on the best available evidence do not support the systematic use of oral anticoagulants in patients with HF and sinus rhythm for preventing death (overall or cardiovascular) or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Furthermore the major bleeding risk was significantly increased.

  13. Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Fibrates for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

    PubMed

    Pires da Rosa, Gilberto; Libânio, Diogo; Filipe Azevedo, Luís

    2017-01-01

    The influence of fibrates on cardiovascular risk has been the focus of several clinical trials. This Cochrane Collaboration Systematic Review evaluated the efficacy of fibrates for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and stroke, analyzing 13 randomized controlled trials, in a total of 16 112 participants with a history of cardiovascular disease. Fibrates showed a protective effect for the composite outcome of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and vascular death, mainly due to reduction in the risk of non-fatal or fatal MI. Nonetheless, these results largely relied on studies including clofibrate, a drug withdrawn from the market in 2002. No statistically significant differences regarding adverse events were found between fibrates and placebo. Although insufficient to support the routine prescription of fibrates in this setting, this evidence should be taken into account when deciding on lipid-modifying therapy in dyslipidemic patients with a history of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Performance of search strategies to retrieve systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy from the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuansheng; Yang, Zhirong; Wang, Jing; Zhuo, Lin; Li, Zhixia; Zhan, Siyan

    2016-05-06

    To compare the performance of search strategies to retrieve systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy from The Cochrane Library. Databases of CDSR and DARE in the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy published between 2008 and 2012 through nine search strategies. Each strategy consists of one group or combination of groups of searching filters about diagnostic test accuracy. Four groups of diagnostic filters were used. The Strategy combing all the filters was used as the reference to determine the sensitivity, precision, and the sensitivity x precision product for another eight Strategies. The reference Strategy retrieved 8029 records, of which 832 were eligible. The strategy only composed of MeSH terms about "accuracy measures" achieved the highest values in both precision (69.71%) and product (52.45%) with a moderate sensitivity (75.24%). The combination of MeSH terms and free text words about "accuracy measures" contributed little to increasing the sensitivity. Strategies composed of filters about "diagnosis" had similar sensitivity but lower precision and product to those composed of filters about "accuracy measures". MeSH term "exp'diagnosis' " achieved the lowest precision (9.78%) and product (7.91%), while its hyponym retrieved only half the number of records at the expense of missing 53 target articles. The precision was negatively correlated with sensitivities among the nine strategies. Compared to the filters about "diagnosis", the filters about "accuracy measures" achieved similar sensitivities but higher precision. When combining both terms, sensitivity of the strategy was enhanced obviously. The combination of MeSH terms and free text words about the same concept seemed to be meaningless for enhancing sensitivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Culturally appropriate health education for Type 2 diabetes in ethnic minority groups: an updated Cochrane Review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Creamer, J; Attridge, M; Ramsden, M; Cannings-John, R; Hawthorne, K

    2016-02-01

    To give an updated perspective of interventions from additional data collected since our first review, conducted in 2008. This updated Cochrane Review incorporates new information from recent randomized controlled trials on culturally appropriate diabetes health education interventions. An electronic literature search of six databases was repeated, with databases of ongoing trials checked and three journals hand-searched. Meta-analysis was carried out for sufficiently homogeneous outcomes, and common themes among trials were highlighted. A total of 22 new trials were added to the original 11. Meta-analysis of 28 trials containing suitable data showed significant improvements in glycaemic control (HbA1c ) and diabetes knowledge over a period of 24 months, after the delivery of culturally appropriate education to participants, compared with those receiving 'conventional' care. There were no consistent benefits over the control group in other selected outcome measures, and lack of data continued to make analysis of several outcome measures difficult. Research activity in this field has increased considerably over the past 6 years, with culturally appropriate diabetes education showing consistent benefits over conventional care in terms of glycaemic control and diabetes knowledge, sustained in the short- to mid-term. Further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of these improvements and their cost-effectiveness. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  16. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation and Reduction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,12: CD010216].

    PubMed

    Vaz-Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for various cardiovascular, cancer and respiratory diseases. There are a number of smoking cessation techniques involving psychological, pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with varying effectiveness and different costs. The electronic cigarettes are devices which produce a nicotine aerosol but without the toxic products of tobacco smoke, and they have become popular as a potential intervention for smoking cessation. The present review analyzed the evidence published of this approach for the treatment of tobacco dependence and concluded that there is reasonable evidence of its clinical effectiveness. We present and discuss the findings of this systematic review, with practical contextualization.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation for improving idiopathic Parkinson's syndrome. An abridged version of a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Bernhard; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. The severity of disability usually increases with disease duration and affects patients' impairment, disability and health-related quality of life. A possible adjunct to improve outcomes in patients with IPD might be transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate cortical excitability and hence improving outcomes in people with IPD. Until February 2016 we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Science Citation Index, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Rehabdata, and Inspec and handsearched conference proceedings, and contacted authors and equipment manufacturers. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and randomized controlled crossover trials comparing tDCS versus control interventions in adults with IPD. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included six trials with 137 participants. There was no effect of tDCS compared to sham tDCS in our primary outcome measure, impairment, as measured by the proportional change of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (mean difference (MD) -7.10%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -19.18 to 4.97; P=0.25). There was evidence of an effect on UPDRS part III motor subsection score at the end of the intervention period (MD -14.43%, 95% CI -24.68 to -4.18; P=0.006). There was no evidence of an effect regarding the reduction in off time and on time with dyskinesia (MD 0.10 hours, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.34; P=0.41; and MD 0.00 hours, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.12; P=1, respectively). There was no evidence of an effect for gait speed, health related quality of life and safety/acceptability, measured by dropouts and adverse events (including death). There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of tDCS in reducing off time and on time with dyskinesia and for improving

  18. Characteristics of meta-analyses and their component studies in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cochrane systematic reviews collate and summarise studies of the effects of healthcare interventions. The characteristics of these reviews and the meta-analyses and individual studies they contain provide insights into the nature of healthcare research and important context for the development of relevant statistical and other methods. Methods We classified every meta-analysis with at least two studies in every review in the January 2008 issue of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) according to the medical specialty, the types of interventions being compared and the type of outcome. We provide descriptive statistics for numbers of meta-analyses, numbers of component studies and sample sizes of component studies, broken down by these categories. Results We included 2321 reviews containing 22,453 meta-analyses, which themselves consist of data from 112,600 individual studies (which may appear in more than one meta-analysis). Meta-analyses in the areas of gynaecology, pregnancy and childbirth (21%), mental health (13%) and respiratory diseases (13%) are well represented in the CDSR. Most meta-analyses address drugs, either with a control or placebo group (37%) or in a comparison with another drug (25%). The median number of meta-analyses per review is six (inter-quartile range 3 to 12). The median number of studies included in the meta-analyses with at least two studies is three (inter-quartile range 2 to 6). Sample sizes of individual studies range from 2 to 1,242,071, with a median of 91 participants. Discussion It is clear that the numbers of studies eligible for meta-analyses are typically very small for all medical areas, outcomes and interventions covered by Cochrane reviews. This highlights the particular importance of suitable methods for the meta-analysis of small data sets. There was little variation in number of studies per meta-analysis across medical areas, across outcome data types or across types of interventions being compared

  19. The reporting characteristics and methodological quality of Cochrane reviews about health policy research.

    PubMed

    Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field.

  20. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD000219].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara; Costa, João; Vaz Carneiro, António; Fernandes, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis media is one of the most common infections in children and one of the leading causes for antibiotic prescription. In this paper, we assess and comment the Cochrane systematic review 'Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children', which aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for acute otitis media in children and identifying subgroups of children who might benefit more than others from antibiotic treatment. This review showed spontaneous resolution of acute otitis media in most children (82%) and a favorable but modest effect of antibiotics, namely in pain control (number needed to treat to benefit: 20), reduction of tympanic membrane perforations and reduction of contralateral acute otitis media. Adverse effects such as vomiting, diarrhea or rash were more common in the antibiotic group (number needed to treat to harm: 14). Thus, for most children, an expectant observational approach during 48-72h without immediate antibiotic prescription seems justified. An additional meta-analysis found that antibiotics appear to be most useful in children with both acute otitis media and otorrhoea and children under two years of age with bilateral acute otitis media.

  1. A large-scale assessment of temporal trends in meta-analyses using systematic review reports from the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Fanshawe, Thomas R; Shaw, Luke F; Spence, Graeme T

    2017-05-11

    Previous studies suggest that many systematic reviews contain meta-analyses that display temporal trends, such as the first study's result being more extreme than later studies' or a drift in the pooled estimate. We assessed the extent and characteristics of temporal trends using all Cochrane intervention reports published 2008-2012. We selected the largest meta-analysis within each report and analysed trends using methods including a Z-test (first versus subsequent estimates); generalised least squares; and cumulative sum charts. Predictors considered include meta-analysis size and review group. Of 1288 meta-analyses containing at least 4 studies, the point estimate from the first study was more extreme and in the same direction as the pooled estimate in 738 (57%), with a statistically significant difference (first versus subsequent) in 165 (13%). Generalised least squares indicated trends in 717 (56%); 18% of fixed effects analyses had at least one violation of cumulative sum limits. For some methods, meta-analysis size was associated with temporal patterns and use of a random effects model, but there was no consistent association with review group. All results suggest that more meta-analyses demonstrate temporal patterns than would be expected by chance. Hence, assuming the standard meta-analysis model without temporal trend is sometimes inappropriate. Factors associated with trends are likely to be context specific. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Adhesion prevention agents for gynaecological surgery: an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Hindocha, Akshay; Beere, Lawrence; Dias, Sofia; Watson, Andrew; Ahmad, Gaity

    2015-01-06

    Intraperitoneal adhesions are associated with considerable co-morbidity and have large financial and public health repercussions. They have secondary effects that include chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, subfertility and bowel obstruction. In women with adhesions, subsequent surgery is more difficult, often takes longer, and is associated with a higher complication rate (Broek 2013). The significant burden of adhesions has led to the development of several anti-adhesion agents, although there is disagreement as to their relative effectiveness. To summarise evidence derived from Cochrane systematic reviews on the clinical safety and effectiveness of solid agents, gel agents, liquid agents and pharmacological agents, used as adjuvants to prevent formation of adhesions after gynaecological pelvic surgery. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using the keyword 'adhesion' up to August 2014. The Cochrane information management system was also searched for any titles or protocols of reviews in progress. Two review authors independently extracted information from the reviews, with disagreements being resolved by a third review author. The quality of the included reviews was described in a narrative manner, and the AMSTAR tool was used to formally assess each review included in this overview. The quality of evidence provided in the original reviews was described using GRADE methods. We included two reviews, one with 18 studies comparing solid agents (oxidised regenerated cellulose expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose, and fibrin sheets) with control or with each other. The other review included 29 studies which compared liquid agents (4% icodextrin, 32% dextran, crystalloids), gel agents (carboxymethylcellulose and polyethylene oxide, polyethylene glycol gels, hyaluronic acid based gel, 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel, sodium hyaluronate spray) and pharmacological agents (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist

  3. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Use of systemic corticosteroids for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014, 9:CD001288].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Pedro; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2014-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are a major cause of hospital admissions and mortality, contributing to the decline in lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life. Infections are the major cause of exacerbations and treatment includes antibiotics, bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids as anti- inflammatory agents. This Cochrane review compared: 1. use of oral and parenteral corticosteroids with placebo use; 2. routes of administration among themselves. The results indicate that there is evidence for the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations since early improvement in lung function [assessed by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)] has been noted, the likelihood of treatment failure and relapse in the first month has been reduced and it shortens the hospital stay in patients who do not require intensive care regimen. However, corticosteroid therapy causes an increase in adverse effects associated with drug, namely hyperglycaemia, especially if the route of administration is parenteral. Parenteral route has not shown to be superior to oral route in treatment failure, relapse, or death. Mortality up to 30 days does not seem to be affected by the use of corticosteroids.

  4. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low back pain: an update of the cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Sidney M; Terwee, Caroline B; Assendelft, Willem J J; de Boer, Michiel R; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2013-02-01

    Systematic review of interventions. To assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for acute low back pain. SMT is one of many therapies for the treatment of low back pain, which is a worldwide, extensively practiced intervention. An experienced librarian searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in multiple databases up to March 13, 2011. RCTs that examined manipulation or mobilization in adults with acute low back pain (<6-week duration) were included. The primary outcomes were pain, functional status and perceived recovery. Secondary outcomes were return-to-work and quality of life. Two authors independently conducted the study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) was used to assess the quality of the evidence. The effects were examined for SMT versus (1) inert interventions, (2) sham SMT, (3) other interventions, and (4) SMT as adjunct therapy. We identified 20 RCTs (total participants = 2674), 12 (60%) of which were not included in the previous review. In total, 6 trials (30% of all included studies) had a low risk of bias. In general, for the outcomes of pain and functional status, there is low- to very low-quality evidence suggesting no difference in effect for SMT when compared with inert interventions, sham SMT or as adjunct therapy. There was varying quality of evidence (from very low to moderate) suggesting no difference in effect for SMT when compared with other interventions. Data were particularly sparse for recovery, return-to-work, quality of life, and costs of care. No serious complications were observed with SMT. SMT is no more effective for acute low back pain than inert interventions, sham SMT or as adjunct therapy. SMT also seems to be no better than other recommended therapies. Our evaluation is limited by the few numbers of studies; therefore, future research is likely to have an important impact on these estimates. Future RCTs

  5. Exercise training for systolic heart failure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Edward J.; Moxham, Tiffany; Rees, Karen; Singh, Sally; Coats, Andrew J.S.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lough, Fiona; Taylor, Rod S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of exercise training on clinical events and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with systolic heart failure. Methods and results We searched electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library up to January 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing exercise training and usual care with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Nineteen RCTs were included with a total of 3647 patients, the majority of whom were male, low-to-medium risk, and New York Heart Association class II–III with a left ventricular ejection fraction of <40%. There was no significant difference between exercise and control in short-term (≤12 months) or longer-term all-cause mortality or overall hospital admissions. Heart failure-related hospitalizations were lower [relative risk: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52–0.99] and HRQoL improved (standardized mean difference: −0.63, 95% CI: −0.80 to −0.37) with exercise therapy. Any effect of cardiac exercise training on total mortality and HRQoL was independent of degree of left ventricular dysfunction, type of cardiac rehabilitation, dose of exercise intervention, length of follow-up, trial quality, and trial publication date. Conclusion Compared with usual care, in selected heart failure patients, exercise training reduces heart failure-related hospitalizations and results in clinically important improvements in HRQoL. High-quality RCT and cost-effectiveness evidence is needed for the effect of exercise training in community-based settings and in more severe heart failure patients, elderly people, and women. PMID:20494922

  6. Selenium Supplementation for Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Summary of a Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2014-03-01

    Selenium supplementation in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of levothyroxine (LT4) and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). The aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. Four studies rated at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium selenite 200 μg plus titrated LT4 compared with placebo plus titrated LT4 (RR 4.67, 95% CI 1.61-13.50). Selenomethionine 200 μg as a single treatment or combined with LT4 reduced the serum levels of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies compared with placebo (or placebo plus LT4) in three studies (p < 0.001). Although the changes from baseline were statistically significant in these three studies, their clinical relevance is unclear. In conclusion, the results of these four studies, assessed at unclear to high risk of bias, show that evidence to support or refute the efficacy of selenium supplementation in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is incomplete and not reliable to help inform clinical decision making.

  7. Effectiveness and efficacy of nutritional therapy: A systematic review following Cochrane methodology.

    PubMed

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Krznarić, Zeljko; Singer, Pierre; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; Golay, Alain; Van Gossum, André; Kennedy, Nicholas; Kreymann, Georg; Laviano, Alessandro; Pavić, Tajana; Puljak, Livia; Sambunjak, Dario; Utrobičić, Ana; Schneider, Stéphane M

    2017-08-01

    Disease-related malnutrition has deleterious consequences on patients' outcome and healthcare costs. The demonstration of improved outcome by appropriate nutritional management is on occasion difficult. The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed the Nutrition Education Study Group (ESPEN-NESG) to increase recognition of nutritional knowledge and support in health services. To obtain the best available evidence on the potential effects of malnutrition on morbidity, mortality and hospital stay; cost of malnutrition; effect of nutritional treatment on outcome parameters and pharmaco-economics of nutritional therapy, a systematic review of the literature was performed following Cochrane methodology, to answer the following key questions: Q1) Is malnutrition an independent predictive factor for readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge? Q2) Does nutritional therapy reduce the risk of readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge? Q3) Is nutritional therapy cost-effective/does it reduce costs in hospitalized patients? and Q4) Is nutritional therapy cost effective/does it reduce costs in outpatients? For Q1 six of 15 identified observational studies indicated that malnutrition was predictive of re-admissions, whereas the remainder did not. For Q2 nine randomized controlled trials and two meta-analyses gave non-conclusive results whether re-admissions could be reduced by nutritional therapy. Economic benefit and cost-effectiveness of nutritional therapy was consistently reported in 16 identified studies for hospitalized patients (Q3), whereas the heterogeneous and limited corresponding data on out-patients (Q4) indicated cost-benefits in some selected sub-groups. This result of this review supports the use of nutritional therapy to reduce healthcare costs, most evident from large, homogeneous studies. In general, reports are too heterogeneous and overall of limited quality for conclusions on impact of malnutrition and its

  8. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin inhibitors for primary hypertension: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Musini, V M; Fortin, P M; Bassett, K; Wright, J M

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials to quantify the dose-related systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering efficacy of renin inhibitors vs placebo in the treatment of adults with primary hypertension. Databases searched were Medline (1966-March 2008), EMBASE (1988-March 2008) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Six trials in 3694 patients met the inclusion criteria. All examined aliskiren, the only renin inhibitor licensed for marketing in Canada and the United States. Aliskiren caused a dose-related SBP/DBP lowering effect compared to placebo: weighted mean difference with 95% CI: aliskiren 75 mg, -2.9 (-4.6, -1.3)/-2.3 (-3.3, -1.3) mm Hg; aliskiren 150 mg, -5.5 (-6.5, -4.4)/-3.0 (-3.7, -2.3) mm Hg; aliskiren 300 mg, -8.7 (-9.7,-7.6)/-5.0 (-5.6, -4.3) and aliskiren 600 mg, -11.4 (-13.5, -9.2)/-6.6 (-7.9, -5.2) mm Hg. Aliskiren 300 mg significantly lowered both SBP -3.0 (-4.0, -2.0) and DBP -1.7 (-2.3, -1.0) as compared to aliskiren 150 mg. Aliskiren has no effect on blood pressure variability. No data were available to assess the effect of aliskiren on heart rate or pulse pressure. This review found weak evidence that during 4- to 8-week use, aliskiren did not increase withdrawals due to adverse effects as compared to placebo. We concluded that aliskiren has a dose-related blood pressure lowering effect better than placebo and magnitude of effect is similar to that determined for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.

  9. Selenium Supplementation for Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Summary of a Cochrane Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van Zuuren, Esther J.; Albusta, Amira Y.; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2014-01-01

    Selenium supplementation in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of levothyroxine (LT4) and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). The aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. Four studies rated at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium selenite 200 μg plus titrated LT4 compared with placebo plus titrated LT4 (RR 4.67, 95% CI 1.61-13.50). Selenomethionine 200 μg as a single treatment or combined with LT4 reduced the serum levels of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies compared with placebo (or placebo plus LT4) in three studies (p < 0.001). Although the changes from baseline were statistically significant in these three studies, their clinical relevance is unclear. In conclusion, the results of these four studies, assessed at unclear to high risk of bias, show that evidence to support or refute the efficacy of selenium supplementation in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is incomplete and not reliable to help inform clinical decision making. PMID:24847462

  10. Home based versus centre based cardiac rehabilitation: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zawada, Anna; Jolly, Kate; Moxham, Tiffany; Taylor, Rod S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of home based and supervised centre based cardiac rehabilitation on mortality and morbidity, health related quality of life, and modifiable cardiac risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. Design Systematic review. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, without language restriction, searched from 2001 to January 2008. Review methods Reference lists checked and advice sought from authors. Included randomised controlled trials that compared centre based cardiac rehabilitation with home based programmes in adults with acute myocardial infarction, angina, or heart failure or who had undergone coronary revascularisation. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of the identified trials and extracted data independently. Authors were contacted when possible to obtain missing information. Results 12 studies (1938 participants) were included. Most studies recruited patients with a low risk of further events after myocardial infarction or revascularisation. No difference was seen between home based and centre based cardiac rehabilitation in terms of mortality (relative risk 1.31, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 2.66), cardiac events, exercise capacity (standardised mean difference −0.11, −0.35 to 0.13), modifiable risk factors (weighted mean difference systolic blood pressure (0.58 mm Hg, −3.29 mm Hg to 4.44 mm Hg), total cholesterol (−0.13 mmol/l, −0.31 mmol/l to 0.05 mmol/l), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.15 mmol/l, −0.31 mmol/l to 0.01 mmol/l), or relative risk for proportion of smokers at follow-up (0.98, 0.73 to 1.31)), or health related quality of life, with the exception of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.06, −0.11 to −0.02) mmol/l). In the home based participants, there was evidence of superior adherence. No consistent difference was seen in the healthcare costs of the two forms

  11. Predicting the extent of heterogeneity in meta-analysis, using empirical data from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rebecca M; Davey, Jonathan; Clarke, Mike J; Thompson, Simon G; Higgins, Julian PT

    2012-01-01

    Background Many meta-analyses contain only a small number of studies, which makes it difficult to estimate the extent of between-study heterogeneity. Bayesian meta-analysis allows incorporation of external evidence on heterogeneity, and offers advantages over conventional random-effects meta-analysis. To assist in this, we provide empirical evidence on the likely extent of heterogeneity in particular areas of health care. Methods Our analyses included 14 886 meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We classified each meta-analysis according to the type of outcome, type of intervention comparison and medical specialty. By modelling the study data from all meta-analyses simultaneously, using the log odds ratio scale, we investigated the impact of meta-analysis characteristics on the underlying between-study heterogeneity variance. Predictive distributions were obtained for the heterogeneity expected in future meta-analyses. Results Between-study heterogeneity variances for meta-analyses in which the outcome was all-cause mortality were found to be on average 17% (95% CI 10–26) of variances for other outcomes. In meta-analyses comparing two active pharmacological interventions, heterogeneity was on average 75% (95% CI 58–95) of variances for non-pharmacological interventions. Meta-analysis size was found to have only a small effect on heterogeneity. Predictive distributions are presented for nine different settings, defined by type of outcome and type of intervention comparison. For example, for a planned meta-analysis comparing a pharmacological intervention against placebo or control with a subjectively measured outcome, the predictive distribution for heterogeneity is a log-normal (−2.13, 1.582) distribution, which has a median value of 0.12. In an example of meta-analysis of six studies, incorporating external evidence led to a smaller heterogeneity estimate and a narrower confidence interval for the combined intervention effect

  12. Pilates for Low Back Pain: Complete Republication of a Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-06-01

    Systematic review. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with nonspecific acute, subacute, or chronic low back pain. The Pilates method is one of the most common forms of intervention based on exercise used for treating patients with low back pain. However, its effectiveness is not well established. We conducted searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2014. We included randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of Pilates in patients with acute, subacute, or chronic nonspecific low back pain. The outcomes evaluated were pain, disability, function, and global impression of recovery. Two independent reviewers screened for potentially eligible studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted the data. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and treatment effect sizes were described using mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Searches retrieved 126 trials, of which 10 were included in the review (n = 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered at high risk of bias. When compared to minimal intervention, Pilates reduces pain at short and intermediate term with low- to moderate-quality evidence and medium effect sizes. For disability, there is also a significant difference in favor to Pilates with low- to moderate-quality evidence and small effect size for short term and medium effect size for intermediate term compared with minimal intervention. It is unclear whether Pilates is better than other exercises for short-term pain, but there is low-quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain at intermediate term. For disability, there is moderate-quality evidence that there is no significant difference between Pilates and other exercises in either the short term or the intermediate term. There is low- to moderate-quality evidence that Pilates is more effective than minimal intervention with most of the

  13. H1-antihistamines for chronic spontaneous urticaria: an abridged Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Maulina; Bennett, Cathy; Carter, Ben; Cohen, Stuart N

    2015-10-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria is characterized by recurrent itchy wheals. First-line management is with H1-antihistamines. We sought to conduct a Cochrane Review of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. A systematic search of major databases for randomized controlled trials was conducted. We included 73 studies with 9759 participants; 34 studies provided outcome data for 23 comparisons. Compared with placebo, cetirizine 10 mg daily in the short and intermediate term (RR 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-4.91) led to complete suppression of urticaria. Levocetirizine 20 mg daily was effective for short-term use (RR 20.87; 95% CI 1.37-317.60) as was 5 mg for intermediate-term use (RR 52.88; 95% CI 3.31-843.81). Desloratadine 20 mg was effective for the short term (RR 15.97; 95% CI 1.04-245.04) as was 5 mg in the intermediate term (RR 37.00; 95% CI 2.31-593.70). There was no evidence to suggest difference in adverse event rates between treatments. Some methodological limitations were observed. Few studies for each comparison reported outcome data that could be incorporated in meta-analyses. At standard doses, several antihistamines are effective and safe in complete suppression of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Research on long-term treatment using standardized outcome measures and quality of life scores is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Find Duplicates among the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library Databases in Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Han, Guohong; Fan, Daiming

    2013-01-01

    Background Finding duplicates is an important phase of systematic review. However, no consensus regarding the methods to find duplicates has been provided. This study aims to describe a pragmatic strategy of combining auto- and hand-searching duplicates in systematic review and to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of duplicates. Methods and Findings Literatures regarding portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) were searched by the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. Duplicates included one index paper and one or more redundant papers. They were divided into type-I (duplicates among different databases) and type-II (duplicate publications in different journals/issues) duplicates. For type-I duplicates, reference items were further compared between index and redundant papers. Of 10936 papers regarding PVT, 2399 and 1307 were identified as auto- and hand-searched duplicates, respectively. The prevalence of auto- and hand-searched redundant papers was 11.0% (1201/10936) and 6.1% (665/10936), respectively. They included 3431 type-I and 275 type-II duplicates. Of 11403 papers regarding BCS, 3275 and 2064 were identified as auto- and hand-searched duplicates, respectively. The prevalence of auto- and hand-searched redundant papers was 14.4% (1640/11403) and 9.1% (1039/11403), respectively. They included 5053 type-I and 286 type-II duplicates. Most of type-I duplicates were identified by auto-searching method (69.5%, 2385/3431 in PVT literatures; 64.6%, 3263/5053 in BCS literatures). Nearly all type-II duplicates were identified by hand-searching method (94.9%, 261/275 in PVT literatures; 95.8%, 274/286 in BCS literatures). Compared with those identified by auto-searching method, type-I duplicates identified by hand-searching method had a significantly higher prevalence of wrong items (47/2385 versus 498/1046, p<0.0001 in PVT literatures; 30/3263 versus 778/1790, p<0.0001 in BCS literatures). Most of wrong items originated from

  15. Evidence for physical therapies (airway clearance and physical training) in cystic fibrosis: an overview of five Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Judy M; Moran, Fidelma M; Elborn, J Stuart

    2006-02-01

    A range of physical therapies (including airway clearance and physical training) are used in cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this paper is to summarise the main findings from Cochrane systematic reviews that have considered the evidence for physical therapies in CF. All outcomes reported in relevant Cochrane systematic reviews are summarised. Review 1 provides some evidence from short-term trials of the benefit of airway clearance over no airway clearance in improved mucus transport but no definitive evidence from long-term trials to support the efficacy of airway clearance over no airway clearance; review 2 provides some evidence that conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT) is at least as effective as other forms of airway clearance, but that patients may have a preference for self-administered treatments over CCPT; review 3 provides some evidence that positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is at least as effective as other forms of airway clearance; review 4 provides some evidence to support the use of non-invasive ventilation during airway clearance in patients with moderate to severe disease who have difficulty clearing sputum; review 5 provides some evidence of the benefits of different types of physical training. The Cochrane systematic reviews summarised in this paper provide some evidence to support the inclusion of physical therapies in the care-management plan of CF. They also provide information to steer the direction and focus of future research in this area.

  16. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

    2015-03-01

    A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. Methods We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. Results The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Conclusions Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. PMID:25393504

  18. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about the clinical effectiveness of screening and diagnostic tests for cancer?

