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Sample records for cockroach allergen reduction

  1. New Insights into Cockroach Allergens.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Randall, Thomas A; Chapman, Martin D; Arruda, L Karla

    2017-04-01

    This review addresses the most recent developments on cockroach allergen research in relation to allergic diseases, especially asthma. The number of allergens relevant to cockroach allergy has recently expanded considerably up to 12 groups. New X-ray crystal structures of allergens from groups 1, 2, and 5 revealed interesting features with implications for allergen standardization, sensitization, diagnosis, and therapy. Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma particularly among children and young adults living in inner-city environments, posing challenges for disease control. Environmental interventions targeted at reducing cockroach allergen exposure have provided conflicting results. Immunotherapy may be a way to modify the natural history of cockroach allergy and decrease symptoms and asthma severity among sensitized and exposed individuals. The new information on cockroach allergens is important for the assessment of allergen markers of exposure and disease, and for the design of immunotherapy trials.

  2. Cost and effectiveness of community-wide integrated pest management for German cockroach, cockroach allergen, and insecticide use reduction in low-income housing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-08-01

    Many low-income housing units in the United States continue to have chronic German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), infestations and high prevalence of cockroach allergens despite the availability of highly effective cockroach control products. Several studies have demonstrated the greater effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) compared with routine chemical interventions in apartment buildings and the benefit of cockroach allergen reduction using IPM. Yet, there has been little information on the cost and benefit of community-wide cockroach IPM, which is critical for voluntary adoption of IPM programs. We evaluated a community-wide IPM program in two low-income apartment complexes in Gary, IN. The program included education of staff and residents, monthly monitoring, and nonchemical (laying sticky traps) and chemical treatment based on monitoring results. One complex of 191 apartments was treated with cockroach gel bait, boric acid dust, and sticky traps by state licensed entomologists from Purdue University (E-IPM group). The other complex of 251 apartments was treated by pest management professionals (PMPs) from a contractor (C-IPM group) following the same protocol as the E-IPM group. Purdue University researchers trained Gary Housing Authority (GHA) staff on cockroach biology and management and cockroach allergen reduction techniques. GHA staff educated all residents in the two complexes on cockroach control and allergen reduction through printed materials, demonstrations, or both. Purdue University entomologists conducted the initial and monthly monitoring in both complexes (laying six sticky traps per apartment and retrieving them the next day) with the assistance from GHA to evaluate program effectiveness, guide insecticide applications, and identify apartments with poor sanitation conditions. Dust samples were collected from kitchen floors of 72 cockroach-infested apartments at the beginning, and again at 6 and 12 mo to evaluate changes in

  3. Cockroach allergens: function, structure and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Hindley, J; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D

    2007-01-01

    Cockroach allergy is a widespread health problem in the world, associated with the development of asthma. The German and American cockroach species are important producers of a wide variety of allergens. Knowledge of their structure and function contributes to understand their role in allergy and to design tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  4. Cockroach allergen exposure and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Do, D C; Zhao, Y; Gao, P

    2016-04-01

    Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins have provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen-presenting cell (APC) function in T-cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often coexist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.

  5. Cockroach Allergen Exposure and Risk of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Do, Danh C.; Zhao, Yilin; Gao, Peisong

    2015-01-01

    Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins has provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen presenting cell (APC) function in T cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often co-exist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:26706467

  6. Assessment of environmental cockroach allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ginger L

    2012-10-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics, much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies for decreasing exposures.

  7. Assessment of Environmental Cockroach Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies to decrease exposures. PMID:22825884

  8. Recombinant allergens for diagnosis of cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Arruda, L Karla; Barbosa, Michelle C R; Santos, Ana Beatriz R; Moreno, Adriana S; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50- 64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients.

  9. Recombinant Allergens for Diagnosis of Cockroach Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Michelle C. R.; Santos, Ana Beatriz R.; Moreno, Adriana S.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomés, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50–64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients. PMID:24563284

  10. A revisit to cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.

  11. German cockroach allergen levels in North Carolina schools: comparison of integrated pest management and conventional cockroach control.

    PubMed

    Nalyanya, Godfrey; Gore, J Chad; Linker, H Michael; Schal, Coby

    2009-05-01

    Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 in public school buildings. Two school districts included six schools that used conventional pest control and one district included seven schools that used IPM to control pests. Cockroach traps were deployed to assess the level of infestation, settled dust samples were collected in food service areas, classrooms, and other school areas, and the Bla g 1 allergen was quantified by ELISA. Both cockroach counts and Bla g 1 concentrations were dependent on the pest control approach, with highly significant differences between IPM-treated schools and conventionally treated schools in both the cockroach mean trap counts (0 versus 82.6 +/- 17.3 cockroaches/trap/wk, respectively) and in the amount of Bla g 1 in dust samples (2.8 +/- 0.3 versus 30.6 +/- 3.4 U/g dust). Cockroaches and Bla g 1 were primarily associated with food preparation and food service areas and much less with classrooms and offices. Our data extend recent findings from studies in homes, showing that cockroach allergens can be reduced by cockroach elimination alone or by integrating several tactics including education, cleaning, and pest control. IPM is not only effective at controlling cockroaches but also can lead to long-term reductions in cockroach allergen concentrations, resulting in a healthier environment for students and school personnel.

  12. Allergenicity of the Madagascar hissing cockroach.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Yoder, Jay A

    2007-03-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) has become popular as a pet and as an educational tool in classrooms, zoos, and museums. To determine whether proteins in G. portentosa are allergens and whether these allergens cross-react with those of other cockroach species. Sera from cockroach-sensitive individuals and control subjects were used to probe immunoblots for the presence of circulating IgE that bound to proteins present in extracts of 4 cockroach species. Serum from an individual sensitized to G portentosa had circulating IgE that bound to proteins in extracts of all 4 cockroach species. Eight of 15 Blatella germanica-sensitized patients had IgE that bound to proteins in extracts prepared from G portentosa. Rabbit antiserum to Periplaneta americana and to Bla g 1 also contained antibody that bound to proteins in G. portentosa extract, demonstrating antigenic cross-reactivity among these cockroach species. Allergists, teachers, parents, and patients should be aware that sensitization and allergic reactions to the Madagascar hissing cockroach can occur. Caution should be taken if these exotic cockroaches are used in educational exercises in schools, museums, and zoos to protect predisposed individuals.

  13. Sensitization to cockroach allergen: immune regulation and genetic determinants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peisong

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health concern. Cockroach allergen exposure and cockroach allergic sensitization could contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. However, the underlying immune mechanism and the genetic etiology remain unclear. Recent advances have demonstrated that several receptors (PAR-2, TLRs, CLRs) and their pathways mediate antigen uptake from the environment and induce allergies by signaling T cells to activate an inappropriate immune response. Cockroach-derived protease can disturb airway epithelial integrity via PAR-2 and leads to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen, resulting in activation of innate immune cells (e.g., DCs) via binding to either TLRs or CLRs. The activated DCs can direct cells of the adaptive immune system to facilitate promotion of Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization. Mannose receptor (MR), as a CLR, has been shown to mediate Bla g2 (purified cockroach allergen) uptake by DCs and to determine allergen-induced T cell polarization. Additionally, genetic factors may play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and related phenotypes (HLA-D, TSLP, IL-12A, MBL2). In this review, we have focused on studies on the cockroach allergen induced immunologic responses and genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.

  14. Sensitization to Cockroach Allergen: Immune Regulation and Genetic Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peisong

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health concern. Cockroach allergen exposure and cockroach allergic sensitization could contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. However, the underlying immune mechanism and the genetic etiology remain unclear. Recent advances have demonstrated that several receptors (PAR-2, TLRs, CLRs) and their pathways mediate antigen uptake from the environment and induce allergies by signaling T cells to activate an inappropriate immune response. Cockroach-derived protease can disturb airway epithelial integrity via PAR-2 and leads to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen, resulting in activation of innate immune cells (e.g., DCs) via binding to either TLRs or CLRs. The activated DCs can direct cells of the adaptive immune system to facilitate promotion of Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization. Mannose receptor (MR), as a CLR, has been shown to mediate Bla g2 (purified cockroach allergen) uptake by DCs and to determine allergen-induced T cell polarization. Additionally, genetic factors may play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and related phenotypes (HLA-D, TSLP, IL-12A, MBL2). In this review, we have focused on studies on the cockroach allergen induced immunologic responses and genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:22272212

  15. Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Arruda, Luisa Karla

    2014-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy.

  16. Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Pomés, Anna; Arruda, L. Karla

    2013-01-01

    Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy. PMID:23916425

  17. Cockroach-allergen study: allergen patterns of three common cockroach species probed by allergic sera collected in two cities.

    PubMed

    Kang, B C; Wilson, M; Price, K H; Kambara, T

    1991-06-01

    Antigens/allergens of three common cockroach extracts, crude whole body extract of the American cockroach (CRa-A), crude whole body extract of the German cockroach (CRa-G), and crude whole body extract of the Oriental cockroach (CRa-O), were studied with crossed immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blot analysis. Sera of cockroach-allergic patients with asthma, 10 from Chicago, Ill. (C group) and six patients from Lexington, Ky. (L group), were used; results were then compared with sera of control subjects with asthma. Qualitative differences in protein bands were noted among CRa-A, CRa-G, and CRa-O by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allergen bands on Western blot were analyzed for distribution by molecular weight (MW) with relative intensity scores. Results were compared by species and by geography. Two to 12 allergenic bands of variable MW (14 kd to greater than 116 kd) were identified by 13 of 16 individual sera from cockroach-allergic patients from all three extracts. CRa-A demonstrated 55 bands with an intensity score of 125; CRa-G, 58 bands with an intensity score of 100; and CRa-O, 51 bands with an intensity score of 108. Allergenic bands of CRa-A were identified by six sera of the C group and one sera of the L group, whereas bands of both CRa-G and CRa-O were noted by nine sera of the C group and four sera of the L group. All three species had an allergen band in MW range of 40 to 45 kd that reacted to most sera from cockroach-allergic patients with asthma.

  18. Two new types of allergens from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S

    2015-12-01

    Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy.

  19. Termite Proteins Cross-React with Cockroach Allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shrimp are among a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergy, and shrimp allergens have been demonstrated to cross-react with arthropod proteins, such as those from cockroaches. Edible insects are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have a high nutrition value....

  20. Cockroach allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy in asthma: Potential and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Bassirpour, Gillian; Zoratti, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a summary and discussion of cockroach allergy and clinical trials of cockroach allergen immunotherapy. Recent findings Cockroach allergen exposure among sensitized children is increasingly recognized as a key factor contributing to asthma morbidity. Recent trials suggest that cockroach immunotherapy has promise as a treatment strategy with studies demonstrating immunomodulatory and clinical effects. However, a few obstacles need to be overcome to realize the full potential of this treatment modality as cockroach allergic patients often exhibit complex sensitization patterns to multiple cockroach-associated proteins and an immunodominant allergen has not been identified. These factors have made it difficult to produce standardized cockroach allergen extracts that are potent and provide the broad allergen profiles needed for optimal treatment. There have been important advances in the identification and cloning of cockroach allergens and several strategies are being developed to provide therapeutic cockroach allergen products with enhanced clinical efficacy. Summary Allergen immunotherapy has the capability of modulating the immune response to cockroach allergen and has potential as a valuable treatment modality. Further studies of the clinical efficacy along with the development of improved therapeutic products are needed to advance our knowledge and realize the full potential of this promising therapy. PMID:25144264

  1. Cockroach allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy in asthma: potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bassirpour, Gillian; Zoratti, Edward

    2014-12-01

    To provide a summary and discussion of cockroach allergy and clinical trials of cockroach allergen immunotherapy. Cockroach allergen exposure among sensitized children is increasingly recognized as a key factor contributing to asthma morbidity. Recent trials suggest that cockroach immunotherapy holds promise as a treatment strategy with studies demonstrating immunomodulatory and clinical effects. However, a few obstacles need to be overcome to realize the full potential of this treatment modality as cockroach-allergic patients often exhibit complex sensitization patterns to multiple cockroach-associated proteins, and an immunodominant allergen has not been identified. These factors have made it difficult to produce standardized cockroach allergen extracts that are potent and provide the broad allergen profiles needed for optimal treatment. There have been important advances in the identification and cloning of cockroach allergens, and several strategies are being developed to provide therapeutic cockroach allergen products with enhanced clinical efficacy. Allergen immunotherapy has the capability of modulating the immune response to cockroach allergen and has potential as a valuable treatment modality. Further studies of the clinical efficacy, along with the development of improved therapeutic products, are needed to advance our knowledge and realize the full potential of this promising therapy.

  2. Protease activity in cockroach and basidiomycete allergen extracts.

    PubMed

    Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E

    1993-01-01

    Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.

  3. Cross-reaction between Formosan termite (Coptotermes formosanus) proteins and cockroach allergens

    PubMed Central

    Tarver, Matthew R.; Florane, Christopher B.; Grimm, Casey C.; Pakala, Suman B.; Cottone, Carrie B.; Riegel, Claudia; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Slater, Jay E.

    2017-01-01

    Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2.2.21 software. Whole termite extracts were analyzed by mass-spectrometry, immunoassay with IgG and scFv antibodies to cockroach allergens, and human IgE from serum samples of cockroach allergic patients. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results indicate greater than 60% similarity between predicted termite proteins and German and American cockroach allergens, including Bla g 2/Per a 2, Bla g 3/Per a 3, Bla g 5, Bla g 6/Per a 6, Bla g 7/Per a 7, Bla g 8, Per a 9, and Per a 10. Peptides from whole termite extract were matched to those of the tropomyosin (Bla g 7), arginine kinase (Per a 9), and myosin (Bla g 8) cockroach allergens by mass-spectrometry. Immunoblot and ELISA testing revealed cross-reaction between several proteins with IgG and IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens. Several termite proteins, including the hemocyanin and tropomyosin orthologs of Blag 3 and Bla g 7, were shown to crossreact with cockroach allergens. This work presents support for the hypothesis that termite proteins may act as allergens and the findings could be applied to future allergen characterization, epitope analysis, and clinical studies. PMID:28767688

  4. Cross-reaction between Formosan termite (Coptotermes formosanus) proteins and cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Khurana, Taruna; Tarver, Matthew R; Florane, Christopher B; Grimm, Casey C; Pakala, Suman B; Cottone, Carrie B; Riegel, Claudia; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Slater, Jay E

    2017-01-01

    Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2.2.21 software. Whole termite extracts were analyzed by mass-spectrometry, immunoassay with IgG and scFv antibodies to cockroach allergens, and human IgE from serum samples of cockroach allergic patients. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results indicate greater than 60% similarity between predicted termite proteins and German and American cockroach allergens, including Bla g 2/Per a 2, Bla g 3/Per a 3, Bla g 5, Bla g 6/Per a 6, Bla g 7/Per a 7, Bla g 8, Per a 9, and Per a 10. Peptides from whole termite extract were matched to those of the tropomyosin (Bla g 7), arginine kinase (Per a 9), and myosin (Bla g 8) cockroach allergens by mass-spectrometry. Immunoblot and ELISA testing revealed cross-reaction between several proteins with IgG and IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens. Several termite proteins, including the hemocyanin and tropomyosin orthologs of Blag 3 and Bla g 7, were shown to crossreact with cockroach allergens. This work presents support for the hypothesis that termite proteins may act as allergens and the findings could be applied to future allergen characterization, epitope analysis, and clinical studies.

  5. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE cross-reactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Qing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Gjesing, Birgitte; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2010-12-01

    Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients. The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches. Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females. Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients, 88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der p sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach. A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  6. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Protects Lungs from Cockroach Allergen-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen-treated AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-)) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice as compared with WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR, and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of i.v.-injected GFP(+) MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared with WT. The AhR-mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium prepared from cockroach extract-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migration, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity.

  7. Analysis of 10 Environmental Allergen Components of the American Cockroach in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mey-Fann; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Lin, Shyh-Jye; Song, Pei-Pong

    2016-11-01

    Cockroaches are important sources of indoor airborne allergens. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is the second leading inhalant allergen causing allergic airway diseases in Taiwan. We previously reported a difference in pathogenicity of different allergen components from American cockroaches. To analyze the environmental profile of American cockroach allergen components. Polyclonal antibodies were generated to recombinant American cockroach allergens, Per a 1 through Per a 10. The levels of each allergen in (1) whole-body extracts and feces from American cockroaches and in (2) fresh-frozen 6-month-old and 12-month-old dead American cockroaches were evaluated by immunoblotting and quantified. Levels of allergen components from patients' household dust samples were determined by competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Per a 1, 2, and 10 proteins were present predominantly in roach feces, whereas other allergen components were found predominantly in roach bodies. There was a time-dependent decrease in total levels of some allergen proteins. Although levels of Per a 4, 5, 6, and 9 significantly decreased to less 20% of the basal level, there was no significant change in levels of Per a 2, 7, and 10 after 1-year decomposition. The most abundant allergen components in 20 dust samples from patients' houses were Per a 9, Per a 10, and Per a 2. The concentration of 10 American cockroach allergen components differed in the environment. Per a 2 and Per a 10 can be used as markers of long-term environmental cockroach control and Per a 9 as current status of control in patients' houses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Protects Lungs from Cockroach Allergen Induced Inflammation by Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen treated AhR-deficient (AhR−/−) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared to wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen challenged AhR−/− mice as compared to WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes, cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of intravenously injected GFP+ MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR−/− mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared to WT. The AhR mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium (ECM) prepared from CRE-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migrations, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGFβ1 neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity. PMID:26561548

  9. Cockroach allergen exposure and plasma cytokines among children in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock H; Forno, Erick; Han, Yueh-Ying; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, Maria; Alcorn, John F; Canino, Glorisa J; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status or cockroach allergen on immune responses in school-age children, particularly in tropical environments. To examine whether cockroach allergen and/or socioeconomic status is associated with plasma cytokine levels in Puerto Rican children. This was a cross-sectional study of 532 children (6-14 years old) with (n = 272) and without (n = 260) asthma in San Juan (Puerto Rico). House dust allergens (cockroach [Bla g 2], dust mite [Der p 1], cat dander [Fel d 1], dog dander [Can f 1], and mouse urinary protein [Mus m 1]) were quantified using monoclonal antibody arrays. A panel of 14 cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) was measured in plasma samples. Low household income was defined as less than $15,000 per year (below the median income for Puerto Rico in 2008-2009). Linear regression was used for the analysis of cockroach allergen and plasma cytokines. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for low income and other allergen levels, cockroach allergen was significantly associated with decreased IL-17A and with increased levels of 8 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-25, IL-31, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α). After stratifying this analysis by cockroach allergy (ie, having a cockroach positive immunoglobulin E reaction), our findings remained largely unchanged for children sensitized to cockroach but became weaker and statistically nonsignificant for non-sensitized children. Cockroach allergen has broad effects on adaptive immune responses in school-age children in a tropical environment, particularly in those sensitized to cockroach. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Periplaneta americana arginine kinase as a major cockroach allergen among Thai patients with major cockroach allergies.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Vichyanond, Pakit; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Tapchaisri, Pramuan

    2006-06-01

    Periplaneta americana is the predominant cockroach (CR) species and a major source of indoor allergens in Thailand. Nevertheless, data on the nature and molecular characteristics of its allergenic components are rare. We conducted this study to identify and characterize the P. americana allergenic protein. A random heptapeptide phage display library and monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to a the P. americana component previously shown to be an allergenic molecule were used to identify the MAb-bound mimotope and its phylogenic distribution. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, peptide mass fingerprinting, and BLAST search were used to identify the P. americana protein containing the MAb-specific epitope. We studied the allergenicity of the native protein using sera of CR-allergic Thai patients in immunoassays. The mimotope peptide that bound to the MAb specific to P. americana was LTPCRNK. The peptide has an 83-100% identity with proteins of Anopheles gambiae, notch homolog scalloped wings of Lucilia cuprina, delta protein of Apis mellifera; neu5Ac synthase and tyrosine phosphatase of Drosophila melanogaster, and a putative protein of Drosophila pseudoobscura. This finding implies that the mimotope-containing molecule of P. americana is a pan-insect protein. The MAb-bound protein of P. americana was shown to be arginine kinase that reacted to IgE in the sera of all of the CR-allergic Thai patients by immunoblotting, implying its high allergenicity. In conclusion, our results revealed that P. americana arginine kinase is a pan-insect protein and a major CR allergen for CR-allergic Thai patients.