    PubMed

    Bueno, André Tito Pereira; Capelasso, Vladimir Lisboa; Pacheco, Rafael Leite; Latorraca, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz; Castria, Tiago Biachi de; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Cochrane reviews on the clinical effectiveness of cancer screening procedures were included. Study titles and abstracts were independently assessed by two authors. Conflicts were resolved by another two authors. Findings were summarized and discussed. Seventeen reviews were selected: fifteen on screening for specific cancers (bladder, breast, colorectal, hepatic, lung, nasopharyngeal, esophageal, oral, prostate, testicular and uterine) and two others on cancer in general. The quality of evidence of the findings varied among the reviews. Only two reviews resulted in high-quality evidence: screening using low-dose computed tomography scans for high-risk individuals seems to reduce lung cancer mortality; and screening using flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood tests seems to reduce colorectal cancer mortality. The evidence found through Cochrane reviews did not support most of the commonly used screening tests for cancer. It is recommended that patients should be informed of the possibilities of false positives and false negatives before they undergo the tests. Further studies to fully assess the effectiveness of cancer screening tests and adverse outcomes are required.

  19. Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis. An abridged version of Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, A P; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M; Boers, M; Cardoso, J R; Lambeck, J; De Bie, R; De Vet, H C

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include pharmacological interventions, physical therapy treatments and balneotherapy. To evaluate the benefits and harms of balneotherapy in patients with RA. A systematic review. Studies were eligible if they were randomised controlled trials consisting of participants with definitive or classical RA. We searched various databases up to December 2014. Balneotherapy had to be the intervention under study, and had to be compared with another intervention or with no intervention. We considered pain, improvement, disability, tender joints, swollen joints and adverse events among the main outcome measures. We excluded studies when only laboratory variables were reported as outcome measures. Two review authors independently selected trials, performed data extraction and assessed risk of bias. This review includes nine studies involving 579 participants. Most studies showed an unclear risk of bias in most domains. We found no statistically significant differences on pain or improvement between mudpacks versus placebo (1 study; N.=45; hand RA; very low level of evidence). As for the effectiveness of additional radon in carbon dioxide baths, we found no statistically significant differences between groups for all outcomes at three-month follow-up (2 studies; N.=194; low to moderate level of evidence). We noted some benefit of additional radon at six months in pain (moderate level of evidence). One study (N.=148) compared balneotherapy (seated immersion) versus hydrotherapy (exercises in water), land exercises or relaxation therapy. We found no statistically significant differences in pain or in physical disability (very low level of evidence) between groups. We found no statistically significant differences in pain intensity at eight weeks, but some benefit of mineral baths in overall improvement at eight weeks compared to Cyclosporin A (1 study; N.=57; low level of evidence). Overall evidence is insufficient to show that

  20. Cochrane Review: Screening programmes for developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Damon; Hong, Timothy; Osborn, David A

    2013-01-01

    Uncorrected developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is associated with long-term morbidity such as gait abnormalities, chronic pain and degenerative arthritis. To determine the effect of different screening programmes for DDH on the incidence of late presentation of congenital hip dislocation. Searches were performed in CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2011) supplemented by searches of clinical trial registries, conference proceedings, cross references and contacting expert informants. Randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster trials comparing the effectiveness of screening programmes for DDH. Three independent review authors assessed study eligibility and quality, and extracted data. No study examined the effect of screening (clinical and/or ultrasound) and early treatment versus not screening and later treatment. One study reported universal ultrasound compared to clinical examination alone did not result in a significant reduction in late diagnosed DDH or surgery but was associated with a significant increase in treatment. One study reported targeted ultrasound compared to clinical examination alone did not result in a significant reduction in late diagnosed DDH or surgery, with no significant difference in rate of treatment. Meta-analysis of two studies found universal ultrasound compared to targeted ultrasound did not result in a significant reduction in late diagnosed DDH or surgery. There was heterogeneity between studies reporting the effect on treatment rate. Meta-analysis of two studies found delayed ultrasound and targeted splinting compared to immediate splinting of infants with unstable (but not dislocated) hips resulted in no significant difference in the rate of late diagnosed DDH. Both studies reported a significant reduction in treatment with use of delayed ultrasound and targeted splinting. One study reported delayed ultrasound and targeted splinting compared to immediate splinting of infants with mild hip dysplasia on

  1. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    PubMed

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  2. Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care: executive summary of a Cochrane Collaboration systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mochamat; Cuhls, Henning; Peuckmann‐Post, Vera; Minton, Ollie; Stone, Patrick; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In palliative care patients, fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life. Further complicating issues are the multidimensionality, subjective nature and lack of a consensus definition of fatigue. The review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for fatigue in palliative care, with a focus on patients at an advanced stage of disease, including patients with cancer and other chronic diseases. Methods We considered randomized controlled trials concerning adult palliative care with a focus on pharmacological treatment of fatigue compared with placebo, application of two drugs, usual care or a non‐pharmacological intervention. The primary outcome had to be non‐specific fatigue (or related terms such as asthenia). We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and a selection of cancer journals up to 28 April 2014. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Results We screened 1645 publications of which 45 met the inclusion criteria. In total, we analysed data from 18 drugs and 4696 participants. There was a very high degree of statistical and clinical heterogeneity in the trials. Meta‐analysis of data was possible for modafinil, pemoline, and methylphenidate. Conclusions Due to the limited evidence, we cannot recommend a specific drug for the treatment of fatigue in palliative care patients. Some drugs, which may be beneficial for the treatment of fatigue associated with palliative care such as amantadine, methylphenidate, and modafinil, should be further researched. PMID:27066315

  3. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, V C; Tierney, J F; Stenning, S; Meredith, S; Harding, S; Nazareth, I; Rait, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention in randomised trials. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Sources searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, C2-SPECTR, ERIC, PreMEDLINE, Cochrane Methodology Register, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, WHO trials platform, Society for Clinical Trials (SCT) conference proceedings and a survey of all UK clinical trial research units. Review methods Included trials were randomised evaluations of strategies to improve retention embedded within host randomised trials. The primary outcome was retention of trial participants. Data from trials were pooled using the fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the heterogeneity and to determine whether there were any differences in effect by the type of strategy. Results 38 retention trials were identified. Six broad types of strategies were evaluated. Strategies that increased postal questionnaire responses were: adding, that is, giving a monetary incentive (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28) and higher valued incentives (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Offering a monetary incentive, that is, an incentive given on receipt of a completed questionnaire, also increased electronic questionnaire response (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38). The evidence for shorter questionnaires (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08) and questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14) is less clear. On the basis of the results of single trials, the following strategies appeared effective at increasing questionnaire response: recorded delivery of questionnaires (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87); a ‘package’ of postal communication strategies (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67) and an open trial design (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63). There is no good evidence that the following strategies impact on trial response/retention: adding a non-monetary incentive (RR=1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02); offering a non

  4. What efficacy measures are clinically relevant and should be used in Cochrane reviews of acute migraine trials? An alternative viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Steiner, T J

    2015-04-01

    I briefly review the purposes of efficacy measures, which go far beyond supporting new drug development. I use vignettes to illustrate the importance of functional recovery during the migraine attack, and argue that headache relief provides this. Sustained headache relief (SHR) is therefore a very worthwhile outcome when the alternative is a day of debilitating pain. As a measure, SHR may not be ideal for new drug development but it is informative to individuals, health care providers and politicians, and serves cost-effectiveness analysis better than any other. Cochrane are absolutely right to use it in systematic reviews along with the IHS-recommended measures.

  5. Emollients and moisturizers for eczema: abridged Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z; Arents, B W M

    2017-04-22

    Eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder with considerable impact on quality of life. Emollients or moisturizers are widely recommended, but are these effective and safe? We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Skin Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, the GREAT database and five trial registers to December 2015. We included 77 RCTs with 6603 participants. Seven studies (9%) were at low risk of bias, 34 (44%) had unclear risk and 36 (47%) were at high risk. The quality of the evidence was mainly low or moderate for the prespecified outcomes. The most important comparison, 'moisturizer vs. no moisturizer', showed improved Scoring Atopic Dermatitis values in the moisturizer group compared with no moisturizer [mean difference -2·42, 95% confidence interval (CI) -4·55 to -0·28], but did not meet the minimal important difference of 8·7. Fewer flares were seen (risk ratio 0·40, 95% CI 0·23-0·70) and the rate of flares was reduced (hazard ratio 3·74, 95% CI 1·86-7·50). The groups applying moisturizer used less topical corticosteroids over 6-8 weeks (mean difference -9·30 g, 95% CI 15·3 to -3·27). Glycyrrhetinic acid-, urea- and glycerol-containing creams worked better than their controls (vehicle, placebo or no moisturizer) according to both participants and physicians. More flares were reported with moisturizer alone than when combined with twice-weekly fluticasone propionate (risk ratio 2·17, 95% CI 1·55-3·11). Adding moisturizers to topical anti-inflammatory treatment was more effective than anti-inflammatory treatment alone and resulted in fewer flares. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Design and Formative Evaluation of the Policy Liaison Initiative: A Long-Term Knowledge Translation Strategy to Encourage and Support the Use of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for Informing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Sue E.; Cumpston, Miranda; Misso, Marie L.; McDonald, Steve; Murphy, Matthew J.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The Policy Liaison Initiative (PLI) is a long-term knowledge translation initiative designed to support the use of Cochrane systematic reviews in health policy. A joint initiative between the Australasian Cochrane Centre and Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, the PLI includes: 1) a community of practice for evidence-informed…

  7. Design and Formative Evaluation of the Policy Liaison Initiative: A Long-Term Knowledge Translation Strategy to Encourage and Support the Use of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for Informing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Sue E.; Cumpston, Miranda; Misso, Marie L.; McDonald, Steve; Murphy, Matthew J.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The Policy Liaison Initiative (PLI) is a long-term knowledge translation initiative designed to support the use of Cochrane systematic reviews in health policy. A joint initiative between the Australasian Cochrane Centre and Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, the PLI includes: 1) a community of practice for evidence-informed…

  8. Rehabilitation following first-time lumbar disc surgery: a systematic review within the framework of the cochrane collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ostelo, Raymond W J G; de Vet, Henrica C W; Waddell, Gordon; Kerckhoffs, Maria R; Leffers, Pieter; van Tulder, Maurits

    2003-02-01

    A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Although several rehabilitation programs, physical fitness programs, or protocols regarding instruction for patients to return to work after lumbar disc surgery have been suggested, little is known about the efficacy of these treatments, and there are still persistent fears of causing reinjury, reherniation, or instability. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of active treatments that are used in the rehabilitation after first-time lumbar disc surgery. The authors searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Psyclit databases up to April 2000 and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register 2001, issue 3. Both randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials on any type of active rehabilitation program after first-time disc surgery were included. Two independent reviewers performed the inclusion of studies, and two other reviewers independently performed the methodologic quality assessment. A rating system that consists of four levels of scientific evidence summarizes the results. Thirteen studies were included, six of which were of high quality. There is no strong evidence for the effectiveness for any treatment starting immediately postsurgery, mainly because of the lack of good quality studies. For treatments that start 4 to 6 weeks postsurgery, there is strong evidence (level 1) that intensive exercise programs are more effective on functional status and faster return to work (short-term follow-up) as compared to mild exercise programs, and there is strong evidence (level 1) that on long-term follow-up there is no difference between intensive exercise programs and mild exercise programs with regard to overall improvement. For all other primary outcome measures for the comparison between intensive and mild exercise programs, there is conflicting evidence (level 3) with regard to long-term follow-up. Furthermore, there is no strong evidence for the effectiveness of supervised training as

  9. [The efficacy of smoking cessation methods available in the Netherlands: a systematic review based on Cochrane data].

    PubMed

    Willemsen, M C; Wagena, E J; van Schayck, C P

    2003-05-10

    To obtain an overview of data from the Cochrane Library on smoking-cessation methods and aids available in the Netherlands. Systematic literature review. Common smoking-cessation methods in the Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 were selected from previous research. Data from relevant Cochrane reviews about these cessation methods were collected, after which the efficacy was calculated as a pooled odds ratio and the effectiveness as a percentage of 12 months' continuous abstinence. The following methods were found to be more efficacious than placebo: tailored written advice, individual counselling, telephonic counselling, group courses, all forms of nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion and nortriptyline. Acupuncture was not superior to placebo. It was not possible to draw any unequivocal conclusions about hypnotherapy. No randomised studies were found with respect to the 'Allen Carr method'. Rates of 12 months' continuous abstinence were as follows for those methods with proven efficacy: tailored advice: 7%, individual counselling: 16%, telephonic counselling: 7.5%, nicotine gum: 17%, nicotine patch: 13%, nicotine inhaler: 17%, nicotine tablets: 20%, bupropion: 17%, and nortriptyline: 24%. The success rates for nicotine tablets and nortriptyline were based on only 2 and 1 study respectively. Several effective smoking-cessation methods are available in the Netherlands. In trials the long-term effectiveness of these methods was between 7-24%.

  10. An equity lens can ensure an equity-oriented approach to agenda setting and priority setting of Cochrane Reviews.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Mona; Ueffing, Erin; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to develop and pilot an equity lens that could help researchers in developing a more equity-oriented approach toward priority setting and agenda setting in systematic reviews. We developed an equity lens to guide the development and evaluation of a prioritization process and evaluate its outcomes based on the information derived from a discussion workshop and a comparison with the existing literature on the topic. We piloted the process section of the equity lens across the 13 structured priority-setting approaches in the Cochrane Collaboration. We devised an equity lens with two checklists: one to guide the process of priority setting (nine questions) and the other to evaluate the outcomes of priority setting (eight questions). Of the nine questions, seven questions were partially addressed by at least one of the prioritization projects. Two questions were not considered in any of them. The prioritization projects did not report sufficient outcome data, thus we could not explore the eight question on evaluating outcomes. Currently, there are few strategies in the Cochrane Collaboration that explicitly address the research priorities of individuals from different sociodemographic groups. The equity lens for priority setting and agenda setting can help project teams to develop a more equity-oriented approach to set a research agenda and/or prioritize research topics. However, further studies are needed to evaluate its impact on the prioritization process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed.

  12. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Angiotensin Converging Enzyme Inhibitors Versus Angiotensin Receptor Blockers for Primary Hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,8: CD009096].

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Silva, Luís; Fonseca, João A

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are first line drugs in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of this review was to assess if there are differences between these drug classes regarding the prevention of total mortality, occurrence of cardiovascular events and of adverse effects. A systematic review and metanalysis was performed, searching for studies that compare angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers face-to-face, in several databases until July 2014. The study selection and data extraction were performed by 2 independent researchers. Nine studies were included, with a total of 10 963 participants, 9 398 of which participated in the same study and had high cardiovascular risk. No differences were observed regarding total mortality, cardiovascular mortality or total cardiovascular events. A slightly smaller risk was observed with angiotensin receptor blockers regarding withdrawal due to adverse effects (55 people were needed to be treated with angiotensin receptor blockers for 4.1 years to avoid one withdrawal due to adverse effect), mainly due to the occurrence of dry cough with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Thus, no differences were observed between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in the prevention of total mortality and cardiovascular events, and angiotensin receptor blockers were better tolerated. Given the large proportion of participants with a high cardiovascular risk, the generalization of these results to other populations is limited.

  13. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Helicobacter pylori Eradication for the Prevention of Gastric Neoplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;7:CD005583].

    PubMed

    Libãnio, Diogo; Azevedo, Luís Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. Identification of individuals with this infection and its eradication may be considered as a primary prevention strategy to reduce the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma; however, the magnitude of benefit and the effectiveness of this strategy are still unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials was conducted comparing the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma in infected individuals submitted to Helicobacter pylori eradication and individuals not submitted to this therapy. The results of the six included randomized clinical trials (all conducted in countries with high gastric cancer incidence) suggest that Helicobacter pylori eradication is associated with a relative risk reduction of 34% in gastric cancer incidence. However, generalization of the results to countries with lower gastric cancer incidence should be cautious and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in this context remains uncertain.

  14. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Pedicle Screw Fixation for Traumatic Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;05:CD009073].

    PubMed

    Linhares, Daniela; Neves, Nuno; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel; Almeida Fonseca, João

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine are common causes of spine surgery. Pedicle screw fixation is usually chosen, using monosegmentar, short or long segment instrumentations, with or without bone graft. This review aims to evaluate the effect of transpedicular fixation in traumatic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. A systematic search on controlled, randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing different methods of surgical treatment of this fractures was performed, followed by a process of article selection, data extraction and bias assessment by 3 independent authors. Eight articles were included in a total of 5 comparisons, between different transpedicular fixation techniques. No significant differences on function or quality of life, neurologic status or limitation of motion were found. Only instrumentation with fracture level screw incorporation showed significant decrease of pain when compared with instrumentation alone. Several techniques resulted in significant improvements of different radiological parameters. Significantly, surgeries with smaller duration were associated with lesser blood loss. Bone graft use caused a significant raise in post-operative complications, namely donor site pain. So, this paper showed that significative improvements in radiological parameters do not associate with correspondent clinical benefits, and only instrumentation with level screw incorporation is associated with a clear benefit on pain. Moreover, the need for bone graft is questioned, since it leads to no clinic-radiological improvement with a raise of complications. However, a small number of controlled studies is available on this topic.

  15. Urate-lowering therapy for the management of gout: a summary of 2 Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Alison S; Seth, Rakhi; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Falzon, Louise; Edwards, Christopher J; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Bombardier, Claire

    2014-09-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of urate-lowering therapy for gout: xanthine oxidase inhibitors (allopurinol and febuxostat), uricosuric medications (benzbromarone, probenecid and sulfinpyrazone), and uricases (pegloticase and rasburicase). A systematic review was performed as part of the 3e (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative on Gout. The primary efficacy outcomes were frequency of acute gout attacks, study participant withdrawal due to adverse events, and cost-effectiveness. Serum urate-lowering was a secondary outcome and was the most commonly reported outcome in the included trials. The search identified 17 articles for efficacy, 31 for safety, and 3 for cost-effectiveness. The main outcome described in these studies was serum urate-lowering. Allopurinol, febuxostat, and pegloticase are all effective at lowering serum urate compared to placebo and febuxostat (≥ 80 mg) was more effective at lowering serum urate than allopurinol. Compared to probenecid, benzbromarone was more effective at lowering serum urate. Regarding acute gout attacks, pegloticase and febuxostat (≥ 120 mg) resulted in more acute attacks than placebo. Regarding the primary safety outcome, more withdrawals due to adverse events were seen only when pegloticase was compared to placebo. The two trials of cost-effectiveness were inconclusive. There is currently moderate quality data supporting the efficacy and safety of allopurinol, febuxostat, benzbromarone, and probenecid in gout. Pegloticase, while efficacious, is associated with more withdrawals due to adverse events and infusion reactions. There is insufficient evidence currently with respect to the cost-effectiveness or the most optimal sequencing of urate-lowering therapy.

  16. Safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and/or paracetamol in people receiving methotrexate for inflammatory arthritis: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, Alexandra N; Marks, Jonathan L; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Edwards, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    To systematically review the literature on the safety of using nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and/or paracetamol in people receiving methotrexate (MTX) for inflammatory arthritis (IA), as an evidence base for generating clinical practice recommendations. A systematic literature review was performed using the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and conference proceedings for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) for 2008-2009. The search aimed to identify studies describing adverse events (AE) with the concurrent use of paracetamol and/or NSAID in people taking MTX for IA. Articles fulfilling our predefined inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed and quality appraised. Seventeen publications out of 8681 identified studies were included in the review, all of which included people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using various NSAID; there were no identified studies for other forms of IA or with paracetamol. Of the studies examining concurrent use of MTX and NSAID, there were no reported adverse effects on lung, liver, or renal function, and no increase in MTX withdrawal or in major toxic reactions. However, transient thrombocytopenia was demonstrated in 1 study. Looking at specific NSAID, there were no clinically significant AE with concomitant piroxicam or etodolac, and only mild AE with celecoxib or etoricoxib. Antiinflammatory dose aspirin was demonstrated to have an adverse effect on liver and renal function. In the management of RA, concurrent use of NSAID with MTX appears to be safe, provided appropriate monitoring is performed. The use of antiinflammatory doses of aspirin should be avoided.

  17. Chlorpromazine for schizophrenia: a Cochrane systematic review of 50 years of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Clive Elliott; Rathbone, John; Thornley, Ben; Clarke, Mike; Borrill, Jo; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Awad, A George

    2005-01-01

    Background Chlorpromazine (CPZ) remains one of the most common drugs used for people with schizophrenia worldwide, and a benchmark against which other treatments can be evaluated. Quantitative reviews are rare; this one evaluates the effects of chlorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia in comparison with placebo. Methods We sought all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing chlorpromazine to placebo by electronic and reference searching, and by contacting trial authors and the pharmaceutical industry. Data were extracted from selected trials and, where possible, synthesised and random effects relative risk (RR), the number needed to treat (NNT) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Results Fifty RCTs from 1955–2000 were included with 5276 people randomised to CPZ or placebo. They constitute 2008 person-years spent in trials. Meta-analysis of these trials showed that chlorpromazine promotes a global improvement (n = 1121, 13 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.7 to 0.9, NNT 7 CI 5 to 10), although a considerable placebo response is also seen. People allocated to chlorpromazine tended not to leave trials early in both the short (n = 945, 16 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.1) and medium term (n = 1861, 25 RCTs, RR 0.79 CI 0.6 to 1.1). There were, however, many adverse effects. Chlorpromazine is sedating (n = 1242, 18 RCTs, RR 2.3 CI 1.7 to 3.1, NNH 6 CI 5 to 8), increases a person's chances of experiencing acute movement disorders, Parkinsonism and causes low blood pressure with dizziness and dry mouth. Conclusion It is understandable why the World Health Organization (WHO) have endorsed and included chlorpromazine in their list of essential drugs for use in schizophrenia. Low- and middle-income countries may have more complete evidence upon which to base their practice compared with richer nations using recent innovations. PMID:16229742

  18. Outcomes in systematic reviews of complex interventions never reached "high" GRADE ratings when compared with those of simple interventions.

    PubMed

    Movsisyan, Ani; Melendez-Torres, G J; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the application of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach and the quality of evidence ratings in systematic reviews of complex interventions. This study examined all 40 systematic reviews published in three Cochrane Review Groups from 2013 to May 2014: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group (CDPLPG); Cochrane Public Health Group (CPHG); and Cochrane Depression, Anxiety, and Neurosis Group (CCDAN). The reviews were coded and classified into "complex" (n = 24) and "simple" (n = 16) intervention review groups based on the predefined complexity dimensions from the extant literature mapped into the PICOTS framework. All the data were analyzed in these two groups to help identify specific patterns of the GRADE ratings in the reviews of complex interventions. Outcomes of complex intervention reviews had higher proportions of "very low" quality of evidence ratings compared with those of simple intervention reviews (37.5% vs. 9.1% for the primary benefit outcomes) and were more frequently downgraded for inconsistency, performance bias, and study design. None of the outcomes of complex intervention reviews (0%) were given "high" GRADE ratings. Results suggest that the GRADE assessment may not adequately describe the evidence base of complex interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intravitreal Bevacizumab Versus Ranibizumab for Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Findings from a Cochrane Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Sharon D.; Lindsley, Kristina B.; Krzystolik, Magdalena G.; Vedula, Satyanarayana S.; Hawkins, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Topic To summarize the relative effects of bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, Inc.) and ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, Inc.), using findings from a Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group systematic review . Clinical relevance Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) is the most common cause of uncorrectable vision loss in the elderly in developed countries. Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are the most frequently-used anti-VEGF agents injected intravitreally to treat NVAMD Methods We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which the two anti-VEGF agents had been compared directly. The primary outcome was 1-year gain in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 15 or more logMAR letters. We followed Cochrane methods for trial selection, data extraction, and data analyses. Relative effects of bevacizumab versus ranibizumab are presented as estimated risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We identified 6 eligible RCTs with 2809 participants. The proportion of eyes that gained 15 or more letters of BCVA by 1 year was similar for the two agents when the same regimens were compared: RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.11. The mean change in BCVA from baseline also was similar: MD=−0.5 letter; 95% CI: −1.6 to +0.6. Other BCVA and quality-of-life outcomes were similar for the two agents. One-year treatment cost with ranibizumab was 5.1 and 25.5 times the cost for bevacizumab in the two largest trials. Ocular adverse events were uncommon (<1%); rates were similar for the two agents. Conclusions We found no important difference in effectiveness or safety between bevacizumab and ranibizumab for NVAMD treatment but a large cost difference. PMID:26477843

  20. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Delbaere, Kim; Zijlstra, G A R; Carpenter, Hannah; Iliffe, Steve; Masud, Tahir; Skelton, Dawn; Morris, Richard; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-05-01

    to determine the effect of exercise interventions on fear of falling in community-living people aged ≥65. systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases, trial registers and other sources were searched for randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data were independently extracted by pairs of reviewers using a standard form. thirty trials (2,878 participants) reported 36 interventions (Tai Chi and yoga (n = 9); balance training (n = 19); strength and resistance training (n = 8)). The risk of bias was low in few trials. Most studies were from high-income countries (Australia = 8, USA = 7). Intervention periods (<12 weeks = 22; 13-26 weeks = 7; >26 weeks = 7) and exercise frequency (1-3 times/week = 32; ≥4 times/week = 4) varied between studies. Fear of falling was measured by single-item questions (7) and scales measuring falls efficacy (14), balance confidence (9) and concern or worry about falling (2). Meta-analyses showed a small to moderate effect of exercise interventions on reducing fear of falling immediately post-intervention (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.37, 95% CI 0.18, 0.56; 24 studies; low-quality evidence). There was a small, but not statistically significant effect in the longer term (<6 months (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.05, 0.38 (four studies) and ≥6 months post-intervention SMD 0.20, 95% CI -0.01, 0.41 (three studies)). exercise interventions probably reduce fear of falling to a small to moderate degree immediately post-intervention in community-living older people. The high risk of bias in most included trials suggests findings should be interpreted with caution. High-quality trials are needed to strengthen the evidence base in this area. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Home-based versus centre-based cardiac rehabilitation: abridged Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, S A; Taylor, R S; Jolly, K; Zawada, A; Dean, S G; Cowie, A; Norton, R J; Dalal, H M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update the Cochrane review comparing the effects of home-based and supervised centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on mortality and morbidity, quality of life, and modifiable cardiac risk factors in patients with heart disease. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched up to October 2014, without language restriction. Randomised trials comparing home-based and centre-based CR programmes in adults with myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure or who had undergone coronary revascularisation were included. Results 17 studies with 2172 patients were included. No difference was seen between home-based and centre-based CR in terms of: mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.79, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.47); cardiac events; exercise capacity (mean difference (MD) −0.10, −0.29 to 0.08); total cholesterol (MD 0.07 mmol/L, −0.24 to 0.11); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −0.06 mmol/L, −0.27 to 0.15); triglycerides (MD −0.16 mmol/L, −0.38 to 0.07); systolic blood pressure (MD 0.2 mm Hg, −3.4 to 3.8); smoking (RR 0.98, 0.79 to 1.21); health-related quality of life and healthcare costs. Lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −0.07 mmol/L, −0.11 to −0.03, p=0.001) and lower diastolic blood pressure (MD −1.9 mm Hg, −0.8 to −3.0, p=0.009) were observed in centre-based participants. Home-based CR was associated with slightly higher adherence (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07). Conclusions Home-based and centre-based CR provide similar benefits in terms of clinical and health-related quality of life outcomes at equivalent cost for those with heart failure and following myocardial infarction and revascularisation. PMID:27738516

  2. What's in a name? The challenge of describing interventions in systematic reviews: analysis of a random sample of reviews of non-pharmacological stroke interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tammy C; Walker, Marion F; Langhorne, Peter; Eames, Sally; Thomas, Emma; Glasziou, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess, in a sample of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, the completeness of intervention reporting, identify the most frequently missing elements, and assess review authors’ use of and beliefs about providing intervention information. Design Analysis of a random sample of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological stroke interventions; online survey of review authors. Data sources and study selection The Cochrane Library and PubMed were searched for potentially eligible systematic reviews and a random sample of these assessed for eligibility until 60 (30 Cochrane, 30 non-Cochrane) eligible reviews were identified. Data collection In each review, the completeness of the intervention description in each eligible trial (n=568) was assessed by 2 independent raters using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist. All review authors (n=46) were invited to complete a survey. Results Most reviews were missing intervention information for the majority of items. The most incompletely described items were: modifications, fidelity, materials, procedure and tailoring (missing from all interventions in 97%, 90%, 88%, 83% and 83% of reviews, respectively). Items that scored better, but were still incomplete for the majority of reviews, were: ‘when and how much’ (in 31% of reviews, adequate for all trials; in 57% of reviews, adequate for some trials); intervention mode (in 22% of reviews, adequate for all trials; in 38%, adequate for some trials); and location (in 19% of reviews, adequate for all trials). Of the 33 (71%) authors who responded, 58% reported having further intervention information but not including it, and 70% tried to obtain information. Conclusions Most focus on intervention reporting has been directed at trials. Poor intervention reporting in stroke systematic reviews is prevalent, compounded by poor trial reporting. Without adequate intervention descriptions, the conduct, usability and

  3. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Portion, Package or Tableware Size for Changing Selection and Consumption of Food, Alcohol and Tobacco. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;09: CD011045.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gonçalo S; Brogueira Rodrigues, Filipe; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2016-08-01

    Some of the main causes of mortality and morbidity among the developed countries - such as the cardiovascular, neurological and oncologic diseases - are deeply associated with modifiable risk factors. Primordial/primary prevention strategies that alter our environment can have an impact on these risk factors. The authors of this Cochrane systematic review sought evidence from randomized controlled trials to study the effect of the size of portions, packages, dishes and cups, as well as their respective formats, on the consumption and selection of food, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Overall, this review concludes that the choice of larger portions results in an increased consumption in food, non-alcoholic beverages and tobacco.

  4. Salutogenically focused outcomes in systematic reviews of intrapartum interventions: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie; Daly, Deirdre; Lundgren, Ingela; Eri, Tine; Benstoem, Carina; Devane, Declan

    2014-04-01

    research on intrapartum interventions in maternity care has focused traditionally on the identification of risk factors' and on the reduction of adverse outcomes with less attention given to the measurement of factors that contribute to well-being and positive health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of reviews to determine the type and number of salutogenically-focused reported outcomes in current maternity care intrapartum intervention-based research. For the conduct of this review, we interpreted salutogenic outcomes as those relating to optimum and/or positive maternal and neonatal health and well-being. to identify salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in systematic reviews of randomised trials of intrapartum interventions. we searched Issue 9 (September) 2011 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for all reviews of intrapartum interventions published by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group using the group filter "hm-preg". Systematic reviews of randomised trials of intrapartum interventions were eligible for inclusion. We excluded protocols for systematic reviews and systematic reviews that had been withdrawn. Outcome data were extracted independently from each included review by at least two review authors. Unique lists of salutogenically and non-salutogenically focused outcomes were established. 16 salutogenically-focused outcome categories were identified in 102 included reviews. Maternal satisfaction and breast feeding were reported most frequently. 49 non-salutogenically-focused outcome categories were identified in the 102 included reviews. Measures of neonatal morbidity were reported most frequently. there is an absence of salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in intrapartum intervention-based research. We recommend the development of a core outcome data set of salutogenically-focused outcomes for intrapartum research. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Presenting Evidence to Patients Online: What Do Web Users Think of Consumer Summaries of Cochrane Musculoskeletal Reviews?

    PubMed Central

    Santesso, Nancy; O'Connor, Annette M; Lott, Alison; Lindgaard, Gitte; Syrowatka, Ania; Graham, Ian D; Tugwell, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet has the potential to be an effective medium for delivering health care knowledge to consumers. While computer usability research makes recommendations about how to present Web-based information generally, there remains no clear guidance on how to present specific forms of health care research evidence online in a way that facilitates understanding and good health care decision making. Objective The two goals of this study were to describe the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group’s (CMSG’s) process for developing online patient-focused summaries of systematic reviews and to evaluate the impressions of these summaries formed by users. Methods A process for summarizing the results of systematic reviews via consumer summaries has evolved over 15 years. An evaluation of this approach took the form of Internet surveys on the Arthritis Society of Canada website and surveys of members of the Canadian Arthritis Patient Alliance (CAPA). Respondents provided information on background, relationship to the decision, their satisfaction with and preparation for decision making, and suggestions for improvements to the summaries. Survey data were collected between August 1, 2005, and February 28, 2006. Results A total of 261 respondents completed the survey. The majority (226/261 or 87%) of respondents reported having an arthritis-related condition. The consumer summary approach was generally reviewed favorably by respondents, with most agreeing that the summary provided appropriate information (177/261 or 68%), would be useful to others (160/261 or 61%), was well laid out (159/261 or 61%), was easy to learn from (157/261 or 60%), and was useful to the reader (153/261 or 59%). Areas of potential improvement were indicated by relatively fewer respondents agreeing that they could easily find all the information they wanted (118/261 or 45%), by a substantial proportion being unable to judge whether the providers of the information are reliable (80/261 or 31

  6. Presenting evidence to patients online: what do web users think of consumer summaries of cochrane musculoskeletal reviews?

    PubMed

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Santesso, Nancy; O'Connor, Annette M; Lott, Alison; Lindgaard, Gitte; Syrowatka, Ania; Graham, Ian D; Tugwell, Peter S

    2011-01-18

    The Internet has the potential to be an effective medium for delivering health care knowledge to consumers. While computer usability research makes recommendations about how to present Web-based information generally, there remains no clear guidance on how to present specific forms of health care research evidence online in a way that facilitates understanding and good health care decision making. The two goals of this study were to describe the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group's (CMSG's) process for developing online patient-focused summaries of systematic reviews and to evaluate the impressions of these summaries formed by users. A process for summarizing the results of systematic reviews via consumer summaries has evolved over 15 years. An evaluation of this approach took the form of Internet surveys on the Arthritis Society of Canada website and surveys of members of the Canadian Arthritis Patient Alliance (CAPA). Respondents provided information on background, relationship to the decision, their satisfaction with and preparation for decision making, and suggestions for improvements to the summaries. Survey data were collected between August 1, 2005, and February 28, 2006. A total of 261 respondents completed the survey. The majority (226/261 or 87%) of respondents reported having an arthritis-related condition. The consumer summary approach was generally reviewed favorably by respondents, with most agreeing that the summary provided appropriate information (177/261 or 68%), would be useful to others (160/261 or 61%), was well laid out (159/261 or 61%), was easy to learn from (157/261 or 60%), and was useful to the reader (153/261 or 59%). Areas of potential improvement were indicated by relatively fewer respondents agreeing that they could easily find all the information they wanted (118/261 or 45%), by a substantial proportion being unable to judge whether the providers of the information are reliable (80/261 or 31%), and by a similar proportion being unable to

  7. Additional considerations are required when preparing a protocol for a systematic review with multiple interventions.

    PubMed

    Chaimani, Anna; Caldwell, Deborah M; Li, Tianjing; Higgins, Julian P T; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    The number of systematic reviews that aim to compare multiple interventions using network meta-analysis is increasing. In this study, we highlight aspects of a standard systematic review protocol that may need modification when multiple interventions are to be compared. We take the protocol format suggested by Cochrane for a standard systematic review as our reference and compare the considerations for a pairwise review with those required for a valid comparison of multiple interventions. We suggest new sections for protocols of systematic reviews including network meta-analyses with a focus on how to evaluate their assumptions. We provide example text from published protocols to exemplify the considerations. Standard systematic review protocols for pairwise meta-analyses need extensions to accommodate the increased complexity of network meta-analysis. Our suggested modifications are widely applicable to both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews involving network meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Holmskov, Mathilde; Skoog, Maria; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Magnusson, Frederik L; Zwi, Morris; Gillies, Donna; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Rasmussen, Kirsten Buch; Gauci, Dorothy; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? Methods Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. Study answer and limitations The analyses included 38 parallel group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of −9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate was associated with an increased risk of non-serious adverse events (1.29, 21 trials, n=3132; TSA adjusted RR 1.29). Teacher rated general behaviour seemed to improve with methylphenidate (SMD −0.87, five trials, n=668) A change of 7 points on the child health questionnaire (CHQ) has been deemed a minimal clinically relevant difference. The change reported in a meta-analysis of three trials corresponds to a mean difference of 8.0 points on the CHQ (range 0-100 points), which suggests that methylphenidate may improve parent reported quality of life (SMD 0.61, three trials, n=514). 96.8% of trials were considered high risk of bias trials according to the Cochrane guidelines. All outcomes were assessed very low quality according to GRADE. What this study adds The results suggest that

  9. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Holmskov, Mathilde; Skoog, Maria; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Magnusson, Frederik L; Zwi, Morris; Gillies, Donna; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Rasmussen, Kirsten Buch; Gauci, Dorothy; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2015-11-25

    Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. The analyses included 38 parallel group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of -9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate was associated with an increased risk of non-serious adverse events (1.29, 21 trials, n=3132; TSA adjusted RR 1.29). Teacher rated general behaviour seemed to improve with methylphenidate (SMD -0.87, five trials, n=668) A change of 7 points on the child health questionnaire (CHQ) has been deemed a minimal clinically relevant difference. The change reported in a meta-analysis of three trials corresponds to a mean difference of 8.0 points on the CHQ (range 0-100 points), which suggests that methylphenidate may improve parent reported quality of life (SMD 0.61, three trials, n=514). 96.8% of trials were considered high risk of bias trials according to the Cochrane guidelines. All outcomes were assessed very low quality according to GRADE. The results suggest that among children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD, methylphenidate may

  10. [Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Castillo, Juan Sebastián

    2013-04-01

    A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone) are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking cessation counseling is low and long term cessation rates uncertain. Cost-effectiveness analyses are recommended for the implementation of counseling in public health programs.

  11. Intensive care diaries to promote recovery for patients and families after critical illness: A Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Amanda J; Aitken, Leanne M; Rattray, Janice; Kenardy, Justin; Le Brocque, Robyne; MacGillivray, Stephen; Hull, Alastair M

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an intensive care unit (ICU) diary versus no ICU diary on patients, and their caregivers or families, during the patient's recovery from admission to an ICU. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PILOT; Web of Science Conference Proceedings, clinical trial registries and reference lists of identified trials. Studies evaluated the effectiveness of patient diaries, when compared to no ICU diary, for patients or family members to promote recovery after admission to ICU were included. Outcome measures for describing recovery from ICU included the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptomatology, health-related quality of life and costs. We used standard methodological approaches as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors independently reviewed titles for inclusion, extracted data and undertook risk of bias according to pre-specified criteria. We identified three eligible studies; two describing ICU patients (N=358), and one describing relatives of ICU patients (N=30). No study adequately reported on risk of PTSD as described using a clinical interview, family or caregiver anxiety or depression, health-related quality of life or costs. Within a single study there was no clear evidence of a difference in risk for developing anxiety (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.07-1.19) or depression (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.12-1.19) in participants who received ICU diaries, in comparison to those that did not receive a patient diary. Within a single study there was no evidence of difference in median post-traumatic stress symptomatology scores (diaries 24, SD 11.6; no diary 24, SD 11.6) and delusional ICU memory recall (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84-1.28) between the patients recovering from ICU admission who received patient diaries, and those who did not. One study reported reduced post-traumatic stress

  12. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    PubMed

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  13. Evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration for Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations

  14. [Acupuncture resources in Cochrane Library].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mai-Lan; Lan, Lei; Wu, Xi; Du, Huai-Bin; Tang, Hong-Zhi; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2011-07-01

    To identify acupuncture resources in six databases of Cochrane Library (CL) with computer retrieve. Seventy-two literatures were identified in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Among them, 12 Cochrane systematic review (CSR) verified the effectiveness of acupuncture, 29 concerning the indeterminacy of the efficacy of acupuncture with 1 didn't support acupuncture for epilepsy and 31 remained as protocols; 121 literatures were found in Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) with more types of diseases or symptoms and rich modality comparing to CSR; 4218 randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials were identified in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT); 43 literatures in Cochrane Methodology Register Database (CMRD) which focused on blindness study, quality assessment of methodology of research and publication bias and so on; 25 literatures in Health Technology Assessment Database (HTAD) and 18 in NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) which were centered on acupuncture analgesia. Consequently, acupuncture literatures in 6 databases of CL do provide good resources for acupuncture researchers due to its abundant content, concrete classification and high quality evidence.

  15. Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Li, Jiafu; Macgregor, Graham A

    2013-04-03

    To determine the effects of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure, hormones, and lipids. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and reference list of relevant articles. Randomised trials with a modest reduction in salt intake and duration of at least four weeks. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regression were performed. Thirty four trials (3230 participants) were included. Meta-analysis showed that the mean change in urinary sodium (reduced salt v usual salt) was -75 mmol/24 h (equivalent to a reduction of 4.4 g/day salt), and with this reduction in salt intake, the mean change in blood pressure was -4.18 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -5.18 to -3.18, I(2)=75%) for systolic blood pressure and -2.06 mm Hg (-2.67 to -1.45, I(2)=68%) for diastolic blood pressure. Meta-regression showed that age, ethnic group, blood pressure status (hypertensive or normotensive), and the change in 24 hour urinary sodium were all significantly associated with the fall in systolic blood pressure, explaining 68% of the variance between studies. A 100 mmol reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium (6 g/day salt) was associated with a fall in systolic blood pressure of 5.8 mm Hg (2.5 to 9.2, P=0.001) after adjustment for age, ethnic group, and blood pressure status. For diastolic blood pressure, age, ethnic group, blood pressure status, and the change in 24 hour urinary sodium explained 41% of the variance between studies. Meta-analysis by subgroup showed that in people with hypertension the mean effect was -5.39 mm Hg (-6.62 to -4.15, I(2)=61%) for systolic blood pressure and -2.82 mm Hg (-3.54 to -2.11, I(2)=52%) for diastolic blood pressure. In normotensive people, the figures were -2.42 mm Hg (-3.56 to -1.29, I(2)=66%) and -1.00 mm Hg (-1.85 to -0.15, I(2)=66%), respectively. Further

  16. Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings: abridged Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Angela; Hegarty, Kelsey; Ramsay, Jean; Davidson, Leslie L; Feder, Gene

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of screening for intimate partner violence conducted within healthcare settings to determine whether or not screening increases identification and referral to support agencies, improves women’s wellbeing, decreases further violence, or causes harm. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of trials assessing effectiveness of screening. Study assessment, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted independently by two of the authors. Standardised estimations of the risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data sources Nine databases searched up to July 2012 (CENTRAL, Medline, Medline(R), Embase, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and ASSIA), and five trials registers searched up to 2010. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of screening programmes for intimate partner violence involving all women aged ≥16 attending a healthcare setting. We included only studies in which clinicians in the intervention arm personally conducted the screening, or were informed of the screening result at the time of the consultation, compared with usual care (or no screening). Studies of screening programmes that were followed by structured interventions such as advocacy or therapeutic intervention were excluded. Results 11 eligible trials (n=13 027) were identified. In six pooled studies (n=3564), screening increased the identification of intimate partner violence (risk ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 3.89), particularly in antenatal settings (4.26, 1.76 to 10.31). Based on three studies (n=1400), we detected no evidence that screening increases referrals to domestic violence support services (2.67, 0.99 to 7.20). Only two studies measured women’s experience of violence after screening (three to 18 months after screening) and found no reduction in intimate partner violence. One study reported that screening does not cause harm. Conclusions

  17. Are mass-media campaigns effective in preventing drug use? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allara, Elias; Ferri, Marica; Bo, Alessandra; Gasparrini, Antonio; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is evidence that mass-media campaigns can be effective in reducing illicit drug consumption and the intent to consume. Design Systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies. Methods We searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I and CENTRAL) and further explored seven additional resources to obtain both published and unpublished materials. We appraised the quality of included studies using standardised tools. We carried out meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and a pooled analysis of interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies. Results We identified 19 studies comprising 184 811 participants. Pooled analyses and narrative synthesis provided mixed evidence of effectiveness. Eight interventions evaluated with randomised controlled trials leaned towards no evidence of an effect, both on drug use (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.02; 95% CI −0.15 to 0.12) and the intention to use drugs (SMD −0.07; 95% CI −0.19 to 0.04). Four campaigns provided some evidence of beneficial effects in preventing drug use and two interventions provided evidence of iatrogenic effects. Conclusions Studies were considerably heterogeneous in type of mass-media intervention, outcome measures, underlying theory, comparison groups and design. Such factors can contribute to explaining the observed variability in results. Owing to the risk of adverse effects, caution is needed in disseminating mass-media campaigns tackling drug use. Large studies conducted with appropriate methodology are warranted to consolidate the evidence base. PMID:26338836

  18. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and birth outcome: re-analysis of a large randomised controlled trial and update of Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Charles, Deborah H M; Ness, Andy R; Campbell, Doris; Smith, George Davey; Whitley, Elise; Hall, Marion H

    2005-03-01

    Periconceptual folic acid prevents neural tube defects. The effect of folic acid taken throughout pregnancy is unclear, however. We re-analysed data from a large randomised controlled trial performed between 1966 and 1967 and combined the results with those from trials included in a Cochrane review. A total of 2928 women were randomised: 1977 were allocated to placebo, 466 to folic acid 200 microg/day and 485 to folic acid 5 mg/day. Folic acid supplementation was not associated with any difference in mean birthweight, placental weight or gestational age. When combined with trials in the Cochrane review folic acid at high doses was associated with reduced risk of low birthweight (pooled relative risk 0.73 [95% CI 0.53, 0.99]). We found no conclusive evidence of benefit for folic acid supplementation in pregnant women given from time of booking onwards.

  19. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  20. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  1. Effective medical education: insights from the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, Winston G; Eggers, Robin G; Grimes, David A

    2008-05-01

    In 2006, the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education highlighted the need for linking educational activities to changes in competence, performance, or patient outcomes. Hence, educational providers increasingly need to know what strategies are effective. The Cochrane Library is widely regarded as the best source of credible evidence concerning health care. The authors searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (issue 4 for 2006) using the search terms "continuing medical education," "medical education," and "continuing education." They conducted a second complementary search of this database by review group (Effective Practice and Organization of Care). Finally, the authors examined the references of recent review articles for Cochrane reviews and found 9 relevant reviews. The most effective educational methods were the most interactive. Combined didactic presentations and workshops were more effective than traditional didactic presentations alone. Medical education was more effective when more than 1 intervention occurred, especially if these interventions occurred over an extended period. Targeted education should focus on changing a behavior that is simple, because effect size is inversely proportional to the complexity of the behavior. In the era of evidence-based medicine, interventions-including educational ones-should reflect the best available evidence. Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials of educational methods provide important guidance that often challenges traditional didactic approaches. Integrating the findings from the Cochrane reviews may allow continuing medical education to be more successful in bringing about changes to healthcare providers' behavior. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader should be able to explain the scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of various techniques used for continuing medical education, state the relative value of

  2. Systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions frequently consider patient-important outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ameur, Hayet; Ravaud, Philippe; Fayard, Florence; Riveros, Carolina; Dechartres, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether recently published and ongoing systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions assess patient-important outcomes. For this methodological review, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed for recently published systematic reviews and online registry of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) for ongoing systematic reviews. We selected systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. We extracted all outcomes defined in the methods section and categorized them. Mortality, other clinical events, pain, quality of life, function, and therapeutic decisions were considered patient-important outcomes. We included 420 systematic reviews: 90 Cochrane reviews, 200 other published reviews, and 130 registered ongoing reviews. Primary outcomes were defined in 85 Cochrane reviews (95%), 98 (49%) other published reviews and all ongoing reviews. At least one patient-important outcome was defined as a primary outcome in 81/85 Cochrane reviews (95%), 78/98 other published reviews (80%), and 117/130 ongoing reviews (90%). Considering all outcomes assessed, at least one patient-important outcome was evaluated in 90/90 Cochrane reviews (100%), 189/200 other published reviews (95%), and 121/130 ongoing reviews (93%). Most recent systematic reviews aim to assess patient-important outcomes, which contrasts with RCTs. These results suggest some important gaps between primary and secondary research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence-based interventions to reduce adverse events in hospitals: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Zegers, Marieke; Hesselink, Gijs; Geense, Wytske; Vincent, Charles; Wollersheim, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of effective interventions aimed at reducing rates of adverse events in hospitals. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published until October 2015. Study selection English-language systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing adverse events in hospitals, including studies with an experimental design and reporting adverse event rates, were included. Two reviewers independently assessed each study's quality and extracted data on the study population, study design, intervention characteristics and adverse patient outcomes. Results Sixty systematic reviews with moderate to high quality were included. Statistically significant pooled effect sizes were found for 14 types of interventions, including: (1) multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium; (2) rapid response teams to reduce cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality rates; (3) pharmacist interventions to reduce adverse drug events; (4) exercises and multicomponent interventions to prevent falls; and (5) care bundle interventions, checklists and reminders to reduce infections. Most (82%) of the significant effect sizes were based on 5 or fewer primary studies with an experimental study design. Conclusions The evidence for patient-safety interventions implemented in hospitals worldwide is weak. The findings address the need to invest in high-quality research standards in order to identify interventions that have a real impact on patient safety. Interventions to prevent delirium, cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality, adverse drug events, infections and falls are most effective and should therefore be prioritised by clinicians. PMID:27687901

  4. Which components of heart failure programmes are effective? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the outcomes of structured telephone support or telemonitoring as the primary component of chronic heart failure management in 8323 patients: Abridged Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Sally C; Clark, Robyn A; McAlister, Finlay A; Stewart, Simon; Cleland, John G F

    2011-09-01

    Telemonitoring (TM) and structured telephone support (STS) have the potential to deliver specialized management to more patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), but their efficacy is still to be proven. The aim of this meta-analysis was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TM or STS for all-cause mortality and all-cause and CHF-related hospitalizations in patients with CHF, as a non-invasive remote model of a specialized disease-management intervention. We searched all relevant electronic databases and search engines, hand-searched bibliographies of relevant studies, systematic reviews, and meeting abstracts. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Randomized controlled trials comparing TM or STS to usual care in patients with CHF were included. Studies that included intensified management with additional home or clinic-visits were excluded. Primary outcomes (mortality and hospitalizations) were analysed; secondary outcomes (cost, length of stay, and quality of life) were tabulated. Thirty RCTs of STS and TM were identified (25 peer-reviewed publications (n= 8323) and five abstracts (n= 1482)). Of the 25 peer-reviewed studies, 11 evaluated TM (2710 participants), 16 evaluated STS (5613 participants) with two testing both STS and TM in separate intervention arms compared with usual care. Telemonitoring reduced all-cause mortality {risk ratio (RR) 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.81], P< 0.0001 }and STS showed a similar, but non-significant trend [RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.76-1.01), P= 0.08]. Both TM [RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.94), P= 0.008], and STS [RR 0.77 (95% CI 0.68-0.87), P< 0.0001] reduced CHF-related hospitalizations. Both interventions improved quality of life, reduced costs, and were acceptable to patients. Improvements in prescribing, patient-knowledge and self-care, and functional class were observed. Telemonitoring and STS both appear effective interventions to improve outcomes in patients with CHF. Systematic Review Number: Cochrane

  5. Research synthesis and dissemination as a bridge to knowledge management: the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Volmink, Jimmy; Siegfried, Nandi; Robertson, Katharine; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2004-01-01

    In the current information age, research synthesis is a particularly useful tool for keeping track of scientific research and making sense of the large volumes of frequently conflicting data derived from primary studies. The Cochrane Collaboration is a global initiative "to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions". In this paper we set the work of the Cochrane Collaboration in historical perspective, explain what a Cochrane review is, and describe initiatives for promoting worldwide dissemination of synthesized information. We also consider emerging evidence of the Cochrane Collaboration's impact on health-care practice, policy, research and education. Finally, we highlight the need for increased investment in the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane reviews, particularly those that address health issues that are relevant to people living in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:15643800

  6. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. Methods and analysis We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Ethics and dissemination

  7. A systematic review of systematic reviews on interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Corry, Margarita; While, Alison; Neenan, Kathleen; Smith, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. Informal caregivers provide millions of care hours each week contributing to significant healthcare savings. Despite much research evaluating a range of interventions for caregivers, their impact remains unclear. A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PsycINFO, Social Science Index (January 1990-May 2014) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, June 2014), were searched using Medical Subject Heading and index term combinations of the keywords caregiver, systematic review, intervention and named chronic conditions. Papers were included if they reported a systematic review of interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions. The methodological quality of the included reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using R-AMSTAR. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data extraction form. Narrative synthesis of review findings was used to present the results. Eight systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that education and support programme interventions improved caregiver quality of life. Information-giving interventions improved caregiver knowledge for stroke caregivers. Education, support and information-giving interventions warrant further investigation across caregiver groups. A large-scale funded programme for caregiver research is required to ensure that studies are of high quality to inform service development across settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HIV-1 and intestinal helminth review update: updating a Cochrane Review and building the case for treatment and has the time come to test and treat?

    PubMed

    Alexander, P E; De, P

    2009-06-01

    Intestinal helminth infection activates and dysregulates the immune system and impacts the host's capacity to respond to illness. Such neglected tropical infections exact the greatest burden on resource-limited settings and there appears to be considerable overlapping epidemiology with HIV-1 and other high-burden infections and illnesses in such settings. Recent limited yet controlled RCT evidence suggests a potentially beneficial therapeutic effect when persons co-infected with soil-transmitted worms and HIV-1, are treated with albendazole. The positive impact on CD4+ counts and plasma RNA levels appears to delay HIV-1 progression. The evidence-base has been conflicting and the unequivocal evidence needed to support large-scale de-worming remains lacking. The recent RCT by Walson and colleagues provides the first real tantalizing evidence of a beneficial impact of worm treatment and adds to a prior Cochrane review that was inconclusive. Further controlled, longer duration and larger trial arm designs that are minimally biased and comparable, are needed to provide the conclusive evidence needed yet the case for de-worming in delaying high-burden illnesses such as HIV-1 has been made much stronger.

  9. [Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery may increase the risk of surgical site infections. A survey of a Cochrane review].

    PubMed

    Qvist, Niels; Kolmos, Hans Jørn J

    2009-10-05

    In theory, the products act as a barrier, which hinders the spreading of bacteria from the deeper skin layers and hair follicles to the incision. On the other hand, the use of plastic adhesive drapes may promote bacterial overgrowth due to a >greenhouse effect<. This Cochrane review which is based on seven trials showed that there was no evidence that plastic adhesive drapes reduces the surgical site infection rate and some evidence that they increase infection rates in clean operations. Consequently, their use should be abandoned. Further studies are warranted to determine the effect of other adhesive products currently used.

  10. Psychiatric rehabilitation interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Marianne; Anthony, William A

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation has become accepted by the mental health field as a legitimate field of study and practice. Over the last several decades various psychiatric rehabilitation programme models and procedures have been developed, evaluated and disseminated. At the same time the process of psychiatric rehabilitation has been specified and its underlying values and practitioner technology articulated. This review describes the psychiatric rehabilitation process and in so doing differentiates psychosocial interventions that can be classified as psychiatric rehabilitation interventions from other psychosocial interventions. Furthermore, the major psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are examined within a framework of the psychiatric rehabilitation process with a review of their evidence. The review concludes that psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are currently a mixture of evidence-based practices, promising practices and emerging methods that can be effectively tied together using the psychiatric rehabilitation process framework of helping individuals with serious mental illnesses choose, get and keep valued roles, and together with complementary treatment orientated psychosocial interventions, provide a broad strategy for facilitating recovery.

  11. The effects of clinical pathways on professional practice, patient outcomes, length of stay, and hospital costs: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; James, Erica; Machotta, Andreas; Willis, Jon; Snow, Pamela; Kugler, Joachim

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a summary version of the previously published Cochrane review. It may increase the reach of the topic to health researchers and practitioners and encourage further discussion. The systematic review aims to summarize the evidence and assess the effect of clinical pathways on professional practice, patient outcomes, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs. The authors searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, NHS EED, and Global Health. Twenty-seven studies considering a total of 11,398 participants were included for analysis. The main results were a reduction in in-hospital complications (odds ratio 0.58: 95% CI [0.36, 0.94] and improved documentation (odds ratio 11.95: 95% CI [4.72, 30.30]) associated with clinical pathways. Considerable variation in study design and settings prevented statistical pooling of results for length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. The authors concluded that clinical pathways are associated with reduced in-hospital complications and improved documentation.