  11. Analysis of cross-reactive allergens from American and German cockroaches by human IgE.

    PubMed

    Wu, C H; Luo, S F; Wong, D W

    1997-04-01

    Serum from atopics hypersensitive to the American cockroach were examined for their specific IgE to American and German cockroaches by the fluoroallergosorbent test (FAST). Of 44 sera tested, 86.4% (38/44) contained IgE to American and German cockroaches, and 13.6% (6/44) were found to be positive for American cockroach alone by FAST. Nine individual sera containing IgE antibodies to both cockroaches were used to analyze the cross-reacting allergens in the crude American and German cockroach extracts by FAST inhibition and immunoblotting FAST-inhibition studies showed various degrees but similar inhibition of binding of human IgE to solid-phase American cockroach extract. Proteins from both cockroach extracts were separated on SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting, and the results showed considerable heterogeneity in the IgE-binding patterns with each of the cockroach extracts for the same nine individual sera. Components with apparent molecular weights of 60, 52, 49, 38, and 12 kDa from both the American and German cockroaches were able to bind IgE antibody. These results suggest the presence of cross-reactive allergens in the American and the German cockroaches.

  12. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  13. The attenuation of cockroach allergy by DNA vaccine encoding cockroach allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Yuan, Jingdong; Zhou, Yixuan; Yang, Jun; James, Alan W; Nair, Usha; Shu, Xiji; Liu, Wei; Kanangat, Siva; Yoo, Tai June

    2012-01-01

    Bla g 2 is one of the most potent cockroach allergens. No effective treatment or vaccination strategies are yet available. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of Bla g 2 DNA vaccination in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. C57/BL6 mice were given Bla g 2 DNA vaccine prior to sensitization with recombinant Bla g 2 (rBla g 2) antigens, followed by nebulized rBla g 2 challenge. Bla g 2 vaccine could express at both transcriptional and translational levels in mammalian cells. Moreover, Bla g 2 vaccine significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell infiltrate and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and markedly decreased allergen-induced inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and Bla g 2-specific IgE in serum upon challenge with rBla g 2. Importantly, Bla g 2 vaccine could induce the production of antigen-specific IFN-γ and downregulated Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Thus, DNA vaccination showed protective efficacy against a clinically relevant allergen, Bla g 2.

  14. Mouse and cockroach allergens in the dust and air in northeastern United States inner-city public high schools.

    PubMed

    Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Perzanowski, M S

    2005-08-01

    Considering that high school students spend a large proportion of their waking hours in the school environment, this could be an important location for exposure to indoor allergens. We have investigated the levels of mouse and cockroach allergens in the settled dust and air from 11 schools in a major northeastern US city. Settled dust samples were vacuumed from 87 classrooms, three times throughout the school year. Two separate air samples (flow = 2.5 lpm) were collected by 53 students over a 5-day period from both their school and their home. Mouse allergen (MUP) in the dust varied greatly between schools with geometric means ranging from 0.21 to 133 microg/g. Mouse allergen was detectable in 81% of the samples collected. Cockroach allergen (Bla g 2) ranged from below limit of detection (<0.003 microg/g) to 1.1 microg/g. Cockroach allergen was detected (>0.003 microg/g) in 71% of the dust samples. Bla g 2 was detected in 22% of airborne samples from the schools. By comparison, mouse allergen was only detected in 5%. These results indicate that the school may be an important location for exposure to allergens from mice and cockroaches and is an indoor environment that should be considered in an overall allergen intervention strategy. To date, cockroach and mouse allergen intervention strategies have been mainly focused on the home environment. Considering that children spend a significant amount of time in schools, some studies have assessed cockroach allergen levels in schools. This study provides a clearer picture of the distribution and variability of not only cockroach allergen, but also mouse allergen in the school environment. In addition, this study describes limitations of personal air sampling in a student population. Our results suggest that although cockroach and mouse allergens are commonly recovered in classroom dust samples of inner city schools, cockroach allergens are recovered in the personal air samples with a greater frequency relative to mouse

  15. IgE-binding epitope analysis of Bla g 5, the German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung-Jin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chung-Ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-05-01

    Cockroach infestations have been linked with allergic diseases such as asthma in humans. Bla g 5, sigma class glutathione S-transferase (GST), is the major cockroach allergen which has the highest IgE response value of all cockroach allergens. Although several cockroach allergens have been identified and cloned, information regarding their B ell and T cell IgE-binding epitopes is limited. In order to analyze the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 5, full-length and five peptide fragments (A, 1-100 amino acid residue; B, 91-200; Ba, 1-125; Bb, 1-150; Bc, 1-175) were expressed. Twelve (37.5%) of 32 sera from cockroach-sensitized subjects showed positive IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 5 (rBla g 5). Six strong positive sera were selected for the epitope study. Recombinant proteins not containing 176-200 amino acid residues were unable to react to sera from cockroach sensitized individuals, suggesting that this region contains the IgE-binding epitope. Despite strong IgE reactivity to rBla g 5, the pooled serum from 5 cockroach-sensitized patients did not show IgE reactivity to all synthetic peptides consisting of 15 residues covering 161-200 amino acids. These results suggest the possibility that Bla g 5 may have a conformational epitope in the C-terminal region. GST is the important target for the development of vaccines and drugs against allergic diseases because of high cross-reactivity among insect species. This study will aid recombinant allergen research for immunotherapy of cockroach allergens and other insect allergens.

  16. National Prevalence and Exposure Risk for Cockroach Allergen in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Richard D.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Jaramillo, Renee; Reid, Laura H.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2006-01-01

    We characterized the prevalence of cockroach allergen exposure in a nationally representative sample of U.S. homes and assessed risk factors for elevated concentrations. Design We used data from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing, a population-based cross-sectional survey. Participants Participants were residents of 831 U.S. homes in the survey. Evaluations/Measurements We analyzed allergen, questionnaire, and observational data of 831 U.S. homes. Results Cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) concentrations exceed 2.0 U/g, a level associated with allergic sensitization, in 11% of U.S. living room floors and 13% of kitchen floors. Concentrations exceed 8.0 U/g, a level associated with asthma morbidity, in 3% of living room floors and 10% of kitchen floors. Elevated concentrations were observed in high-rise apartments, urban settings, pre-1940 constructions, and households with incomes < $20,000. Odds of having concentrations > 8.0 U/g were greatest when roach problems were reported or observed and increased with the number of cockroaches observed and with indications of recent cockroach activity. Conclusions Household cockroach allergen exposure is characterized in a nationally representative context. The allergen is prevalent in many settings, at levels that may contribute to allergic sensitization and asthma morbidity. Relevance to Clinical or Professional Practice Likelihood of exposure can be assessed by consideration of demographic and household determinants. PMID:16581539

  17. Quantitative measurement of airborne cockroach allergen in New York City apartments.

    PubMed

    Esposito, W A; Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Chillrud, S N; Miller, R L; Kinney, P L

    2011-12-01

    We designed and tested a sampling and analysis system for quantitative measurement of airborne cockroach allergen with sufficient sensitivity for residential exposure assessment. Integrated 1-week airborne particle samples were collected at 10-15 LPM in 19 New York City apartments in which an asthmatic child who was allergic to cockroach allergen resided. Four simultaneous air samples were collected in each home: at heights of 0.3 and 1 m in the child's bedroom and in the kitchen. Extracts of air samples were analyzed by ELISA for the cockroach allergen Bla g2, modified by amplifying the colorimetric signal generated via use of AMPLI-Q detection system (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA, USA). Settled dust samples were quantified by conventional ELISA. Of the homes where cockroach allergen was detected in settled dust, Bla g2 also was detected in 87% and 93% of air samples in the bedroom and kitchen, respectively. Airborne Bla g2 levels were highly correlated within and between the bedroom and kitchen locations (P < 0.001). Expressed as picogram per cubic meter, the room average geometric mean for Bla g2 concentrations was 1.9 pg/m³ (95% CI 0.63, 4.57) and 3.8 pg/m³ (95% CI 1.35, 9.25) in bedrooms and kitchens, respectively. This method offers an attractive supplement to settled dust sampling for cockroach allergen exposure health studies. Until now, cockroach allergen exposures have usually been assessed by collection and analysis of settled dust, on the assumption that airborne cockroach allergen cannot be reliably measured. In this study, a sensitive and quantitative method for measuring indoor airborne exposures to cockroach allergens involving a 7-day integrated total suspended particulate (TSP) sample collected at approximately 10-15 l/min was developed. Investigators are now empowered with an alternative exposure assessment method to supplement their studies and the understanding of allergen aerodynamics in the homes of children with asthma. We report

  18. Shared allergenic activity in Asian (Blattella asahinai), German (Blattella germanica), American (Periplaneta americana), and Oriental (Blatta orientalis) cockroach species.

    PubMed

    Helm, R M; Squillace, D L; Jones, R T; Brenner, R J

    1990-01-01

    Whole-body extracts of the feral and peridomestic Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai) and the three domestic cockroach species, German (Blattella germanica), American (Periplaneta americana), and Oriental (Blatta orientalis), were compared allergenically using an IgE serum pool from 4 German cockroach sensitive individuals. In crossover radioallergosorbent inhibition analysis, the Asian cockroach shared allergenic activity primarily with the German cockroach polymer and to a lesser extent with either the American or Oriental cockroach polymers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and thin-layer isoelectric focusing analysis of the extracts showed similar although varying intensities of Coomassie blue stained banding patterns among five extracts analyzed. Electroblotting analysis with 12.5% SDS-PAGE of the whole-body German cockroach extract and IgE serum from individuals sensitive to German cockroach revealed eight allergenic components with apparent molecular weights of 92, 80, 67, 48, 36, 27, 25 and 18 kD. Five components could be identified in the whole-body extract of the Asian cockroach corresponding to apparent molecular weights of 92, 67, 48, 40, and 32 kD. Analysis of individual serum by immunoblot analysis with each of the cockroach extracts showed considerable heterogenicity in the IgE-binding pattern. Although the Asian cockroach demonstrated considerable cross-reacting allergenic components to German and relatively fewer cross-reacting allergenic components to either the Oriental or American, it is too early to establish genus- or species-specific cockroach allergens. It is important to point out that German cockroach sensitive individuals should be made aware of the potential exposure of Asian cockroach aeroallergens both indoors and outdoors in areas with high infestations of Asian cockroaches.

  19. Analysis of properties and proinflammatory functions of cockroach allergens Per a 1.01s.

    PubMed

    He, S; Zhang, Z; Zhang, H; Wei, J; Yang, L; Yang, H; Sun, W; Zeng, X; Yang, P

    2011-09-01

    Cockroaches have been identified as one of the major indoor allergens inducing perennial rhinitis and asthma. Per a 1s are a group of the major allergens from American cockroach. Although Per a 1s are major allergens from American cockroach, factors contributing to the allergenicity of Per a 1s are still poorly defined. To investigate the effects of Per a 1s on the expression of PARs and the release of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells. Per a 1.0101 and Per a 1.0104 were cloned from American cockroach and then expressed in Eschericia coli. The purified allergens were used to stimulate P815 mast cells, and the expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in culture media were detected with ELISA. Sera from 80 and 77.3% of cockroach allergy patients reacted to recombinant Per a (rPer a) 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104, confirming they are major allergens. Both rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 had no enzymatic activity, but rPer a 1.0101 upregulated the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2, and rPer a 1.0104 enhanced the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-4 proteins. Both recombinant allergens were able to increase the release of IL-4 and IL-13 from P815 mast cells. This is the first study aiming to investigate functions of group 1 allergens of American cockroach. rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 have the capacity to upregulate the expression of PARs and to enhance Th2 cytokine production in mast cells.

  20. Early-life cockroach allergen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures predict cockroach sensitization among inner-city children.

    PubMed

    Perzanowski, Matthew S; Chew, Ginger L; Divjan, Adnan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ridder, Robert; Tang, Deliang; Diaz, Diurka; Goldstein, Inge F; Kinney, Patrick L; Rundle, Andrew G; Camann, David E; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

    2013-03-01

    Sensitization to cockroach is one of the strongest identified risk factors for greater asthma morbidity in low-income urban communities; however, the timing of exposures relevant to the development of sensitization has not been elucidated fully. Furthermore, exposure to combustion byproducts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can augment the development of allergic sensitization. We sought to test the hypotheses that domestic cockroach allergen measured prenatally would predict cockroach sensitization in early childhood and that this association would be greater for children exposed to higher PAH concentrations. Dominican and African American pregnant women living in New York City were enrolled. In the third trimester expectant mothers wore personal air samplers for measurement of 8 nonvolatile PAHs and the semivolatile PAH pyrene, and dust was collected from homes for allergen measurement. Glutathione-S-transferase μ 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphisms were measured in children. Allergen-specific IgE levels were measured from the children at ages 2, 3, 5, and 7 years. Bla g 2 in prenatal kitchen dust predicted cockroach sensitization at the ages of 5 to 7 years (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.15; P = .001; n = 349). The association was observed only among children with greater than (RR, 1.22; P = .001) but not less than (RR, 1.07; P = .24) the median sum of 8 nonvolatile PAH levels. The association was most pronounced among children with higher PAH levels and null for the GSTM1 gene (RR, 1.54; P = .001). Prenatal exposure to cockroach allergen was associated with a greater risk of allergic sensitization. This risk was increased by exposure to nonvolatile PAHs, with children null for the GSTM1 mutation particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The novel structure of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has implications for allergenicity and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Pedersen, Lars C; Lih, Fred B; Glesner, Jill; Moon, Andrea F; Chapman, Martin D; Tomer, Kenneth B; London, Robert E; Pomés, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Sensitization to cockroach allergens is a major risk factor for asthma. The cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has multiple repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, but the fold of the protein and its biological function are unknown. We sought to determine the structure of Bla g 1, investigate the implications for allergic disease, and standardize cockroach exposure assays. nBla g 1 and recombinant constructs were compared by using ELISA with specific murine IgG and human IgE. The structure of Bla g 1 was determined by x-ray crystallography. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to examine the ligand-binding properties of the allergen. The structure of an rBla g 1 construct with comparable IgE and IgG reactivity to the natural allergen was solved by x-ray crystallography. The Bla g 1 repeat forms a novel fold with 6 helices. Two repeats encapsulate a large and nearly spherical hydrophobic cavity, defining the basic structural unit. Lipids in the cavity varied depending on the allergen origin. Palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids were associated with nBla g 1 from cockroach frass. One unit of Bla g 1 was equivalent to 104 ng of allergen. Bla g 1 has a novel fold with a capacity to bind various lipids, which suggests a digestive function associated with nonspecific transport of lipid molecules in cockroaches. Defining the basic structural unit of Bla g 1 facilitates the standardization of assays in absolute units for the assessment of environmental allergen exposure. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Recombinant allergens for diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic disorders, with emphasis on cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hongb, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of allergic disorders has increased over the past few decades and the quality of life has been significantly influenced at least for the allergic subjects. Allergen avoidance is thought to be the best way of preventing clinical manifestation of the disease, however, it is not possible for some allergens, and other pharmacological and/or immunological treatment has to be made. Repetitive injection of sensitized allergens to the patients (immunotherapy) is the only known curative approach to the disease even though the exact mechanism is not clear to date. Crude extract of allergens has lots of shortcomings which might arouse unexpected results. Genetic engineering and recombinant allergens are thought to be one of the alternative ways to overcome these limitations. Genetic engineering could facilitate the investigation of immune responses of the subjects especially on B cell and T cell epitopes, and produce the therapeutic allergens which might minimize the possible side effects. Furthermore, conjugation of immuno-modulatory molecules such as CpG-ODN, cytokines, or toxins which could act specifically to the given allergens, and maleylation of the allergens could maximize the prophylactic or therapeutic effect. Immunotherapies for the pollen allergy and insect sting allergy have been thought to be successful. House dust mite allergy and cockroach allergy have been reported less beneficial by immunotherapeutic approaches. Cockroaches are one of the most important causes of asthma, and severe complications are often reported in the children in city dwellers with low-incomes. The studies of the biological functions of cockroach allergens and the use of recombinant allergens should allow understanding of mechanisms of cockroach-elicited allergic disorders and development of allergen-specific and sensitive diagnostics and tailored therapeutic approaches in the future.

  3. Allergen stabilities and compatibilities in immunotherapy mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts.

    PubMed

    Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Gada, Satyen M

    2015-12-01

    Indoor allergen mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts are commonly used in allergy clinics for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but product-specific stabilities and mixing compatibilities in these complex patient formulas have not been determined. To assess the recoveries of cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach mix allergen activities in 5 component mixtures and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions stored for up to 12 months. Concentrated stock mixtures, 10-fold dilutions of these mixtures in human serum albumin-saline diluent, and analogous single-extract controls were analyzed for major allergen concentrations (cat Fel d 1, dog dander Can f 1) and multiallergen IgE-binding potencies (dog epithelia, D farinae, cockroach mix) after storage for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. The selected immunoassays were specific for individual target extracts in the 5-component mixtures and exhibited analytical sensitivities sufficient for evaluation of both the concentrated and diluted indoor allergen formulas. All control samples except diluted cockroach extract had near-complete stabilities during refrigerated storage. Mixtures that contained cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, and D farinae extracts exhibited favorable mixing compatibilities in 1:1 (vol/vol) concentrates (47.5% glycerin) and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions (4.75% glycerin), relative to corresponding control sample reactivities. Cockroach allergens in both 1:1 (vol/vol) and 1:10 (vol/vol) concentrations were stabilized significantly by mixing with the other 4 indoor allergen extracts. Extracts in mixtures that contained 5 common sources of indoor allergens possess favorable stabilities and mixing compatibilities and support the practice of combining these products in the same patient treatment formulations for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Proteome mining for novel IgE-binding proteins from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) and allergen profiling of patients.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jiing-Guang; Su, Song-Nan; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lee, How-Jing; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2010-11-01

    Although cockroaches are known to produce allergens that can cause IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, including perennial rhinitis and asthma, the various cockroach allergens have not yet been fully studied. Many proteins from the German cockroach show high IgE reactivity, but have never been comprehensively characterized. To identify these potential allergens, proteins were separated by 2-DE and IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS or N-terminal sequencing analysis. Using a combination of proteomic techniques and bioinformatic allergen database analysis, we identified a total of ten new B. germanica IgE-binding proteins. Of these, aldolase, arginine kinase, enolase, Hsp70, triosephosphate isomerase, and vitellogenin have been reported as allergens in species other than B. germanica. Analysis of the Food Allergy Research and Resource Program allergen database indicated that arginine kinase, enolase, and triosephosphate isomerase showed significant potential cross-reactivity with other related allergens. This study revealed that vitellogenin is an important novel B. germanica allergen. Personalized profiling and reactivity of IgE Abs against the panel of IgE-binding proteins varied between cockroach-allergic individuals. These findings make it possible to monitor the individual IgE reactivity profile of each patient and facilitate personalized immunotherapies for German cockroach allergy disorders.

  5. Deteriorated housing contributes to high cockroach allergen levels in inner-city households.

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A; Chew, Ginger R; Garfinkel, Robin S

    2002-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood asthma in low-income, inner-city populations is not fully understood but has been at least partly attributed to the disproportionate exposures associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The contribution of indoor allergens to asthma is well documented, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and indoor allergen levels are not clear. We investigated levels of cockroach allergens (Bla g 2) in a sample of 132 Dominican or African American low-income households with young children in northern Manhattan in New York City (40% were receiving public assistance) to determine whether the distribution of allergens is a function of housing deterioration. Deterioration was measured by the presence and number of physical housing problems (holes in the ceilings and walls, water damage, etc.). More than 50% of the sample had two or more types of housing dilapidation, and 67% of the sample reported cockroach sightings in their homes. Samples of dust were collected from kitchen and bedroom surfaces. We hypothesized that the greater the dilapidation, the higher the allergen levels, independent of income, sociocultural factors, and pest-control methods. In addition, we hypothesized that the homes of families characterized by frequent moves (23.5%) would have higher allergen levels than more stable families. Results showed significant positive associations between housing deterioration and allergen levels in kitchens, after adjusting for income and ethnicity, with independent effects of residential stability (p< 0.05). Bedroom allergen levels were associated with housing instability (p < 0.01) and ethnicity (p< 0.01). Findings demonstrated that indoor household allergen levels are related to degree of household disrepair, after adjusting for individual family attributes, suggesting that social-structural aspects of housing may be appropriate targets for public health interventions designed to reduce allergen exposure. PMID:11929744

  6. Treatment with Pyranopyran-1, 8-Dione Attenuates Airway Responses in Cockroach Allergen Sensitized Asthma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Song, Joohyun; Kim, You Ah; Cho, Hi Jae; Min, Byung-Il; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. Viticis Fructus (VF) has long been used in China and Korea as a traditional herbal remedy for treating various inflammatory diseases. Previously, we have isolated a novel phytochemical, pyranopyran-1, 8-dione (PPY), from VF. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of PPY to prevent airway inflammation and to attenuate airway responses in a cockroach allergen-induced asthma model in mice. The mice sensitized to and challenged with cockroach allergen were treated with oral administration of PPY. The infiltration of total cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the BAL fluid was significantly inhibited in cockroach allergen-induced asthma mice treated with PPY (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg). Th2 cytokines and chemokine, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin in BAL fluid were also reduced to normal levels following treatment with PPY. In addition, the levels of IgE were also markedly suppressed after PPY treatment. Histopathological examination demonstrated that PPY substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airway, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPY possesses a potent efficacy on controlling allergic asthma response such as airway inflammation and remodeling. PMID:24489937

  7. Enzymatic activities of allergen extracts from three species of dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean home.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-06-01

    Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.

  8. Functional interaction of cockroach allergens and mannose receptor (CD206) in human circulating fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Chang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Plunkett, Beverly; Huang, Shau-Ku; Gao, Pei-Song

    2013-01-01

    The innate pattern recognition C-type-lectin receptors (CLRs), including mannose receptor (MRC1; CD206), have been suggested to functionally interact with allergens and are critical in controlling immune response. Fibrocytes have been considered to play a role in allergic asthma. Here we sought to investigate the functional interaction of cockroach allergens with CD206 in fibrocytes. Profiling of N-linked glycans from natural purified cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was accomplished by MALDI-MS. The binding activity of cockroach allergens to CD206 was determined by solid-phase binding assays. Levels of CD206 expression on human fibrocytes and CD206 mediated signaling and cytokine production in Bla g 2 treated fibrocytes were determined. Profiling of N-linked glycans from Bla g 2 revealed a predominance of small, mannose-terminated glycans with and without fucose. Significant binding of Bla g 2 to CD206 was observed, which was inhibited by yeast mannan (a known CD206 ligand), free mannose, and a blocking antibody (anti-hMR). Flow cytometric analyses of human fibrocytes (CD45(+) and collagen-1(+)) showed selective expression of CD206 on fibrocytes. Functionally, a concentration-dependent uptake of FITC labeled Bla g 2 by fibrocytes was observed, but was significantly inhibited by anti-hMR. Bla g 2 can stimulate up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), ERK, and JNK in cultured fibrocytes. This increased secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK was significantly inhibited by the addition of either mannan or mannose. Furthermore, Bla g 2 induced increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was also inhibited by the use of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK inhibitors. These results provide evidence supporting the existence of a functional cockroach allergen-CD206 axis in human fibrocytes, suggesting a role for CD206 in regulating allergen

  9. Functional Interaction of Cockroach Allergens and Mannose Receptor (CD206) in Human Circulating Fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Chang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Plunkett, Beverly; Huang, Shau-Ku; Gao, Pei-Song

    2013-01-01

    Background The innate pattern recognition C-type-lectin receptors (CLRs), including mannose receptor (MRC1; CD206), have been suggested to functionally interact with allergens and are critical in controlling immune response. Fibrocytes have been considered to play a role in allergic asthma. Here we sought to investigate the functional interaction of cockroach allergens with CD206 in fibrocytes. Methods Profiling of N-linked glycans from natural purified cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was accomplished by MALDI-MS. The binding activity of cockroach allergens to CD206 was determined by solid-phase binding assays. Levels of CD206 expression on human fibrocytes and CD206 mediated signaling and cytokine production in Bla g 2 treated fibrocytes were determined. Results Profiling of N-linked glycans from Bla g 2 revealed a predominance of small, mannose-terminated glycans with and without fucose. Significant binding of Bla g 2 to CD206 was observed, which was inhibited by yeast mannan (a known CD206 ligand), free mannose, and a blocking antibody (anti-hMR). Flow cytometric analyses of human fibrocytes (CD45+ and collagen-1+) showed selective expression of CD206 on fibrocytes. Functionally, a concentration-dependent uptake of FITC labeled Bla g 2 by fibrocytes was observed, but was significantly inhibited by anti-hMR. Bla g 2 can stimulate up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), ERK, and JNK in cultured fibrocytes. This increased secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK was significantly inhibited by the addition of either mannan or mannose. Furthermore, Bla g 2 induced increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was also inhibited by the use of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK inhibitors. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the existence of a functional cockroach allergen-CD206 axis in human fibrocytes, suggesting a role

  10. GM-CSF produced by the airway epithelium is required for sensitization to cockroach allergen

    PubMed Central

    Sheih, Alyssa; Parks, William C.; Ziegler, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are among the first to encounter inhaled allergens and can initiate allergic responses by producing pro-Th2 innate cytokines. In this study, we investigated the role of epithelial-derived cytokines in sensitization to a clinically relevant allergen, cockroach allergen (CRA). Among the epithelial-derived cytokines, GM-CSF played a central role in the initiation of Th2 allergic responses to CRA. We show that initial exposure to CRA directly activated airway epithelial cells through a TLR4-MyD88-dependent pathway and MyD88 signaling in epithelial cells induced upregulation of GM-CSF during sensitization. Epithelial-derived GM-CSF was required for allergic sensitization and selectively restored Th2 responses in the absence of MyD88. Thus, we demonstrate that epithelial-derived GM-CSF is a critical early signal during allergic sensitization to CRA. PMID:27731325

  11. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    PubMed

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.

  12. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lesa R; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-07-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. Accession numbers: The atomic coordinates and the structure factors have been deposited to the Protein Data Band under accession codes: 4N7C for native Bla g 4 and 4N7D for the Se-Met Bla g 4 structure.

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against major allergens of American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Wu, C H; Chiang, B T; Fann, M C; Lan, J L

    1990-11-01

    From several fusion experiments between spleen cells obtained from BALB/c mice immunized with partially purified Cr-PI of American cockroach and NS-1 cells, growth was observed in many wells. Seven stable subclones secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Cr-PI, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with high absorbance values and immunoblot analysis, were obtained. All seven mAbs were characterized as IgG1 subclass by immunodiffusion, and reacted strongly with 72 kilodaltons (kD) of Cr-PI which have been identified as a major allergen of American cockroach. Six mAbs were found to have similar epitope specificities against Cr-PI by ELISA. The remaining mAb was found to have different epitope specificities with others. Interestingly, all mAbs did not react with any components of crude extracts of Oriental and German cockroaches as determined by immunoblot analysis and ELISA. A mAb-based double-antibody sandwich ELISA was developed, and the ELISA was dose-dependent and capable of detecting as little as 140 ng of Cr-PI allergen.

  14. The major cockroach allergen Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine

    PubMed Central

    Offermann, Lesa R.; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, Jayaraman; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-01-01

    Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. PMID:24769496

  15. Localization of Per a 3 allergen in the gut and faecal pellets of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    PubMed

    Wu, H-Q; Liu, Z-G; Gao, B; Li, M; Ran, P-X; Xing, M

    2007-10-01

    Cockroach-derived materials are known to be a major source of potent aeroallergens, causing allergic respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to determine the localization of the major allergen, Per a 3 (Cr-PI), within the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), which might reveal the relative importance of excreted materials and nonexcreted cockroach components as allergen sources. American cockroaches (P. americana) and their faecal pellets were embedded in paraffin, and serial sections were cut and collected on glass slides. After being stained with mouse polyclonal antiserum against Per a 3, the sections were incubated sequentially with biotin-labelled sheep antimouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) and a preformed fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-avidin complex. Finally, the sections were mounted and examined under a fluorescent microscope. Examination of Per a 3 immunoreactivity on the sections of the American cockroaches (P. americana) revealed that the midgut mucosa, gut contents and faecal pellets were all strongly labelled. Per a 3 immunoreactive products were not detected in any other internal organs of the American cockroaches. These results suggest that Per a 3 allergen might be synthesized in and secreted from the epithelia of the midgut mucosa and excreted from the body in the faecal pellets.

  16. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  17. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    PubMed

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  18. Molecular cloning of Per a 1 and definition of the cross-reactive Group 1 cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Melén, E; Pomés, A; Vailes, L D; Arruda, L K; Chapman, M D

    1999-05-01

    Sensitization to allergens produced by German and American cockroaches is strongly associated with the cause of asthma. Most of the cockroach allergens identified to date have been species specific. The aim of this study was to identify and sequence cross-reactive cockroach allergens. A Periplaneta americana cDNA library was screened with IgE antibody from patients in the United States who were allergic to cockroach and who were sensitized to Blattella germanica. A cDNA clone was isolated that contained an 870-bp sequence with a 695-bp open reading frame, encoding a 231 amino acid protein, molecular weight 26.2 kd. Plaque immunoassays using anti-Bla g 1 and anti-Per a 1 mAbs and a panel of human IgE antibodies showed that the protein expressed by these clones was Per a 1. Sequence homology searches showed that Per a 1 was homologous to 5 previously reported, but unidentified, sequences from B germanica and P americana. These sequences encoded proteins with multiple molecular sizes containing approximately 100 amino acid repeats. The Per a 1 sequence also showed 31% identity to a mosquito precursor protein, ANG12, which may be involved in digestion. The Per a 1 cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris to produce purified recombinant allergen (yield, 14 mg/L). The results define the molecular structure and antigenic relationships between a new family of cross-reactive "Group 1" allergens produced by both P americana and B germanica. These recombinant allergens and specific mAbs will provide tools to improve the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases caused by cockroaches.

  19. Temporal role of chemokines in a murine model of cockroach allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M; Kunkel, S L; Strieter, R M; Lukacs, N W

    1998-12-15

    The increase in inner-city asthma among children appears to be due to allergic responses to several allergens. Recent studies have demonstrated that Ags derived from cockroaches are especially prominent in these settings and a significant health concern for the induction of asthma in children. In the present study, we have outlined the development of a murine model of cockroach allergen-induced airway disease and assessed specific mechanisms of the response, which resembles atopic human asthma. The allergic responses in this model include allergen-specific airway eosinophilia and significantly altered airway physiology, which directly correlates with inflammation. We have further utilized this allergen to establish primary and secondary rechallenge stages of late phase hyperreactivity exacerbation. This latter stage is characterized by greater changes in airway physiology than the primary stage, and it is likely due to the preexisting peribronchial inflammation present at the time of the second allergen rechallenge. We have identified specific roles for CC chemokines during these stages, with MIP-1alpha being an important eosinophil attractant during the primary stage and eotaxin during the secondary rechallenge stage. The development of these models allows the evaluation of mediators involved in both stages of cockroach allergen challenge, as well as the testing of specific therapeutic modalities.

  20. Inhibition of SCF attenuates peribronchial remodeling in chronic cockroach allergen-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Aaron A; Hogaboam, Cory M; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2006-06-01

    The progression and severity of chronic asthma likely depends upon the intensity of the damage and remodeling of the tissue. We have developed a chronic model of allergic asthma using multiple cockroach allergen challenges. Using this clinically relevant allergen we have established significant peribronchial fibrosis and mucus overproduction. These remodeling events are accompanied by intense peribronchial inflammation, including lymphocytes and eosinophils. A cytokine that has been identified as having a prominent role in short-term allergic events, stem cell factor (SCF), appears to have a significant role in this late-stage process. Using our polyclonal antibody specific for SCF administered into the airways of mice during the final allergen challenges, we find a significant effect on the chronic peribronchial allergen-induced fibrotic remodeling. This was characterized by reduced inflammation, especially eosinophils, as well as reduced hydroxyproline levels in anti-SCF compared to control antibody-treated animals. In addition, when we examined chemokines associated with the chronic disease and neutralized SCF in vivo we observed a corresponding decrease in CCL6 and CCL17. Using an inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, that blocks SCF/c-kit-associated RTK, we find similar results as with anti-SCF for attenuating AHR and fibrotic changes, suggesting that a potential clinical treatment for chronic asthma already exists related to this pathway. These results further support the potential use of SCF/c-kit inhibition for targeting chronic severe asthmatic responses.

  1. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Taruna; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Shartouny, Jessica R.; Slater, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Background German cockroach (GCr) allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency. Objective Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts. Methods Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human) coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA. Results Chicken scFv’s generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv’s recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target. Conclusions An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts. PMID:26444288

  2. Identification of the antigenic determinants of the American cockroach allergen Per a 1 by error-prone PCR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Jen; Liu, Ching-Hang; Chen, Shu-Tsung; Yang, Chiou-Ying

    2003-05-01

    The group I allergen of cockroach is found in both American and German cockroaches, designated as Per a 1 and Bla g 1, respectively. Members of these allergens so far identified are composed of tandem repeats that may cause the high allergenicity of Per a 1 allergen. In this study, we used monoclonal antibodies HW-8 and HW-19, which can inhibit the binding of patient IgE to Per a 1 allergen, to define the structure of the antigenic determinants in Per a 1.0103 (designated C3), an isoallergen of Per a 1 allergen. Two recognition sites are present, one in the N-terminus (aa 1-208) and the other in the C-terminus (aa 208-395). The N-terminal epitope is not accessible to antibody molecules on the pET-expressed C3 protein. The C-terminal epitope was further localized to the aa 267-354 region (C3E) by colony immunoscreening of the cDNA epitope library. By negative screening of the mutated C3E expression library generated by error-prone PCR (ER-PCR), an approach which has rarely been applied in epitope mapping, the functional epitope was identified to lie in aa 318-337 with aa 323-331 being the core motif. The minimal region of the functional epitope was further delineated, by sequence alignment, to be D-x-[I, L]-A-[I, L]-L-P-V-D-E-[L, I]-x-A-[L, I], where x represents any amino acids. This motif is found in all Per a 1 allergens and may serve as a basis for designing a peptide vaccine for allergen-specific immunotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report for (1) detailed mapping of the cockroach allergens and (2) use of error-prone PCR random mutagenesis and negative selection in molecular allergology.

  3. Protease inhibitor reduces airway response and underlying inflammation in cockroach allergen-induced murine model.

    PubMed

    Saw, Sanjay; Arora, Naveen

    2015-04-01

    Protease(s) enhances airway inflammation and allergic cascade. In the present study, effect of a serine protease inhibitor was evaluated in mouse model of airway disease. Mice were sensitized with cockroach extract (CE) or Per a 10 and treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) 1 h before or after challenge to measure airway response. Mice were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung to evaluate inflammation. AEBSF treatment significantly reduced the AHR in allergen-challenged mice in dose-dependent manner (p≤ 0.01). IgE (p≤0.05) and Th2 cytokines (p≤0.05) were significantly reduced in treated mice. AEBSF treatment lowered total cell (p≤0.05), eosinophil (p≤0.05), and neutrophil (p≤0.05) in BALF and lung tissue. Oxidative stress parameters were impaired on treatment in allergen-challenged mice (p≤0.05). AEBSF had therapeutic effect in allergen-induced airway resistance and underling inflammation and had potential for combination or as add-on therapy for respiratory diseases.

  4. IgE-Binding Epitope Mapping and Tissue Localization of the Major American Cockroach Allergen Per a 2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mey-Fann; Chang, Chia-Wei; Song, Pei-Pong; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Lin, Shyh-Jye

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cockroaches are the second leading allergen in Taiwan. Sensitization to Per a 2, the major American cockroach allergen, correlates with clinical severity among patients with airway allergy, but there is limited information on IgE epitopes and tissue localization of Per a 2. This study aimed to identify Per a 2 linear IgE-binding epitopes and its distribution in the body of a cockroach. Methods The cDNA of Per a 2 was used as a template and combined with oligonucleotide primers specific to the target areas with appropriate restriction enzyme sites. Eleven overlapping fragments of Per a 2 covering the whole allergen molecule, except 20 residues of signal peptide, were generated by PCR. Mature Per a 2 and overlapping deletion mutants were affinity-purified and assayed for IgE reactivity by immunoblotting. Three synthetic peptides comprising the B cell epitopes were evaluated by direct binding ELISA. Rabbit anti-Per a 2 antibody was used for immunohistochemistry. Results Human linear IgE-binding epitopes of Per a 2 were located at the amino acid sequences 57-86, 200-211, and 299-309. There was positive IgE binding to 10 tested Per a 2-allergic sera in 3 synthetic peptides, but none in the controls. Immunostaining revealed that Per a 2 was localized partly in the mouth and midgut of the cockroach, with the most intense staining observed in the hindgut, suggesting that the Per a 2 allergen might be excreted through the feces. Conclusions Information on the IgE-binding epitope of Per a 2 may be used for designing more specific diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cockroach allergy. PMID:25749772

  5. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  6. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  7. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2–12, 55–67, 98–120, 125–133, 149–160, 170–182, 201–208 and 223–227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83–92, 139–147 and 162–170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies. PMID:27840898

  8. Treatment of cockroach allergen asthma model with imatinib attenuates airway responses.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2005-01-01

    In the present study it was determined whether a pharmacologic approach to blocking receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated activation during allergic airway responses could be beneficial. To examine these responses, allergic mice were given a single oral dose of imatinib at clinically relevant concentrations, ranging from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg, by oral gavages just before allergen challenge. The reduction in the allergen-induced responses was significant and centered on reducing overall inflammation as well as pulmonary cytokine levels. In particular, the treatment of the mice with imatinib significantly attenuated airway hyperreactivity and peribronchial eosinophil accumulation, and significantly reduced Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 and interleukin-13. In addition, chemokines previously associated with allergen-induced pulmonary disease, CCL2, CCL5, and CCL6, were significantly reduced in the lungs of the imatinib-treated animals. Together these data demonstrate that the pharmacologic inhibitor imatinib may provide a clinically attractive therapy for allergic, asthmatic responses.

  9. Preparation and identification of Per a 5 as a novel American cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji-Fu; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Dongning; Gao, Peisong; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from various arthropods can elicit allergic reactions. In the present study, Per a 5, a GST, was cloned from American cockroach (CR) and expressed in both baculovirus-infected insect cell (iPer a 5) and E. coli expression (bPer a 5) systems. The secondary structures were predicted to be 45.93 and 8.69% of α-helix β-sheets in iPer a 5 and 42.54 and 8.49% of α-helix and β-sheets in bPer a 5, respectively. It is found that 4 out of 16 (25%) sera from American CR allergy patients reacted to both bPer a 9 and iPer a 9 as assessed by ELISA and Western blotting analysis, confirming that Per a 5 is not a major allergen of American CR. Induction of upregulated expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized human basophils (sera from American CR allergy patients) by approximately up to 4.5- and 3.2-fold indicates that iPer a 5 and bPer a 5 are functionally active. Recombinant Per a 5 (rPer a 5) should be a useful tool for studying and understanding the role of Per a 5 in CR allergy.

  10. IgE binding reactivity of peptide fragments of Bla g 4, a major German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang Hyun; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2009-03-01

    Cockroaches have been recognized as a major cause of asthma. Bla g 4 is one of the most important German cockroach allergens. The aim of this study is to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 4 (rBla g 4) in the sera of allergic patients and identify linear IgE binding epitope. For protein expression, full-length Bla g 4 (EF202172) was divided into 5 overlapping peptide fragments (E1: aa 1-100, E2: aa 34-77, E3: aa 74-117, E4: aa 114-156, and E5: aa 153-182). The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 4 was generated by PCR and over-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The IgE binding reactivities of the full-length and peptide fragments were measured by ELISA using 32 serum samples of cockroach allergy. The sera of 8 patients (25%) reacted with rBla g 4. Four sera (100%) showed IgE-binding reactivity to full-length and peptide fragment 4, and 2 sera (50%) reacted with peptide fragment 2. One (20%) serum reacted with peptide fragment 3. The results of ELISA using overlapping recombinant fragments indicated that the epitope region was located at amino acid sequences 34-73 and 78-113, and major IgE epitope of Bla g 4 was located at amino acid sequences 118-152 of C-terminal. B-cell epitope analysis of German cockroach allergen Bla g 4 could contribute to the strategic development of more specific and potentially efficacious immunotherapy.

  11. Cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Katial, Rohit K

    2003-08-01

    The ubiquitous existence of cockroaches and the large-scale domestic infestation seen in inner cities make cockroach proteins a significant indoor allergen and a risk factor for asthma among inner-city residents. Studies have shown that early exposure to high levels of allergen may lead to the development of asthma in individuals with a genetic predisposition to asthma. Although field trials at cockroach abatement do not yield promising results, integrated pest management still remains the best control strategy. In highly susceptible or symptomatic patients, allergen-specific immunotherapy may be beneficial, although data are limited. As molecular techniques improve and recombinant allergens are developed, a more novel form of T-cell-specific immunotherapy may prove to be efficacious without the anaphylactic side effects seen with traditional allergy vaccines.