  12. What's in a name? The challenge of describing interventions in systematic reviews: analysis of a random sample of reviews of non-pharmacological stroke interventions.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy C; Walker, Marion F; Langhorne, Peter; Eames, Sally; Thomas, Emma; Glasziou, Paul

    2015-11-17

    To assess, in a sample of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, the completeness of intervention reporting, identify the most frequently missing elements, and assess review authors' use of and beliefs about providing intervention information. Analysis of a random sample of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological stroke interventions; online survey of review authors. The Cochrane Library and PubMed were searched for potentially eligible systematic reviews and a random sample of these assessed for eligibility until 60 (30 Cochrane, 30 non-Cochrane) eligible reviews were identified. In each review, the completeness of the intervention description in each eligible trial (n=568) was assessed by 2 independent raters using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist. All review authors (n=46) were invited to complete a survey. Most reviews were missing intervention information for the majority of items. The most incompletely described items were: modifications, fidelity, materials, procedure and tailoring (missing from all interventions in 97%, 90%, 88%, 83% and 83% of reviews, respectively). Items that scored better, but were still incomplete for the majority of reviews, were: 'when and how much' (in 31% of reviews, adequate for all trials; in 57% of reviews, adequate for some trials); intervention mode (in 22% of reviews, adequate for all trials; in 38%, adequate for some trials); and location (in 19% of reviews, adequate for all trials). Of the 33 (71%) authors who responded, 58% reported having further intervention information but not including it, and 70% tried to obtain information. Most focus on intervention reporting has been directed at trials. Poor intervention reporting in stroke systematic reviews is prevalent, compounded by poor trial reporting. Without adequate intervention descriptions, the conduct, usability and interpretation of reviews are restricted and therefore, require action by trialists

  13. What is a clinical pathway? Refinement of an operational definition to identify clinical pathway studies for a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Adegboyega K; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Machotta, Andreas; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Scott, Shannon D; Goodridge, Donna; Plishka, Christopher; Groot, Gary

    2016-02-23

    Clinical pathways (CPWs) are a common component in the quest to improve the quality of health. CPWs are used to reduce variation, improve quality of care, and maximize the outcomes for specific groups of patients. An ongoing challenge is the operationalization of a definition of CPW in healthcare. This may be attributable to both the differences in definition and a lack of conceptualization in the field of clinical pathways. This correspondence article describes a process of refinement of an operational definition for CPW research and proposes an operational definition for the future syntheses of CPWs literature. Following the approach proposed by Kinsman et al. (BMC Medicine 8(1):31, 2010) and Wieland et al. (Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 17(2):50, 2011), we used a four-stage process to generate a five criteria checklist for the definition of CPWs. We refined the operational definition, through consensus, merging two of the checklist's criteria, leading to a more inclusive criterion for accommodating CPW studies conducted in various healthcare settings. The following four criteria for CPW operational definition, derived from the refinement process described above, are (1) the intervention was a structured multidisciplinary plan of care; (2) the intervention was used to translate guidelines or evidence into local structures; (3) the intervention detailed the steps in a course of treatment or care in a plan, pathway, algorithm, guideline, protocol or other 'inventory of actions' (i.e. the intervention had time-frames or criteria-based progression); and (4) the intervention aimed to standardize care for a specific population. An intervention meeting all four criteria was considered to be a CPW. The development of operational definitions for complex interventions is a useful approach to appraise and synthesize evidence for policy development and quality improvement.

  14. Effectiveness of Intensive Primary Care Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Samuel T; Peterson, Kim; Chan, Brian; Anderson, Johanna; Helfand, Mark

    2017-09-18

    Multicomponent, interdisciplinary intensive primary care programs target complex patients with the goal of preventing hospitalizations, but programs vary, and their effectiveness is not clear. In this study, we systematically reviewed the impact of intensive primary care programs on all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and emergency department use. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effects from inception to March 2017. Additional studies were identified from reference lists, hand searching, and consultation with content experts. We included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies of multicomponent, interdisciplinary intensive primary care programs targeting complex patients at high risk of hospitalization or death, with a comparison to usual primary care. Two investigators identified studies and abstracted data using a predefined protocol. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of 18 studies (379,745 participants) were included. Three major intensive primary care program types were identified: primary care replacement (home-based; three RCTs, one observational study, N = 367,681), primary care replacement (clinic-based; three RCTs, two observational studies, N = 9561), and primary care augmentation, in which an interdisciplinary team was added to existing primary care (five RCTs, three observational studies, N = 2503). Most studies showed no impact of intensive primary care on mortality or emergency department use, and the effectiveness in reducing hospitalizations varied. There were no adverse effects reported. Intensive primary care interventions demonstrated varying effectiveness in reducing hospitalizations, and there was limited evidence that these interventions were associated with changes in mortality. While interventions could be grouped into categories, there was still substantial overlap

  15. Systematic review of intervention practices for depression in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Andrea D; Gnam, William H; Carnide, Nancy; Irvin, Emma; Amick, Benjamin C; DeRango, Kelly; McMaster, Robert; Cullen, Kimberley; Slack, Tesha; Brouwer, Sandra; Bültmann, Ute

    2012-09-01

    Systematic Review. To determine which intervention approaches to manage depression in the workplace have been successful and yielded value for employers in developed economies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Central, PsycINFO, and Business Source Premier up to June 2010 using search terms in four broad areas: work setting, depression, intervention, and work outcomes. Two independent reviewers selected potential articles that met the following criteria: working age individuals with mild or moderate depression; interventions or programs that were workplace-based or could be implemented and/or facilitated by the employer; inclusion of a comparator group in the analysis; outcomes of prevention, management, and recurrences of work disability or sickness absence, and work functioning. Two reviewers independently reviewed each article for quality and extracted data using standardised forms. Following guidelines from the GRADE Working Group, the quality of evidence addressing each outcome was graded as high, moderate, low, or very low on the basis of six criteria: study design, risk of bias, consistency, generalisability, data precision, and economic benefit. Using this information and following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, the findings for each intervention were summarised and key messages were developed. We identified ten randomised trials and two non-randomised studies from various countries and jurisdictions that evaluated a wide range of intervention practices. The evidence was graded as "very low" for all outcomes identified. Therefore, no intervention could be recommended. To date, there is insufficient quality of evidence to determine which interventions are effective and yield value to manage depression in the workplace.

  16. The effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Geaney, F; Kelly, C; Greiner, B A; Harrington, J M; Perry, I J; Beirne, P

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions alone or in combination with nutrition education on employees' dietary behaviour, health status, self-efficacy, perceived health, determinants of food choice, nutrition knowledge, co-worker support, job satisfaction, economic cost and food-purchasing patterns. Data sources included PubMed, Medline, Embase, Psych Info., Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Library (November 2011). This review was guided by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Studies were randomised controlled trials and controlled studies. Interventions were implemented for at least three months. Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool measured potential biases. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Results were presented in a narrative summary. Six studies conducted in Brazil, the USA, Netherlands and Belgium met the inclusion criteria. Four studies reported small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (≤half serving/day). These studies involved workplace dietary modifications and three incorporated nutrition education. Other outcomes reported included health status, co-worker support, job satisfaction, perceived health, self-efficacy and food-purchasing patterns. All studies had methodological limitations that weakened confidence in the results. Limited evidence suggests that workplace dietary modification interventions alone and in combination with nutrition education increase fruit and vegetable intakes. These interventions should be developed with recommended guidelines, workplace characteristics, long-term follow-up and objective outcomes for diet, health and cost. © 2013.

  17. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    PubMed

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades.Design Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews.Data sources Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data.Data extraction For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors.Main outcomes measures We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively.Results We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment.Conclusions Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation and

  18. Effective home programme intervention for adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona

    2011-12-01

    To summarize evidence on effective home programme intervention for adults and describe characteristics of successful home programmes. A search was conducted of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, DARE, The Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OTSeeker and Google Scholar and references in manuscripts retrieved. Two independent reviewers determined whether retrieved study abstracts met inclusion criteria: human subjects; adults; home programme intervention; systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled trials. Included papers were appraised for study design, participants, type and intensity of intervention, and outcomes. Methodological quality of trials was rated using the PEDro scale (1-10 highest). Thirty-two papers were retrieved (6 systematic reviews, 26 trials). The 23 randomized controlled trials and 3 controlled trials were appraised. All the retrieved papers were level 1a, 1b or 2b evidence. Major findings were: (a) home programme intervention was more effective than no intervention at all; (b) home programme intervention was equally effective to expert-provided therapy, except when therapeutic modalities were used; and (c) different instruction formats produced similar outcomes. Home programmes with favourable outcomes were more likely to: involve the patients in establishing the programme; intervene on the person, task and environment; and provide feedback about progress. Dose did not appear to be related to outcome. There is grade 1A evidence supporting the effectiveness of home programmes for adults. Home programmes are as effective as expert-provided therapy.

  19. Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants…

  20. Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants…

  1. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool

    PubMed Central

    Bilandzic, Anja; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Rosella, Laura; Henry, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews. Methods and Findings We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a) all studies and (b) only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07–1.24) to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99–1.13) when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were

  2. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions to Cancer Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Zhao, Huaijuan; Tong, Feng; Chi, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WANFANG were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trails (RCTs); psychosocial intervention to cancer caregivers; psychosocial health indicators including quality of life, depression or anxiety. Results: 21 studies out of 4,666 identified abstracts met inclusion criteria, including 19 RCTs. The intervention modes fell into the following nine categories: family connect intervention, self-determination theory-based intervention (SDT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), emotion-focused therapy (EFT), comprehensive health enhancement support system (CHESS), FOCUS programme, existential behavioral therapy (EBT), telephone interpersonal counseling (TIP-C), problem-solving intervention (COPE). Conclusion: paired-intervention targeting self-care and interpersonal connections of caregivers and symptom management of patients is effective in improving quality of life and alleviating depression of cancer caregivers while music therapy is helpful for reducing anxiety of cancer caregivers.

  3. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions to Cancer Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Fang; Zhao, Huaijuan; Tong, Feng; Chi, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WANFANG were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trails (RCTs); psychosocial intervention to cancer caregivers; psychosocial health indicators including quality of life, depression or anxiety. Results: 21 studies out of 4,666 identified abstracts met inclusion criteria, including 19 RCTs. The intervention modes fell into the following nine categories: family connect intervention, self-determination theory-based intervention (SDT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), emotion-focused therapy (EFT), comprehensive health enhancement support system (CHESS), FOCUS programme, existential behavioral therapy (EBT), telephone interpersonal counseling (TIP-C), problem-solving intervention (COPE). Conclusion: paired-intervention targeting self-care and interpersonal connections of caregivers and symptom management of patients is effective in improving quality of life and alleviating depression of cancer caregivers while music therapy is helpful for reducing anxiety of cancer caregivers. PMID:28596746

  4. Low-molecular-weight heparins for managing vasoocclusive crises in people with sickle cell disease: a summary of a cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a Cochrane systematic review that was conducted to assess the effects of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) for managing vasoocclusive crises (VOC) in people with sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is one of the most common and severe genetic disorders in the world. It can be divided into three broadly distinct clinical phenotypes characterized by either hemolysis, pain syndromes or organ damage. Pain is the most prominent symptom of vasoocclusion, and hypercoagulability is a well-established pathogenic phenomenon in people with sickle cell disease. Searches included the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, abstract books of conference proceedings and several online trials registries (December 2012). One study (with an overall unclear to high risk of bias) comprising 253 participants was included. This study provided limited data, but concluded that tinzaparin resulted in a more rapid resolution of pain, and in a statistically significant lower number of hospitalization days compared to a placebo. Two minor bleeding events were reported as adverse events in the tinzaparin group. Based on the results from this single study, there is incomplete evidence to either support or refute the effectiveness of LMWH in people with sickle cell disease.

  5. Positive psychology interventions in breast cancer. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Casellas-Grau, Anna; Font, Antoni; Vives, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is an emerging area of empirical study, not only in clinical, but also in health psychology. The present systematic review aims to synthesize the evidence about the positive psychology interventions utilized in breast cancer. Relevant studies were identified via Pubmed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, Wiley Online Library, TDX, and DIALNET databases (up to April 2013). Only those papers focused on interventions related to positive psychology and carried out on breast cancer patients were included. Of the 7266 articles found through databases, 16 studies were finally included in this review. Five groups of therapies were found: mindfulness-based approaches, expression of positive emotions, spiritual interventions, hope therapy, and meaning-making interventions. These specific interventions promoted positive changes in breast cancer participants, such as enhanced quality of life, well-being, hope, benefit finding, or optimism. However, the disparity of the interventions and some methodological issues limit the outcomes. Some studies provided relevant evidence about the clear development of positive aspects from the breast cancer experience. Positive interventions applied to patients and survivors of breast cancer were found to be able to promote positive aspects. A global consensus of a positive therapies classification is needed to take one more step in structuring positive psychology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S

    2017-08-24

    Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention.

  7. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. Methods We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Conclusions Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify

  8. Ibuprofen and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth, a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bailey, E; Worthington, H; Coulthard, P

    2014-04-01

    This paper compares the beneficial and harmful effects of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the novel combination of both in a single tablet for pain relief following the surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth. In this systematic review only randomised controlled double-blinded clinical trials were included. We calculated the proportion of patients with at least 50% pain relief at 2 and 6 hours post dosing, along with the proportion of participants using rescue medication at 6 and 8 hours. Adverse events were also analysed. Data was meta-analysed where possible. Seven studies were included with a total of 2,241 participants enrolled. Ibuprofen 400 mg is superior to 1,000 mg paracetamol with a risk ratio for at least 50% pain relief at 6 hours of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 1.69). For the combined drug, the risk ratio for at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 hours is 1.77 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.39) based on total pain relief (TOTPAR) data. There is high quality evidence that ibuprofen is superior to paracetamol. The novel combination drug shows encouraging results when compared to the single drugs (based on two trials).

  9. Mapping interventions that promote mental health in the general population: A scoping review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jennifer; Holmqvist, Maxine; Wener, Pamela; Halas, Gayle; Rothney, Janet; Schultz, Annette; Goertzen, Leah; Katz, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Health policies and programs promoting mental health or preventing mental illness in the general public are under-recognized facets of primary prevention. Increasing awareness and adoption of such strategies could reduce the burden of mental illness in individuals, families, communities, and society as whole. We conducted a scoping review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL and ERIC from 2004 to 2014. Reviews were included if the authors indicated a systematic approach in their literature searches, and if they comprised interventions in Westernized countries targeting the general population. We identified 39 reviews that met the inclusion criteria. Mental health intervention approaches and outcomes varied across age groups and settings, and included functional, social, and cognitive measures. Most interventions aimed to prevent a specific mental illness or symptoms (depression, anxiety, burnout, or stress). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and educational components were common. School-based programs focused on outcomes involving social and academic development. Interventions for families, especially for young or disadvantaged parents, taught parenting skills to help improve the well-being of children and their care-givers. In the workplace, the focus was on managing stress, while programs for the elderly emphasized quality of life determinants. This review summarizes a wide variety of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness, but the literature is primarily focused on the individual or family unit. More information is required about interventions at the community and societal levels.

  10. [Usefulness of Cochrane Collaboration for pediatric cardiology].

    PubMed

    González-de Dios, Javier; Balaguer-Santamaría, Albert; Ochoa-Sangrador, Carlos

    2005-09-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration provides growing and readily accessible resources to help ensure that medical decision-making is based on detailed, methodical, and up-to-date reviews of the best available evidence. We analyzed systematic reviews in the field of pediatric cardiology published by the Cochrane Collaboration's 50 Collaborative Review Groups. We found a total of 20 systematic reviews: 13 published by the Cochrane Neonatal Group, 6 by the Cochrane Heart Group, and 1 by the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Disease Group. Systematic reviews in pediatric cardiology appear infrequently. They only concern evidence-based decision-making in the therapeutic management of patent ductus arteriosus and arterial hypotension in preterm infants, and in the management of children with Kawasaki disease. The quality of the clinical trials contained in the systematic reviews of acute rheumatic fever or obesity in children is limited. Consequently, the reviewers' conclusions provide an inadequate basis for inferring probable effects in clinical practice. In pediatric cardiology, many therapies continue to be used without supportive evidence. We found no systematic reviews of important cardiologic topics in childhood such as heart failure, shock, hypertension, congenital cardiopathy, and arrhythmia. Clinical practice guidelines complement systematic reviews, which can recommend only strategies that are supported by strong evidence or suggest further research when scientific evidence is inadequate.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Van Parys, An-Sofie; Verhamme, Annelien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. Objective The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Methods Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. Results We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92). Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. Conclusions and implications Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect of certain

  12. Nurse practitioner-led transitional care interventions: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Mora, Kathlyen; Dorrejo, Xiomara M; Carreon, Kimberly Mae; Butt, Sadia

    2017-08-28

    Chronically ill patients 65 and above have an increased risk of preventable readmission within 30 days of discharge from the hospital. The Transitional Care Model (TCM) introduced by Naylor and colleagues was implemented to improve the transition between hospital and home while decreasing readmissions. This article examines whether nurse practitioner (NP)- led TCM interventions as compared to standard care decrease hospital readmission rates in older adults. A literature review was conducted from June 2016 to March 2017 using Cochrane Library, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Health Literature (CINAHL) PLUS, Joanna Briggs Institute, and ProQuest Central to seek out the highest level of evidence. Search results were refined to focus on randomized control trials (RTCs) containing NP-led TCM interventions with older adults. Synthesis of three RTCs, one meta-analysis, and four nonrandomized studies reviewed TCM interventions that included these interventions: follow-up phone calls post discharge, home visits, and handoff of information to the patient's primary care provider. These interventions, although not exclusively led by NPs, decreased hospital readmission rates. NP-led TCM interventions have the potential to decrease readmissions, but the level of evidence is insufficiently high to allow for generalizability, warranting further study. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Interventions to enhance work participation of workers with a chronic disease: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Vooijs, Marloes; Leensen, Monique C J; Hoving, Jan L; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the available effective interventions that enhance work participation of people with a chronic disease, irrespective of their diagnosis. A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library, searching for systematic reviews published between 2004 and February 2015. Systematic reviews were eligible for inclusion if they described an intervention aimed at enhancing work participation and included participants of working age (18-65 years) with a chronic disease. Reviews had to include populations having different chronic diseases. The quality of the included reviews was evaluated using the quality instrument AMSTAR. Results of reviews of medium and high quality were described in this review. The search resulted in 9 reviews, 5 of which were of medium quality. No high quality reviews were retrieved. 1 review reported inconclusive evidence for policy-based return to work initiatives. The 4 other reviews described interventions focused on changes at work, such as changes in work organisation, working conditions and work environment. Of these 4 reviews, 3 reported beneficial effects of the intervention on work participation. Interventions examined in populations having different chronic diseases were mainly focused on changes at work. The majority of the included interventions were reported to be effective in enhancing work participation of people with a chronic disease, indicating that interventions directed at work could be considered for a generic approach in order to enhance work participation in various chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    PubMed

    Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach.

  15. Interventions for postoperative pain in children: An overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Boric, Krste; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Batinic, Marijan; Cavar, Marija; Urlic, Marjan; Markovina, Nikolina; Puljak, Livia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of systematic reviews that summarizes the results about efficacy and safety from randomized controlled trials involving the various strategies used for postoperative pain management in children. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Database of Reviews of Effect, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO from the earliest date to January 24, 2016. This overview included 45 systematic reviews that evaluated interventions for postoperative pain in children. Out of 45 systematic reviews that investigated various interventions for postoperative pain in children, 19 systematic reviews (42%) presented conclusive evidence of efficacy. Positive conclusive evidence was reported in 18 systematic reviews (40%) for the efficacy of diclofenac, ketamine, caudal analgesia, dexmedetomidine, music therapy, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, paracetamol, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and transversus abdominis plane block. Only one systematic review reported conclusive evidence of equal efficacy that involved a comparison of dexmedetomidine vs morphine and fentanyl. Safety of interventions was reported as conclusive in 14 systematic reviews (31%), with positive conclusive evidence for dexmedetomidine, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, transversus abdominis plane block, and clonidine. Seven systematic reviews reported equal conclusive safety for epidural infusion, diclofenac intravenous vs ketamine added to opioid analgesia, bupivacaine, ketamine, paracetamol, and dexmedetomidine vs intravenous infusions of various opioid analgesics, oral suspension and suppository of diclofenac, only opioid, normal saline, no treatment, placebo, and midazolam. Negative conclusive statement for safety was reported in one systematic review for caudal analgesia vs noncaudal regional analgesia. More than half of systematic reviews included in this overview were rated as having medium methodological quality. Of 45 included

  16. Interventions to prevent and manage overweight or obesity in preschool children: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    The preschool period is a pivotal time for lifestyle interventions to begin the establishment of long-term physical activity and healthy eating habits. This systematic review sought to (a) examine the effects of prevention and management interventions on overweight/obesity among children aged 2-5 years, and (b) explore factors that may influence intervention effects. A systematic review of randomized controlled studies was conducted. Six databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Cochrane library, were searched for relevant studies. Data were extracted and checked by two reviewers. Each study was appraised based on 4 quality indicators adapted from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A narrative summary technique was used to describe the review findings. Thirty-seven articles describing 32 randomized controlled trials and 29 unique interventions were retained. Eight of 23 prevention and 4 of 6 management interventions resulted in significant weight loss, with 3 prevention and 5 management interventions showing sustained effects over 6 to 24 months. Of the 12 efficacious interventions, 10 included physical activity and nutrition components, 9 actively involved parents, and only 4 were theory-based. Interactive education was the most common strategy used for parents in prevention interventions, compared to behavioral therapy techniques in management interventions. For children, interactive education and hands-on experiences involving physical activity and healthy eating were equally used. Management interventions showed greater effects in weight loss compared to prevention interventions. Future prevention interventions in preschool children should target both parents and children, and focus on physical activity and nutrition through interactive education and hands-on experiences, although intervention effects were less than optimal. Management interventions should focus on parents as the "agents of change" for physical

  17. Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice. PMID:23134701

  18. Interventions for compassionate nursing care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Karin; Griffiths, Peter; Wengström, Yvonne; May, Carl; Bridges, Jackie

    2016-10-01

    Compassion has been identified as an essential element of nursing and is increasingly under public scrutiny in the context of demands for high quality health care. While primary research on effectiveness of interventions to support compassionate nursing care has been reported, no rigorous critical overview exists. To systematically identify, describe and analyse research studies that evaluate interventions for compassionate nursing care; assess the descriptions of the interventions for compassionate care, including design and delivery of the intervention and theoretical framework; and to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of interventions. Published international literature written in English up to June 2015 was identified from CINAHL, Medline and Cochrane Library databases. Primary research studies comparing outcomes of interventions to promote compassionate nursing care with a control condition were included. Studies were graded according to relative strength of methods and quality of description of intervention. Narrative description and analysis was undertaken supported by tabulation of key study data including study design, outcomes, intervention type and results. 25 interventions reported in 24 studies were included in the review. Intervention types included staff training (n=10), care model (n=9) and staff support (n=6). Intervention description was generally weak, especially in relation to describing participants and facilitators, and the proposed mechanisms for change were often unclear. Most interventions were associated with improvements in patient-based, nurse-based and/or quality of care outcomes. However, overall methodological quality was low with most studies (n=16) conducted as uncontrolled before and after studies. The few higher quality studies were less likely to report positive results. No interventions were tested more than once. None of the studies reviewed reported intervention description in sufficient detail or presented sufficiently

  19. Protocol for an overview of systematic reviews of interventions to reduce unscheduled hospital admissions among adults.

    PubMed

    Bobrovitz, Niklas; Onakpoya, Igho; Roberts, Nia; Heneghan, Carl; Mahtani, Kamal R

    2015-08-21

    Unscheduled hospital admissions are an increasing burden on health systems worldwide. To date, initiatives to reduce admissions have had limited success as it is unclear which strategies effectively reduce admissions and are supported by a strong evidence-base. Therefore, we will conduct an overview to find, assess and summarise all published peer-reviewed systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials that examine the effect of an intervention on unplanned admissions among adults. This is a protocol for a systematic overview of reviews. We will search four databases: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. We will consider systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials in adults (≥ 16 years old) evaluating the effect of any intervention on unscheduled hospital admissions including those to treat, monitor, diagnose or prevent a health problem. We will only include reviews that identified unscheduled hospitalisations as a prespecified outcome. Two authors will independently screen articles for inclusion using a priori criteria. We will assess the quality of included reviews and extract ratings of the quality of evidence from within each review. We will create a hierarchical list of interventions based on estimates of absolute admission reductions and the quality of the evidence. Presentation of results will align with guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. Ethics approval is not required. We will submit the results of this study for peer-review publication. The results will inform future research and could be used by healthcare managers, administrators and policymakers to guide resource allocation decisions and inform local implementation and optimisation of interventions to reduce unscheduled hospital admissions. Published by the BMJ

  20. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intervention for Pediatric Obesity Using Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisan; Piao, Meihua; Byun, Ahjung; Kim, Jeongeun

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the effect sizes of pediatric obesity intervention studies using mobile technology. Ten databases (Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, KoreaMED, KMBASE, KISS, NDSL, KSITI, and RISS) were reviewed, and four studies were included in a qualitative synthesis. To obtain significant change in obesity-related outcomes among elementary school students, including parents and utilizing text messages in interventions are recommended. Furthermore, devices such as accelerometers may aid obesity management. A meta-analysis of four studies indicated that the mobile intervention positively influenced dropout rates but was ineffective for outcomes of weight control, exercise, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

  1. Interventions for individuals with low health literacy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Halpern, David J; Viera, Anthony J; Berkman, Nancy D; Donahue, Katrina E; Crotty, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently called for action on health literacy. An important first step is defining the current state of the literature about interventions designed to mitigate the effects of low health literacy. We performed an updated systematic review examining the effects of interventions that authors reported were specifically designed to mitigate the effects of low health literacy. We searched MEDLINE®, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), and the Cochrane Library databases (2003 forward for health literacy; 1966 forward for numeracy). Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full-text articles for inclusion and included studies that examined outcomes by health literacy level and met other pre-specified criteria. One reviewer abstracted article information into evidence tables; a second checked accuracy. Two reviewers independently rated study quality using predefined criteria. Among 38 included studies, we found multiple discrete design features that improved comprehension in one or a few studies (e.g., presenting essential information by itself or first, presenting information so that the higher number is better, adding icon arrays to numerical information, adding video to verbal narratives). In a few studies, we also found consistent, direct, fair or good-quality evidence that intensive self-management interventions reduced emergency department visits and hospitalizations; and intensive self- and disease-management interventions reduced disease severity. Evidence for the effects of interventions on other outcomes was either limited or mixed. Multiple interventions show promise for mitigating the effects of low health literacy and could be considered for use in clinical practice.

  2. Return on investment of public health interventions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Rebecca; Anwar, Elspeth; Collins, Brendan; Cookson, Richard; Capewell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background Public sector austerity measures in many high-income countries mean that public health budgets are reducing year on year. To help inform the potential impact of these proposed disinvestments in public health, we set out to determine the return on investment (ROI) from a range of existing public health interventions. Methods We conducted systematic searches on all relevant databases (including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; AMED; PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus) to identify studies that calculated a ROI or cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for public health interventions in high-income countries. Results We identified 2957 titles, and included 52 studies. The median ROI for public health interventions was 14.3 to 1, and median CBR was 8.3. The median ROI for all 29 local public health interventions was 4.1 to 1, and median CBR was 10.3. Even larger benefits were reported in 28 studies analysing nationwide public health interventions; the median ROI was 27.2, and median CBR was 17.5. Conclusions This systematic review suggests that local and national public health interventions are highly cost-saving. Cuts to public health budgets in high income countries therefore represent a false economy, and are likely to generate billions of pounds of additional costs to health services and the wider economy. PMID:28356325

  3. Using multiple types of studies in systematic reviews of health care interventions--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care interventions.

  4. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care

  5. Systematic Review of Interventions Supported by ICT for the Prevention Treatment of Occupational Stress.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Angela M; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related disorders have become one of the main problems of public health in many countries and of worldwide organizations, and they are expected to become more common in the forthcoming decades. This article aims at providing a systematic review and a descriptive evaluation of the interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress. A systematic review of five databases (EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect and IEEEXplorer) was carried out. This article provides a quantitative and qualitative description of 21 studies about occupational stress interventions supported by ICT. The following factors were considered for the analysis: impact of the intervention, design of the study, type of intervention, purpose of the intervention, type of instrument for the measurement of occupational stress, and type of ICT used. The systematic review demonstrated that interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress are scarce but effective.

  6. Alignment of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness with global burden-of-disease data: a bibliographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Hall, Alix; Williams, Christopher M; Skelton, Eliza; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Dellavalle, Robert P; Hilton, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-07-01

    Systematic reviews of high-quality evidence are used to inform policy and practice. To improve community health, the production of such reviews should align with burden of disease. This study aims to assess if the volume of research output from systematic reviews proportionally aligns with burden of disease assessed using percentages of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). A cross-sectional audit of reviews published between January 2012 and August 2013 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was undertaken. Percentages of mortality and DALYs were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Standardised residual differences (SRD) based on percentages of mortality and DALYs were calculated, where conditions with SRD of more than or less than three were considered overstudied or understudied, respectively. 1029 reviews from CDSR and 1928 reviews from DARE were examined. There was a significant correlation between percentage DALYs and systematic reviews published in CDSR and DARE databases (CDSR: r=0.68, p=0.001; DARE: r=0.60, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between percentage mortality and number of systematic reviews published in either database (CDSR: r=0.34, p=0.14; DARE: r=0.22, p=0.34). Relative to percentage of mortality, mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal conditions and other non-communicable diseases were overstudied. Maternal disorders were overstudied relative to percentages of mortality and DALYs in CDSR. The focus of systematic reviews is moderately correlated with DALYs. A number of conditions may be overstudied relative to percentage of mortality particularly in the context of health and medical reviews. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, John; Byrne, Charles; Clarke, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved. Selection criteria Studies were included if they addressed interventions enhancing the uptake of systematic reviews. Reports in any language were included. All decisionmakers were eligible. Studies could be randomised trials, cluster-randomised trials, controlled-clinical trials and before-and-after studies. Data sources We searched 19 databases including PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, covering the full range of publication years from inception to December 2010. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality according to the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care criteria. Results 10 studies from 11 countries, containing 12 interventions met our criteria. Settings included a hospital, a government department and a medical school. Doctors, nurses, mid-wives, patients and programme managers were targeted. Six of the studies were geared to improving knowledge and attitudes while four targeted clinical practice. Synthesis of results Three studies of low-to-moderate risk of bias, identified interventions that showed a statistically significant improvement: educational visits, short summaries of systematic reviews and targeted messaging. Promising interventions include e-learning, computer-based learning, inactive workshops, use of knowledge brokers and an e-registry of reviews. Juxtaposing barriers and facilitators alongside the identified interventions, it was clear that the three effective approaches addressed a wide range of barriers and facilitators. Discussion A limited number of studies were found for inclusion. However, the extensive literature search is one of the strengths of this review. Conclusions Targeted messaging, educational visits and summaries are recommended to enhance systematic review uptake. Identified

  8. Systematic review of educational interventions for looked-after children and young people: Recommendations for intervention development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rhiannon; Brown, Rachel; Rees, Gwyther; Smith, Philip

    2017-02-01

    Looked-after children and young people (LACYP) are educationally disadvantaged compared to the general population. A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials evaluating interventions aimed at LACYP aged ≤18 years. Restrictions were not placed on delivery setting or delivery agent. Intervention outcomes were: academic skills; academic achievement and grade completion; special education status; homework completion; school attendance, suspension, and drop-out; number of school placements; teacher-student relationships; school behaviour; and academic attitudes. Fifteen studies reporting on 12 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Nine interventions demonstrated tentative impacts. However, evidence of effectiveness could not be ascertained due to variable methodological quality, as appraised by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Theoretical and methodological recommendations are provided to enhance the development and evaluation of educational interventions.

  9. Five indicators were developed to assess the quality of reviews on preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Allaouat, Sara; Roustaei, Zahra; Verbeek, Jos; Ruotsalainen, Jani

    2017-09-01

    To develop quality indicators for prevention effectiveness and to evaluate their use with Cochrane Reviews of primary preventive interventions. Based on the quality of care framework, we searched the literature to develop a set of quality indicators. Two authors applied the quality indicators independently to a sample of Cochrane systematic reviews of primary prevention. Five quality indicators were developed: sample size, directness of evidence, adherence, harm, and costs. We applied the quality indicators to a random sample of 84 out of a total of 264 Cochrane reviews of primary prevention interventions. Only 70% reviews (n = 59) complied with the indicator sample size, whereas 61% (n = 51) complied with directness of the outcome, 48% (n = 40) with adherence, 76% (n = 64) with harm, and 46% (n = 39) with the indicator cost. Applying the five quality indicators is feasible. The quality of evidence in reviews of primary prevention can be substantially improved. Trialists and review authors should provide more information especially on adherence, costs and indirectness of the outcome. Methodological research is needed on how to incorporate cost information in systematic reviews and how to better deal with indirectness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Systematic review of interdisciplinary interventions in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Arif; Unroe, Kathleen; Tegeler, Monica; Khan, Babar; Azar, Jose; Boustani, Malaz

    2013-07-01

    The role of interdisciplinary interventions in the nursing home (NH) setting remains unclear. We conducted a systematic evidence review to study the benefits of interdisciplinary interventions on outcomes of NH residents. We also examined the interdisciplinary features of successful trials, including those that used formal teams. Medline was searched from January 1990 to August 2011. Search terms included residential facilities, long term care, clinical trial, epidemiologic studies, epidemiologic research design, comparative study, evaluation studies, meta-analysis and guideline. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of interdisciplinary interventions conducted in the NH setting. We used the Cochrane Collaboration tools to appraise each RCT, and an RCT was considered positive if its selected intervention had a significant positive effect on the primary outcome regardless of its effect on any secondary outcome. We also extracted data from each trial regarding the participating disciplines; for trials that used teams, we studied the reporting of various team elements, including leadership, communication, coordination, and conflict resolution. We identified 27 RCTs: 7 had no statistically significant effect on the targeted primary outcome, 2 had a statistically negative effect, and 18 demonstrated a statistically positive effect. Participation of residents' own primary physicians (all 6 trials were positive) and/or a pharmacist (all 4 trials were positive) in the intervention were common elements of successful trials. For interventions that used formal team meetings, presence of communication and coordination among team members were the most commonly observed elements. Overall interdisciplinary interventions had a positive impact on resident outcomes in the NH setting. Participation of the residents' primary physician and/or a pharmacist in the intervention, as well as team communication and coordination, were consistent features of

  11. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Direct thrombin inhibitors versus vitamin K antagonists for preventing cerebral or systemic embolism in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,3:CD009893].

    PubMed

    Vaz Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the most important complications of lone (non-valvular) atrial fibrillation. Its prevention is usually accomplished through oral anticoagulation. Until a few years ago warfarin was the most used agent, but recently two new pharmacologic classes have been introduced for stroke prevention in these patients: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and ximelagatran) and oral factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban). In this systematic review, oral direct thrombin inhibitors were compared with warfarin for efficacy and safety. The results indicate that there is no difference in terms of efficacy (except dabigatran 150 mg BID). Oral direct thrombin inhibitors presented less hemorrhages but increased treatment withdrawal due to adverse side-effects (the authors performed post-hoc analyses excluding ximelagatran because this drug was withdrawn from the market owing to safety concerns). There was no difference in terms of mortality between the agents.

  12. Interventions for sustained healthcare professional behaviour change: a protocol for an overview of reviews.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Campbell, Pauline; Frost, Helen; Pollock, Alex; McLellan, Julie; MacGillivray, Steve; Gavine, Anna; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Carroll, Ronan; Cheyne, Helen; Presseau, Justin; Williams, Brian

    2016-10-13

    Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, and it is recognised that to implement new evidence-based interventions and sustain them over time, professional behaviour needs to change accordingly. A number of theories and frameworks have been developed to support behaviour change among health and social care professionals, and models of sustainability are emerging, but few have translated into valid and reliable interventions. The long-term success of healthcare professional behavioural change interventions is variable, and the characteristics of successful interventions unclear. Previous reviews have synthesised the evidence for behaviour change, but none have focused on sustainability. In addition, multiple overlapping reviews have reported inconsistent results, which do not aid translation of evidence into practice. Overviews of reviews can provide accessible succinct summaries of evidence and address barriers to evidence-based practice. We aim to compile an overview of reviews, identifying, appraising and synthesising evidence relating to sustained social and healthcare professional behaviour change. We will conduct a systematic review of Cochrane reviews (an Overview). We plan to systematically search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We will include all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials comparing a healthcare professional targeted behaviour change intervention to a standard care or no intervention control group. Two reviewers will independently assess the eligibility of the reviews and the methodological quality of included reviews using the ROBIS tool. The quality of evidence within each comparison in each review will be judged based on the GRADE criteria. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion. Effects of interventions will be systematically tabulated and the

  13. Medication reconciliation interventions in ambulatory care: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Lisa; Su, Xinru Wendy; Crown, Natalie; Turple, Jennifer; Brown, Thomas E R; Walsh, Kate; John, Jessica; Rochon, Paula

    2016-11-15

    The published literature on medication reconciliation (MR) interventions, outcomes, and facilitators in ambulatory care settings is reviewed. A scoping review was conducted to characterize ambulatory care-based MR research in terms of study design, elements of interventions, and outcomes examined. English-language articles on comparative studies of MR programs targeting adults in ambulatory care settings were identified using data sources including MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. For each study, steps undertaken in the MR process were extracted. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) taxonomy was used to classify types of interventions; taxonomies for reported outcomes and factors facilitating implementation of MR initiatives were developed by the authors. From among 2062 publications screened, 15 were included in the review. In 13 studies, multiple data sources were used to compile a "best possible medication history" (BPMH); however, the BPMH was shared with external healthcare providers in only 4 studies and with patients in only 5 studies. Most reported MR interventions were classified into two EPOC domains: professional (predominantly educational outreach visits and patient reminders) and organizational (predominantly provider-oriented interventions). Process outcomes were reported in 12 studies, with correct performance of MR being the most commonly evaluated process outcome, and 9 studies identified factors that facilitated MR implementation. Few studies have examined clinical outcomes of MR in ambulatory care settings, with the majority of pertinent reports focusing instead on process outcomes. Facilitators of successful MR interventions have been identified at the patient, staff, and clinic setting levels. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients or volunteers? The impact of motivation for trial participation on the efficacy of patient decision Aids: a secondary analysis of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, James G; Joyce, Kerry E; Stacey, Dawn; Thomson, Richard G

    2015-05-01

    Efficacy of patient decision aids (PtDAs) may be influenced by trial participants' identity either as patients seeking to benefit personally from involvement or as volunteers supporting the research effort. To determine if study characteristics indicative of participants' trial identity might influence PtDA efficacy. We undertook exploratory subgroup meta-analysis of the 2011 Cochrane review of PtDAs, including trials that compared PtDA with usual care for treatment decisions. We extracted data on whether participants initiated the care pathway, setting, practitioner interactions, and 6 outcome variables (knowledge, risk perception, decisional conflict, feeling informed, feeling clear about values, and participation). The main subgroup analysis categorized trials as "volunteerism" or "patienthood" on the basis of whether participants initiated the care pathway. A supplementary subgroup analysis categorized trials on the basis of whether any volunteerism factors were present (participants had not initiated the care pathway, had attended a research setting, or had a face-to-face interaction with a researcher). Twenty-nine trials were included. Compared with volunteerism trials, pooled effect sizes were higher in patienthood trials (where participants initiated the care pathway) for knowledge, decisional conflict, feeling informed, feeling clear, and participation. The subgroup difference was statistically significant for knowledge only (P = 0.03). When trials were compared on the basis of whether volunteerism factors were present, knowledge was significantly greater in patienthood trials (P < 0.001), but there was otherwise no consistent pattern of differences in effects across outcomes. There is a tendency toward greater PtDA efficacy in trials in which participants initiate the pathway of care. Knowledge acquisition appears to be greater in trials where participants are predominantly patients rather than volunteers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Protocol for a systematic review of psychological interventions for cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Teresa; Devane, Declan; Walsh, Jane C; Groarke, AnnMarie; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-12-04

    Fatigue is a common symptom in cancer patients that can persist beyond the curative treatment phase. Some evidence has been reported for interventions for fatigue during active treatment. However, to date, there is no systematic review on psychological interventions for fatigue after the completion of curative treatment for cancer. This is a protocol for a systematic review that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment cancer survivors. This systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database. We will search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and relevant sources of grey literature. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which have evaluated psychological interventions in adult cancer patients after the completion of treatment, with fatigue as an outcome measure, will be included. Two review authors will independently extract data from the selected studies and assess the methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Most existing evidence on cancer-related fatigue is from those in active cancer treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis will build upon previous evaluations of psychological interventions in people during and after cancer treatment. With the growing need for stage-specific research in cancer, this review seeks to highlight a gap in current practice and to strengthen the evidence base of randomised controlled trials in the area. PROSPERO CRD42014015219.

  16. Methotrexate monotherapy and methotrexate combination therapy with traditional and biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis: abridged Cochrane systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barnabe, Cheryl; Tomlinson, George; Marshall, Deborah; Devoe, Dan; Bombardier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare methotrexate based disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatments for rheumatoid arthritis in patients naive to or with an inadequate response to methotrexate. Design Systematic review and Bayesian random effects network meta-analysis of trials assessing methotrexate used alone or in combination with other conventional synthetic DMARDs, biologic drugs, or tofacitinib in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Data sources Trials were identified from Medline, Embase, and Central databases from inception to 19 January 2016; abstracts from two major rheumatology meetings from 2009 to 2015; two trial registers; and hand searches of Cochrane reviews. Study selection criteria Randomized or quasi-randomized trials that compared methotrexate with any other DMARD or combination of DMARDs and contributed to the network of evidence between the treatments of interest. Main outcomes American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 response (major clinical improvement), radiographic progression, and withdrawals due to adverse events. A comparison between two treatments was considered statistically significant if its credible interval excluded the null effect, indicating >97.5% probability that one treatment was superior. Results 158 trials were included, with between 10 and 53 trials available for each outcome. In methotrexate naive patients, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (“triple therapy”), several biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab), and tofacitinib. The estimated probability of ACR50 response was similar between these treatments (range 56-67%), compared with 41% with methotrexate. Methotrexate combined with adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, or infliximab was statistically superior to oral methotrexate for inhibiting radiographic progression, but the estimated mean change over one year with all

  17. Educational interventions in neurology: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    McColgan, P; McKeown, P P; Selai, C; Doherty-Allan, R; McCarron, M O

    2013-07-01

    A fear of neurology and neural sciences (neurophobia) may have clinical consequences. There is therefore a need to formulate an evidence-based approach to neurology education. A comprehensive systematic review of educational interventions in neurology was performed. BEI, Cochrane Library, Dialog Datastar, EBSCO Biomedical, EBSCO Psychology & Behavioral Sciences, EMBASE, ERIC, First Search, MDConsult, Medline, Proquest Medical Library and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for all published studies assessing interventions in neurology education among undergraduate students, junior medical doctors and residents up to and including July 2012. Two independent literature searches were performed for relevant studies, which were then classified for level of evidence using the Centre of Evidence-based Medicine criteria and four levels of Kirkpatrick educational outcomes. One systematic review, 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine non-randomized cohort/follow-up studies, 33 case series or historically controlled studies and three mechanism-based reasoning studies were identified. Educational interventions showed favourable evaluation or assessment outcomes in 15 of 16 (94%) RCTs. Very few studies measured subsequent clinical behaviour (two studies) and patient outcomes (one study). There is very little high quality evidence of demonstrably effective neurology education. However, RCTs are emerging, albeit without meeting comprehensive educational criteria. An improving evidence base in the quality of neurology education will be important to reduce neurophobia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  18. A review of web based interventions for managing tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Verma, Rohit

    2014-07-01

    Web based interventions (WBIs) have been developed for various health conditions. These include interventions for various psychoactive substance use disorders including tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco use has remained the single largest preventable cause of global mortality and morbidity for many years. It is responsible for around 6 million deaths annually world-wide. Ironically, most of the tobacco users reside in resource poor low and middle-income countries. The article reviews the existing literature on WBIs for management of tobacco use. The literature search was performed using MedLine, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Cochrane Review for relevant English language articles published from 1998 up to 2013. There is limited support for effectiveness of WBIs for managing tobacco use among adolescents. Although most of the trials among adults found WBIs to be more effective at short term follow-up (a few days to weeks), the benefits failed to extend beyond 3 months in most of the studies. All but one interventions studied in a randomized controlled trial is for smoking forms.

  19. Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aust, J; Bradshaw, T

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e.g. case studies, noncontrolled studies). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We concluded that mindfulness therapies can be safely used with people with psychosis and that they provide a number of therapeutic benefits compared with routine care and, in some cases, other interventions. Larger, methodologically improved trials are now recommended to evaluate the benefits of mindfulness therapies further. Introduction A growing number of mindfulness interventions are being used with individuals with psychosis. These therapies employ elements of acceptance and compassion in addition to mindfulness. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of these interventions have emerged in recent years, but no review of these latest trials exists. Question 'For individuals with psychosis, are mindfulness interventions more effective than treatment as usual or an alternative intervention, in improving patient-related outcomes as demonstrated in RCTs?' Method We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled studies of mindfulness interventions for psychosis and schizophrenia (MIps). Studies were identified by searching the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Allied and Complementary Medicine. Findings The review identified 11 RCTs investigating eight mindfulness interventions. Significant improvements were reported on a number of measures, although gains were mostly

  20. Behavioral Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A

    2016-05-01

    Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Health game interventions to enhance physical activity self-efficacy of children: a quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Anni; Parisod, Heidi; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna

    2017-04-01

    To describe and explore health game interventions that enhance the physical activity self-efficacy of children and to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Physical inactivity among children has increased globally. Self-efficacy is one of the key determinants of physical activity engagement in children. There is a need to explore new and innovative interventions to enhance physical activity self-efficacy that are also acceptable for today's children. Quantitative systematic review. MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, PsychInfo, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library between 1996-2016. A review was conducted in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. A systematic search was done in June 2016 by two independent reviewers according to the eligibility criteria as follows: controlled trial, comparison of digital game intervention with no game intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years of age and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity self-efficacy outcome measure. Altogether, five studies met the eligibility criteria. Four game interventions, employing three active games and one educational game, had positive effects on children's physical activity self-efficacy. An intervention, employing a game-themed mobile application, showed no intervention effects. The variation between intervention characteristics was significant and the quality of the studies was found to be at a medium level. Although health game interventions seemingly enhance the physical activity self-efficacy of children and have potential as a means of increasing physical activity, more rigorous research is needed to clarify how effective such interventions are in the longer run to contribute to the development of game-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and

  3. Interventions for Stimulus Deprivation Amblyopia [Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Powell, Christine; Vedula, Satyanarayana S

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the clear passage of light, preventing clear formation of an image on the retina for example, cataract, ptosis (droopy eyelid). It is particularly severe and can be resistant to treatment and the visual prognosis is often poor. Stimulus deprivation amblyopia is rare and precise estimates of prevalence difficult to come by; it probably constitutes less than 3% of all cases of amblyopia. In developed countries most patients present under the age of one; in less developed parts of the world presentation is likely to be significantly later than this. The mainstay of treatment is patching of the better-seeing eye but regimes vary, treatment is difficult to execute and results are often disappointing. Objectives The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion treatment for SDA, determine the optimum treatment regime and factors that may affect outcome. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials - CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) on The Cochrane Library (2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1996 to April 2006), EMBASE (1980 to April 2006) and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) (to November 2004). There were no date or language restrictions. Selection criteria We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of subjects with unilateral SDA defined as worse than 0.2 LogMAR or equivalent. There were no restrictions with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, co-morbidities, medication use, and the number of participants. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed study abstracts identified by the electronic searches. Main results No trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions It is not possible to conclude how effective treatment for SDA is or which treatment regime produces the best results

  4. Interventions to Improve Parental Communication About Sex: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Cynthia L.; Bost, James

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The relative effectiveness of interventions to improve parental communication with adolescents about sex is not known. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and methodologic quality of interventions for improving parental communication with adolescents about sex. METHODS: We searched 6 databases: OVID/Medline, PsychInfo, ERIC, Cochrane Review, Communication and Mass Media, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. We included studies published between 1980 and July 2010 in peer-reviewed English-language journals that targeted US parents of adolescents aged 11 to 18 years, used an experimental or quasi-experimental design, included a control group, and had a pretest/posttest design. We abstracted data on multiple communication outcomes defined by the integrative conceptual model (communication frequency, content, skills, intentions, self-efficacy, perceived environmental barriers/facilitators, perceived social norms, attitudes, outcome expectations, knowledge, and beliefs). Methodologic quality was assessed using the 11-item methodologic quality score. RESULTS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Compared with controls, parents who participated in these interventions experienced improvements in multiple communication domains including the frequency, quality, intentions, comfort, and self-efficacy for communicating. We noted no effects on parental attitudes toward communicating or the outcomes they expected to occur as a result of communicating. Four studies were of high quality, 7 were of medium quality, and 1 was of lower quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our review was limited by the lack of standardized measures for assessing parental communication. Still, interventions for improving parent-adolescent sex communication are well designed and have some targeted effects. Wider dissemination could augment efforts by schools, clinicians, and health educators. PMID:21321027

  5. A Literature Review of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Melanie

    This review of the literature on early childhood intervention with special needs children provides a Canadian perspective on theory, models, program development, effects, and training. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter identifies theoretical influences on early childhood intervention, including the work of Piaget, Bronfenbrenner,…

  6. Outcomes of interventions for nurse leaders' well-being at work: A quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Romppanen, Johanna

    2017-08-03

    The aim of this study was to gather, assess and synthesize current research knowledge on interventions that aimed to improve nurse leaders' well-being at work. The research evidence on interventions for nurse leaders' well-being at work has been sporadic and there are a lack of evidence-based recommendations for effective interventions that inform practice, future studies and education. A quantitative systematic review, in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration procedures and the reporting guidance in the PRISMA statement. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCO, PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus databases were searched from 2009 - December 2016. The final data consisted of five studies, which were assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The data were summarized narratively. The interventions were mainly concerned with stress management and were targeted at individuals. Four of the five interventions examined produced statistically significant outcomes on well-being at work. Stress management interventions that included mental exercises were the most successful. Interventions primarily reduced the stress experienced by participants, but the evidence on the stability of these outcomes was poor because of the short follow-up periods. The certainty of evidence was low, indicating that the use of these interventions among nurse leaders might be beneficial. Further studies are needed to provide more reliable recommendations for their use. As the performance of nurse leaders influences organizations, through interpersonal relationships, it is important to pay more attention in the future to the development of organization- and person-directed interventions and their combinations. A structural empowerment approach should also be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Systematic review protocol of interventions to improve the psychological well-being of general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Murray, Marylou; Murray, Lois; Donnelly, Michael

    2015-09-22

    The challenges and complexities faced by general practitioners are increasing, and there are concerns about their well-being. Consequently, attention has been directed towards developing and evaluating interventions and strategies to improve general practitioner well-being and their capacity to cope with workplace challenges. This systematic review aims to evaluate research evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve general practitioner well-being. Eligible studies will include programmes developed to improve psychological well-being that have assessed outcomes using validated tools pertaining to well-being and related outcomes. Only programmes that have been evaluated using controlled study designs will be reviewed. An appropriately developed search strategy will be applied to six electronic databases: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies will be screened in two stages by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will arbitrate when required. Pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed during a pilot phase early on in the review process. The Cochrane data extraction form will be adapted and applied to each eligible study by two independent reviewers, and each study will be appraised critically using standardised checklists from the Cochrane Handbook. Methodological quality will be taken into account in the analysis of the data and the synthesis of results. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken if data is unsuited to a meta-analysis. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidance. This will be the first systematic review on this topic, and the evidence synthesis will aid decision-making by general practitioners, policy makers and planners regarding ways in which to improve GP well-being. Findings will be disseminated at general practitioner meetings

  8. Review of behaviour change interventions to reduce population salt intake.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Kathy; McMahon, Emma; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Bauman, Adrian; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-02-08

    Excess salt intake is a major cause of raised blood pressure-the leading risk factor for death and disability worldwide. Although behaviour change interventions such as awareness campaigns and health education programs are implemented to reduce salt intake, their effectiveness is unclear. This global systematic review investigates the impact of population-level behaviour change interventions that aim to reduce salt intake. A search for published and grey literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Sage, Scopus, OpenGrey, Google Scholar and other relevant organizations' websites. Studies were included if 1) published between 2005 and 2015; 2) the education or awareness-raising interventions were aimed at the population or sub-population and 3) salt intake and/or salt-related behaviours were outcome measures. Study and intervention characteristics were extracted for the descriptive synthesis and study quality was assessed. Twenty two studies involving 41,448 participants were included. Most were conducted in high income countries (n = 16), targeting adults (n = 21) in the general population (n = 16). Behaviour change interventions were categorised as health education interventions (n = 14), public awareness campaigns (n = 4) and multi-component interventions (including both health education and awareness campaigns, n = 4). 19 of the 22 studies demonstrated significant reductions in estimated salt intake and/or improvement in salt-related behaviours. All studies showed high risk of bias in one or more domains. Of the 10 higher quality studies, 5 found a significant effect on salt intake or salt behaviours based on the more objective outcome assessment method. Based on moderate quality of evidence, population-level behaviour change interventions can improve salt-related behaviours and/or reduce salt intake. However, closer analysis of higher quality studies show inconsistent evidence of the effectiveness and

  9. Interventions in the Alteration on Lingual Frenum: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla Poliseni; Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Gomes, Erissandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Altered lingual frenum modifies the normal tongue mobility, which may influence the stomatognathic functions, resulting in anatomical, physiological and social damage to the subject. It is necessary that health professionals are aware of the process of evaluation, diagnostics and treatment used today, guiding their intervention. Objective  To perform a systematic review of what are the treatment methods used in cases of lingual frenum alteration. Data Synthesis  The literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and IBECS, delimited by language (Portuguese, English, Spanish), date of publication (January 2000 to January 2014) and studies performed in humans. The selection order used to verify the eligibility of the studies were related to: full text availability; review the abstract; text analysis; final selection. Of the total 443 publications, 26 remained for analysis. The surgical approach was used in all studies, regardless of the study population (infants, children and adults), with a range of tools and techniques employed; speech therapy was recommended in the post surgical in 4 studies. Only 4 studies, all with infants, showed scientific evidence. Conclusion  Surgical intervention is effective for the remission of the limitations caused by the alteration on lingual frenum, but there is a deficit of studies with higher methodological quality. The benefits of speech therapy in the post surgical period are described from improvement in the language of mobility aspects and speech articulation. PMID:27413412

  10. Interventions at the laboratory level to reduce laboratory test ordering by family physicians: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roger E; Vaska, Marcus; Naugler, Christopher; Turin, Tanvir C

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions by laboratories and to increase rational and reduce unnecessary family physician test ordering. MEDLINE [1946-present], EMBASE [1980-present], EBM Reviews [1991-present](Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), PubMed [1966-present], PubMed Central [1900-present], Scopus [1960-present], Web of Science [1900-present] and CINAHL [1982-present] were searched with no language or publication limits. Non-randomised studies were assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The search identified 9282 titles and abstracts, 238 were read in full-text and 3 cohort and 7 before- and after-studies were included. Most focused on changing a few tests and evaluated the interventions over several months. Seven changed laboratory forms (the two largest involved 5.2 million and 3.2 million tests), one negotiated a test ordering protocol with family physicians, and two required laboratory approval. They achieved an average 35% reduction in the 19 targeted tests, with a wide range (0%-100% reduction). Ten studies were identified which tested interventions by laboratories to reduce test ordering by family physicians, and achieved an average 35% reduction in the 19 targeted tests. The rationale for choosing specific tests for intervention was often not explained, most studies targeted a few tests for several months, the tests and test volumes differed widely across studies, no author improved the results of previous interventions or asked participants their opinions about the intervention or assessed factors impeding change. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A systematic review of integrated use of disease-management interventions in asthma and COPD.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Karin M M; Nieboer, Anna P; Huijsman, Robbert

    2009-05-01

    The effectiveness of multiple interventions in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. To examine the effectiveness of multiple interventions as compared to single interventions or usual care on health outcomes and health care utilisation within the context of integrated disease management in asthma and COPD. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (1995-May 2008) were searched for controlled trials. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Meta-analyses were performed on quality of life and health care utilisation data. Furthermore, the effects of multiple interventions versus single interventions and usual care were assessed qualitatively. Of the 36 studies included, 17 targeted double interventions (patient-related and organisational interventions); 19 studies performed triple interventions (patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions). They were heterogeneous in terms of (combinations of) interventions, outcomes measured, study design and setting. Pooled data showed that studied disease management programmes significantly improved quality of life on several domains. Patients within triple intervention programmes had less chance of at least one hospital admission compared with usual care. No significant effects were found in number of emergency department visits. Qualitative analyses revealed positive trends on process improvements and satisfaction. Inconclusive results were reported on symptoms; no effects were found in lung function. In spite of the heterogeneity of disease management studies in asthma and COPD care, this review showed promising improvements in quality of life and reductions in hospitalisations, especially for triple intervention programmes.