  12. Domestic allergens in public places. II: Dog (Can f1) and cockroach (Bla g 2) allergens in dust and mite, cat, dog and cockroach allergens in the air in public buildings.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Green, R; Taggart, S C; Smith, A; Pickering, C A; Chapman, M D; Woodcock, A

    1996-11-01

    detected in schools and offices, albeit in low concentrations. Upholstered seats from public places constitute a reservoir for the accumulation of dog allergen, and a source of exposure to Can f 1 inside public buildings or on public transport. Exposure to cockroach allergens in schools may be important for cockroach sensitized asthmatic children.

  13. Reactivity of German cockroach allergen, Bla g 2, peptide fragments to IgE antibodies in patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeseok; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Shin, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Myung-hee; Gantulaga, Darambazar; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    Bla g 2 is a cockroach allergen of great importance. This study was conducted to identify IgE-binding epitope(s) of Bla g 2 using the recombinant protein technique. Approximately 50% of tested sera showed IgE reactivity to Pichia-expressed Bla g 2 (PrBla g 2) and E. coli-expressed Bla g 2 (ErBla g 2). Only 5.3% of serum samples showed stronger reactivity to PrBla g 2 than ErBla g 2, indicating that serum was reactive to conformational or carbohydrate epitopes. The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 2 were produced in E. coli. All fragments showed IgE-binding activity to the cockroach-allergy patients' sera. Specifically, peptide fragments of amino acid residue 1-75 and 146-225 appeared to be important for IgE-binding. The information about the IgE-binding epitope of Bla g 2 can aid in the diagnosis and treatment for cockroach allergies.

  14. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2-12, 55-67, 98-120, 125-133, 149-160, 170-182, 201-208 and 223-227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83-92, 139-147 and 162-170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies.

  15. The Distribution and Movement of American Cockroaches in Urban Niches of New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Carlson, John C; Rabito, Felicia A; Werthmann, Derek; Fox, Mark

    2017-10-01

    American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes. Cockroaches released into yards were collected in the homes, suggesting that yards, rather than sewers, are a more important source niche. A field trial applying boric acid granules to the yard was performed in an effort to reduce entry of cockroaches. There was a significant reduction in the cockroach antigen collected in intervention homes compared with controls.

  16. High-fat diet promotes lung fibrosis and attenuates airway eosinophilia after exposure to cockroach allergen in mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao Na; Greenberg, Yana; Hosseinkhani, M Reza; Long, Eric K; Bahaie, Nooshin S; Rao, Amrita; Ha, Sung Gil; Rao, Savita P; Bernlohr, David A; Sriramarao, P

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma but the mechanistic basis for this association is not well understood. In the current study, the impact of obesity on lung inflammatory responses after allergen exposure was investigated. C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal diet (ND) after weaning were sensitized and challenged with cockroach allergen (CRA). Airway inflammation was assessed based on inflammatory cell recruitment, measurement of lung Th1-Th2 cytokines, chemokines, eicosanoids, and other proinflammatory mediators as well as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). CRA-challenged mice fed a HFD exhibited significantly decreased allergen-induced airway eosinophilia along with reduced lung IL-5, IL-13, LTC4, CCL11, and CCL2 levels as well as reduced mucus secretion and smooth muscle mass compared to ND fed mice. However, allergen-challenged HFD fed mice demonstrated significantly increased PAI-1 and reduced PGE2 levels in the lung relative to corresponding ND fed mice. Interestingly, saline-exposed HFD fed mice demonstrated elevated baseline levels of TGF-β1, arginase-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and lung collagen expression associated with decreased lung function compared to corresponding ND fed mice. These studies indicate that a HFD inhibits airway eosinophilia while altering levels of PAI-1 and PGE2 in response to CRA in mice. Further, a HFD can lead to the development of lung fibrosis even in the absence of allergen exposure which could be due to innate elevated levels of specific profibrotic factors, potentially affecting lung function during asthma.

  17. Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density.

    PubMed

    Leaderer, Brian P; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore; Gold, Diane R; Kim, Young; Jankun, Thomas; Ren, Ping; McSharry Je, Jean-ellen; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Chapman, Martin D; Bracken, Michael B

    2002-04-01

    Home exposures to aeroallergens are an important environmental factor in allergic sensitization and in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We assessed variations in home concentrations of dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens in dust collected in the main living areas of asthmatics' homes by family income, mother's education, dwelling type, population density, household population density, and ethnicity in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts. Dust samples were collected at the time of home interview in 999 homes as part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,002 infants and their asthmatic siblings. The analysis employed lower and upper cut points for group 1 dust mite (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10 microg/g), cockroach (> or = 1.0 U/g and > or = 4.0 U/g), cat (> or = 1.0 microg/g and > or = 8.0 ug/g), and dog (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10.0 microg/g) allergens. Subject residences were geocoded to assess population density from the U.S. Census, and multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding. The portion of homes at the lower cut point for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens were 46.9%, 24.9%, 42.2%, and 35.6%, respectively; the upper cut point for each of the allergens was reached in 22.4%, 13.4%, 21.0%, and 22.9% of the homes, respectively. In all, 86.0% of the homes had at least one allergen at the lower cut point, and 58.0% had at least one allergen at the upper cut point. Forty-nine percent of the homes had two or more allergens at the lower cut point, and 19.7% had two or more allergens at the upper cut point. Higher education of the mother, higher household income, living in a single-family home in a less densely populated area with fewer people per room, and being a white household were associated with elevated dust mite, cat, and dog allergens and low cockroach allergen. In contrast, low income, living in a multifamily home in a high population density area with a higher occupancy

  18. IgE-binding reactivity of peptide fragments of Bla g 1.02, a major German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Yi, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chung-Ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches cause allergic diseases and are closely linked with the development of asthma. Bla g 1 is one of the major allergen proteins produced by German cockroaches. It consists of tandem repeats of approximately 100 amino acids. The aim of the present study was to identify linear IgE-binding epitopes of Bla g 1.02. RT-PCR was used to clone a cDNA sequence encoding Bla g 1.02 (EF202179) which shared 98.6-99.8% identity with a previously reported Bla g 1.02 (AF072220). To investigate IgE binding regions, five separate but overlapping Bla g 1.02 peptide fragments (A: aa 1-111, B: aa 102-215, C: aa 206-299, D: aa 289-403, E: aa 394-491) were amplified and cloned. The full-length and five peptide fragments were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and E. coli, respectively, and their IgE binding reactivities were measured by ELISA using 37 serum samples isolated from cockroach-sensitized patients. The sera of 24 patients (64.9%) recognized the full-length Bla g 1.02 recombinant protein. Among 19 selected serum samples, 11 sera (57.9%) reacted to peptide fragment A, 5 sera (31.3%) to B, 4 sera (21.1%) to C, 9 sera (47.4%) to D, and 10 sera (52.6%) to peptide fragment E. IgE-binding epitopes are found to be distributed to each tandem repeat of Bla g 1. The combination of peptide fragments A, D, and E may able to detect all Bla g 1-sensitized subjects. We suggest that these peptide fragments may be useful in allergy diagnosis and the design of novel immunotherapeutics.

  19. Allergenicity of native/recombinant tropomyosin, per a 7, of American cockroach (CR), Periplaneta americana, among CR allergic Thais.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Kwangsri, Sukanya; Chaicump, Wanpen

    2009-03-01

    In this study, native tropomyosin (Per a 7) of American cockroach (CR), Periplaneta americana, caught in Thailand was purified. Also, gene sequence encoding full length tropomyosin of the CR was PCR amplified by using degenerate primers designed from gene sequences coding for P. americana tropomyosin of the database (Per a 7.0101 and Per a 7.0102; accession no.Y14854 and AF106961, respectively). Amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence encoding P. americana tropomyosin of this study (GenBank accession no. FJ976895) had 98.59% identity with the sequences of Per a 7.0101 and Per a 7.0102 and was 97.18% identical to the Bla g 7 sequence of German cockroach, Blatella germanica (accession no. AF260897). The native and recombinant tropomyosins (approximately 34 kDa) were used as antigens in sandwich ELISA for detecting specific IgE in serum samples of 14 consented allergic patients who were positive by skin test to crude CR extract in comparison to 5 individuals who were skin test negative. It was found that 8 (57%) and 6 (43%) of the CR allergic patients gave positive IgE binding results to the native and the recombinant proteins, respectively, while none of the non-allergic counterparts was positive. Results of immunoblotting conformed to the ELISA results. Tropomyosin extracted from the P. americana caught in Thailand has potential as standard P. americana allergen in clinical monitoring of the allergic Thai patients.

  20. Seasonal levels of the major American cockroach allergen per a 9 (arginine kinase) in Bangkok and their relevance for disease severity.

    PubMed

    Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Sookrung, Nitat; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sae-Lim, Jenjira; Puduang, Somchai; Phonrat, Benjaluk; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2009-03-01

    Monitoring the levels of cockroach (CR) allergen in the environment has medical relevance as a clear dose response relationship between CR allergen exposure, sensitization and hospitalization has been reported. In this study, a cross-sectional survey of the levels of a major American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) allergen, i.e. Per a 9 (arginine kinase) in dust samples collected in various seasons throughout the year 2007 from 76 houses of CR allergic Thai patients in the Bangkok metropolitan area were determined. A monoclonal antibody-polyclonal antibody (MAb-PAb) based-sandwich ELISA was used. The MAb was specific to Per a 9 and the PAb was raised in a rabbit against the crude extract of P. americana. The detection limit of the assay was 122 pg of the allergen or 0.024 microg per gram of fine dust powder. The concentrations of Per a 9 were found to be highest during the winter months and lowest in summer. The levels of this CR allergen had a direct correlation with disease exacerbation; i.e. the majority of the CR allergic patients had their most severe clinical manifestations during winter. Moreover, the CR allergen levels were found to be higher in wood based-houses than in concrete houses.

  1. Cross-reaction between Formosan Termite(Coptotermes formosanus) Proteins and Cockroach Allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible insects, such as cockroaches and termites, are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have high nutritional value. Identification of cross-reactivity between commonly consumed food proteins and edible insects is important for food safety and to enable improvements ...

  2. Analysis of T cell responses to the major allergens from German cockroach: epitope specificity and relationship to IgE production.

    PubMed

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Tripple, Victoria; Grey, Howard; Wood, Robert; Broide, David H; Greenbaum, Jason; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Pomés, Anna; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-07-15

    Bla g allergens are major targets of IgE responses associated with cockroach allergies. However, little is known about corresponding T cell responses, despite their potential involvement in immunopathology and the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy. Bioinformatic predictions of the capacity of Bla g 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 peptides to bind HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ molecules, and PBMC responses from 30 allergic donors, identified 25 T cell epitopes. Five immunodominant epitopes accounted for more than half of the response. Bla g 5, the most dominant allergen, accounted for 65% of the response, and Bla g 6 accounted for 20%. Bla g 5 induced both IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, whereas Bla g 6 induced mostly IL-5, and, conversely, Bla g 2 induced only IFN-γ. Thus, responses to allergens within a source are independently regulated, suggesting a critical role for the allergen itself, and not extraneous stimulation from other allergens or copresented immunomodulators. In comparing Ab with T cell responses for several donor/allergen combinations, we detected IgE titers in the absence of detectable T cell responses, suggesting that unlinked T cell-B cell help might support development of IgE responses. Finally, specific immunotherapy resulted in IL-5 down modulation, which was not associated with development of IFN-γ or IL-10 responses to any of the Bla g-derived peptides. In summary, the characteristics of T cell responses to Bla g allergens appear uncorrelated with IgE responses. Monitoring these responses may therefore yield important information relevant to understanding cockroach allergies and their treatment.

  3. In silico prediction of the T-cell and IgE-binding epitopes of Per a 6 and Bla g 6 allergens in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Hai-Wei; Wei, Ji-Fu; Tao, Ai-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Per a 6 and Bla g 6 are cockroach allergens found in Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica, respectively. The objective of the present study was to predict the B‑ and T‑cell epitopes of the Per a 6 and Bla g 6 allergens. Three immunoinformatics tools, the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides system and the BepiPred 1.0 server, were used to predict the potential B‑cell epitopes, while Net‑MHCIIpan‑2.0 and NetMHCII‑2.2 were used to predict the T‑cell epitopes of the two allergens. As a result, seven peptides were predicted in the Per a 6 allergen and seven peptides were predicted in the Bla g 6 allergen in the B‑cell epitope predictions. In the T‑cell prediction, the Per a 6 allergen was predicted to have nine strongly binding nonamer core epitope sequences (IC50<50 nm) and 28 weakly binding sequences (50 nmallergen was predicted to have nine strong binders and 25 weak binders. These results may be useful for peptide‑based vaccine designs.

  4. Structures of Two Major Allergens, Bla g 4 and Per a 4, From Cockroaches and Their IgE Binding Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Chan, S; Ong, T; Yit, L; Tiong, Y; Chew, F; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant allergens from cockroaches are an important cause of asthma to millions of individuals worldwide. Here we report for the first time the structures of two major cockroach allergens, Bla g 4 and Per a 4, that adopt a typical lipocalin fold but with distinct structural features as compared with other known lipocalin allergens. Both Bla g 4 and Per a 4 contain two long-range disulfide bonds linking the N and C termini to a beta-barrel. The C-terminal helix of Bla g 4 is bent and greatly extended toward the N terminus. Bla g 4 is found to be a monomer, whereas Per a 4 exists as a dimer in solution with a novel dimeric interface involving residues from loops at the top and bottom of the beta-barrel. Putative ligand binding sites of both allergens are determined by docking of the juvenile hormone III inside the beta-barrel and found to interact with the ligand using non-conserved residues. Bla g 4 and Per a 4 are found to be cross-reactive in sera IgE binding, at least in the Singaporean Chinese population tested. A major IgE binding epitope unique to Per a 4 is found on the loops at the bottom of the beta-barrel that may aid the development of hypoallergens for immunotherapy.

  5. The effects of the standardized herbal formula PM014 on pulmonary inflammation and airway responsiveness in a murine model of cockroach allergen-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Hei-Lim; Park, Soojin; Lee, Geunhyeog; Kim, Miran; Min, Joon-Ki; Min, Byung-Il; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-08-08

    PM014 is a modified form of the Chung-Sang-Bo-Ha-Tang (CSBHT) herbal formula that has been used to treat chronic pulmonary diseases in Korea for centuries. Previously, we developed a formulation of PM014 based on a series of in vitro and in vivo screening efforts that comprises seven herbal extracts. The PM014 formula includes the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, the cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa, the fruit of Schizandra chinensis, the root of Asparagus cochinchinensis, seeds of Prunus armeniaca, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and the root of Stemona sessilifolia. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs that is characterized by wheezing, bronchial contraction, and chest tightness. In addition, the airway becomes hypersensitive and narrows through an inflammatory reaction mediated by Th2 cells. The present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of PM014 to prevent allergic airway inflammation and to attenuate airway responses in a cockroach allergen-induced mouse model. Mice sensitized to and challenged with cockroach allergen were treated with oral administration of PM014. Airway resistance was determined by whole body plethysmography. In addition, Th2 cytokines and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and inflammatory mediators in serum were analyzed by ELISA. A series of histological examinations were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of PM014 on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. PM014 significantly inhibited the number of total cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the BAL fluid of mice that were challenged with cockroach allergen. In addition, PM014 reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) in the BAL fluid and inflammatory mediators such as IgE in the serum, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histopathological analysis also showed that PM014 substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the

  6. Pets and cockroaches: two increasing causes of respiratory allergy in indoor environments. Characteristics of airways sensitization and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization to indoor allergens such as dust mites, pets and cockroaches is the result of the changes in indoor environments induced by human activities. The Westernized lifestyle and the increasing time spent indoors determine a reduction in natural air ventilation and, consequently, higher levels of allergen concentrations and longer exposure to allergens. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is carried by small-dimension particles (< 5 microm diameter) that readily become airborne and persist immodified for a long time. Fel d 1 must be considered a ubiquitous allergen because it has been found in indoor environments and even in public places where a cat has never been kept. Recent research has demonstrated that clothing of cat owners may contribute to the dispersal of Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Therefore, washing Fel d 1-contaminated clothes should be considered a simple and effective method for removing this allergen from clothing and, consequently, reducing the risk of Fel d 1 dispersion. Cockroach allergens constitute another important cause of environment-related respiratory allergy and may trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. In the prevention of cockroach allergy, the use of chemical agents associated with an intensive vacuum cleaning of indoor environments is an important tool in removing cockroach material containing allergenic proteins. Early recognition of allergy-predisposed babies, monitoring indoor allergens and adequate strategies of allergen avoidance are likely to be important means for reducing the prevalence of bronchial asthma.

  7. Expression, production and excretion of Bla g 1, a major human allergen, in relation to food intake in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Gore, J Chad; Schal, C

    2005-06-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), produces several potent human allergens, one of which, Blattella germanica allergen 1 (Bla g 1), is produced in the midgut and excreted in faeces. We tested with descriptive and experimental approaches the hypothesis that Bla g 1 production is related to food intake in adult males and females of the German cockroach. Bla g 1 mRNA expression in the female midgut (assayed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction), her Bla g 1 content (assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the female's faeces production and its Bla g 1 content tracked a cyclic pattern in relation to the gonadotrophic cycle. All four measures rose as food intake increased, declined before oviposition in relation to diminishing food intake, and remained low while the female carried an egg case for 20 days. After her first clutch of embryos hatched, the female resumed feeding, and faeces and Bla g 1 production increased concomitantly. Both Bla g 1 mRNA expression and Bla g 1 protein levels remained low in experimentally starved females. However, when starved females were allowed to feed, Bla g 1 production elevated and the gonadotrophic cycle resumed. Bla g 1 mRNA expression also increased six-fold in response to feeding compared to starved females. By contrast, there were no apparent cycles in the pattern of Bla g 1 production in males, reflecting their low and non-cyclic food intake. Our results therefore demonstrate that Bla g 1 production in B. germanica is modulated in relation to food intake.

  8. Molecular cloning, expression, IgE binding activities and in silico epitope prediction of Per a 9 allergens of the American cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Jin, Min; Xie, Hua; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Per a 9 is a major allergen of the American cockroach (CR), which has been recognized as an important cause of imunoglobulin E-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. However, it is not neasy to obtain a substantial quantity of this allergen for use in functional studies. In the present study, the Per a 9 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. It was found that 13/16 (81.3%) of the sera from patients with allergies caused by the American CR reacted to Per a 9, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming that Per a 9 is a major allergen of CR. The induction of the expression of CD63 and CCR3 in passively sensitized basophils (from sera of patients with allergies caused by the American CR) by approximately 4.2-fold indicated that recombinant Per a 9 was functionally active. Three immunoinformatics tools, including the DNASTAR Protean system, Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the potential B cell epitopes, while Net-MHCIIpan-2.0 and NetMHCII-2.2 were used to predict the T cell epitopes of Per a 9. As a result, we predicted 11 peptides (23–28, 39–46, 58–64, 91–118, 131–136, 145–154, 159–165, 176–183, 290–299, 309–320 and 338–344) as potential B cell linear epitopes. In T cell prediction, the Per a 9 allergen was predicted to have 5 potential T cell epitope sequences, 119–127, 194–202, 210–218, 239–250 and 279–290. The findings of our study may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccines to combat CR-induced allergies. PMID:27840974

  9. Hypersensitivity of bronchial asthmatics to cockroach in Taiwan. comparative study between American and German cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J J; Kao, M H; Wu, C H

    1998-11-01

    This study was performed to test the hypersensitivity of asthmatics to American and German cockroaches, which are both common in Taiwan. A total of 236 asthmatic patients received skin prick test using allergen extracts from both American and German cockroaches, and 596 sera from asthmatic patients were analyzed for their specific IgE against German cockroach extract. The results of skin test showed that 39.4 and 36.4% asthmatic patients were hypersensitive to American and German cockroaches. Fifteen among 236 patients were only allergic to American cockroaches and 8 were only allergic to German cockroaches. Using the Pharmacia CAP system, 36% of the sera were found to contain the specific IgE to German cockroach extract. Eighty-nine sera positive for German cockroach extract were then tested for their reactivity to American cockroach extract using the fluoroallergosorbent test (FAST). Sixty among 89 (68%) of their sera contained American cockroach-specific IgE. The correlation coefficient between both parameters was r = 0.45. Immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition studies were performed to analyze the IgE-binding components and the cross-reactivity between American and German cockroaches. The results showed that there are different IgE-binding components between American and German cockroaches. Sera containing specific IgE to both species of cockroach were absorbed with both species of cockroach extracts. The specific IgE to German cockroaches can be absorbed by American cockroach extract in all selected sera and the specific IgE to American cockroaches can only partially be absorbed by German cockroaches. The nonabsorbed allergens in American cockroaches had molecular weights of 33 and 50 kD. In conclusion, one-third of the asthmatic population tested was allergic to cockroaches. Although most cockroach-hypersensitive patients were allergic to both American and German cockroaches, more asthmatic patients were allergic to American cockroaches in Taiwan. The use of

  10. [Evaluation of specific activity of preparations of allergens from synanthropic insects].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Radikova, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Kropotova, I S

    2006-01-01

    Physical, chemical and immunobiological characteristics of allergens from synanthropic insects were studied by tests for anaphylaxis, indirect degranulation of mast cells test and ELISA. Sera from 20 patients with severe and intermediate atopic asthma with sensiblization to common allergens have been studied. All extracts of allergens from synanthropic insects (german cockroach, oriental cockroach, american cockroach, speckled feeder cockroach, cricket, common house fly, brown house moth, confused flour beetle, rice weevil, grain weevil) have specific activity. Extracts of allergens from common house fly, brown house moth, german cockroach and oriental cockroach had the strongest allergenic activity as measured by ELISA. Obtained allergens can be used for insect allergy diagnostics.