  12. Interventions targeting social isolation in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Targeting social isolation in older people is a growing public health concern. The proportion of older people in society has increased in recent decades, and it is estimated that approximately 25% of the population will be aged 60 or above within the next 20 to 40 years. Social isolation is prevalent amongst older people and evidence indicates the detrimental effect that it can have on health and wellbeing. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to alleviate social isolation and loneliness in older people. Methods Relevant electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA, IBSS, PsycINFO, PubMed, DARE, Social Care Online, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL) were systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies published in English before May 2009. Additional articles were identified through citation tracking. Studies were included if they related to older people, if the intervention aimed to alleviate social isolation and loneliness, if intervention participants were compared against inactive controls and, if treatment effects were reported. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a standardised form. Narrative synthesis and vote-counting methods were used to summarise and interpret study data. Results Thirty two studies were included in the review. There was evidence of substantial heterogeneity in the interventions delivered and the overall quality of included studies indicated a medium to high risk of bias. Across the three domains of social, mental and physical health, 79% of group-based interventions and 55% of one-to-one interventions reported at least one improved participant outcome. Over 80% of participatory interventions produced beneficial effects across the same domains, compared with 44% of those categorised as non-participatory. Of interventions categorised as having a theoretical basis, 87% reported beneficial effects across

  13. Work Site-Based Environmental Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Amanda K; Piazza, Andrew J; Knowlden, Adam P

    2016-10-25

    The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review work site-based, environmental interventions to reduce sedentary behavior following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Data were extracted from Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science between January 2005 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria were work site interventions, published in peer-reviewed journals, employing environmental modalities, targeting sedentary behavior, and using any quantitative design. Exclusion criteria were noninterventions and non-English publications. Data extracted included study design, population, intervention dosage, intervention activities, evaluation measures, and intervention effects. Data were tabulated quantitatively and synthesized qualitatively. A total of 15 articles were identified for review and 14 reported statistically significant decreases in sedentary behavior. The majority of studies employed a randomized controlled trial design (n = 7), used inclinometers to measure sedentary behavior (n = 9), recruited predominantly female samples (n = 15), and utilized sit-to-stand desks as the primary intervention modality (n = 10). The mean methodological quality score was 6.2 out of 10. Environmental work site interventions to reduce sedentary behavior show promise because work sites often have more control over environmental factors. Limitations of this intervention stream include inconsistent measurement of sedentary behavior, absence of theoretical frameworks to guide program development, and absence of long-term evaluation. Future studies should include clear reporting of intervention strategies and explicit operationalization of theoretical constructs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Interventions to tackle malnutrition and its risk factors in children living in slums: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffiths, Paula; Bogin, Barry; Madise, Nyovani

    2017-02-01

    Children living in slums are at high risk of being malnourished. There are no published reviews on existing interventions promoting better nutrition for children living in slums and the risk factors for children's malnutrition. Improved understanding of the risk factors for malnutrition in slums communities and the impact of interventions on children's health can provide guidance to practitioners and decision-makers. The present review is designed to provide this information. The search included 30 electronic bibliographic databases and relevant eligible studies published up to December 2013. The search located 1512 citations. Full text relevance screening was conducted on 226 studies and on abstracts for 16 studies. The final 58 unique studies included 22 on interventions and 38 on risk. All of the interventions were nutrition-specific, with nutritional intervention being the most dominant type. Seventy-three per cent of the interventions were assessed effective. The findings stressed the gaps in knowledge in terms of quality assessment and programmatic recommendations to identify children who are the most at risk of malnutrition to appropriately target interventions. Finally, the review helped to inform a systematic review (Cochrane Systematic review protocol 2015) that will examine the impact of interventions on outcome measures.

  16. Behaviour change interventions to promote prescribing of generic drugs: a rapid evidence synthesis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Chambers, Duncan; Harden, Melissa; McDaid, Catriona

    2014-05-14

    To summarise evidence on the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to encourage prescribing of generic forms of prescription drugs where clinically appropriate in the UK National Health Service (NHS) and similar settings. Systematic review. We conducted a rapid evidence synthesis in two stages: First, we searched databases, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), for systematic reviews of interventions that reported outcomes related to utilisation of generic drugs. In the second stage, we searched several databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify primary studies of any interventions not covered by systematic reviews. Data were extracted into a standardised data extraction form. Standardised quality assessment tools were used to assess study quality. Two reviewers were involved in data extraction and quality assessment. 10 reviews were included for the initial evidence synthesis, but most were of limited usefulness to our focused review question. One review evaluated the effect of prescribing policies using financial incentives and showed an increase in generic prescribing. Thirteen primary studies of other interventions were included for the rapid review. Two studies showed an increase in percentage of overall generic prescribing with an educational intervention; two studies showed an improvement in generic prescribing rates when physicians collaborated with pharmacists, though in one study this was not statistically significant; two US studies showed improvements in generic prescribing with electronic prescribing. Five out of seven studies showed positive results with multifaceted interventions. The existing evidence remains insufficient to determine which behaviour change intervention or combination of interventions is most effective due to methodological weaknesses and conflicting results. Based on the evidence, financial incentives with educational intervention and

  17. Behaviour change interventions to promote prescribing of generic drugs: a rapid evidence synthesis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Chambers, Duncan; Harden, Melissa; McDaid, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise evidence on the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to encourage prescribing of generic forms of prescription drugs where clinically appropriate in the UK National Health Service (NHS) and similar settings. Design Systematic review. Search strategy We conducted a rapid evidence synthesis in two stages: First, we searched databases, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), for systematic reviews of interventions that reported outcomes related to utilisation of generic drugs. In the second stage, we searched several databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify primary studies of any interventions not covered by systematic reviews. Data extraction and quality assessment Data were extracted into a standardised data extraction form. Standardised quality assessment tools were used to assess study quality. Two reviewers were involved in data extraction and quality assessment. Results 10 reviews were included for the initial evidence synthesis, but most were of limited usefulness to our focused review question. One review evaluated the effect of prescribing policies using financial incentives and showed an increase in generic prescribing. Thirteen primary studies of other interventions were included for the rapid review. Two studies showed an increase in percentage of overall generic prescribing with an educational intervention; two studies showed an improvement in generic prescribing rates when physicians collaborated with pharmacists, though in one study this was not statistically significant; two US studies showed improvements in generic prescribing with electronic prescribing. Five out of seven studies showed positive results with multifaceted interventions. Conclusions The existing evidence remains insufficient to determine which behaviour change intervention or combination of interventions is most effective due to methodological weaknesses and

  18. Treatment interventions for early childhood obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Byron A; Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Sosa, Erica T.

    2015-01-01

    Context With 25% of pre-school age children in the United States being overweight or obese, effective interventions for these children would have significant public health implications. Randomized trials targeting this age group have been done since the last systematic review. Objective To systematically review the literature on treatment interventions for overweight or obesity in pre-school age children. Data Sources Medline (1948–July 2014), the Cochrane Central Registry (1991–July 2014), CINAHL (1990–July2014) and PAS abstracts (2000–2014). Study Selection Inclusion criteria were children age 0–6 in the study and adiposity as an outcome. Exclusions were having normal weight children in the trial and not having a comparison group. Data Extraction Data were extracted independently by two authors using a template. Results The initial search yielded 1,981 results, narrowed to 289 abstracts after initial review. Further analysis and cross-referencing led to the selection of six randomized controlled trials representing 1222 children. Two studies used systems changes and motivational interviewing and showed no significant effect on adiposity. Two studies used an intensive, multi-disciplinary approach over six months and demonstrated significant decreases in adiposity. One study tested parental coaching and showed a significant reduction in adiposity at six months. One study used education on a dairy-rich diet and showed a possible effect on adiposity. Limitations The study designs were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis; few ethnic minority subjects were included. Conclusions Multi-disciplinary, intensive interventions have some evidence of efficacy in reducing adiposity in pre-school children. PMID:26142067

  19. A systematic review of eHealth interventions to improve health literacy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robin J; Lou, Jennie Q; Ownby, Raymond L; Caballero, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Implementation of eHealth is now considered an effective way to address concerns about the health status of health care consumers. The purpose of this study was to review empirically based eHealth intervention strategies designed to improve health literacy among consumers in a variety of settings. A computerized search of 16 databases of abstracts (e.g. Biomedical Reference Collection, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Computers & Applied Sciences Complete, Health Technology Assessments, MEDLINE) were explored in a systematic fashion to assess the presence of eHealth applications targeting health literacy. Compared to control interventions, the interventions using technology reported significant outcomes or showed promise for future positive outcomes regarding health literacy in a variety of settings, for different diseases, and with diverse samples. This review has indicated that it is feasible to deliver eHealth interventions specifically designed to improve health literacy skills for people with different health conditions, risk factors, and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  20. Nursing Intervention using smartphone technologies; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed mobile technology-based interventions in nursing and computed effect size of the interventions. We searched eight databases (KoreaMED, KMBASE, KISS, NDSL, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane central library and CINAHL) using three sets of terms: mobile application, mobile app, mobile phone or smartphone; health or healthcare; and nursing. The study design, mobile technology, sample size and clinical outcomes were extracted from each study. A total of 38 studies were selected for review. Seven and six studies were used in meta-analyses for weight and fasting plasma glucose changes respectively. We found that mobile interventions used in nursing have different characteristics compared to those in other disciplines. We also found that mobile interventions in nursing led to significant improvement in weight and glucose control.

  1. Can mental health interventions change social networks? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kimberley; Laxhman, Neelam; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-11-21

    Social networks of patients with psychosis can provide social support, and improve health and social outcomes, including quality of life. However, patients with psychosis often live rather isolated with very limited social networks. Evidence for interventions targeting symptoms or social skills, are largely unsuccessful at improving social networks indirectly. As an alternative, interventions may directly focus on expanding networks. In this systematic review, we assessed what interventions have previously been tested for this and to what extent they have been effective. A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials, testing psychosocial interventions designed to directly increase the social networks of patients with psychosis. Searches of five online databases (PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, Embase), hand searching of grey literature, and both forward and backward snowballing of key papers were conducted and completed on 12 December 2014. Trial reports were included if they were written in English, the social network size was the primary outcome, participants were ≥ 18 years old and diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Five studies (n = 631 patients) met the complete inclusion criteria. Studies were from different countries and published since 2008. Four trials had significant positive results, i.e. an observable increase in patients' social network size at the end of the intervention. The interventions included: guided peer support, a volunteer partner scheme, supported engagement in social activity, dog-assisted integrative psychological therapy and psychosocial skills training. Other important elements featured were the presence of a professional, and a focus on friendships and peers outside of services and the immediate family. Despite the small number and heterogeneity of included studies, the results suggest that interventions directly targeting social isolation can be effective and achieve a meaningful increase

  2. Feasibility of a knowledge translation CME program: Courriels Cochrane.

    PubMed

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guyléne; Frémont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Légaré, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews (Courriels Cochrane) were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants automatically received CME credit for each Courriel Cochrane they rated. The feasibility of this program is reported (delivery, participation, and participant evaluation). We recruited French-speaking physicians through the Canadian Medical Association. Program delivery and participation were documented. Participants rated the informational value of Courriels Cochrane using the Information Assessment Method (IAM), which documented their reflective learning (relevance, cognitive impact, use for a patient, expected health benefits). IAM responses were aggregated and analyzed. The program was delivered as planned. Thirty Courriels Cochrane were delivered to 985 physicians, and 127 (12.9%) completed at least one IAM questionnaire. Out of 1109 Courriels Cochrane ratings, 973 (87.7%) conta-ined 1 or more types of positive cognitive impact, while 835 (75.3%) were clinically relevant. Participants reported the use of information for a patient and expected health benefits in 595 (53.7%) and 569 (51.3%) ratings, respectively. Program delivery required partnering with 5 organizations. Participants valued Courriels Cochrane. IAM ratings documented their reflective learning. The aggregation of IAM ratings documented 3 levels of CME outcomes: participation, learning, and performance. This evaluation study demonstrates the feasibility of the Courriels Cochrane as an approach to further disseminate Cochrane systematic literature reviews to clinicians and document self-reported knowledge translation associated with Cochrane reviews. Copyright © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and

  3. The effectiveness of walking as an intervention for low back pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, P.; Te Wake, A. M.; Tikkisetty, A. S.; Wulff, L.; Yap, C.

    2010-01-01

    As current low back pain (LBP) guidelines do not specifically advocate walking as an intervention, this review has explored for the effectiveness of walking in managing acute and chronic LBP. CINAHL, Medline, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases, as well as a hand search of reference lists of retrieved articles, were searched. The search was restricted to studies in the English language. Studies were included when walking was identified as an intervention. Four studies met inclusion criteria, and were assessed with a quality checklist. Three lower ranked studies reported a reduction in LBP from a walking intervention, while the highest ranked study observed no effect. Heterogeneity of study design made it difficult to draw comparisons between studies. There is only low–moderate evidence for walking as an effective intervention strategy for LBP. Further investigation is required to investigate the strength of effect for walking as a primary intervention in the management of acute and chronic LBP. PMID:20414688

  4. Interventions for nurses' well-being at work: a quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, Johanna; Häggman-Laitila, Arja

    2017-07-01

    To gather, assess and synthesize current research knowledge on the interventions aiming to improve nurses' well-being at work. Previous reviews describe health care professionals' well-being at work from the perspective of burnout. Research on the interventions for and their effectiveness on nurses' well-being at work is sporadic. A quantitative systematic review based on the procedure of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCO, PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus databases were sought from 2009-March 2015. The final data consisted of eight studies described in 10 articles. The study design was RCT in three studies, CBA in three and ITS in two studies. The studies were assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were summarised narratively and displayed in a harvest plot. Two of the six interventions were person-directed, two combined person- and organisation-directed and two organisation-directed interventions. Half of them were mainly targeted at stress management while the others aimed at improving interaction with colleagues, work methods and conditions or at supervision of professional skills. There was a lot variation in the conceptual bases and the use of evaluation measurements in the studies and the interventions were carried out in a heterogeneous way. Moderate evidence was found to support the use of interventions among nurses employed at in-patient and out-patient units in four out of the six interventions. The review pointed out a need for research on standardised interventions on nurses' well-being at work and their effectiveness with long-term follow-ups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. PMID:25862565

  6. [Interventions for improving adherence to treatment in patients with multiple pathologies: overview of systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    González-Bueno, Javier; Vega-Coca, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Pérez, Aitana; Toscano-Guzmán, María Dolores; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Santos-Ramos, Bernardo

    2016-02-01

    To assess the available scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions aimed to enhance medication adherence in patients with multiple chronic conditions (PMCC). Overview of systematic reviews. The following databases were consulted (September 2013): Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CRD and WoS to identify interventions aimed to enhance medication adherence in PMCC, or otherwise, patients with chronic diseases common in the PMCC, or polypharmacy. Systematic reviews of clinical trials focused on PMCC or similar were included. They should compare the efficacy of any intervention aimed to improve compliance to prescribed and self-administered medications with clinical practice or other interventions. Information about the study population, nature of intervention and efficacy in terms of improved adherence was extracted. 566 articles were retrieved of which 9 systematic reviews were included. None was specifically focused on PMCC but considered patients with chronic diseases common in the PMCC, patients with more than one chronic disease and polypharmacy. The overall effectiveness of interventions was modest without relevant differences between behavioural, educational and combined interventions. Some components of these interventions including patient counselling and regimen simplification appear to be effective tools in improving adherence in this population group. There is a large heterogeneity of interventions aimed to improve adherence with modest efficacy, none in PMCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting professional behaviour change in healthcare: what interventions work, and why? A theory-led overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark J; May, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Translating research evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously difficult. Behavioural interventions are often used to change practice, although their success is variable and the characteristics of more successful interventions are unclear. We aimed to establish the characteristics of successful behaviour change interventions in healthcare. Design We carried out a systematic overview of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions with a theory-led analysis using the constructs of normalisation process theory (NPT). MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically from inception to July 2015. Setting Primary and secondary care. Participants Participants were any patients and healthcare professionals in systematic reviews who met the inclusion criteria of having examined the effectiveness of professional interventions in improving professional practice and/or patient outcomes. Interventions Professional interventions as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. Primary and secondary outcome measures Success of each intervention in changing practice or patient outcomes, and their mechanisms of action. Reviews were coded as to the interventions included, how successful they had been and which NPT constructs its component interventions covered. Results Searches identified 4724 articles, 67 of which met the inclusion criteria. Interventions fell into three main categories: persuasive; educational and informational; and action and monitoring. Interventions focusing on action or education (eg, Audit and Feedback, Reminders, Educational Outreach) acted on the NPT constructs of Collective Action and Reflexive Monitoring, and reviews using them tended to report more positive outcomes. Conclusions This theory-led analysis suggests that interventions which contribute to normative restructuring of practice, modifying peer group norms and expectations (eg

  8. Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a review.

    PubMed

    Bien, T H; Miller, W R; Tonigan, J S

    1993-03-01

    Relatively brief interventions have consistently been found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption or achieving treatment referral of problem drinkers. To date, the literature includes at least a dozen randomized trials of brief referral or retention procedures, and 32 controlled studies of brief interventions targeting drinking behavior, enrolling over 6000 problem drinkers in both health care and treatment settings across 14 nations. These studies indicate that brief interventions are more effective than no counseling, and often as effective as more extensive treatment. The outcome literature is reviewed, and common motivational elements of effective brief interventions are described. There is encouraging evidence that the course of harmful alcohol use can be effectively altered by well-designed intervention strategies which are feasible within relatively brief-contact contexts such as primary health care settings and employee assistance programs. Implications for future research and practice are considered.

  9. Nonpharmacologic Intervention on the Prevention of Pain and Anxiety During Pediatric Dental Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Goettems, Marília Leão; Zborowski, Eduardo Jung; Costa, Francine Dos Santos; Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereira; Torriani, Dione Dias

    2017-03-01

    Nonpharmacologic interventions may be used to reduce fear and anxiety during dental treatment. To systematically review trials on the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions in behavior, anxiety, and pain perception in children undergoing dental treatment. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL, Google Scholar, and studies' reference lists. Studies performed with children and adolescents that evaluated the effect of interventions on children's behavior, anxiety, and pain perception during dental treatment were included. Independent quality assessment of the studies was carried out following the classification categories present on the Cochrane Handbook for Development of Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Twenty-two articles, reporting 21 studies, were selected. Most studies tested distraction techniques. Eight studies presented bias and results were not considered. The remaining 13 studies had control groups with inactive controls, and 4 also included a variation of the intervention. Of the 4 studies assessing behavior, 3 found difference between intervention and control. Anxiety was evaluated by 10 studies: 4 found differences between intervention and control and 2 found differences between interventions. Five studies investigated pain perception: 3 found difference comparing active versus inactive interventions. In 1 of the 3, variations in the intervention decreased pain perception. More research is needed to know whether the techniques are effective for improving behavior and reducing children's pain and distress during dental treatment. However, the majority of the techniques improved child's behavior, anxiety, and pain perception. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Maha; Hooper, Lee; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  11. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions for Adult and Pediatric Patients with Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guglani, Loveleen; Atkinson, Sarah; Hosanagar, Avinash; Guglani, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or paradoxical vocal-fold motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. Objectives: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment of patients with VCD/PVFM. Data sources: We searched electronic databases for English medical literature using Pubmed (Medline), PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The date range for our search is from June 1964 to June 2014. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: We included studies that reported the use of psychological interventions in both adults and children diagnosed with VCD/PVFM. We included randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, retrospective chart reviews, prospective case series, and individual case reports. Results: Most reported studies are small case series or individual case reports that have described the use of interventions such as psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, use of anti-anxiety and anti-depressant medications, and hypnotherapy in conjunction with breathing exercises taught by speech therapists for symptomatic relief. Among the various psychological interventions that have been reported, there is no data regarding effectiveness and/or superiority of one approach over another in either adult or pediatric patients. Conclusions: Psychological interventions have a role to play in the management of adult and pediatric patients with VCD/PVFM. Future prospective studies using uniform approaches for treatment of associated psychopathology may help address this question. PMID:25152871

  12. Return to work of breast cancer survivors: a systematic review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer management has improved dramatically in the past three decades and as a result, a population of working age women is breast cancer survivor. Interventions for breast cancer survivors have shown improvements in quality of life and in physical and psychological states. In contrast, efforts aimed at stimulating re-employment and return-to-work interventions for breast cancer survivors have not kept pace. The objective of this review was to study the effects and characteristics of intervention studies on breast cancer survivors in which the outcome was return to work. Methods The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2006), Medline, Ovid, EMBASE and PsychInfo were systematically searched for studies conducted between 1970 to February 2007. Intervention studies for female breast cancer survivors that were focused on return to work were included. Results Our search strategy identified 5219 studies. Four studies out of 100 potentially relevant abstracts were selected and included 46–317 employed women who had had mastectomy, adjuvant therapy and rehabilitation, with the outcome return to work. The intervention programs focused on improvement of physical, psychological and social recovery. Although a substantial percentage (between 75% to 85%) of patients included in these studies returned to work after rehabilitation, it is not clear whether this proportion would have been lower for patients without counseling or exercise, or any other interventions, as three out of four studies did not include a comparison group. Conclusion The most important finding of this review is the lack of methodologically sound intervention studies on breast cancer survivors with the outcome return to work. Using evidence from qualitative and observational studies on cancer and the good results of intervention studies on return to work programs and vocational rehabilitation, return to work interventions for breast cancer survivors should be

  13. Effects of organisational-level interventions at work on employees’ health: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organisational-level workplace interventions are thought to produce more sustainable effects on the health of employees than interventions targeting individual behaviours. However, scientific evidence from intervention studies does not fully support this notion. It is therefore important to explore conditions of positive health effects by systematically reviewing available studies. We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of 39 health-related intervention studies targeting a variety of working conditions. Methods Systematic review. Organisational-level workplace interventions aiming at improving employees’ health were identified in electronic databases and manual searches. The appraisal of studies was adapted from the Cochrane Back Review Group guidelines. To improve comparability of the widely varying studies we classified the interventions according to the main approaches towards modifying working conditions. Based on this classification we applied a logistic regression model to estimate significant intervention effects. Results 39 intervention studies published between 1993 and 2012 were included. In terms of methodology the majority of interventions were of medium quality, and four studies only had a high level of evidence. About half of the studies (19) reported significant effects. There was a marginally significant probability of reporting effects among interventions targeting several organisational-level modifications simultaneously (Odds ratio (OR) 2.71; 95% CI 0.94-11.12), compared to those targeting one dimension only. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the 39 organisational-level workplace interventions underlying this review, we were able to compare their effects by applying broad classification categories. Success rates were higher among more comprehensive interventions tackling material, organisational and work-time related conditions simultaneously. To increase the number of successful organisational-level interventions in the

  14. Promoting professional behaviour change in healthcare: what interventions work, and why? A theory-led overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark J; May, Carl R

    2015-09-30

    Translating research evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously difficult. Behavioural interventions are often used to change practice, although their success is variable and the characteristics of more successful interventions are unclear. We aimed to establish the characteristics of successful behaviour change interventions in healthcare. We carried out a systematic overview of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions with a theory-led analysis using the constructs of normalisation process theory (NPT). MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically from inception to July 2015. Primary and secondary care. Participants were any patients and healthcare professionals in systematic reviews who met the inclusion criteria of having examined the effectiveness of professional interventions in improving professional practice and/or patient outcomes. Professional interventions as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. Success of each intervention in changing practice or patient outcomes, and their mechanisms of action. Reviews were coded as to the interventions included, how successful they had been and which NPT constructs its component interventions covered. Searches identified 4724 articles, 67 of which met the inclusion criteria. Interventions fell into three main categories: persuasive; educational and informational; and action and monitoring. Interventions focusing on action or education (eg, Audit and Feedback, Reminders, Educational Outreach) acted on the NPT constructs of Collective Action and Reflexive Monitoring, and reviews using them tended to report more positive outcomes. This theory-led analysis suggests that interventions which contribute to normative restructuring of practice, modifying peer group norms and expectations (eg, educational outreach) and relational restructuring, reinforcing modified peer group norms by emphasising the

  15. Interventions to improve management of anxiety disorders in general practice: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heideman, Jantien; van Rijswijk, Eric; van Lin, Nieke; de Loos, Sandra; Laurant, Miranda; Wensing, Michel; van de Lisdonk, Eloy; Grol, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common in general practice and are associated with several problems regarding recognition and management. Aim To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving recognition, diagnosis, and management of patients with anxiety disorders. Design of study Systematic review. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Clinical Trials' Register were searched up until 2003. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before/after trials, and interrupted time series for professional, organisational, financial, and regulatory interventions were eligible. Primary effect measures consisted of anxiety outcomes, diagnosis, prescription, and referral. Two reviewers independently made eligibility judgments: eight out of 563 articles were found to be eligible. Two reviewers participated independently in the quality assessment and data extraction process using a standardised form based on the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care checklist. Relative risks or standardised mean differences were calculated when possible. Results Four professional interventions and three organisational interventions were examined. In general, the professional interventions seemed to increase recognition, referral, and prescription as well as improving anxiety outcomes. Two out of three organisational interventions showed a positive effect on anxiety outcomes. The one study that took prescription into account showed no effect. Conclusions The quality of care for patients with anxiety can be improved. A combination of professional and organisational interventions in which an external expert is introduced seems to be most promising. Additional research is nevertheless necessary to determine the exact effects of such interventions using patient effect measures, economic evaluations, and feasibility studies. PMID:16282004

  16. Information technology interventions to improve medication safety in primary care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lainer, Miriam; Mann, Eva; Sönnichsen, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Improving medication safety has become a major topic in all clinical settings. Information technology (IT) can play an important role to prevent adverse drug events (ADEs), but data on the effectiveness of IT interventions are controversial. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review about the effects of IT interventions on medication safety in primary care. PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, handsearching reference lists from full-text articles. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), if interventions based on IT, performed in primary care and outcomes reported on medication safety. Data extraction Study characteristics and outcome data independently extracted by two reviewers. Disagreement resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Out of 3918 studies retrieved, 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Of the six studies evaluating computerized provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS) only 3 studies effectively reduced unsafe prescribing. Both pharmacist-led IT interventions decreased the prescription of potentially inappropriate medication or unsafe prescribing in pregnancy. No reduction of ADEs was achieved by a web program or a TeleWatch system intervention. Only 5 of 10 RCTs revealed a reduction of medication errors. CPOE with CDS was effective if targeted at a limited number of potentially inappropriate medications. The positive results of pharmacist-led IT interventions indicate that IT interventions with inter-professional communication appear to be effective. The unequivocal results of the included RCTs stress the necessity of rigorous evaluation prior to large-scale implementation.

  17. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  18. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. PMID:26861117

  19. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Design Systematic review. Data sources Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled “before and after” experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Results Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of “environmentally friendly” modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Conclusions Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to

  20. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  1. Getting evidence into practice: the work of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of care Group (EPOC).

    PubMed

    Mowatt, G; Grimshaw, J M; Davis, D A; Mazmanian, P E

    2001-01-01

    Policy makers and continuing educators often face difficult decisions about which educational and quality assurance interventions to provide. Where possible, such decisions are best informed by rigorous evidence, such as that provided by systematic reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration is an international organization that aims to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining, and ensuring the accessibility of systematic reviews of the benefits and risks of health care interventions. International collaborative review groups prepare Cochrane reviews for publication in The Cochrane Library, a collection of databases available on CD-ROM and the World Wide Web and updated quarterly. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) aims to prepare and maintain systematic reviews of professional, financial, organizational, and regulatory interventions that are designed to improve professional practice and the delivery of effective health services. EPOC has 17 reviews and 20 protocols published in Issue 3, 2000, of the Cochrane Library, with further protocols in development. We also have undertaken an overview of previously published systematic reviews of professional behavior change strategies. Our specialized register contains details of over 1,800 studies that fall within the group's scope. Systematic reviews provide a valuable source of information for policy makers and educators involved in planning continuing education and quality assurance initiatives and organizational change. EPOC will attempt to keep the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions informed on an ongoing basis about new systematic reviews that it produces in the area of continuing medical education and quality assurance.

  2. Health literacy interventions and outcomes: an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Nancy D; Sheridan, Stacey L; Donahue, Katrina E; Halpern, David J; Viera, Anthony; Crotty, Karen; Holland, Audrey; Brasure, Michelle; Lohr, Kathleen N; Harden, Elizabeth; Tant, Elizabeth; Wallace, Ina; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-03-01

    To update a 2004 systematic review of health care service use and health outcomes related to differences in health literacy level and interventions designed to improve these outcomes for individuals with low health literacy. Disparities in health outcomes and effectiveness of interventions among different sociodemographic groups were also examined. We searched MEDLINE®, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, and the Educational Resources Information Center. For health literacy, we searched using a variety of terms, limited to English and studies published from 2003 to May 25, 2010. For numeracy, we searched from 1966 to May 25, 2010. We used standard Evidence-based Practice Center methods of dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, abstractions, quality ratings, and strength of evidence grading. We resolved disagreements by consensus. We evaluated whether newer literature was available for answering key questions, so we broadened our definition of health literacy to include numeracy and oral (spoken) health literacy. We excluded intervention studies that did not measure health literacy directly and updated our approach to evaluate individual study risk of bias and to grade strength of evidence. We included good- and fair-quality studies: 81 studies addressing health outcomes (reported in 95 articles including 86 measuring health literacy and 16 measuring numeracy, of which 7 measure both) and 42 studies (reported in 45 articles) addressing interventions. Differences in health literacy level were consistently associated with increased hospitalizations, greater emergency care use, lower use of mammography, lower receipt of influenza vaccine, poorer ability to demonstrate taking medications appropriately, poorer ability to interpret labels and health messages, and, among seniors, poorer overall health status and higher mortality. Health literacy level potentially mediates disparities between blacks and

  3. Physiotherapeutic interventions before and after surgery for degenerative lumbar conditions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, S J; McClelland, J A; Davidson, M

    2015-06-01

    Physiotherapeutic management of patients immediately following lumbar spinal surgery is common. However, there is considerable variability in the interventions provided. To assess the effect of peri-operative physiotherapeutic intervention in adults undergoing surgery for the management of degenerative lumbar conditions. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PEDro were searched from inception to August 2012. Randomised controlled trials investigating physiotherapeutic interventions prior to and immediately following surgery for degenerative lumbar conditions were included. Two reviewers extracted data independently using a standardised form. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach, and the treatment effect size was calculated where comparable outcome measures were used across multiple trials. Four studies were included. There is very-low-quality evidence that pre- and post-operative exercise in addition to standard physiotherapeutic care may reduce pain, time taken to achieve post-operative functional milestones, and post-operative time off work. Results from one study indicated that there is no clear benefit or risk of harm from performing either prone or side-lying transfers. Very-low-quality evidence suggests that physiotherapy may improve pain and function following lumbar surgery. Due to low numbers of included studies and variation in the interventions assessed, the current evidence provides limited guidance for physiotherapeutic practice. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapeutic interventions in this population. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    PubMed

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  5. First-episode genital herpes: interventions for men and women.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Lisa

    2017-01-25

    The mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and healthcare professionals who deliver, lead or research nursing care. The CNCF produces Cochrane Corner columns, summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-related journals. Information on the processes CNCF has developed can be accessed at: cncf.cochrane.org/evidence-transfer-program-review-summaries. This is a Cochrane review summary of: Heslop R, Roberts H, Flower D et al ( 2016 ) Interventions for men and women with their first episode of genital herpes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 8. CD010684. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010684.pub2.

  6. Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms - comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 "black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)".

    PubMed

    Beer, André-M; Osmers, Rüdiger; Schnitker, Jörg; Bai, Wenpei; Mueck, Alfred O; Meden, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Menopausal symptoms management with high-quality plant extracts from Actaea (Cimicifuga. racemosa rootstock is well-established. Efficacy and safety are supported by research and clinical trials since several decades and backed up by official monographs. However, the recent published Cochrane review on black cohosh neglects major evidence for beneficial effects. The authors' negative conclusions are questionable and call for reply and clarification. Our careful reconsideration of all appropriate placebo-controlled clinical studies reveals a standardized mean difference of 0.385 in favor of black cohosh (p < 0.0001).

  7. Choice of primary outcomes in randomised trials and systematic reviews evaluating interventions for preterm birth prevention: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meher, S; Alfirevic, Z

    2014-09-01

    The inappropriate and inconsistent selection of primary outcomes (POs) in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) can make evidence difficult to interpret, limiting its usefulness to inform clinical practice. To systematically review the choice and consistency of POs in RCTs and SRs of preventative interventions for preterm birth. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Specialised Register of trials and a full list of published reviews and protocols. Full reports of RCTs for preterm birth prevention published after CONSORT (January 1997-January 2011), and Cochrane Reviews and protocols relevant to preterm birth prevention, for the same period. For RCTs, the PO was the outcome used for sample size calculation. For SRs, we included all outcomes listed as 'primary'. Two review authors selected studies and double-checked the data for accuracy. Seventy-two different POs were reported by 103 RCTs. The three most common POs were based on length of gestation, with preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation being the most common (18/103, 18%). Few RCTs chose perinatal morbidity (4/103) or mortality (1/103), or their composites (5/103), as POs. In 33 Cochrane Reviews, 29 different POs were reported. The three most common POs were based on death or morbidity in the baby, with death of the baby being the most common (22/33, 67%). POs were variably defined. There is a lack of consistency in the choice and definitions of POs in clinical research related to preterm birth prevention. SRs are more likely to report morbidity and mortality as POs, whereas RCTs tend to use length of gestation. Researchers are urged to review the outcomes reported in RCTs and SRs in their respective areas of interest to highlight discrepancies and facilitate the development of core outcome sets. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute's hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms

  9. Non-Surgical Interventions for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers

  10. Impact of interventions to improve the quality of peer review of biomedical journals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Rachel; Chauvin, Anthony; Trinquart, Ludovic; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-06-10

    The peer review process is a cornerstone of biomedical research. We aimed to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve the quality of peer review for biomedical publications. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and WHO ICTRP databases, for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the impact of interventions to improve the quality of peer review for biomedical publications. We selected 22 reports of randomized controlled trials, for 25 comparisons evaluating training interventions (n = 5), the addition of a statistical peer reviewer (n = 2), use of a checklist (n = 2), open peer review (i.e., peer reviewers informed that their identity would be revealed; n = 7), blinded peer review (i.e., peer reviewers blinded to author names and affiliation; n = 6) and other interventions to increase the speed of the peer review process (n = 3). Results from only seven RCTs were published since 2004. As compared with the standard peer review process, training did not improve the quality of the peer review report and use of a checklist did not improve the quality of the final manuscript. Adding a statistical peer review improved the quality of the final manuscript (standardized mean difference (SMD), 0.58; 95 % CI, 0.19 to 0.98). Open peer review improved the quality of the peer review report (SMD, 0.14; 95 % CI, 0.05 to 0.24), did not affect the time peer reviewers spent on the peer review (mean difference, 0.18; 95 % CI, -0.06 to 0.43), and decreased the rate of rejection (odds ratio, 0.56; 95 % CI, 0.33 to 0.94). Blinded peer review did not affect the quality of the peer review report or rejection rate. Interventions to increase the speed of the peer review process were too heterogeneous to allow for pooling the results. Despite the essential role of peer review, only a few interventions have been assessed in randomized controlled

  11. Systematic review of educational interventions for ostomates.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Uma R; Li, Linda T; Karanjawala, Burzeen; Chang, George J; Kao, Lillian S

    2014-04-01

    Stoma-related complications lead to increased hospital length of stay and readmissions. Although education of new ostomates is widely recommended, there is a lack of data regarding effective evidence-based educational interventions to prevent or decrease these complications. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for educational interventions for new ostomates designed to decrease stoma-related complications. PubMed was searched for studies on educational interventions for new ostomates. Studies were included if they were in English, targeted adult stoma patients, and evaluated an educational intervention at the time of stoma creation. Educational interventions were performed. The outcomes of interest were length of stay, complications, and readmissions. We found 1706 articles of which 7 met the inclusion criteria. Two were randomized controlled trials, and the rest were cohort studies. The overall quality of the studies was low. Each study used a unique intervention. However, all incorporated a specialized colorectal or ostomy nurse. Of the 5 studies that evaluated length of stay, 2 found a reduction in length of stay associated with the intervention, but 3 found no difference. Two studies found a reduction in complications, but 2 found no difference. Of the 3 studies that evaluated readmissions, none found a difference in the intervention group compared with the control group. This study is limited by the search of a single database and the inclusion of only English language studies. Education is a key component of patient care; however, evidence to support an improvement in clinical outcomes is lacking. Further study is needed by the use of rigorous designs to craft a feasible educational intervention that will lead to improved patient care and outcomes.

  12. EARLY INTERVENTIONS FOR PTSD: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Megan C.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Zatzick, Doug; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of trauma exposure and subsequent negative consequences for both survivors and society as a whole emphasize the need for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, clinicians and relief workers remain limited in their ability to intervene effectively in the aftermath of trauma and alleviate traumatic stress reactions that can lead to chronic PTSD. The scientific literature on early intervention for PTSD is reviewed, including early studies on psychological debriefing, pharmacological, and psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing chronic PTSD. Studies on fear extinction and memory consolidation are discussed in relation to PTSD prevention and the potential importance of immediate versus delayed intervention approaches and genetic predictors are briefly reviewed. Preliminary results from a modified prolonged exposure intervention applied within hours of trauma exposure in an emergency room setting are discussed, along with considerations related to intervention reach and overall population impact. Suggestions for future research are included. Prevention of PTSD, although currently not yet a reality, remains an exciting and hopeful possibility with current research approaches translating work from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:22941845

  13. A systematic review of parenting interventions for parents of children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lohan, A; Morawska, A; Mitchell, A

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the parenting intervention literature for parents of children aged 2-10 years (mean age <10 years) with type 1 diabetes and to evaluate intervention efficacy in improving a range of parent, family and child outcomes. The present review de-emphasizes the traditional medical approach to illness management summarized in previous reviews and focuses on parenting factors identified in the literature as important to diabetes management. This review article is important as it outlines the present state of parenting intervention literature for this population. Electronic searches were conducted for seven databases (Cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, The Cochrane library and Web of Science) from their start dates until April 2014. Reference lists of all included papers were also searched for potentially relevant articles. Seven papers, representing six studies, met the inclusion criteria. Three studies primarily focused on improving parenting practices. The intervention programmes described in the remaining studies comprised multiple components; thus, it is difficult to establish the contribution of the parenting components to improving outcomes. Parenting interventions may help to improve responsibility sharing and cooperation in diabetes management, child behaviour difficulties, parental behaviour, parents' psychological distress and child health outcomes. This review suggests the need for further well-designed trials of parenting interventions to determine their specific contribution to improving outcomes for this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rehabilitation interventions for postintensive care syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Juliane; Freytag, Antje; Schmidt, Konrad; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Graf, Juergen; Troitzsch, Ute; Schlattmann, Peter; Wensing, Michel; Gensichen, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    An increasing number of ICU patients survive and develop mental, cognitive, or physical impairments. Various interventions support recovery from this postintensive care syndrome. Physicians in charge of post-ICU patients need to know which interventions are effective. Systematic literature search in databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycInfo, CINAHL; 1991-2012), reference lists, and hand search. We included comparative studies of rehabilitation interventions in adult post-ICU patients if they considered health-related quality of life, frequency/severity of postintensive care syndrome symptoms, functional recovery, need for care, autonomy in activities of daily living, mortality, or hospital readmissions. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias independently. From 4,761 publications, 18 studies with 2,510 patients were included. Studies addressed 20 outcomes, using 45 measures, covering inpatient (n = 4 trials), outpatient (n = 9), and mixed (n = 5) healthcare settings. Eight controlled trials with moderate to high quality were considered for evaluation of effectiveness. They investigated inpatient geriatric rehabilitation, ICU follow-up clinic, outpatient rehabilitation, disease management, and ICU diaries. Five of these trials assessed posttraumatic stress disorder, with four trials showing positive effects: first, ICU diaries reduced new-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (5% vs 13%, p = 0.02) after 3 months and second showed a lower mean Impact of Event Scale-Revised score (21.0 vs 32.1, p = 0.03) after 12 months. Third, aftercare by ICU follow-up clinic reduced Impact of Event Scale for women (20 vs 31; p < 0.01). Fourth, a self-help manual led to fewer patients scoring high in the Impact of Event Scale after 8 weeks (p = 0.026) but not after 6 months. For none of the other outcomes did more than one study report positive impacts. Interventions which have substantial effects in post-ICU patients are rare. Positive effects were seen

  15. Involvement of informal caregivers in supporting patients with COPD: a review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jamie; Mansfield, Elise; Boyes, Allison W; Waller, Amy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Regan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of individuals with COPD have a key role in maintaining patient adherence and optimizing patient function. However, no systematic review has examined how the caregiver role has been operationalized in interventions to improve outcomes of individuals with COPD or the quality or effectiveness of these interventions. The aims of this review were to 1) determine whether caregivers have been involved as part of interventions to improve outcomes of individuals with COPD; 2) determine the risk of bias within included intervention studies; and 3) examine the effectiveness of interventions that have involved caregivers in improving outcomes of individuals with COPD. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 to November 2015. Experimental studies testing interventions that involved a caregiver to improve COPD patient outcomes were eligible. Nine studies involving caregivers met inclusion criteria. No studies reported any intervention components targeted solely at caregivers, with most instead including caregivers in dyadic or group education sessions about COPD delivered by health care professionals. The risk of bias identified in included studies was mixed. Seven of the nine studies were effective in improving a broad range of outcomes. These findings highlight that there is an urgent need for methodologically rigorous interventions to examine the effectiveness of strategies to assist caregivers to provide direct care, encourage adherence to health care provider recommendations, act as a health care advocate, and provide emotional and psychosocial support to individuals with COPD. PMID:27478372

  16. Which Intervention Characteristics are Related to More Exposure to Internet-Delivered Healthy Lifestyle Promotion Interventions? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet has become a popular medium for the delivery of tailored healthy lifestyle promoting interventions. The actual reach of Internet-delivered interventions seems, however, lower than expected, and attrition from interventions is generally high. Characteristics of an intervention, such as personally tailored feedback and goal setting, are thought to be among the important factors related to of use of and exposure to interventions. However, there is no systematic overview of which characteristics of Internet-delivered interventions may be related to more exposure. Objective The present study aims to identify (1) which potentially exposure-promoting methods and strategies are used in existing Internet interventions, (2) which objective outcome measures are used to measure exposure to Internet interventions, and (3) which potentially exposure-promoting methods and strategies are associated with better exposure. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Cochrane guidelines. Papers published between 1995 and 2009 were searched in the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases. In total, 64 studies were included that reported objective exposure measures such as completion of an initial visit, number of log-ins, and time spent on the website. Information about intervention-related characteristics (ie, interactive behavior change strategies, interactive elements for fun, peer or counsel support, email/phone contact, and regular updates of the website) that could potentially contribute to better exposure and objective exposure outcomes were abstracted from the studies and qualitative systematic descriptive analyses were performed. Results The results showed that a large variety of behavior change techniques and other exposure-promoting elements were used in the interventions and that these methods and strategies varied for the various lifestyle behaviors. Feedback, interactive elements, and email/phone contact were used

  17. Evidence-Based Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jennifer; Vollenweider, Daniela; Galusca, Dragos; Smith, Thomas J.; Pronovost, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Over the last 20 years, multiple interventions to better integrate palliative care and intensive care unit (ICU) care have been evaluated. This systematic review summarizes these studies and their outcomes. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science; performed a search of articles published by opinion leaders in the field; and reviewed hand-search articles as of August 13, 2012. The terms “palliative care” and “intensive care unit” were mapped to MeSH subject headings and “exploded.” We included trials of adult patients that evaluated an ICU intervention and addressed Robert Wood Johnson group-identified domains of high-quality end-of-life care in the ICU. We excluded case series, editorials, and review articles. We compared two types of interventions, integrative and consultative, focusing on the outcomes of patient and family satisfaction, mortality, and ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), because these were most prevalent among studies. Results: Our search strategy yielded 3328 references, of which we included 37 publications detailing 30 unique interventions. Interventions and outcome measures were heterogeneous, and many studies were underpowered and/or subject to multiple biases. Most of the interventions resulted in a decrease in hospital and ICU LOS. Few interventions significantly affected satisfaction. With one exception, the interventions decreased or had no effect on mortality. There was no evidence of harm from any intervention. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of interventions made comparison of ICU-based palliative care interventions difficult. However, existing evidence suggests proactive palliative care in the ICU, using either consultative or integrative palliative care interventions, decrease hospital and ICU LOS, do not affect satisfaction, and either decrease or do not affect mortality. PMID:24517300

  18. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  19. A systematic review of midwife-led interventions to address post partum post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Borg Cunen, Nicole; McNeill, Jenny; Murray, Karen

    2014-02-01

    to systematically identify interventions that midwives could introduce to address post-traumatic stress in women following childbirth. a search strategy was developed and relevant papers were identified from databases including Cinahl, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Maternity and Infant Care, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Key search terms used were post-traumatic stress, post partum, intervention, controlled trial and review. Papers eligible for inclusion were primary studies and reviews of research published from 2002-2012, focusing on interventions which could be implemented by midwives for the prevention and/or management of PTSD. For primary studies, RCTs, controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies with a control group were eligible. Eligible reviews were those with a specified search strategy and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using recognised frameworks. six primary studies and eight reviews were eligible for inclusion. The majority of included studies or reviews focused on debriefing and/or counselling interventions; however the results were not consistent due to significant variation in methodological quality and use of dissimilar interventions. Two of the reviews considered the general management of post partum PTSD and one broadly covered anxiety during pregnancy and the post partum, incorporating a section on PTSD. The majority of women reported that the opportunity to discuss their childbirth experience was subjectively beneficial. no evidence-based midwifery interventions were identified from this systematic review that can be recommended for introduction into practice to address PTSD. It is recommended that future research in this area should incorporate standardised interventions with similar outcome measures to facilitate synthesis of results. Further research on interventions used in non-maternity populations is needed in order to confirm their usefulness in addressing post partum PTSD. © 2013 Elsevier

  20. An overview of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration says that the Cochrane handbook for diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTAR) is currently in development as per the Cochrane Collaboration. This implies that the methodology of systematic reviews (SR) of diagnostic test accuracy is still a matter of debate. At this point, comparison of methodologies for SR in case of interventions as against diagnostics would be helpful to understand DTAR.

  1. Overview of systematic reviews: Effective home support in dementia care, components and impacts-Stage 1, psychosocial interventions for dementia.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Paul; Hughes, Jane; Xie, Chengqiu; Larbey, Matthew; Roe, Brenda; Giebel, Clarissa M; Jolley, David; Challis, David

    2017-06-16

    To synthesize evidence to identify the components of effective psychosocial interventions in dementia care to inform clinical practice, policy and research. With population ageing, dementia represents a significant care challenge with 60% of people with dementia living at home. Overview of systematic reviews with narrative summary. Electronic searches of published systematic reviews in English using Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and EPPI-Centre, between September 2013 - April 2014. Systematic reviews were appraised against Cochrane Collaboration levels of effectiveness. Components of psychosocial interventions were identified with their theoretical rationale. Findings were explored with a Patient, Public and Carer Involvement group. Thirty-six systematic reviews were included. From interventions, 14 components were identified, nine for people with dementia and five for carers, mostly undertaken in nursing/care homes. For people with dementia, there was evidence of effectiveness for cognitive stimulation and cognitive training, but less evidence for sensory stimulation, reminiscence, staff education, behavioural therapy and ADL training. For carers, there was evidence of effectiveness for education and training, psychotherapy and counselling. There was a lack of definitive evidence of effectiveness for most psychosocial interventions. Further studies with stronger methodology or replication of existing studies would strengthen the evidence base. Few interventions were undertaken with people with dementia and their carers living at home. Further work will investigate the extent to which components identified here are present in models of home support for people with dementia and carers and their effectiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Clinical interventions in overweight and obesity: a systematic literature review 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Rajmil, Luis; Bel, Joan; Clofent, Rosa; Cabezas, Carmen; Castell, Conxa; Espallargues, Mireia

    2017-04-01

    To update the literature review on the effectiveness of clinical interventions on childhood obesity, proposed in Clinical Practice Guidelines, excluding prevention and pharmacological and surgical treatments. A systematic review was carried out in electronic databases of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, and SCOPUS, replicating the search for the Clinical Practice Guidelines, from 2009 to 2014. The Clinical Practice Guidelines of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence were taken as a reference. Systematic reviews were given priority, and the quality of the studies was assessed. Out of a total of 3,703 documents initially identified, 48 were finally included. Studies showed great heterogeneity in the type and duration of interventions, and in outcome measures. Adherence to treatment was, in general, low. Multi-component interventions including diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and behaviour changes, involving the family, and starting at early ages, were the most effective for reducing body mass index. There is no consensus on criteria for referral to specialised care. It is recommended to implement multi-component programs conducted by professionals with previous training, involving the family, and addressing behavioural, individual and socio-demographic aspects. Lack of adherence is one of the reasons for failure of interventions. Diagnostic and referral criteria, the outcome measures, and the type and duration of interventions need to be improved and standardised. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Commentary on 'interventions for promoting re-integration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people' with a response from the review authors.

    PubMed

    Christian, Rahila U

    2013-07-01

    This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in the issue of EBCH, first published as: Coren E, Hossain R, Pardo Pardo J, Veras MMS, Chakraborty K, Harris H, Martin AJ. Interventions for promoting re-integration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD009823. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009823.pub2. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of Preventive Interventions in Mentally Ill Parents on the Mental Health of the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…

  5. Effect of Preventive Interventions in Mentally Ill Parents on the Mental Health of the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…

  6. Review of Veterans Health Administration telemedicine interventions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert D; Luptak, Marilyn K; Rupper, Randall W; Bair, Byron; Peterson, Cherie; Dailey, Nancy; Hicken, Bret L

    2010-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a leader in developing and implementing innovative healthcare technology. We review 19 exemplary peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 of controlled, VHA-supported telemedicine intervention trials that focused on health outcomes. These trials underscore the role of telemedicine in large managed healthcare organizations in support of (1) chronic disease management, (2) mental health service delivery through in-home monitoring and treatment, and (3) interdisciplinary team functioning through electronic medical record information interchange. Telemedicine is advantageous when ongoing monitoring of patient symptoms is needed, as in chronic disease care (eg, for diabetes) or mental health treatment. Telemedicine appears to enhance patient access to healthcare professionals and provides quick access to patient medical information. The sustainability of telemedicine interventions for the broad spectrum of veteran patient issues and the ongoing technology training of patients and providers are challenges to telemedicine-delivered care.

  7. Interventions to improve real-world walking after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Caroline M; Mudge, Suzie; Kayes, Nicola M; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of current interventions to improve real-world walking for people with stroke and specifically whether benefits are sustained. EBSCO Megafile, AMED, Cochrane, Scopus, PEDRO, OTSeeker and Psychbite databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Proximity searching with keywords such as ambulat*, walk*, gait, mobility*, activit* was used. Randomized controlled trials that used measures of real-world walking were included. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and extracted the data. Nine studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified, most of high quality. A positive effect overall was found indicating a small effect of interventions on real-world walking (SMD 0.29 (0.17, 0.41)). Five studies provided follow-up data at >3-6 months, which demonstrated sustained benefits (SMD 0.32 (0.16, 0.48)). Subgroup analysis revealed studies using exercise alone were not effective (SMD 0.19 (-0.11, 0.49)), but those incorporating behavioural change techniques (SMD 0.27 (0.12, 0.41)) were. A small but significant effect was found for current interventions and benefits can be sustained. Interventions that include behaviour change techniques appear more effective at improving real-world walking habits than exercise alone.

  8. Music-based interventions in palliative cancer care: a review of quantitative studies and neurobiological literature.

    PubMed

    Archie, Patrick; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to review quantitative literature pertaining to studies of music-based interventions in palliative cancer care and to review the neurobiological literature that may bare relevance to the findings from these studies. A narrative review was performed, with particular emphasis on RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. The Cochrane Library, Ovid, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and ProQuest were searched for the subject headings music, music therapy, cancer, oncology, palliative care, pain, anxiety, depression, mood, quality of life, prevalence, neuroscience, functional imaging, endogenous opioids, GABA, 5HT, dopamine, and permutations of these same search terms. Data for the review were comprised of articles published between 1970 and 2012. References of all the cited articles were also reviewed. Available evidence suggests that music-based interventions may have a positive impact on pain, anxiety, mood disturbance, and quality of life in cancer patients. Advances in neurobiology may provide insight into the potential mechanisms by which music impacts these outcomes. More research is needed to determine what subpopulation of cancer patients is most likely to respond to music-based interventions, what interventions are most effective for individual outcomes, and what measurement parameters best gauge their effectiveness.

  9. The efficacy and safety of treatments for acute gout: results from a series of systematic literature reviews including Cochrane reviews on intraarticular glucocorticoids, colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and interleukin-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wechalekar, Mihir D; Vinik, Ophir; Moi, John H Y; Sivera, Francisca; van Echteld, Irene A A M; van Durme, Caroline; Falzon, Louise; Bombardier, Claire; Carmona, Loreto; Aletaha, Daniel; Landewé, Robert B; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids (GC), colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, and paracetamol to treat acute gout. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to September 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT in adults with acute gout that compared GC, colchicine, NSAID, IL-1 inhibitors, and paracetamol to no treatment, placebo, another intervention, or combination therapy were included. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary endpoints were pain and adverse events. Data were pooled where appropriate. Twenty-six trials evaluating GC (N = 5), NSAID (N = 21), colchicine (N = 2), and canakinumab (N = 1) were included. No RCT assessed paracetamol or intraarticular (IA) GC. No RCT compared systemic GC with placebo. Moderate quality evidence (3 trials) concluded that systemic GC were as effective as NSAID but safer. Low quality evidence (1 trial) showed that both high- and low-dose colchicine were more effective than placebo, and low-dose colchicine was no different to placebo with respect to safety but safer than high-dose colchicine. Low quality evidence (1 trial) showed no difference between NSAID and placebo with regard to pain or inflammation. No NSAID was superior to another. Moderate quality evidence (1 trial) found that 150 mg canakinumab was more effective than a single dose of intramuscular GC (40 mg triamcinolone) and equally safe. GC, NSAID, low-dose colchicine, and canakinumab all effectively treat acute gout. There was insufficient evidence to rank them. Systemic GC appeared safer than NSAID and lower-dose colchicine was safer than higher-dose colchicine.

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Endovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, L. W.; Bakker, C. J. G.

    2003-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventional radiological procedures, such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement or coiling of aneurysms, play an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients suffering from vascular disease. The non-destructive nature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its ability to combine the acquisition of high quality anatomical images and functional information, such as blood flow velocities, perfusion and diffusion, together with its inherent three dimensionality and tomographic imaging capacities, have been advocated as advantages of using the MRI technique for guidance of endovascular radiological interventions. Within this light, endovascular interventional MRI has emerged as an interesting and promising new branch of interventional radiology. In this review article, the authors will give an overview of the most important issues related to this field. In this context, we will focus on the prerequisites for endovascular interventional MRI to come to maturity. In particular, the various approaches for device tracking that were proposed will be discussed and categorized. Furthermore, dedicated MRI systems, safety and compatibility issues and promising applications that could become clinical practice in the future will be discussed.