  11. Allergen

    MedlinePlus

    Common allergens include: Animal proteins and animal dander Dust Drugs (such as antibiotics or medicines you put on your skin) Foods (such as egg, peanut, milk, nuts, soy, fish, animal meat, and wheat) Fungal spores ...

  12. Molecular cloning, expression, IgE binding activities and in silico epitope prediction of Per a 9 allergens of the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Jin, Min; Xie, Hua; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Per a 9 is a major allergen of the American cockroach (CR), which has been recognized as an important cause of imunoglobulin E-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. However, it is not neasy to obtain a substantial quantity of this allergen for use in functional studies. In the present study, the Per a 9 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. It was found that 13/16 (81.3%) of the sera from patients with allergies caused by the American CR reacted to Per a 9, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming that Per a 9 is a major allergen of CR. The induction of the expression of CD63 and CCR3 in passively sensitized basophils (from sera of patients with allergies caused by the American CR) by approximately 4.2-fold indicated that recombinant Per a 9 was functionally active. Three immunoinformatics tools, including the DNAStar Protean system, Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the potential B cell epitopes, while Net-MHCIIpan-2.0 and NetMHCII-2.2 were used to predict the T cell epitopes of Per a 9. As a result, we predicted 11 peptides (23-28, 39-46, 58-64, 91-118, 131-136, 145-154, 159-165, 176-183, 290-299, 309-320 and 338-344) as potential B cell linear epitopes. In T cell prediction, the Per a 9 allergen was predicted to have 5 potential T cell epitope sequences, 119-127, 194-202, 210-218, 239-250 and 279-290. The findings of our study may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccines to combat CR-induced allergies.

  13. Sensitization to mouse and cockroach allergens and asthma morbidity in urban minority youth: Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino American (GALA-II) and Study of African-Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE-II).

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Anna B; Lee, Todd A; Cai, Miao; Oh, Sam S; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Silverberg, Jonathan; Williams, L Keoki; Seibold, Max A; Sen, Saunak; Borrell, Luisa N; Avila, Pedro; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Pest allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity in urban youth but minimally explored in Latino populations. Specifically, the effect of mouse sensitization on the risk of asthma exacerbation has been unexplored in Latino subgroups. To evaluate whether pest allergen sensitization is a predictor of asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control in urban minority children with asthma. Latino and African American children (8-21 years old) with asthma were recruited from 4 sites across the United States. Logistic regression models evaluated the association of mouse or cockroach sensitization with asthma-related acute care visits or hospitalizations. A total of 1,992 children with asthma in the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino American (GALA-II) and Study of African-Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE-II) cohorts were studied. Asthmatic children from New York had the highest rate of pest allergen sensitization (42% mouse, 56% cockroach), with the lowest rate in San Francisco (4% mouse, 8% cockroach). Mouse sensitization, more than cockroach, was associated with increased odds of acute care visits (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.03) or hospitalizations (aOR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.81-5.18), even after controlling for self-reported race and site of recruitment. In stratified analyses, Mexican youth sensitized to mouse allergen did not have higher odds of asthma exacerbation. Other Latino and Puerto Rican youth sensitized to mouse had higher odds of hospitalization for asthma (aORs, 4.57 [95% CI, 1.86-11.22] and 10.01 [95% CI, 1.77-56.6], respectively) but not emergency department visits. Pest allergen sensitization is associated with a higher odds of asthma exacerbations in urban minority youth. Puerto Rican and Other Latino youth sensitized to mouse were more likely to have asthma-related hospitalizations than Mexican youth. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Tissue localization and regulation by juvenile hormone of human allergen Bla g 4 from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Gore, J C; Redding, K O; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D; Schal, C

    2005-01-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), produces several potent protein aeroallergens, including Bla g 4, a approximately 20 kDa lipocalin. RT-PCR, Northern analyses and in situ hybridization showed that Bla g 4 is expressed only in the adult male reproductive system. Western blotting and ELISA with rBla g 4 antiserum detected immunoreactivity in the utricles and the conglobate gland, but not in other tissues of the male reproductive system. The Bla g 4 protein content of males increased from adult emergence to day 14, but during copulation Bla g 4 was depleted in the male and transferred to the female within the spermatophore. Topical application of juvenile hormone III stimulated Bla g 4 production by both conglobate gland and utricles.

  15. RNA interference-mediated knock-down of Bla g 1 in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., implicates this allergen-encoding gene in digestion and nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Suazo, A; Gore, C; Schal, C

    2009-11-01

    We used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the expression of a gene encoding Bla g 1, a human allergen produced by the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., to study its function in cockroach physiology. Females injected with 1 microg of double-stranded RNA contained 64% less Bla g 1 protein and Bla g 1 mRNA abundance was reduced by 91.4% compared to sham-injected females. Bla g 1 knockdown slowed the pace of weight gain, midgut growth, and colleterial gland and basal oocyte maturation, resulting in delayed egg case formation and lower fecundity. Exogenous juvenile hormone treatments rescued reproduction in RNAi-treated females, suggesting that Bla g 1 silencing lowered endogenous juvenile hormone, probably by reducing food intake and nutrient absorption.

  16. Reduction in allergenicity of grass pollen by genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, P L; Swoboda, I; Singh, M B

    2001-01-01

    Hay fever and allergic asthma triggered by grass pollen allergens affect approximately 20% of the population in cool temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens due to its prodigious airborne pollen production. Lol p 5 or group 5 is among the most important and widespread grass pollen allergen because it reacts with IgE antibodies of more than 90% of grass pollen-allergic patients, contains most of the grass pollen-specific IgE epitopes and elicits strong biological responses. Significant efforts have been made in developing diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for designing new and more effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of allergic diseases. An alternative approach to this problem could be to reduce the amount of allergen content in the source plant. High velocity microprojectile bombardment was used to genetically engineer ryegrass. Antisense construct targeted to one of major allergen, Lol p 5, was introduced. The expression of antisense RNA was regulated by a pollen-specific promoter. Pollen was analysed for IgE reactivity. Analysis of proteins with allergen-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies did not detect Lol p 5 in the transgenic pollen. The transgenic pollen showed remarkably reduced allergenicity as reflected by low IgE binding capacity of pollen extract as compared to control pollen. The transgenic ryegrass plants in which Lol p 5 gene expression is perturbed showed normal fertile pollen development. Our studies showed that it is possible to selectively 'switch off' allergen production in pollen of ryegrass demonstrating feasibility of genetic engineering of plants for reduced allergenicity. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Effects of reduction and proteolysis on cashew allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is frequently more severe than reaction to peanut ingestion, and food allergens are commonly resistant to digestive proteases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of cashew proteins to proteolysis. Cashew protein extracts and purified c...

  18. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-01

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination. PMID:28106812

  19. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    PubMed

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-18

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.

  20. Occupational health risks due to shipboard cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver

    2008-05-01

    In various investigated populations, sensitization to cockroaches was observed in 8% of screened subjects from temperate climatic zones and in 36% of those from tropical zones. Because of the numerous hiding places and food storages aboard a ship the crews can be highly exposed to cockroaches. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches and potentially associated health risks in seafarers. In July 2005, a total of 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance program for a cross-sectional study (response 95.4%). A standardized interview and a skin prick test (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. In cockroach-sensitized seafarers total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04-4.66). The prevalence of sensitization to any of the other nine common allergen mixtures tested was lower (between 2.1 and 12.4%). Neither current or past cockroach exposure on board nor cumulative cockroach exposure and time since last cockroach exposure were associated with cockroach sensitization. Among cockroach SPT-positive seamen, cockroach-specific IgE was detected in 52.8%. Five out of 37 (13.5%) SPT-positive seamen exhibited an obstructive ventilation pattern. The prevalence of work-related atopic symptoms was 9.0% (n = 13). These symptoms were not related to cockroach sensitization. The high prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches among seamen in the presented study emphasizes the strong sensitization potency of these insects. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to assess the clinical relevance of

  1. Role of cockroach proteases in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen

    2012-10-01

    Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.

  2. Characteristic features of cockroach hypersensitivity in Turkish asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Mungan, D; Celik, G; Sin, B; Bavbek, S; Demirel, Y; Misirligil, Z

    1998-09-01

    Exposure to cockroach has been reported to cause asthma in many parts of the world. Although house-dust-mite is known to be the most important indoor allergen in Turkey, there are few data on the prevalence of allergy to cockroaches. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of cockroach sensitivity in asthmatic Turkish patients to see whether it is also an important source of asthma in addition to house-dust mites. A total of 206 patients demonstrating the characteristic features of asthma were included in the study. Sixty-three percent of the patients were considered atopic, and 37% were found to be nonatopic by skin prick tests. Mite allergens were the most common cause of indoor allergy (50%), while cockroach sensitivity was detected in 25.7% of all the asthmatics. Among all cockroach-sensitive patients, 70% were also positive for mites. A female predominance was observed in cockroach-sensitive patients, as 44% of atopic women and 34% of atopic men had positive skin tests with cockroach allergen. The average duration of asthma was 7.1+/-5.6 years in cockroach-sensitive asthmatics, and there was no difference between groups in average duration of asthma (P>0.05). Mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics constituted 73.6%, 20.7%, and 5.7% of the cockroach-sensitive patients, respectively. These data indicate that cockroach is also an important source of domestic infestation in Turkey. Thus, it seems reasonable to suggest the need for cockroach allergen in the routine battery of inhalant skin tests in this geographic location. However, possible cross-reactivity with mites has to be taken into consideration during the clinical evaluation of subjects with cockroach sensitivity, especially in our patient population with such high rates of house-dust-mite allergy.

  3. Cockroach induces inflammatory responses through protease-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kota; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to cockroaches is a major risk factor for asthma. Products from cockroaches may contain proteases and ligands for pattern recognition receptors. These molecules may activate airway inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, that are involved in asthma. Among inner-city children, cockroach allergens play an especially important role in increasing asthma morbidity. The molecular mechanism for this association between cockroach exposure and asthma is not fully understood. Enzymatic activities from cockroaches activate inflammatory cells in the airways and may also exacerbate certain human airway diseases, such as asthma. We recently reported that cockroach extracts contain pepstatin A-sensitive proteases that activate PAR-2 and induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils. This review focuses on the effects of cockroach on various inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and T cells, in allergic reactions.

  4. Mouse allergen is the major allergen of public health relevance in Baltimore City.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Sharon K; Peng, Roger D; Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Aloe, Charles; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2013-10-01

    Cockroach and mouse allergens have both been implicated as causes in inner-city asthma morbidity in multicenter studies, but whether both allergens are clinically relevant within specific inner-city communities is unclear. Our study aimed to identify relevant allergens in Baltimore City. One hundred forty-four children (5-17 years old) with asthma underwent skin prick tests at baseline and had clinical data collected at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Home settled dust samples were collected at the same time points for quantification of indoor allergens. Participants were grouped based on their sensitization and exposure status to each allergen. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and serum total IgE level. Forty-one percent were mouse sensitized/exposed, and 41% were cockroach sensitized/exposed based on bedroom floor exposure data. Mouse sensitization/exposure was associated with acute care visits, decreased FEV1/forced vital capacity percentage values, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels, and bronchodilator reversibility. Cockroach sensitization/exposure was only associated with acute care visits and bronchodilator reversibility when exposure was defined by using bedroom floor allergen levels. Mouse-specific IgE levels were associated with poor asthma health across a range of outcomes, whereas cockroach-specific IgE levels were not. The relationships between asthma outcomes and mouse allergen were independent of cockroach allergen. Although sensitization/exposure to both mouse and cockroach was generally associated with worse asthma, mouse sensitization/exposure was the primary contributor to these relationships. In a community with high levels of both mouse and cockroach allergens, mouse allergen appears to be more strongly and consistently associated with poor asthma outcomes than cockroach allergen. Community-level asthma interventions in Baltimore should prioritize reducing mouse allergen exposure. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy

  5. Cockroach sensitization in laboratory workers.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, D R; Bernstein, D I; Gallagher, J S; Arlian, L; Bernstein, I L

    1987-10-01

    Six laboratory workers who were exposed to American cockroaches (AC) and German cockroaches (GC) while they were performing immunologic experiments were evaluated for cockroach hypersensitivity. Prick skin testing and RAST were performed with whole body extracts (1:20 wt/vol) of AC, brown-banded (BB), and GC species as well as hemolymph and fecal (F) extracts of AC. Three of six workers reported work-related nasal and ocular symptoms associated with xenografting and bleeding of cockroaches. All three symptomatic workers exhibited cutaneous reactivity to at least one cockroach antigen. Elevated RAST binding was observed in one of the three symptomatic workers. A nasal provocation to AC was positive in the most symptomatic worker at a provocative dose of 3.2 X 10(-3) mg causing a 50% decrease of nasal flow rate from baseline. After pretreatment with nasal cromolyn, the provocative dose causing a 50% decrease from baseline increased to 2.6 X 10(-1) mg. Nasal provocation with the same concentrations of AC were negative in two skin test negative subjects. RAST-inhibition studies demonstrated cross inhibition of the serum-specific IgE binding to AC-hemolymph by AC, GC, and BB whole body extracts. However, specific IgE binding to AC-F was inhibited by AC-F and AC but not by GC or BB whole body extracts, suggesting there was greater specificity of the F allergens. This study demonstrated that cockroach allergens elicit IgE-dependent upper respiratory sensitization in the workplace.

  6. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arkansas Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia California Wisconsin ... to cockroaches and their droppings. Pests need food, water and shelter to survive. There are changes you ...

  7. [Allergic rhinitis: evaluation of prick test positivity for German and American cockroaches (Blatella Germanica, Periplaneta Americana)].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, M; Salami, A; Cordone, G; Sovatzis, A; Mora, F; Cordone, M P; Mora, R; Yoo, T J

    2002-06-01

    Allergies are a widespread phenomenon and one that is in continuous expansion, especially in large cities. A heretofore underestimated allergen, at least in Italy, is the cockroach. Between April and June 2000, we administered a prick test (including the cockroach antigen in the allergen kit) to 163 patients. The prick test was executed utilizing histamine as the positive control and a normal diluent as the negative control; both indoor allergens (including dermatophagoids and dog and cat epithelium) and outdoor allergens (including trees, grasses, pollens and spores) were employed. The results obtained were evaluated by comparing the reaction provoked by these allergens to that of the histamine. About 20% of the patients who reacted to the other indoor allergens also tested positive to the cockroach antigen. Also on the basis of experiences previously carried out in other countries (United States, Korea, Japan, Turkey), the cockroach must be borne in mind as a possible significant cause of allergic reactions in Italy, too.

  8. Reduction of the number of major representative allergens: from clinical testing to 3-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Liu, Xueting; Huang, Yuyi; Zou, Zehong; Chen, Huifang; Lai, He; Zhang, Lida; Wu, Qiurong; Zhang, Junyan; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jianguo; Tao, Ailin; Sun, Baoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  9. Effect of environmental intervention on mouse allergen levels in homes of inner-city Boston children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Beth; Wood, Robert A.; Eggleston, Peyton A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Song, Leslie; Tachdjian, Raffi; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that mouse allergen exposure and sensitization are common in urban children with asthma. The effectiveness of environmental intervention in reducing mouse allergen exposure has not been established. Objective: To evaluate whether environmental intervention of mouse extermination and cleaning results in a reduction in mouse allergen levels. Methods: Eighteen homes of children with positive mouse allergen skin test results and at least mild persistent asthma in urban Boston, MA, with evidence of mouse infestation or exposure were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (12 intervention and 6 control homes). The intervention homes received an integrated pest management intervention, which consisted of filling holes with copper mesh, vacuuming and cleaning, and using low-toxicity pesticides and traps. Dust samples were collected and analyzed for major mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 months after the intervention was started and compared with control homes. Results: Mouse allergen levels were significantly decreased compared with control homes by the end of the intervention period at month 5 in the kitchen and bedroom (kitchen intervention, 78.8% reduction; control, 319% increase; P = .02; bedroom intervention, 77.3% reduction; control, 358% increase; P < .01; and living room intervention, 67.6% reduction; control, 32% reduction; P = .07). Conclusions: Mouse allergen levels were significantly reduced during a 5-month period using an integrated pest management intervention. PMID:15104193

  10. Effect of environmental intervention on mouse allergen levels in homes of inner-city Boston children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Phipatanakul, Wanda; Cronin, Beth; Wood, Robert A; Eggleston, Peyton A; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Song, Leslie; Tachdjian, Raffi; Oettgen, Hans C

    2004-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that mouse allergen exposure and sensitization are common in urban children with asthma. The effectiveness of environmental intervention in reducing mouse allergen exposure has not been established. To evaluate whether environmental intervention of mouse extermination and cleaning results in a reduction in mouse allergen levels. Eighteen homes of children with positive mouse allergen skin test results and at least mild persistent asthma in urban Boston, MA, with evidence of mouse infestation or exposure were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (12 intervention and 6 control homes). The intervention homes received an integrated pest management intervention, which consisted of filling holes with copper mesh, vacuuming and cleaning, and using low-toxicity pesticides and traps. Dust samples were collected and analyzed for major mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 months after the intervention was started and compared with control homes. Mouse allergen levels were significantly decreased compared with control homes by the end of the intervention period at month 5 in the kitchen and bedroom (kitchen intervention, 78.8% reduction; control, 319% increase; P = .02; bedroom intervention, 77.3% reduction; control, 358% increase; P < .01; and living room intervention, 67.6% reduction; control, 32% reduction; P = .07). Mouse allergen levels were significantly reduced during a 5-month period using an integrated pest management intervention.

  11. [New aero-allergens. Interaction between allergens and the environment].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D

    1997-11-01

    There is a qualitative as well as a quantitative change in allergen exposure. From a qualitative viewpoint, the relevance of some allergens (domestic allergens i.e. cockroaches, outdoor allergens i.e. plane tree, chestnut and ash tree pollens) has been established. The role of some other allergens has been, strictly speaking, discovered: latex from Hevea and ficus, trichophyton mold, some occupational allergens and very recently transgenic allergens. From a quantitative viewpoint, the concentration and/or distribution of some allergens has increased. Plantation of numerous trees or fortuitous introduction of weeds has led to an increased specific sensitization. In like manner, introduction of new foods or food processing procedures has created new food allergens and allergy. Besides, the distribution of some well-known aero-allergens is better known since discovery of ELISA--technology allowing measurements of minute amounts of these allergens. A burning issue today is to know whether irritant factors could modify allergens. Few data, sometimes contradictory, are available in the field of interaction between air pollutants and allergens.

  12. Crystal Structure of Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2, an Unusual Zinc Binding Aspartic Protease with a Novel Mode of Self-inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Gustchina, Alla; Li, Mi; Wunschmann, Sabina; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-07-19

    The crystal structure of Bla g 2 was solved in order to investigate the structural basis for the allergenic properties of this unusual protein. This is the first structure of an aspartic protease in which conserved glycine residues, in two canonical DTG triads, are substituted by different amino acid residues. Another unprecedented feature revealed by the structure is the single phenylalanine residue insertion on the tip of the flap, with the side-chain occupying the S1 binding pocket. This and other important amino acid substitutions in the active site region of Bla g 2 modify the interactions in the vicinity of the catalytic aspartate residues, increasing the distance between them to {approx}4 {angstrom} and establishing unique direct contacts between the flap and the catalytic residues. We attribute the absence of substantial catalytic activity in Bla g 2 to these unusual features of the active site. Five disulfide bridges and a Zn-binding site confer stability to the protein, which may contribute to sensitization at lower levels of exposure than other allergens.

  13. Development of cockroach immunotherapy by the Inner-City Asthma Consortium.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robert A; Togias, Alkis; Wildfire, Jeremy; Visness, Cynthia M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Gruchalla, Rebecca; Hershey, Gurjit; Liu, Andrew H; O'Connor, George T; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Zoratti, Edward; Little, Frederic; Granada, Mark; Kennedy, Suzanne; Durham, Stephen R; Shamji, Mohamed H; Busse, William W

    2014-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a key contributor to asthma morbidity in children living in urban environments. We sought to document immune responses to cockroach allergen and provide direction for the development of immunotherapy for cockroach allergy. Four pilot studies were conducted: (1) an open-label study to assess the safety of cockroach sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in adults and children; (2) a randomized, double-blind biomarker study of cockroach SLIT versus placebo in adults; (3) a randomized, double-blind biomarker study of 2 doses of cockroach SLIT versus placebo in children; and (4) an open-label safety and biomarker study of cockroach subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in adults. The adult SLIT trial (n = 54; age, 18-54 years) found a significantly greater increase in cockroach-specific IgE levels between the active and placebo groups (geometric mean ratio, 1.92; P < .0001) and a trend toward increased cockroach-specific IgG4 levels in actively treated subjects (P = .09) but no evidence of functional blocking antibody response. The pediatric SLIT trial (n = 99; age, 5-17 years) found significant differences in IgE, IgG, and IgG4 responses between both active groups and the placebo group but no consistent differences between the high- and low-dose groups. In the SCIT study the treatment resulted in significant changes from baseline in cockroach IgE, IgG4, and blocking antibody levels. The safety profile of cockroach immunotherapy was reassuring in all studies. The administration of cockroach allergen by means of SCIT is immunologically more active than SLIT, especially with regard to IgG4 levels and blocking antibody responses. No safety concerns were raised in any age group. These pilot studies suggest that immunotherapy with cockroach allergen is more likely to be effective with SCIT. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. How environment affects patients with allergic disease: indoor allergens and asthma.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, T A

    1994-04-01

    Progressive changes in American housing and life styles have been associated with increased prevalence of allergen sensitization and asthma. Not only have there been large increases in the proportion of time spent indoors, but many of the changes made in houses are likely to increase exposure to indoor allergens. Thus, higher mean indoor temperatures, reduced ventilation, cool wash detergents, and the widespread use of carpeting are all changes that could have increased the levels of allergens in American homes. Over the past 15 years, dust mites, cockroaches, and cats have been identified as major sources of indoor allergens. The combination of exposure and sensitization to one of these allergens is significantly associated with acute asthma. Furthermore, clinical studies have shown a direct quantitative correlation between dust mite allergen exposure and the prevalence of both sensitization and asthma. New evidence suggests that reductions in allergen exposure may improve asthma symptoms, leading to decreased inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Furthermore, as understanding of sources of allergens increases, the protocols for decreasing exposure become better defined and relatively easy to implement.

  15. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Francisca X M; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Kalil, Jorge; Arruda, L. Karla; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5%) had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%), B. tropicalis (53.4%), T. putrescentiae (15.0%), E. maynei (12.3%), L. destructor (8.2%), B. germanica (20.5%), P. americana (21.9%), Felis catus (10.9%), C. herbarium (2.7%), A. alternata (4.1%), and P. notatun (1.3%). The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks. PMID:21876974

  16. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Cockroach allergy in a group of Turkish children with respiratory allergies.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aygen; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sekerel, Bülent E; Adalioğlu, Gönül; Saraçlar, Yildiz

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cockroach may lead to exacerbations of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in sensitized patients. Although there is a widespread belief that cockroach allergy is a common problem in patients with respiratory allergies, little is known in Turkish children. In order to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cockroach allergy in respiratory allergic children, we performed a study in newly referred children with respiratory allergies. All patients underwent questionnaire-interview and skin prick tested with common inhalant allergens in addition to two cockroach allergens: Blatella germanica (Bg) and Periplaneta americana (Pa). A subgroup of patients was also serologically investigated for specific IgE against Bg and house dust mite. Three hundred- and thirty-seven children aged 2-16 years were recruited for the study and 77.7% of these were atopic, with the most common indoor and outdoor allergens of house dust mite (47.5%) and grass pollens (45.1%), respectively. According to the prick test results, allergies to Bg and Pa were 11.9% and 7.4%, respectively, and there was a weak correlation between size of the prick test and specific IgE levels for Bg allergen. Almost 30% of the cockroach-sensitive patients were allergic to both cockroach antigens. Seventy percent of cockroach-sensitive patients were also sensitive to house dust mite, and only 1% were monosensitive. Dwellings in the Middle Anatolia and Black Sea regions were less commonly infested by cockroach compared to the dwellings in other regions. In conclusion, our preliminary study showed that cockroach sensitization is common among children with respiratory allergies irrespective of infestation history, suggesting that addition of cockroach allergen to the routine allergy screening panel is critical.

  18. Characterization of the effects of proteolysis and reduction on cashew allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to digestive proteases is a common characteristic of food allergens. Among nut proteins, 2S albumins are refractory to digestion, and are potent food allergens. Allergic reactions to cashew have been described as more frequently severe than peanut reactions. The purpose of this study i...

  19. Proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis VB63F for reduction of allergenicity of bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Biscola, V; Tulini, F L; Choiset, Y; Rabesona, H; Ivanova, I; Chobert, J-M; Todorov, S D; Haertlé, T; Franco, B D G M

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated a new proteolytic strain of Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis VB63F) from raw bovine milk. The proteases produced by this strain had strong activity against caseins (αS1-, αS2-, and β-casein), in both skim milk and sodium caseinate. However, only partial hydrolysis of whey proteins was observed. Proteolysis of Na-caseinate and whey proteins, observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, was confirmed by analysis of peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC. Inhibition of proteolysis with EDTA indicated that the proteases produced by Ent. faecalis VB63F belonged to the group of metalloproteases. The optimal conditions for their activity were 42°C and pH 6.5. The majority of assessed virulence genes were absent in Ent. faecalis VB63F. The obtained results suggest that Ent. faecalis VB63F could be efficient in reducing the immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins.

  20. Reduction and alkylation of peanut allergen isoforms Ara h 2 and Ara h 6; characterization of intermediate- and end products.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Luykx, Dion; Warmenhoven, Hans; Verbart, Dennis; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; de Jong, Govardus A H; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic; Koppelman, Stef J

    2013-12-01

    Conglutins, the major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are highly structured proteins stabilized by multiple disulfide bridges and are stable towards heat-denaturation and digestion. We sought a way to reduce their potent allergenicity in view of the development of immunotherapy for peanut allergy. Isoforms of conglutin were purified, reduced with dithiothreitol and subsequently alkylated with iodoacetamide. The effect of this modification was assessed on protein folding and IgE-binding. We found that all disulfide bridges were reduced and alkylated. As a result, the secondary structure lost α-helix and gained some β-structure content, and the tertiary structure stability was reduced. On a functional level, the modification led to a strongly decreased IgE-binding. Using conditions for limited reduction and alkylation, partially reduced and alkylated proteins were found with rearranged disulfide bridges and, in some cases, intermolecular cross-links were found. Peptide mass finger printing was applied to control progress of the modification reaction and to map novel disulfide bonds. There was no preference for the order in which disulfides were reduced, and disulfide rearrangement occurred in a non-specific way. Only minor differences in kinetics of reduction and alkylation were found between the different conglutin isoforms. We conclude that the peanut conglutins Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 can be chemically modified by reduction and alkylation, such that they substantially unfold and that their allergenic potency decreases.

  1. [Role of cockroaches Blatella germanica in the development of atopic bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, B M; Petrova, N S; Barashkina, O F; Efremenko, I I; Dotsenko, E A; Prishchepa, I M

    2001-01-01

    The results of the development of manufacturing technology for the preparation of allergen from the bodies of cockroaches and the physico-chemical characteristics of this allergen are presented. The complex allergological examination of patients with atopic bronchial asthma revealed that 69.3% of such patients were sensitized to house dust, and in 68.4% of them IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens were detected. Patients with atopic bronchial asthma, not sensitized to house dust, were found to have sensitization to Blatella germanica in 12.2% of cases.

  2. CD14, a Key Candidate Gene Associated with Specific Immune Response to Cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peisong; Grigoryev, Dmitry N.; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Mu, Deguang; Wright, Jerry M.; Cheadle, Christopher; Togias, Alkis; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Schroeder, John T.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Sensitization to cockroach allergen is one of the strongest predictors of asthma morbidity, especially among African Americans. Objective Our aims were to determine the genomic basis of cockroach sensitization and the specific response to cockroach antigen. Methods We investigated the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of co-cultured plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD4+ T cells and the “transcript signature” of the immune response to cockroach antigen using high-throughput expression profiling of co-cultured cells. Results We observed significantly elevated levels of IL-13, IL-10 and TNF-α, but undetectable levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-α, when cultures were exposed to crude cockroach antigen. A significant difference was observed for IL-13 between cockroach allergic and non-allergic individuals (p = 0.039). Microarray analyses demonstrated a greater response at 48 hours compared to 4 hours, with 50 genes being uniquely expressed in cockroach antigen-treated cells, including CD14, S100A8, CCL8, and IFI44L. The increased CD14 expression was further observed in purified pDCs, human monocytic THP-1 cells, and supernatant of co-cultured pDCs and CD4+ T cells in exposure to cockroach extract. Furthermore, the most differential expression of CD14 between cockroach allergy and non-cockroach allergy was only observed among individuals with the CC “high-risk” genotype of the CD14 -260C/T. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) analyses suggested the interferon-signaling as the most significant canonical pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest these differentially expressed genes, particularly CD14, and genes in the interferon-signaling pathway may be important candidates for further investigation of their role in the immune response to cockroach allergen. PMID:20618347

  3. Allergenic extracts to diagnose and treat sensitivity to insect venoms and inhaled allergens.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Taruna; Bridgewater, Jennifer L; Rabin, Ronald L

    2017-05-01

    To review allergenic extracts used to diagnose or treat insect allergies, including how the extracts are manufactured and their measurements of potency or concentration. Peer-reviewed articles derived from searching PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) about insect allergies and extract preparation. Encyclopedia of Life (http://www.eol.org/) and http://allergome.org/ were also referenced for background information on insects and associated allergens. Search terms used for the PubMed searches included insect allergens and allergies, Apidae, Vespidae, fire ants, cockroach allergies, insect allergen extract preparation, and standardization. Humans may be sensitized to insect allergens by inhalation or through stings. Cockroaches and moths are predominantly responsible for inhalation insect allergy and are a major indoor allergen in urban settings. Bees, fire ants, and wasps are responsible for sting allergy. In the United States, there are multiple insect allergen products commercially available that are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Of those extracts, honeybee venom and insect venom proteins are standardized with measurements of potency. The remaining insect allergen extracts are nonstandardized products that do not have potency measurements. Sensitization to inhalational and stinging insect allergens is reported worldwide. Crude insect allergen extracts are used for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy. A variety of source materials are used by different manufacturers to prepare these extracts, which may result in qualitative differences that are not reflected in measurements of potency or protein concentration. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mouse and cockroach exposure in rural Arkansas Delta region homes.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Amaziah T; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Bai, Shasha; Brown, Rita H; Perry, Tamara T

    2014-03-01

    Home characteristics and aeroallergen exposure in rural US children with asthma are poorly described. To examine the relationship between cockroach and mouse allergen concentrations and home characteristics of children with asthma in the rural Arkansas Delta. The home environments of rural children with asthma were examined using home environment questionnaire and home inspection. Bedroom and kitchen dust was analyzed for cockroach and mouse allergen concentrations. The median age of participants was 9 years, and 84% were African American. Most participants (78%) resided in single-family homes. Evidence of cockroaches was detected in 13% of homes and evidence of rodents was detected in 23% of homes. Detectable Bla g 1 was found in 58% of kitchens and 43% of bedrooms, Bla g 2 was detected in 37% of kitchens and 28% of bedrooms, and Mus m 1 was found in 81% of kitchens and 97% of bedrooms. Evidence of cockroaches in any room was associated with Bla g 1 concentrations of ≥2 U/g (odds ratio 21.71, 95% confidence interval 4.26-118.39) and Bla g 2 concentrations of ≥2 U/g (odds ratio 21.90 95% confidence interval 4.30-138.91). Multifamily vs single-family dwellings were more likely to have Bla g 2 concentrations of ≥2 U/g (odds ratio 3.52, 95% confidence interval 1.0-11.82). Home characteristics were not associated with Mus m 1. Mouse and cockroach allergens were detected in most rural homes; however, concentrations were relatively low compared with those previously reported in inner-city homes. Few home characteristics predicted allergen concentrations. Further studies are needed to establish clinically relevant associations that might place rural children with asthma at risk for poor clinical outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590304. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EEK--A Cockroach!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Julien, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…

  6. EEK--A Cockroach!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Julien, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…

  7. Reduction of house-dust mite allergen concentrations in carpets by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (alum).

    PubMed

    Sevki, Coskun; Levent, Aydin; Ender, Gulegen; Firdevs, Mor

    2006-01-01

    Special tools and skilled labor are required to reduce house-dust mite allergens in carpets. The main house-dust mite allergen is Der p 1, a soluble protein found in high abundance in woolen carpets. Current chemical treatment options are either unsafe or ineffective in eradicating Der p 1. Here, we present an effective, safe, and easy application reagent to reduce the allergen levels in carpets. Sixty woolen carpets with Der p 1 concentrations >2 microg/g in fine dust were divided into three homogeneous groups of 20 carpets each, according to their allergen load. We tested alum dissolved in 60 mL of water at doses of 3, 6, and 9 g/m2 against Der p 1 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The test side of the carpets was sprayed with the reagent. The control side was treated with the 60 mL of tap water. Dust particles were collected from a 1-m2 area on each carpet side 24 hours after treatment and were analyzed for Der p 1 content with a monoclonal ELISA. Alum reduced the Der p 1 concentrations by 48.6 +/- 6.2%, 78.8 +/- 7.2%, and 95.2 +/- 3.0% at 3, 6, and 9 g/m2 in the carpets, respectively. Moreover, there were no complaints registered by the residents against the alum applications. Alum, at 9 g/m2 (in a solution at 15%) in water, can be used for decreasing existing Der p 1 concentrations in woolen carpets.

  8. Longitudinal evaluation of allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in inner-city households.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sook Ja; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Grengs, Jason; Ryan, Andrew D; Eberly, Lynn E; Adgate, John L

    2008-02-01

    To characterize seasonal variation of three allergens (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) and total culturable fungi and to explore whether residential characteristics were associated with the concentrations of these agents, floor dust was collected from 47 inner-city homes in Minneapolis, Minnesota, over a 1-year period. A longitudinal analysis of allergen and fungal concentrations was carried out using mixed-effect models. Overall, relative humidity was a better predictor of allergen concentrations over time than indoor temperature. Seasonal variation of cat and cockroach allergens was negligible compared with the variability associated with residential characteristics such as race/ethnicity, family income, and the presence of cats. Fungal concentrations showed significant seasonal variation that outweighed the variability associated with residential characteristics. Less than 30% of the dust mite allergen and cockroach allergens concentrations were above limits of detection. Observed cockroach allergen concentrations were higher in Spanish- and Somali-speaking households than in English-speaking households, while English-speaking households had significantly higher cat allergen concentrations compared with the other language groups. The ratios of within-home to between-home variance for total culturable fungi, dust mite, cockroach, and cat allergen concentrations were 2.54, 1.91, 0.55, and 0.24, respectively. This ratio is used to predict the number of repeated measurements of each allergen required to robustly estimate long-term exposure estimates such that exposure misclassification bias is kept within acceptable limits. It is not clear whether repeated measurements of dust mite and cockroach allergens are required for long-term average exposure because of the large fraction of nondetects. It is concluded that a single measurement of cat allergen is a reasonable surrogate for long-term average exposure, since repeated measurements over time were highly correlated

  9. Reduction of allergenicity of irradiated ovalbumin in ovalbumin-allergic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Lee, Soo-Young; Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most serious of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions to foods. Such an allergic disorder is mediated by IgE antibodies stimulated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate changes of allergenicity and cytokine profiles by exposure of irradiated ovalbumin (OVA), a major allergen of egg white, in the OVA-allergic mice model. OVA solutions (2 mg/ml in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were gamma-irradiated to 50 and 100 kGy. The allergenicity in the OVA-allergy-induced mice model was remarkably reduced when challenged with irradiated OVA. Cultures of spleen cells harvested from OVA-sensitized mice showed a significant decrease in Th2 cytokine levels of ILs-4 and -5 with a concomitant increase in Th1 cytokine levels of IL-12 when co-cultured with irradiated OVA. However, IFN- γ level decreased dependant on the radiation dose of co-cultured OVA. The levels of IgEs and Th2-cytokine were reduced dependant on the radiation dose. These data show that the irradiated OVA could downregulate the activity of Th2 lymphocytes in OVA-sensitized mice.

  10. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001

  11. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  12. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy.

  13. [Allergic rhinitis due to cockroach antigenic components. An emerging pathology?].

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Noschese, P; Salzillo, A; Morandi, M; Calderaro, F; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    1996-05-01

    The aim of our study was the evaluation of the role of these insects as causative agents of perennial rhinitis. We studied 317 subjects of both sexes (175 F and 142 M) living in Naples area and examined consecutively in our Centre for perennial nasal symptoms of suspected IgE mediated aetiology. All patients underwent the following diagnostic procedures: anamnestic procedures by using an internal questionnaire, clinical examination, skin prick test by using commercially available allergenic extracts and an allergenic extract containing the whole bodies of Blattella germanica and orientalis, Periplaneta americana. Blood samples for specific IgE determinations and a rhinologic visit were also carried out in patients with cockroach skin Prick test positivity. 14 of 317 subjects, prevalently young males, presented a skin positivity to cockroach allergens. All patients showed a moderate low degree of cutaneous and a low degree of serologic sensitization to allergens of these insects. Our preliminary data seem to demonstrate a mild role of cockroaches as causative agents of perennial rhinitis in Naples area. Further studies are necessary for a more appropriate knowledge of this allergy.

  14. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Knoll, Joseph E; Ramos, M Laura; Zeng, Yajuan; Holbrook, C Corley; Chow, Marjorie; Chen, Sixue; Maleki, Soheila; Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2011-05-12

    Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic enzyme activities. Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING), a reverse-genetics approach, was used to identify mutations affecting seed traits in peanut. Two similar copies of a major allergen gene, Ara h 1, have been identified in tetraploid peanut, one in each subgenome. The same situation has been shown for major allergen Ara h 2. Due to the challenge of discriminating between homeologous genes in allotetraploid peanut, nested PCR was employed, in which both gene copies were amplified using unlabeled primers. This was followed by a second PCR using gene-specific labeled primers, heteroduplex formation, CEL1 nuclease digestion, and electrophoretic detection of labeled fragments. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened) was observed. The most significant mutations identified were a disrupted start codon in Ara h 2.02 and a premature stop codon in Ara h 1.02. Homozygous individuals were recovered in succeeding generations for each of these mutations, and elimination of Ara h 2.02 protein was confirmed. Several Ara h 1 protein isoforms were eliminated or reduced according to 2D gel analyses. TILLING also was used to identify mutations in fatty acid desaturase AhFAD2 (also present in two copies), a gene which controls the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid in the seed. A frameshift mutation was identified, resulting in truncation and inactivation of AhFAD2B protein. A mutation in AhFAD2A was predicted to restore function to the normally inactive enzyme. This work represents the first steps

  15. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic enzyme activities. Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING), a reverse-genetics approach, was used to identify mutations affecting seed traits in peanut. Results Two similar copies of a major allergen gene, Ara h 1, have been identified in tetraploid peanut, one in each subgenome. The same situation has been shown for major allergen Ara h 2. Due to the challenge of discriminating between homeologous genes in allotetraploid peanut, nested PCR was employed, in which both gene copies were amplified using unlabeled primers. This was followed by a second PCR using gene-specific labeled primers, heteroduplex formation, CEL1 nuclease digestion, and electrophoretic detection of labeled fragments. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened) was observed. The most significant mutations identified were a disrupted start codon in Ara h 2.02 and a premature stop codon in Ara h 1.02. Homozygous individuals were recovered in succeeding generations for each of these mutations, and elimination of Ara h 2.02 protein was confirmed. Several Ara h 1 protein isoforms were eliminated or reduced according to 2D gel analyses. TILLING also was used to identify mutations in fatty acid desaturase AhFAD2 (also present in two copies), a gene which controls the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid in the seed. A frameshift mutation was identified, resulting in truncation and inactivation of AhFAD2B protein. A mutation in AhFAD2A was predicted to restore function to the normally inactive enzyme. Conclusions This

  16. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  17. Skin test reactivity to whole body and fecal extracts of American (Periplaneta americana) and German (Blatella germanica) cockroaches in atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Menon, P; Menon, V; Hilman, B; Stankus, R; Lehrer, S B

    1991-12-01

    Forty-six atopic asthmatic subjects aged 3 to 58 years attending the allergy clinic of a university hospital were evaluated for prick skin test reactivity with commercially available extracts of cockroach (CCE) and house dust (HD). Additionally, skin testing was performed with American cockroach whole body (AWBE) and fecal extracts (AFE) as well as German cockroach whole body (GWBE) and fecal extracts (GFE) prepared in our laboratory. Commercial cockroach extract was prepared from American, German, and Oriental cockroach whole bodies. Skin test reactivity to the different extracts were as follows: 83% to HD, 70% to CCE, 70% to AWBE and/or GWBE, 63% to AWBE, 57% to GWBE, 63% to AFE and/or GFE, 52% to AFE, 50% to GFE, 48% to both AWBE and GWBE, and 39% to both AFE and GFE. The subjects with positive skin tests to AWBE and/or GWBE (70%) were the same individuals who showed skin test reactivity to CCE (70%). Subjects from lower income families (less than $10,000) had a significantly higher skin test reactivity to cockroach allergens than those from families with an annual income of $11,000 to $24,000 (P = .04). These results demonstrate the significance of cockroach sensitization in atopic asthmatics, suggest the importance of fecal cockroach allergens, and support earlier observations of shared interspecies allergens between American and German cockroach whole bodies.