  11. Interventions to Improve Neonatal Health and Later Survival: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Middleton, Philippa F; Crowther, Caroline; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    Evidence-based interventions and strategies are needed to improve child survival in countries with a high burden of neonatal and child mortality. An overview of systematic reviews can focus implementation on the most effective ways to increase child survival. In this overview we included published Cochrane and other systematic reviews of experimental and observational studies on antenatal, childbirth, postnatal and child health interventions aiming to prevent perinatal/neonatal and child mortality using the WHO list of essential interventions. We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR criteria and assessed the quality of the outcomes using the GRADE approach. Based on the findings from GRADE criteria, interventions were summarized as effective, promising or ineffective. The overview identified 148 Cochrane and other systematic reviews on 61 reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Of these, only 57 reviews reported mortality outcomes. Using the GRADE approach, antenatal corticosteroids for preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants; early initiation of breastfeeding; hygienic cord care; kangaroo care for preterm infants; provision and promotion of use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) for children; and vitamin A supplementation for infants from six months of age, were identified as clearly effective interventions for reducing neonatal, infant or child mortality. Antenatal care, tetanus immunization in pregnancy, prophylactic antimalarials during pregnancy, induction of labour for prolonged pregnancy, case management of neonatal sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia, prophylactic and therapeutic use of surfactant, continuous positive airway pressure for neonatal resuscitation, case management of childhood malaria and pneumonia, vitamin A as part of treatment for measles associated pneumonia for children above 6 months, and home visits across the continuum of care, were identified as

  12. Interventions to Improve Neonatal Health and Later Survival: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Zohra S.; Middleton, Philippa F.; Crowther, Caroline; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based interventions and strategies are needed to improve child survival in countries with a high burden of neonatal and child mortality. An overview of systematic reviews can focus implementation on the most effective ways to increase child survival. Methods In this overview we included published Cochrane and other systematic reviews of experimental and observational studies on antenatal, childbirth, postnatal and child health interventions aiming to prevent perinatal/neonatal and child mortality using the WHO list of essential interventions. We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR criteria and assessed the quality of the outcomes using the GRADE approach. Based on the findings from GRADE criteria, interventions were summarized as effective, promising or ineffective. Findings The overview identified 148 Cochrane and other systematic reviews on 61 reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Of these, only 57 reviews reported mortality outcomes. Using the GRADE approach, antenatal corticosteroids for preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants; early initiation of breastfeeding; hygienic cord care; kangaroo care for preterm infants; provision and promotion of use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) for children; and vitamin A supplementation for infants from six months of age, were identified as clearly effective interventions for reducing neonatal, infant or child mortality. Antenatal care, tetanus immunization in pregnancy, prophylactic antimalarials during pregnancy, induction of labour for prolonged pregnancy, case management of neonatal sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia, prophylactic and therapeutic use of surfactant, continuous positive airway pressure for neonatal resuscitation, case management of childhood malaria and pneumonia, vitamin A as part of treatment for measles associated pneumonia for children above 6 months, and home visits across the continuum of

  13. A systematic review of Internet-based supportive interventions for caregivers of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Boots, L M M; de Vugt, M E; van Knippenberg, R J M; Kempen, G I J M; Verhey, F R J

    2014-04-01

    Because of the expected increase in the number of dementia patients, the unlikelihood of a cure in the near future, and the rising cost of care, there is an increasing need for effective caregiver interventions. Internet interventions hold considerable promise for meeting the educational and support needs of informal dementia caregivers at reduced costs. The current study aims to provide an overview of the evidence for the effectiveness, feasibility, and quality of Internet interventions for informal caregivers of people with dementia. A systematic literature search of five scientific databases was performed, covering literature published up to 10 January 2013. Twelve studies were identified. The quality of the included studies was assessed according to the Cochrane level of evidence and the criteria list of the Cochrane Back Review Group. The intervention types, dosage, and duration differed widely, as did the methodological quality of the included studies. The overall level of evidence was low. However, the results demonstrate that Internet interventions for informal dementia caregivers can improve various aspects of caregiver well-being, for example, confidence, depression, and self-efficacy, provided they comprise multiple components and are tailored to the individual. Furthermore, caregivers could benefit from interaction with a coach and other caregivers. Internet interventions for informal dementia caregivers may improve caregiver well-being. However, the available supporting evidence lacks methodological quality. More randomized controlled studies assessing interventions performed according to protocol are needed to give stronger statements about the effects of supportive Internet interventions and their most promising elements. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Preventive interventions for tendinopathy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-03-01

    Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been investigated. The main objective of this study is to review current preventive interventions for tendinopathy in the major regions: ankle, knee, hip, groin, shoulder and elbow. A systematic literature search was conducted. The PubMed and Embase databases were explored to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The included studies were assessed on methodological quality and data was summarized. Ten articles were included that describe a wide variety of preventive interventions. These were divided into three categories: stretch and exercise interventions, shoe adaptations and other interventions. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Three out of ten studies showed a significant beneficial result. There is limited evidence that a long-term intervention including balance training is effective in the prevention of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. Shoe adaptations in the form of shock absorbing insoles could have a preventive effect on Achilles tendinopathy. Hormone replacement therapy seems to reduce the risk for structural Achilles tendon changes in active post-menopausal women. No evidence was found for a positive effect of stretching exercises. Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can increase the risk of injury in asymptomatic players with patellar tendon abnormalities. A limited amount of studies was available and more research is needed on (multifactorial) etiology, risk factors and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Theory based interventions for caries related sugar intake in adults: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al Rawahi, Said Hartih; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Jonathon Timothy

    2017-07-25

    Theories of behavior change are essential in the design of effective behaviour change strategies. No studies have assessed the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories to reduce sugar intake related to dental caries. The study assessed the effect of interventions based on Social Congition Models (SCMs) on sugar intake in adults, when compared with educational interventions or no intervention. A range of papers were considered: Systematic review Systematic Reviews with or without Meta Analyses; Randomised Controlled Trials; Controlled Clinical Trials and Before and after studies, of interventions based on Social Cognition Models aimed at dietary intake of sugar in adults. The Cochrane database including: Oral Health Group's Trials Register (2015), MEDLINE (from 1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (from 1980 to September 2015), PsycINFO (from 1966 to September 2015) were searched. No article met the full eligibility criteria for the current systematic review so no articles were included. There is a need for more clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theory in reducing dietary sugar intake among adults. PROSPERO: CRD42015026357 .

  16. Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Are Practice Guidelines Based on Systematic Reviews?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Topic Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? Clinical relevance High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We have examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Methods Eligible publications are systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision and employed no language or date restrictions; the database is up-to-date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as “reliable” when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, appraisal of methodological quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns (AAO PPP) for AMD to the identified systematic reviews and assessed whether any reliable systematic review was cited or could have been cited to support each treatment recommendation. Results Of 1,570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the systematic reviews targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements or photodynamic therapy. We classified over two-thirds (33/47) of the reports as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often for Cochrane reviews and for reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Although most systematic reviews were reliable, anti

  17. New mothers and postpartum depression: a narrative review of peer support intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Leger, Joni; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious maternal mental health issue that negatively impacts new mothers and their infants. Various interventions have been studied and one that has shown promise is social support delivered by peers. Understanding what previous studies on peer support interventions have found will contribute to the development and implementation of future peer support interventions for women with PPD. To this end, a systematic search and narrative review of studies that investigated peer support interventions for PPD was conducted. Relevant studies were identified using CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library published between 2000 and 2010. Six studies matching inclusion criteria were reviewed. Each of the studies had specific selection criteria and some used screening tools for recruitment. There were differences regarding the criteria for volunteers. All volunteers participated in some form of training and had support from a co-ordinator. Interventions varied in terms of length and nature of support offered, frequency and mode of delivery. Volunteers reported positively on their experience, although there were some challenges in providing support. Overall findings suggest that interventions should be targeted and take into consideration the age of the mother, any cultural and linguistic differences, the mother's circumstances and her needs. All volunteers should receive training before providing support and be screened for their ability to commit their time. Although the results were mixed, they provide insights into how peer support volunteers can be an innovative part of a team approach to PPD intervention.

  18. Emergency department-based interventions for women suffering domestic abuse: a critical literature review.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sereena; Boyle, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Domestic abuse represents a serious public health and human rights concern. Interventions to reduce the risk of abuse include staff training and standardized documentation improving detection and adherence to referral pathways. Interventional studies have been conducted in primary care, maternity and outpatient settings. Women disclosing abuse in emergency departments differ from women attending other healthcare settings, and it is unclear whether these interventions can be transferred to the emergency care setting. This review examines interventional studies to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency department-based interventions in reducing domestic abuse-related morbidity. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched, according to prespecified selection criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 273 search results, nine were eligible for review. Interventions involving staff training demonstrated benefits in subjective measures, such as staff knowledge regarding abuse, but no changes in clinical practice, based on detection and referral rates. When staff training was implemented in conjunction with supporting system changes - for example, standardized documentation for assessment and referral - clinically relevant improvements were noted. Interventions centred around staff training are insufficient to bring about improvements in the management and, thus, outcome of patients suffering abuse. Instead, system changes, such as standardized documentation and referral pathways, supported by training, may bring about beneficial changes. It remains uncertain whether surrogate outcomes employed by most studies translate to changes in abuse-related morbidity: the ultimate goal.

  19. An integrative literature review of interventions to reduce violence against emergency department nurses.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Linda; FitzGerald, Mary; Luck, Lauretta

    2010-09-01

    To critique the evidence that underpins interventions intended to minimise workplace violence directed against emergency department nurses, to inform researchers and policy makers regarding the design, development, implementation and evaluation of emergency nursing anti-violence and counter-violence interventions. Workplace violence perpetrated against emergency department nurses is at least continuing and at worst increasing. Occupational violence has detrimental effects on job satisfaction, retention and recruitment, and the quality and cost of patient care. An integrated literature review. Searches of the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE and the Joanna Briggs Institute between 1986-May 2007. Included articles were appraised and then synthesised into a narrative summary. Ten primary research studies were included. Interventions were classified as environmental, practices and policies, or skills. While each study has useful information regarding the implementation of interventions, there is no strong evidence for their efficacy. The weight of effort is still directed towards defining the phenomenon rather than addressing solutions. Studies that assessed the efficacy of a single intervention failed to take account of context; and participatory context-driven studies failed to provide generalisable evidence. Concerted multi-site and multi-disciplinary, action-oriented research studies are urgently needed to provide an evidence base for the prevention and mitigation of violence perpetrated against emergency department nurses. The investigation of interventions rather than repeatedly redefining the problem and directing resources into debating semantics or differentiating 'degrees' of violence and aggression is recommended. This review unambiguously identifies the gap in research-based interventions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The effectiveness of self-management support interventions for men with long-term conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Galdas, Paul; Fell, Jennifer; Bower, Peter; Kidd, Lisa; Blickem, Christian; McPherson, Kerri; Hunt, Kate; Gilbody, Simon; Richardson, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of self-management support interventions in men with long-term conditions. Methods A quantitative systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify published reviews of self-management support interventions. Relevant reviews were screened to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of self-management support interventions conducted in men alone, or which analysed the effects of interventions by sex. Review methods Data on relevant outcomes, patient populations, intervention type and study quality were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of interventions in men, women, and mixed-sex sub-groups. Results 40 RCTs of self-management support interventions in men, and 20 eligible RCTs where an analysis by sex was reported, were included in the review. Meta-analysis suggested that physical activity, education, and peer support-based interventions have a positive impact on quality of life in men. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to make strong statements about whether self-management support interventions show larger, similar or smaller effects in men compared with women and mixed-sex groups. Conclusions Clinicians may wish to consider whether certain types of self-management support (eg, physical activity, education, peer support) are particularly effective in men, although more research is needed to fully determine and explore this. PMID:25795688

  1. Effects of interventions on depression in heart failure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Woltz, Patricia C; Chapa, Deborah W; Friedmann, Erika; Son, Heesook; Akintade, Bimbola; Thomas, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    We sought to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effects of interventions on depression in adults with heart failure (HF). Published, peer-reviewed, English-language, prospective interventional studies were identified in a search of Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Libraries of Systematic Reviews and Clinical Trials from 1996 through August 2011 and relevant bibliographies. Eligible studies included patients with New York Heart Association functional class II and III HF with experimental or quasiexperimental designs and preintervention and postintervention measures of depression. Ineligible studies were nonpharmacologic with a sample size <50, and drug studies without a comparison group. Twenty-three experimental and quasiexperimental studies that enrolled a total of 3564 persons with HF contributed evidence about 6 types of interventions: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, exercise, disease management programs, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and a multimodal intervention of cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise. Studies with SSRIs examined effects of sertraline, paroxetine, and citalopram. The CAM interventions included tai chi, progressive muscle relaxation therapy, and mindfulness-based stress reduction. Evidence is strong that pharmacology and CAM may improve depression. Moderate evidence supports the use of exercise. A strong body of evidence indicates that disease management programs do not improve depression. This review does not support the development of guidelines for treatment of depression in persons with HF because evidence is insufficient and, at times, contradictory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of critical care pharmacist's intervention on medication errors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiansheng; Benedict, Neal; Olsen, Keith M; Luan, Rong; Zhu, Xi; Zhou, Ningning; Tang, Huilin; Yan, Yingying; Peng, Yao; Shi, Luwen

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacists are integral members of the multidisciplinary team for critically ill patients. Multiple nonrandomized controlled studies have evaluated the outcomes of pharmacist interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review focuses on controlled clinical trials evaluating the effect of pharmacist intervention on medication errors (MEs) in ICU settings. Two independent reviewers searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The inclusion criteria were nonrandomized controlled studies that evaluated the effect of pharmacist services vs no intervention on ME rates in ICU settings. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggest that pharmacist intervention has no significant contribution to reducing general MEs, although pharmacist intervention may significantly reduce preventable adverse drug events and prescribing errors. This meta-analysis highlights the need for high-quality studies to examine the effect of the critical care pharmacist.

  3. Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Amanda L; Hill, Malinda; Pazder, Rachel; Feudtner, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement) and (grief) combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy) and (controlled or trial or design). We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group), 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group), and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group). Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups). Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1) excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2) stultifying between-study variation, 3) inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4) few published replication studies, and 5) methodological flaws of study design. PMID:15274744

  4. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients with critical illness across the continuum of recovery: an overview of systematic reviews protocol.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; McDowell, Kathryn; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2015-09-29

    Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with critical illness often experience significant physical impairments, which typically persist for many years following resolution of the original illness. Physical rehabilitation interventions that enhance restoration of physical function have been evaluated across the continuum of recovery following critical illness including within the intensive care unit, following discharge to the ward and beyond hospital discharge. Multiple systematic reviews have been published appraising the expanding evidence investigating these physical rehabilitation interventions, although there appears to be variability in review methodology and quality. We aim to conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews of physical rehabilitation interventions for adult intensive care patients across the continuum of recovery. This protocol has been developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. We will search the Cochrane Systematic Review Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. We will include systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of adult patients, admitted to the intensive care unit and who have received physical rehabilitation interventions at any time point during their recovery. Data extraction will include systematic review aims and rationale, study types, populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes and quality appraisal method. Primary outcomes of interest will focus on findings reflecting recovery of physical function. Quality of reporting and methodological quality will be appraised using the PRISMA checklist and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool. We anticipate the findings from this novel overview of systematic reviews will contribute to the

  5. Interventions to support children’s engagement in health-related decisions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children often need support in health decision-making. The objective of this study was to review characteristics and effectiveness of interventions that support health decision-making of children. Methods A systematic review. Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from inception until March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened eligibility: a) intervention studies; b) involved supporting children (≤18 years) considering health-related decision(s); and c) measured decision quality or decision-making process outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by one author and verified by another using a standardized data extraction form. Quality appraisal was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results Of 4313 citations, 5 studies were eligible. Interventions focused on supporting decisions about risk behaviors (n = 3), psycho-educational services (n = 1), and end of life (n = 1). Two of 5 studies had statistically significant findings: i) compared to attention placebo, decision coaching alone increased values congruence between child and parent, and child satisfaction with decision-making process (lower risk of bias); ii) compared to no intervention, a workshop with weekly assignments increased overall decision-making quality (higher risk of bias). Conclusions Few studies have focused on interventions to support children’s participation in decisions about their health. More research is needed to determine effective methods for supporting children’s health decision-making. PMID:24758566

  6. Lifestyle interventions for weight loss in adults with severe obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Y; Head, V; Jacob, D; Bachmann, M O; Diu, S; Ford, J

    2016-12-01

    Severe obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition and is often associated with long-term comorbidities, reduced survival and higher healthcare costs. Non-surgical methods avoid the side effects, complications and costs of surgery, but it is unclear which non-surgical method is most effective. The objective of this article was to systematically review the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions compared to standard or minimal care for weight loss in adults with severe obesity. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, databases of on-going studies, reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews and the Cochrane Library database were searched from inception to February 2016 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Inclusion criteria were participants with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m(2) or BMI > 35 kg/m(2) with comorbidity) and interventions with a minimal duration of 12 weeks that were multi-component combinations of diet, exercise and behavioural therapy. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Meta-analysis was not possible because of methodological heterogeneity. Seventeen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Weight change in kilograms of participants from baseline to follow-up was reported for 14 studies. Participants receiving the lifestyle intervention had a greater decrease in weight than participants in the control group for all studies (1.0-11.5 kg). Lifestyle interventions varied greatly between the studies. Overall lifestyle interventions with combined diet and exercise components achieved the greatest weight loss. Lifestyle interventions for weight loss in adults with severe obesity were found to result in increased weight loss when compared to minimal or standard care, especially those with combined diet and exercise components. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. A comparison of the performance of seven key bibliographic databases in identifying all relevant systematic reviews of interventions for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, John; Carter, Matt; Hoffmann, Tammy; Glasziou, Paul

    2016-02-09

    Bibliographic databases are the primary resource for identifying systematic reviews of health care interventions. Reliable retrieval of systematic reviews depends on the scope of indexing used by database providers. Therefore, searching one database may be insufficient, but it is unclear how many need to be searched. We sought to evaluate the performance of seven major bibliographic databases for the identification of systematic reviews for hypertension. We searched seven databases (Cochrane library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Epistemonikos, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), PubMed Health and Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP)) from 2003 to 2015 for systematic reviews of any intervention for hypertension. Citations retrieved were screened for relevance, coded and checked for screening consistency using a fuzzy text matching query. The performance of each database was assessed by calculating its sensitivity, precision, the number of missed reviews and the number of unique records retrieved. Four hundred systematic reviews were identified for inclusion from 11,381 citations retrieved from seven databases. No single database identified all the retrieved systematic reviews for hypertension. EMBASE identified the most reviews (sensitivity 69 %) but also retrieved the most irrelevant citations with 7.2 % precision (Pr). The sensitivity of the Cochrane library was 60 %, DARE 57 %, MEDLINE 57 %, PubMed Health 53 %, Epistemonikos 49 % and TRIP 33 %. EMBASE contained the highest number of unique records (n = 43). The Cochrane library identified seven unique records and had the highest precision (Pr = 30 %), followed by Epistemonikos (n = 2, Pr = 19 %). No unique records were found in PubMed Health (Pr = 24 %) DARE (Pr = 21 %), TRIP (Pr = 10 %) or MEDLINE (Pr = 10 %). Searching EMBASE and the Cochrane library identified 88 % of all systematic reviews in the reference set, and

  8. Effectiveness of Interventions for Caregivers of People With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Canton, Kerry; Connor, Susan E; Giller, Ilana; Lipman, Stacy; Sager, Suzanne

    The goal of the evidence review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders that facilitate the ability to maintain participation in the caregiver role. Scientific literature published in English between January 2006 and April 2014 was reviewed. Databases included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Of 2,476 records screened, 43 studies met inclusion criteria. Strong evidence shows that multicomponent psychoeducational interventions improve caregiver quality of life (QOL), confidence, and self-efficacy and reduce burden; cognitive reframing reduces caregiver anxiety, depression, and stress; communication skills training improves caregiver skill and QOL in persons with dementia; mindfulness-based training improves caregiver mental health and reduces stress and burden; and professionally led support groups enhance caregiver QOL. Strong evidence exists for a spectrum of caregiver interventions. Translation of effective interventions into practice and evaluation of sustainability is necessary.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Internet interventions for smoking cessation among adults

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Carpenter, Kelly M; Cha, Sarah; Cole, Sam; Jacobs, Megan A; Raskob, Margaret; Cole-Lewis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of Internet interventions in promoting smoking cessation among adult tobacco users relative to other forms of intervention recommended in treatment guidelines. Methods This review followed Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews. Combinations of “Internet,” “web-based,” and “smoking cessation intervention” and related keywords were used in both automated and manual searches. We included randomized trials published from January 1990 through to April 2015. A modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) for each study. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects method to pool RRs. Presentation of results follows the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Results Forty randomized trials involving 98,530 participants were included. Most trials had a low risk of bias in most domains. Pooled results comparing Internet interventions to assessment-only/waitlist control were significant (RR 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.21, I2=51.7%; four studies). Pooled results of largely static Internet interventions compared to print materials were not significant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63–1.10, I2=0%; two studies), whereas comparisons of interactive Internet interventions to print materials were significant (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.25–3.52, I2=41.6%; two studies). No significant effects were observed in pooled results of Internet interventions compared to face-to-face counseling (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.97–1.87, I2=0%; four studies) or to telephone counseling (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79–1.13, I2=0%; two studies). The majority of trials compared different Internet interventions; pooled results from 15 such trials (24 comparisons) found a significant effect in favor of experimental Internet interventions (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31, I2=76.7%). Conclusion Internet

  10. Theoretical approaches of online social network interventions and implications for behavioral change: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S

    2016-10-06

    The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Are Practice Guidelines Based on Systematic Reviews?

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Eligible publications were systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision without language or date restrictions; the database was up to date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as reliable when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, methodologic quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for AMD to systematic reviews and citations of reliable systematic reviews to support each treatment recommendation. Of 1570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met inclusion criteria; most targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements, or photodynamic therapy. We classified 33 (70%) reviews as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often by Cochrane reviews and reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Anti-VEGF agents and photodynamic therapy were the only interventions identified as effective by reliable reviews. Of 35 treatment recommendations extracted from the PPPs, 15 could have been supported with reliable systematic reviews; however, only 1

  12. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Currie, Sinead; Sinclair, Marlene; Murphy, Marie H; Madden, Elaine; Dunwoody, Lynn; Liddle, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT) taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6), structured exercise (n = 6) and education (n = 2). Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy. Range of behaviour change techniques can be implemented to reduce this decline including goals and

  13. Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Suoranta, Jutta; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Malmivaara, Antti

    2008-01-01

    Background To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT interventions in children with diagnosed CP were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted the data. The outcomes measured in the trials were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results Twenty-two trials were identified. Eight intervention categories were distinguished. Four trials were of high methodological quality. Moderate evidence of effectiveness was established for two intervention categories: effectiveness of upper extremity treatments on attained goals and active supination, and of prehensile hand treatment and neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT) or NDT twice a week on developmental status, and of constraint-induced therapy on amount and quality of hand use. Moderate evidence of ineffectiveness was found of strength training on walking speed and stride length. Conflicting evidence was found for strength training on gross motor function. For the other intervention categories the evidence was limited due to low methodological quality and the statistically insignificant results of the studies. Conclusion Due to limitations in methodological quality and variations in population, interventions and outcomes, mostly limited evidence on the effectiveness of most PT interventions is available through RCTs. Moderate evidence was found for some effectiveness of upper extremity training. Well-designed trials are needed especially for focused PT interventions. PMID:18435840

  14. A systematic review of work-place interventions for alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Webb, Gloria; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Havard, Alys

    2009-03-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) gauge any improvement in methodological quality of work-place interventions addressing alcohol problems; and (2) to determine which interventions most effectively reduce work-place-related alcohol problems. A literature search was undertaken of the data bases, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, HSELINE, OSHLINE and NIOSHTIC-2 for papers published between January 1995 and September 2007 (inclusive). Search terms varied, depending on the database. Papers were included for analysis if they reported on interventions conducted at work-places with the aim of reducing alcohol problems. Methodological adequacy of the studies was assessed using a method derived from the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Ten papers reporting on work-place alcohol interventions were located. Only four studies employed randomized controlled trials (RCT), but all these had methodological problems. Weaknesses in all studies related to representativeness of samples, consent and participation rates, blinding, post-test time-frames, contamination and reliability, and validity of measures used. All except one study reported statistically significant differences in measures such as reduced alcohol consumption, binge drinking and alcohol problems. The literature review revealed few methodologically adequate studies of work-place alcohol interventions. Study designs, types of interventions, measures employed and types of work-places varied considerably, making comparison of results difficult. However, it appears from the evidence that brief interventions, interventions contained within health and life-style checks, psychosocial skills training and peer referral have potential to produce beneficial results.

  15. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Rabie, Tamer; Roberts, Ian; Cairncross, Sandy

    2007-04-14

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea. Systematic review. Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register, CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, LILACS; hand searching; and correspondence with experts and relevant organisations. Randomised and quasirandomised controlled trials of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea in adults and in children in settings with endemic disease. Allocation concealment, blinding, losses to follow-up, type of intervention, outcome measures, and measures of effect. Pooled effect estimates were calculated within the appropriate subgroups. 33 reports from 21 countries documenting 42 comparisons were included. Variations in design, setting, and type and point of intervention, and variations in defining, assessing, calculating, and reporting outcomes limited the comparability of study results and pooling of results by meta-analysis. In general, interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water are effective in preventing diarrhoea. Effectiveness was not conditioned on the presence of improved water supplies or sanitation in the study setting and was not enhanced by combining the intervention with instructions on basic hygiene, a water storage vessel, or improved sanitation or water supplies--other common environmental interventions intended to prevent diarrhoea. Interventions to improve water quality are generally effective for preventing diarrhoea in all ages and in under 5s. Significant heterogeneity among the trials suggests that the level of effectiveness may depend on a variety of conditions that research to date cannot fully explain.

  16. Educational interventions for patients with heart failure: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Boyde, Mary; Turner, Catherine; Thompson, David R; Stewart, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Patient education is an important intervention for the management of heart failure; however, in practice patient education varies considerably. : To systematically review educational interventions that have been implemented for heart failure patients and assess their effectiveness. Randomized controlled trials from 1998 to 2008 in CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, and Cochrane were reviewed using the following search terms: patient education, education, educational intervention, self-care in combination with heart failure. There were 1515 abstracts reviewed independently by 2 reviewers. A total of 2686 patients were included in the 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Commonly, the initial educational intervention was a one-on-one didactic session conducted by nurses supplemented by written materials and multimedia approaches. Seven studies referred to a theoretical model as a framework for their educational intervention. Studies used a variety of outcome measures to evaluate their effectiveness. Of the studies reviewed, 15 demonstrated a significant effect from their intervention in at least one of their outcome measures. All we hope from patient education has not yet been realized. Despite improvements in knowledge, we have variable results in outcomes, and this is very likely related to the heterogeneity of the studies included in this review. It was difficult to establish the most effective educational strategy as the educational interventions varied considerably in delivery methods and duration as well as the outcome measures that were used for the evaluation. A patient-centered approach to education based on educational theory and evaluated appropriately may assist to develop an evidence base for patient education. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  17. A systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain—protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta

  18. Interventions to delay functional decline in people with dementia: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Laver, Kate; Dyer, Suzanne; Whitehead, Craig; Clemson, Lindy; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarise existing systematic reviews that assess the effects of non-pharmacological, pharmacological and alternative therapies on activities of daily living (ADL) function in people with dementia. Design Overview of systematic reviews. Methods A systematic search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo in April 2015. Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials conducted in people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia measuring the impact on ADL function were included. Methodological quality of the systematic reviews was independently assessed by two authors using the AMSTAR tool. The quality of evidence of the primary studies for each intervention was assessed using GRADE. Results A total of 23 systematic reviews were included in the overview. The quality of the reviews varied; however most (65%) scored 8/11 or more on the AMSTAR tool, indicating high quality. Interventions that were reported to be effective in minimising decline in ADL function were: exercise (6 studies, 289 participants, standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.68, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.27; GRADE: low), dyadic interventions (8 studies, 988 participants, SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.69; GRADE: low) acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine (12 studies, 4661 participants, donepezil 10 mg SMD 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.32; GRADE: moderate), selegiline (7 studies, 810 participants, SMD 0.27, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41; GRADE: low), huperzine A (2 studies, 70 participants, SMD 1.48, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.02; GRADE: very low) and Ginkgo biloba (7 studies, 2530 participants, SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.44; GRADE: very low). Conclusions Healthcare professionals should ensure that people with dementia are encouraged to exercise and that primary carers are trained and supported to provide safe and effective care for the person with dementia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine should be trialled unless contraindicated. Trial registration number CRD

  19. Interventions to delay functional decline in people with dementia: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Laver, Kate; Dyer, Suzanne; Whitehead, Craig; Clemson, Lindy; Crotty, Maria

    2016-04-27

    To summarise existing systematic reviews that assess the effects of non-pharmacological, pharmacological and alternative therapies on activities of daily living (ADL) function in people with dementia. Overview of systematic reviews. A systematic search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo in April 2015. Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials conducted in people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia measuring the impact on ADL function were included. Methodological quality of the systematic reviews was independently assessed by two authors using the AMSTAR tool. The quality of evidence of the primary studies for each intervention was assessed using GRADE. A total of 23 systematic reviews were included in the overview. The quality of the reviews varied; however most (65%) scored 8/11 or more on the AMSTAR tool, indicating high quality. Interventions that were reported to be effective in minimising decline in ADL function were: exercise (6 studies, 289 participants, standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.68, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.27; GRADE: low), dyadic interventions (8 studies, 988 participants, SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.69; GRADE: low) acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine (12 studies, 4661 participants, donepezil 10 mg SMD 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.32; GRADE: moderate), selegiline (7 studies, 810 participants, SMD 0.27, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41; GRADE: low), huperzine A (2 studies, 70 participants, SMD 1.48, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.02; GRADE: very low) and Ginkgo biloba (7 studies, 2530 participants, SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.44; GRADE: very low). Healthcare professionals should ensure that people with dementia are encouraged to exercise and that primary carers are trained and supported to provide safe and effective care for the person with dementia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine should be trialled unless contraindicated. CRD42015020179. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  20. Interventions employing mobile technology for overweight and obesity: an early systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Bacigalupo, R; Cudd, P; Littlewood, C; Bissell, P; Hawley, M S; Buckley Woods, H

    2013-01-01

    Summary Obesity is a global epidemic with major healthcare implications and costs. Mobile technologies are potential interventions to promote weight loss. An early systematic review of this rapidly growing area of research was conducted. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 1998 and October 2011. Data sources included Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Ongoing research was searched for using clinical trials databases and registers. Out of 174 articles retrieved, 21 met the inclusion criteria of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobile technology interventions facilitating weight loss in overweight and obese adults with any other comparator. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Seven articles were included and appraised using the Cochrane<