  18. Reduction of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, in roasted peanuts by ultrasound assisted enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of ultrasound, enzyme concentration and enzyme treatment time on soluble protein and major allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2) of roasted peanut kernels. A 3-factor, five-level orthogonal experimental design was implemented with various ultrasonication times, concentrations of trypsin or α-chymotrypsin and treatment times. The total soluble proteins were determined by the Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and sandwich ELISA. The IgE-binding of peanut extracts was analysed by a competitive inhibition ELISA. Results indicate that ultrasound treatment, followed by protease digestion of peanuts, significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein and decreased the concentrations of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The sequential treatment of peanuts by ultrasonication-trypsin-alpha chymotrypsin, resulted in maximum reductions of Ara h 1/Ara h 2, and lowest IgE-binding. This study provides an approach to significantly reduce allergenic proteins in peanut product. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  20. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-10-07

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  1. Indoor allergen exposure and asthma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. Recent findings Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen. New research suggests that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen. Recent evidence reminds us that children are exposed to clinically important levels of indoor allergens in locations away from their home, such as schools and daycare centers. Exposure to increased levels of indoor mold in childhood has been associated with asthma development and exacerbation of current asthma; however, emerging evidence suggests that early exposure to higher fungal diversity may actually be protective for asthma development. Novel treatments have been developed that target TH2 pathways thus decreasing asthmatic responses to allergens. These therapies show promise for the treatment of severe allergic asthma refractory to avoidance strategies and standard therapies. Summary Understanding the relationship between indoor allergens and asthma outcomes is a constantly evolving study of timing, location, and amount of exposure. PMID:27653703

  2. Cockroach hypersensitivity in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Pola, J; Valdivieso, R; Zapata, C; Moneo, I; Duce, F; Larrad, L; Losada, E

    1988-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to cockroach antigen has been recognized as an important cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma. To assess the frequency of cockroach hypersensitivity in our country, 150 asthmatic atopic subjects were studied using skin testing and in vitro assays for cockroach-specific IgE antibodies (Oriental and German cockroaches). Twenty-two of 61 patients who had a positive history of cockroach exposure had positive skin tests, and only 3 of 89 patients who had no history of exposure had positive skin reactions. Of 25 patients with positive skin tests, 23 showed specific IgE antibodies against oriental and German cockroaches using RAST and EIA techniques. In summary, approximately 15% of asthmatic atopics in Madrid area are sensitive to cockroaches (positive skin test + specific IgE antibodies). These results indicate that cockroach hypersensitivity should be considered in every patient with perennial asthma.

  3. Allergen nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310

  4. Allergy to cockroaches in patients with asthma and rhinitis in an urban area (Madrid).

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Ibañez, M D; Lombardero, M; Laso, M T; Lehrer, S

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have established that cockroach allergens are important sensitizing agents in the induction of rhinitis and asthma principally in urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess skin test reactivity and specific IgE antibody reactivity to extracts of Periplaneta americana (P.a.), Blattella germanica (B.g.), B. orientalis (B.o.), and a fecal extract of B. germanica (FEB.g.) in a group of patients with rhinitis and asthma living in an urban area in Europe. We examined clinical characteristics and aerollergen sensitivities of 171 consecutive Madrid urban patients with rhinitis and asthma who met the criteria for the study. A comprehensive clinical evaluation was followed by skin prick test with common allergens and saline extracts of P.a., B.g., B.o., and FEB.g. and measurement of serum specific IgE antibody to cockroach extracts. The age of patients ranged from 7 to 68 years (mean 20.4 +/- 16). A total of 153 (90.5%) subjects were atopic and 19 (10%) were considered nonallergic. Pollen sensitivity (66.5%) was most prevalent, distantly followed by sensitivity to cockroach (25.7%), mite (20%), cat (15.5%), Alternaria alternata (14.5%), dog (14%), and food (2%). Skin test reactivity to cockroach extracts was 37 (21.6%) to B.o., 20 (11.6%) to P.a., 19 (11.1%) to B.g. and five (2.9%) to FEB.g. Twenty-one of these patients had rhinitis, 19 rhinitis and asthma, and one only asthma; 26 had perennial symptoms, while 16 had seasonal (spring) symptoms; three (1.7%) patients had only positive prick test to cockroach; all had perennial rhinitis and/or asthma. Eighteen (10.5%) patients had specific serum IgE (RAST 1 or 2) to B.o., 13 (7.6%) to P.a., and six (3.5%) to B.g. Eighty (46.7%) patients had visual evidence of cockroach infestation in their home, mostly B.o.; 31 had positive prick test to cockroach (P < 0.0003). The results indicate that sensitivity to outdoor allergens (pollen) is more prevalent than to indoor allergens. Cockroach sensitization is the

  5. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Mishra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3 ± 6.8/mm2 and 33.4 ± 11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3 ± 1.8/mm2 and 2.1 ± 1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease. PMID:20413729

  6. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K; Abonia, J Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E; Mishra, Anil

    2010-08-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3+/-6.8/mm2 and 33.4+/-11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3+/-1.8/mm2 and 2.1+/-1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease.

  7. Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

    2008-01-01

    Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.

  8. Low prevalence of allergy to cockroach and latex in asthmatic patients in Eskisehir (Anatolia), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Harmanci, E; Metintas, M; Alatas, F; Erginel, S; Mutlu, S

    2000-01-01

    Allergy to cockroach and latex are said to be causes of asthma particularly in some groups. We studied allergy to cockroach and latex in asthmatic patients from Eskisehir (Anatolia), Turkey in order to determine whether these allergens play an important role in the Anatolian region. A total of 216 asthmatic patients (mean age 43.7+/-11.0 years) were skin tested with common aeroallergens, Blatella germanica and latex. Sixty-three patients were allergic (29.1%) and 153 were nonallergic (70.8%) according to skin test results. Sensitization to pollens (57%) and mites (55.5%) was most common among allergic patients. We found a low sensitization to cockroach (4.7%) and latex (1.4%). We suggested that cockroach sensitization plays a small role in sensitization in our geographic area and that latex sensitization is low in allergic asthmatic patients who were referred for reasons other than latex-related symptoms.

  9. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children.

    PubMed

    Rabito, Felicia A; Carlson, John C; He, Hua; Werthmann, Derek; Schal, Coby

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes. One hundred two children aged 5 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial testing the use of insecticidal bait on cockroach counts and asthma morbidity. Homes were visited 6 times and asthma symptoms were assessed every 2 months. After adjustment, intervention homes had significantly fewer cockroaches than did control homes (mean change in cockroaches trapped, 13.14; 95% CI, 6.88-19.39; P < .01). Children in control homes had more asthma symptoms and unscheduled health care utilization in the previous 2 weeks (1.82, 95% CI, 0.14-3.50, P = .03; 1.17, 95% CI, 0.11-2.24, P = .03, respectively) and a higher proportion of children with FEV1 of less than 80% predicted (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.60-20.57; P = .01) compared with children living in intervention homes. Previous research has demonstrated improvement in asthma health outcomes using multifaceted interventions. The strategic placement of insecticidal bait, which is inexpensive, has low toxicity, and is widely available, resulted in sustained cockroach elimination over 12 months and was associated with improved asthma outcomes. This single intervention may be an alternative to multifaceted interventions currently recommended to improve asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulmonary α-1,3-Glucan-Specific IgA-Secreting B Cells Suppress the Development of Cockroach Allergy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeyam S; King, R Glenn; Kearney, John F

    2016-10-15

    There is a higher incidence of allergic conditions among children living in industrialized countries than those in developing regions. One explanation for this is reduced neonatal exposure to microbes and the consequent lack of immune stimulation. Sensitivity to cockroach allergen is highly correlated with the development of severe asthma. In this study, we determined that an Ab to microbial α-1,3-glucan binds an Enterobacter species and cockroach allergen. Neonatal, but not adult, mice immunized with this α-1,3-glucan-bearing Enterobacter (MK7) are protected against cockroach allergy. Following exposure to cockroach allergen, α-1,3-glucan-specific IgA-secreting cells are present in the lungs of mice immunized with MK7 as neonates but not in the lungs of those immunized as adults. Mice that are unable to generate anti-α-1,3-glucan IgA Abs were immunized with MK7 as neonates and were no longer protected against cockroach allergy. Thus, neonatal, but not adult, exposure to α-1,3-glucan results in suppressed development of cockroach allergy via pulmonary α-1,3-glucan-specific IgA-secreting cells.

  11. Adaptive cockroach swarm algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obagbuwa, Ibidun C.; Abidoye, Ademola P.

    2017-07-01

    An adaptive cockroach swarm optimization (ACSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to strengthen the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm. The ruthless component of CSO algorithm is modified by the employment of blend crossover predator-prey evolution method which helps algorithm prevent any possible population collapse, maintain population diversity and create adaptive search in each iteration. The performance of the proposed algorithm on 16 global optimization benchmark function problems was evaluated and compared with the existing CSO, cuckoo search, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithms.

  12. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  13. American Cockroach Sex Attractant.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Beroza, M

    1965-02-12

    The structure (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclopropyl propionate) previously assigned to the sex attractant of the American cockroach has now been shown by additional physical and chemical data and biological inactivity of the synthetic preparation to be incorrect. The structure of this attractant remains to be determined.

  14. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  15. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  16. Other Allergens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  17. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  18. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  19. Analysis of amino acid sequence variations and immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes of German cockroach tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2004-09-01

    The allergenicities of tropomyosins from different organisms have been reported to vary. The cDNA encoding German cockroach tropomyosin (Bla g 7) was isolated, expressed, and characterized previously. In the present study, the amino acid sequence variations in German cockroach tropomyosin were analyzed in order to investigate its influence on allergenicity. We also undertook the identification of immunodominant peptides containing immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes which may facilitate the development of diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies based on the recombinant proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis with mouse anti-recombinant German cockroach tropomyosin serum was performed to investigate the isoforms at the protein level. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to examine the sequence diversity. Eleven different variants of the deduced amino acid sequences were identified by RT-PCR. German cockroach tropomyosin has only minor sequence variations that did not seem to affect its allergenicity significantly. These results support the molecular basis underlying the cross-reactivities of arthropod tropomyosins. Recombinant fragments were also generated by PCR, and IgE-binding epitopes were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera from seven patients revealed heterogeneous IgE-binding responses. This study demonstrates multiple IgE-binding epitope regions in a single molecule, suggesting that full-length tropomyosin should be used for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  20. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  1. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  2. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  3. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  4. An Improved Cockroach Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Obagbuwa, I. C.; Adewumi, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    Hunger component is introduced to the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm to improve its searching ability and population diversity. The original CSO was modelled with three components: chase-swarming, dispersion, and ruthless; additional hunger component which is modelled using partial differential equation (PDE) method is included in this paper. An improved cockroach swarm optimization (ICSO) is proposed in this paper. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on well known benchmarks and compared with the existing CSO, modified cockroach swarm optimization (MCSO), roach infestation optimization RIO, and hungry roach infestation optimization (HRIO). The comparison results show clearly that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms. PMID:24959611

  5. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  6. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  7. House dust exposure mediates gut microbiome Lactobacillus enrichment and airway immune defense against allergens and virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Kei E; Demoor, Tine; Rauch, Marcus; Faruqi, Ali A; Jang, Sihyug; Johnson, Christine C; Boushey, Homer A; Zoratti, Edward; Ownby, Dennis; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Lynch, Susan V

    2014-01-14

    Exposure to dogs in early infancy has been shown to reduce the risk of childhood allergic disease development, and dog ownership is associated with a distinct house dust microbial exposure. Here, we demonstrate, using murine models, that exposure of mice to dog-associated house dust protects against ovalbumin or cockroach allergen-mediated airway pathology. Protected animals exhibited significant reduction in the total number of airway T cells, down-regulation of Th2-related airway responses, as well as mucin secretion. Following dog-associated dust exposure, the cecal microbiome of protected animals was extensively restructured with significant enrichment of, amongst others, Lactobacillus johnsonii. Supplementation of wild-type animals with L. johnsonii protected them against both airway allergen challenge or infection with respiratory syncytial virus. L. johnsonii-mediated protection was associated with significant reductions in the total number and proportion of activated CD11c(+)/CD11b(+) and CD11c(+)/CD8(+) cells, as well as significantly reduced airway Th2 cytokine expression. Our results reveal that exposure to dog-associated household dust results in protection against airway allergen challenge and a distinct gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Moreover, the study identifies L. johnsonii as a pivotal species within the gastrointestinal tract capable of influencing adaptive immunity at remote mucosal surfaces in a manner that is protective against a variety of respiratory insults.

  8. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  9. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  10. Allergen databases and allergen semantics.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.

  11. In search of a tolerance-induction strategy for cow's milk allergies: significant reduction of beta-lactoglobulin allergenicity via transglutaminase/cysteine polymerization.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Celso Eduardo; Lima, Regiane Patussi dos Santos; Pinto, Daiana Guedes; Santos, Raquel Acacia Pereira Goncalves dos; Silva, Grayce Katlen Moreno da; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Villas-Boas, Mariana Battaglin; Netto, Flávia Maria; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2012-10-01

    To explore the use of β-lactoglobulin polymerized using microbial transglutaminase and heating to identify whether protein polymerization could reduce in vivo allergenicity and maintain in vitro and ex vivo immunoreactivity for use in tolerance-induction protocols. Based on previous protocols applied in mice and children, we performed in vivo challenges (using a skin prick test) with native and polymerized β-lactoglobulin in adult patients with an IgE-mediated allergy to plactoglobulin. In vitro humoral immunoreactivity was analyzed using immunoblotting. Cell-mediated immunoreactivity was analyzed using ex vivo challenges with native and polymerized β-lactoglobulin and monitored by leukocyte adherence inhibition tests. The skin tests demonstrated that there was a significant reduction in immediate cutaneous reactivity after polymerization. Polymerization did not decrease the immunoblotting detection of s-IgE specific to β-lactoglobulin. Cell-mediated immunoreactivity, as assessed by ex vivo challenges and leukocyte adherence inhibition tests, did not exhibit significant differences between leukocytes challenged with native versus polymerized β-lactoglobulin. The polymerization of β-lactoglobulin decreased in vivo allergenicity and did not decrease in vitro humoral or ex vivo cell-mediated immunoreactivity. Therefore, we conclude that inducing polymerization using transglutaminase represents a promising technique to produce suitable molecules for the purpose of designing oral/ sublingual tolerance induction protocols for the treatment of allergies.

  12. Cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: Where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: Part 15 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Christiane; Kuehn, Annette; Raulf, Monika; Jakob, Thilo

    Arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. In addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. Other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage pests. At present, only extract-based test systems are available for the majority of allergens in IgE-based diagnostics. Molecular characterisation of numerous individual allergens has already been carried out. However, these individual allergens are only available for a small number of allergen sources (e. g. cockroaches and storage mites) in routine diagnostics. Particularly in the case of allergen sources with known high cross-reactivity, the use of marker allergens is believed to improve diagnostics. The currently known individual allergens of the above-mentioned allergy triggers from the arthropod realm are summarized and their potential use in allergy diagnostics discussed.

  13. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  14. Patterns of Inhalant Allergen Sensitization and Geographical Variation in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Gyu; Kim, Mi Yeong; Song, Woo Jung; Kim, Sujeong; Jo, Eun Jung; Lee, Seung Eun; Kwon, Jae Woo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chan Sun; Park, Hye Kyung; Park, Heung Woo; Chang, Yoon Seok; Lee, Jaechun; Lee, Young Min; Jee, Young Koo; Lee, Jong Myung; Choi, Inseon S; Cho, Sang Heon

    2017-11-01

    Inhalant allergen sensitization is one of the major factors involved in the pathogenesis of allergic respiratory diseases. However, the sensitization is determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Thus, testing panels of inhalant allergens may differ among geographical areas. Here we aimed to determine 10 common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies and to examine the variation between different geographical locations. A total of 28,954 patient records were retrieved for retrospective analysis, from 12 referral allergy clinics located in 9 different areas. Inclusion criteria were Korean adults (≥18 years old) who underwent the inhalant allergen skin prick test for suspected history of respiratory allergy. The primary outcome was inhalant allergen skin prick response. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. Positive skin prick responses to allergens were defined as allergen-to-histamine wheal ratio ≥1. Based on skin test results, the most prevalent aeroallergens were determined. The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization was 45.3%. Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were the most commonly sensitized allergens. Other common inhalant allergens were cat epithelium (8.1%), birch (7.7%), mugwort (6.9%), alder (6.7%), hazel (6.7%), beech (6.7%), oak (6.6%), and Tyrophagus putres (6.2%), in decreasing order frequency. These 10 inhalant allergens explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization in the study participants. However, distinct patterns of the 10 inhalant sensitization were observed in patients living in Chungnam and Jeju. American cockroach, Gernam cockroach, and Trichophyton metagrophytes were unique in Chungnam. Orchard, Japanese cedar, and Velvet were unique in Jeju. The present analysis suggests a panel of 10 most common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies, which explained 90% of inhalant

  15. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A E J; Pagliarani, G; Brouwer, R M; Kollen, B J; Dragsted, L O; Eriksen, F D; Callesen, O; Gilissen, L J W J; Krens, F A; Visser, R G F; Smulders, M J M; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Flokstra-de Blok, B J; van de Weg, W E

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1-16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2-9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges with these downregulated apple lines produced significantly less intense maximal symptoms to the first dose (Vmax1) than with Elstar (Vmax1 Elstar 3.0 mm vs 0.0 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043), as well as significantly less intense mean symptoms per dose (meanV/d) than with Elstar (meanV/d Elstar 2.2 mm vs 0.2 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043). Only one subject (5%) remained symptom-free when challenged with the Elstar apple, whereas 43% did so with e-DR1 and 63% with e-DR2. These data show that mRNA silencing of Mal d 1 results in a marked reduction of Mal d 1 gene expression in the fruit and reduction of symptoms when these apples are ingested by allergic subjects. Approximately half of the subjects developed no symptoms whatsoever, and virtually all subjects wished to consume the apple again in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Optimization of allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Jung-Won

    2011-05-01

    Preparation of high quality allergen extracts is essential for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Standardization of allergen extracts concerns determination of the allergen unit, development of reference material and measurement of the overall IgE binding capacity of an allergen extract. Recently, quantification of individual allergens has been the main focus of allergen standardization because the allergenicity of most allergen extracts is known to be mainly dependent on the content of a small number of allergen molecules. Therefore, characterization of major allergens will facilitate the standardization of allergens. In this article, we review the current state of allergen standardization. In addition, we briefly summarize the components of allergen extracts that should be under control for the optimization of allergen standardization, since its adjuvant-like activities could play an important role in allergic reactions even though the molecule itself does not bind to the IgE antibodies from subjects.

  17. Pharmacological characterization of the late phase reduction in lung functions and correlations with microvascular leakage and lung edema in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Peter J; House, Aileen; Jones, Howard; Correll, Craig; Boyce, Christopher; Chapman, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    Late phase airflow obstruction and reduction in forced vital capacity are characteristic features of human asthma. Airway microvascular leakage and lung edema are also present in the inflammatory phase of asthma, but the impact of this vascular response on lung functions has not been precisely defined. This study was designed to evaluate the role of increased lung microvascular leakage and edema on the late phase changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats using pharmacological inhibitors of the allergic inflammatory response. Rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin aerosol and forced expiratory lung functions (FVC, PEF) and wet and dry lung weights were measured 48 h after antigen challenge. Ovalbumin challenge reduced FVC (63% reduction) and PEF (33% reduction) and increased wet (65% increase) and dry (51% increase) lung weights. The antigen-induced reduction in FVC and PEF was completely inhibited by oral treatment with betamethasone and partially attenuated by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism including indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), 7-TM and MK-7246 (CRTH2 antagonists) and montelukast (CysLT1 receptor antagonist). Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors (mepyramine) and 5-HT receptors (methysergide) had no significant effects indicating that these pre-formed mast cell mediators were not involved. There was a highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation for the inhibition of FVC reduction and increase in wet and dry lung weights by these pharmacological agents. These results strongly support the hypothesis that lung microvascular leakage and the associated lung edema contribute to the reduction in forced expiratory lung functions in antigen-challenged Brown Norway rats and identify an important role for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in these responses.

  18. Acute Oral Ethanol Exposure Triggers Asthma In Cockroach Allergen–Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Jacqueline C.; Kim, Jiyoun; Beal, Dominic R.; Vaickus, Louis J.; Craciun, Florin L.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma may be triggered by multiple mediators, including allergen-IgE cross-linking and non-IgE mechanisms. Several clinical studies have shown acute ethanol consumption exacerbates asthma, yet no animal model exists to study this process. We developed a model of ethanol-triggered asthma in allergen-sensitized mice to evaluate the mechanisms of ethanol inducing asthma-like responses. Outbred mice were exposed to cockroach allergens on Days 0 and 14; and on Day 21, mice received ethanol by oral gavage. Tracer studies confirmed alcohol aspiration did not occur. Within 30 minutes, alcohol induced degranulation of over 74% of mast cells, and multiple parameters of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation were triggered. Ethanol-gavaged mice had a fivefold increased production of eotaxin-2 (534 pg/mL) and a sevenfold increase in bronchoalveolar eosinophils (70,080 cells). Ethanol induced a 10-fold increase in IL-13, from 84 pg/mL in sensitized mice to 845 pg/mL in ethanol-gavaged sensitized mice. In cockroach allergen–sensitized mice, ethanol triggered asthma-like changes in respiratory physiology and a significant fivefold increase in airway mucin production. Importantly, none of these asthmatic exacerbations were observed in normal mice gavaged with ethanol. Cromolyn sodium effectively stabilized mast cells, yet increased mucin production and bronchoalveolar eosinophil recruitment. Together, these data show a single oral alcohol exposure will trigger asthma-like pulmonary inflammation in allergen-sensitized mice, providing a novel asthma model. PMID:22796441

  19. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  20. Are neighborhood-level characteristics associated with indoor allergens in the household?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York City Department of City Planning. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n = 261), we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1,000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates), and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 microg/g; cat: >1 microg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 microg/g. Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat, and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions.

  1. Allergens in urban schools and homes of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Permaul, Perdita; Hoffman, Elaine; Fu, Chunxia; Sheehan, William; Baxi, Sachin; Gaffin, Jonathan; Lane, Jeffrey; Bailey, Ann; King, Eva; Chapman, Martin; Gold, Diane; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Most studies of indoor allergens have focused on the home environment. However, schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. We compared school allergen exposure to home exposure in a cohort of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined. Settled dust and airborne samples from 12 inner-city schools were analyzed for indoor allergens using multiplex array technology (MARIA). School samples were linked to students with asthma enrolled in the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS). Settled dust samples from students' bedrooms were analyzed similarly. From schools, 229 settled dust and 197 airborne samples were obtained. From homes, 118 settled dust samples were obtained. Linear mixed regression models of log-transformed variables showed significantly higher settled dust levels of mouse, cat and dog allergens in schools than homes (545% higher for Mus m 1, estimated absolute difference 0.55 μg/g, p < 0.0001; 198% higher for Fel d 1, estimated absolute difference 0.13 μg/g, p = 0.0033; and 144% higher for Can f 1, estimated absolute difference 0.05 μg/g, p = 0.0008). Airborne and settled dust Mus m 1 levels in classrooms were moderately correlated (r = 0.48; p < 0.0001). There were undetectable to very low levels of cockroach and dust mite allergens in both homes and schools. Mouse allergen levels in schools were substantial. In general, cat and dog allergen levels were low, but detectable, and were higher in schools. Aerosolization of mouse allergen in classrooms may be a significant exposure for students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of indoor allergen exposure in schools on asthma morbidity in students with asthma. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. A Cockroach in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlough, Winfield

    1968-01-01

    "Archy and Mehitabel," a collection of 48 newspaper columns by Don Marquis on the aspirations and foibles of man, can be used effectively to spark the interests of today's students. Marquis' delightful dialogue between the humorous and learned cockroach, Archy, and his cliche-ridden but lovable friend, Mehitabel the cat, are written in free verse.…

  3. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, R.; Verma, S. K.; Dua, R.; Kant, S.; Kushwaha, R.A.S; Agarwal, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%), followed by dusts (12.0%), pollens (7.8%), animal dander (3.1%), and fungi (1.3%). The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3%) followed by locust male (25%), grasshopper (20.8%), cricket (16.7%), cockroach female (16.7%) and cockroach male (14.6%). Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients. PMID:20442839

  4. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenxing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  5. New contact allergens and allergen sources.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z; Krajewska, D; Kozłowska, A; Czerwińska-Dihm, I

    1978-01-01

    In the report new contact allergens and allergen sources detected in Warsaw in the period 1975-1977 are described. They are divided into 3 groups: industrial allergens, remaining occupational allergens and cosmetics. There are given some data concerning the substances present in industrial oils, hardeners and epoxy resin solvents, drugs sensitizing nurses, several new sources of chromium allergens, essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours are discussed as the main allergens in cosmetics.

  6. Allergy to cockroach antigens in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Romański, B; Dziedziczko, A; Pawlik-Miskiewicz, K; Wilewska-Klubo, T; Zbikowska-Gotz, M

    1981-01-01

    Cockroach allergy was investigated in a group of 56 patients with atopic bronchial asthma (37 men and 19 women with ages ranging from 16 to 65) all allergic to house dust antigen. In all patients, both intracutaneous tests and bronchial provocation tests were performed with cockroach antigen prepared from the species most common in Poland, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis. Positive skin reactions to cockroach antigen were found in 17 patients while an immediate bronchoconstrictive response was noted in 11. In the authors opinion, cockroach antigens may be partly responsible for the antigenic properties of house dust and may play a causative role in some cases of atopic asthma.

  7. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and relationship to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Crockett, Patrick W.; Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing was the first population-based study to measure indoor allergen levels in US homes. Objective We characterized the overall burden to multiple allergens and examined whether elevated allergen levels were associated with occupants’ asthma status. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the US. Information was collected by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Allergen concentrations in dust samples were assessed by immunoassays. The following cut points were used to define elevated allergen levels: 10 μg/g for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Can f 1; 8 μg/g for Fel d 1; 8 U/g Bla g 1; 1.6 μg/g for mouse urinary protein; and 7 μg/g for Alternaria antigens. Allergen burden was considered high when 4 or more allergens exceeded elevated levels in any of the sampling locations. Results Exposure to multiple allergens was common in US homes. Of the surveyed homes, 51.5% had at least 6 detectable allergens and 45.8% had at least 3 allergens exceeding elevated levels. Occupants’ race, income, housing type, absence of children, and presence of smokers, pets, cockroaches, rodents and mold/moisture related problems were independent predictors of high allergen burden. Among atopics, high allergen burden increased the odds of having asthma symptoms (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.04-3.15). Conclusion Elevated allergen levels in the home are associated with asthma symptoms in allergic individuals. Clinical implication In allergic asthma, indoor allergen exposures play an important role in asthma exacerbations. PMID:18255132

  8. Development of a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in adults: item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation

    PubMed Central

    Justícia, Jose Luis; Baró, Eva; Cardona, Victoria; Guardia, Pedro; Ojeda, Pedro; Olaguíbel, José Maria; Vega, José Maria; Vidal, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergy, so ensuring good adherence to SIT is fundamental. Up until now there has not existed an instrument specifically developed to measure patient satisfaction with SIT, although its assessment could help us to comprehend better and improve treatment adherence and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adult patient satisfaction with SIT. Methods: Items were generated from a literature review, focus groups with allergic adult patients undergoing SIT, and a meeting with experts. Potential items were administered to allergic patients undergoing SIT in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Item reduction was based on quantitative and qualitative criteria. A preliminary assessment of feasibility, reliability, and validity of the retained items was performed. Results: An initial pool of 70 items was administered to 257 patients undergoing SIT. Fifty-four items were eliminated resulting in a provisional instrument with 16 items. Factor analysis yielded four factors that were identified as perceived efficacy, activities and environment, cost-benefit balance, and overall satisfaction, explaining 74.8% of variance. Ceiling and floor effects were negligible for overall score. Overall score was associated with the type and intensity of symptoms. Conclusion: This is the first attempt to develop a satisfaction with SIT measure from the perspective of the allergic patient, and evidence has been found in favor of its reliability and validity. PMID:21660106

  9. Development of a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in adults: item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Justícia, Jose Luis; Baró, Eva; Cardona, Victoria; Guardia, Pedro; Ojeda, Pedro; Olaguíbel, José Maria; Vega, José Maria; Vidal, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergy, so ensuring good adherence to SIT is fundamental. Up until now there has not existed an instrument specifically developed to measure patient satisfaction with SIT, although its assessment could help us to comprehend better and improve treatment adherence and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adult patient satisfaction with SIT. Items were generated from a literature review, focus groups with allergic adult patients undergoing SIT, and a meeting with experts. Potential items were administered to allergic patients undergoing SIT in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Item reduction was based on quantitative and qualitative criteria. A preliminary assessment of feasibility, reliability, and validity of the retained items was performed. An initial pool of 70 items was administered to 257 patients undergoing SIT. Fifty-four items were eliminated resulting in a provisional instrument with 16 items. Factor analysis yielded four factors that were identified as perceived efficacy, activities and environment, cost-benefit balance, and overall satisfaction, explaining 74.8% of variance. Ceiling and floor effects were negligible for overall score. Overall score was associated with the type and intensity of symptoms. This is the first attempt to develop a satisfaction with SIT measure from the perspective of the allergic patient, and evidence has been found in favor of its reliability and validity.

  10. Inhalant allergens: as a cause of respiratory allergy in east Mediterranean area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güneser, S; Atici, A; Cengizler, I; Alparslan, N

    1996-01-01

    Inhalant allergens were identified by analyzing the positive skin tests of 614 respiratory allergic patients. The important indoor allergens causing skin test positivity were house dust, Dermatophogoides pteronyssinus, cockroach, mosquito and Dermatophogoides farinea. Johnson grass, cultivated wheat, rye, orchard, and cultivated corn were among important grass pollens. Animal allergens like cow hair, cat and dog dander, bird and chicken feathers and horse hair caused skin test positivity in our allergic patients. Weeds and garden plants were also among important inhalant allergens in this region. Common cocklebur, narcissus, rose, mugworth, and daisy caused skin test positivity in decreasing frequencies. Carob, willow, poplar, olive and cypress pollens were among important inhalant allergens causing skin test positivity that may be important cause of respiratory allergy in this region.

  11. Does exposure to indoor allergens contribute to the development of asthma and allergy?

    PubMed

    Arshad, S Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Common indoor allergens include house dust mite, cockroach, animal dander, and certain molds. In genetically susceptible children, exposure to these indoor allergens during the critical postnatal period may lead to sensitization in early childhood. Consistent evidence indicates that children sensitized to common indoor allergens are at several-fold higher risk of asthma and allergy. Due to conflicting evidence from prospective studies, some doubt remains regarding a direct and dose-response relationship between exposure and development of asthma. However, in recent years, evidence has accumulated that exposure to indoor allergen causes asthma and allergy, but this effect may depend on dose and type of allergen as well as the underlying genetic susceptibility of the child.

  12. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Choudhary, Varsha; Singh, Rajiv; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sharma, Mahender; Narula, Kusum; Agrawal, Pooja

    2010-03-01

    Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the spray insecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which can be selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies but very few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (0.01%) and imidacloprid (2.15%) gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin) and propoxur (2%) aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field. Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and houses by visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houses having high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments and houses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control). Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroid aerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil and imidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave better indications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followed for post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks. Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestation in the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction and propoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started declining after 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gel baits for control of cockroaches.

  13. Sensitization to common allergens among patients with allergies in major Iranian cities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Farjadian, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Various allergens are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in different regions. This study attempted to identify the most common allergens among patients with allergies based on the results of skin prick tests in different parts of Iran. Relevant studies conducted from 2000 to 2016 were identified from the MEDLINE database. Six common groups of allergen types, including animal, cockroach, food, fungus, house dust mite, and pollen were considered. Subgroup analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of each type of allergen. The Egger test was used to assess publication bias. We included 44 studies in this meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of positive skin test results for at least one allergen was estimated to be 59% in patients with allergies in various parts of Iran. The number of patients was 11,646 (56% male and 44% female), with a mean age of 17.46±11.12 years. The most common allergen sources were pollen (47.0%), mites (35.2%), and food (15.3%). The prevalence of sensitization to food and cockroach allergens among children was greater than among adults. Pollen is the most common allergen sensitization in cities of Iran with a warm and dry climate; however, sensitization to house dust mites is predominant in northern and southern coastal areas of Iran.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against Olea europaea major allergen: allergenic activity of affinity-purified allergen and depleted extract and development of a radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, M; Quirce, S; Duffort, O; Barber, D; Carpizo, J; Chamorro, M J; Lezaun, A; Carreira, J

    1992-04-01

    Several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against Olea europaea pollen-extract components. Two of these antibodies, named OL 2 and OL 7, recognize two nonoverlapping, nonrepeating epitopes on the olive-allergen Ole e I, as demonstrated by different techniques. The allergen was purified in a single step by MAb-based affinity chromatography, and the allergen revealed a band at molecular weight 20 kd as well as a minor band at 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The contribution of allergen Ole e I to the allergenic activity of O. europaea pollen extracts was determined from the effect of allergen depletion by affinity chromatography on skin reactivity and a histamine-release test. The removal of allergen caused a large reduction in the activity of the preparation in 25 monospecific olive-allergic patients. In agreement, the affinity-purified allergen demonstrated a similar response when it was compared with the whole extract in these assays. The results indicated that Ole e I is by far the most important olive-pollen allergen. A two-site solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the quantitation of the allergen Ole e I in mass units. The assay was based on the MAbs, OL 2 and OL 7, and had a detection limit in the nanogram range. A good correlation was found between allergenic activity, as determined by RAST inhibition, and allergen content in 18 olive-pollen extracts. This result indicates that the assay can be a good alternative to RAST inhibition for the standardization of O. europaea extracts.

  15. Allergens stimulate store-operated calcium entry and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Prakriya, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca2+ elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca2+ elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca2+ entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412

  16. [Allergens used in skin tests in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Guidos Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo; Cid del Prado, Mari Lou

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the only recognized causal treatment for allergies. It is prepared on an individual basis, based on the patient's clinical history and the result of the skin prick test (SPT). An adequate composition of the allergens with which to test the patient is crucial for an optimal diagnosis. To know allergens used in tests in allergy practices in Mexico. A national survey among all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras Especialistas en Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (COMPEDIA) was carried out. In a second phase respondents were asked to send in the composition of a routine SPT in their clinic. The results are presented descriptively and the frequency is calculated by which certain allergen is tested in the interviewed practices. A survey response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained and 54% showed their SPT content. Weeds' representation in the SPT seems adequate; Atriplex is tested in all allergy practices. Some trees that show cross-reactivity might be eliminated from the SPT, but 20% doesn't test for Cynodon nor Holcus, and 25% doesn't for important allergens as cat, dog and cockroach. House dust and tobacco are still tested with certain frequency. The selection of which allergens to test in a SPT is based on multiple data, that change continuously with new investigations and discoveries. Our specialty is the most indicated--and obligated--to adjust constantly to these changes to have the best diagnostic tool to detect specific allergies.

  17. Modeling population dynamics of two cockroach species: effects of the circadian clock, interspecific competition and pest control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Hue; Lee, How-Jing; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Berec, Ludek

    2007-12-07

    The German cockroach Blattella germanica is obviously one of the most spread household pests in the world, and is now virtually impossible to sustain outside human constructions. The double-striped cockroach B. bisignata, on the other hand, is limited to Southeast Asia and mostly living in the open space, yet is able to establish in cockroach-free households, too. In this article, we develop a stage-structured population model of these two species to explore (i) whether their circadian clocks impact their long-term population dynamics, (ii) which of these species is a superior competitor, and (iii) how stringent potential pest control strategies have to be to significantly impact established populations of the German cockroach. The results of the model are as follows. Firstly, phase shifts in the light-to-dark cycle did not affect cockroach population dynamics unless males and females were out of phase and their mate finding abilities rather limited. In addition, for the hypothesized circadian clock genotypes, the shorter is the inactivity period relative to the activity one or the less arrhythmic is the population, the more viable the population is and the quicker it grows to large numbers. Secondly, the German cockroach was the superior competitor: it was able to invade and drive out established populations of the double-striped cockroach and prevent any invasion of the latter. Finally, only a significant and simultaneous reduction in a number of most sensitive German cockroach parameters resulted in species extirpation. Only carefully designed and data-based models of German (and double-striped) cockroach population dynamics can be helpful in our quest to win the fight over this unwelcome but very sturdy species.

  18. Biocontrol of the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae), with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, Mona; Mossadegh, Mohammad Saeed; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. under laboratory and field conditions. Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml−1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs using different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer. Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough pathogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in-water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sunflower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses. Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising alternative for cockroach control. PMID:27308292

  19. Buckwheat anaphylaxis: an unusual allergen in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsung-Chi; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Wen, Da-Chin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Li-Hsin

    2006-01-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to buckwheat is common in Korea, Japan, and some other Asian countries. However, buckwheat is not a common allergen in Taiwan. We report a woman with asthma who had anaphylactic shock, generalized urticaria, and an acute exacerbation of asthma five minutes after ingesting buckwheat. The patient underwent skin prick and Pharmacia CAP testing (Uppsala, Sweden) for specific IgE to buckwheat, white sesame and soybean as well as other common allergens in Taiwan including Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), D. farinae (Df), cat and dog dander, cockroach, egg white, cow milk and codfish. The patient had a strongly positive skin prick test response to buckwheat and positive reactions to Dp and latex. Specific IgE results were class 6 for buckwheat, class 4 for Dp and Df, and class 2 for dog dander, wheat, sesame and soybean. Results of an open food challenge with white sesame and soybean were negative. Although buckwheat is a rare allergen in Taiwan, it can cause extremely serious reactions and should be considered in patients presenting with anaphylaxis after exposure to buckwheat.

  20. Modified High-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronan Promotes Allergen-Specific Immune Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Yadava, Koshika; Ruppert, Shannon M; Marshall, Payton; Hill, Paul; Falk, Ben A; Sweere, Johanna M; Han, Hongwei; Kaber, Gernot; Medina, Carlos; Mikecz, Katalin; Ziegler, Steven F; Balaji, Swathi; Keswani, Sundeep G; Perez, Vinicio A de Jesus; Butte, Manish J; Nadeau, Kari; Altemeier, William A; Fanger, Neil; Bollyky, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix in asthmatic lungs contains abundant low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, and this is known to promote antigen presentation and allergic responses. Conversely, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), typical of uninflamed tissues, is known to suppress inflammation. We investigated whether HMW-HA can be adapted to promote tolerance to airway allergens. HMW-HA was thiolated to prevent its catabolism and was tethered to allergens via thiol linkages. This platform, which we call "XHA," delivers antigenic payloads in the context of antiinflammatory costimulation. Allergen/XHA was administered intranasally to mice that had been sensitized previously to these allergens. XHA prevents allergic airway inflammation in mice sensitized previously to either ovalbumin or cockroach proteins. Allergen/XHA treatment reduced inflammatory cell counts, airway hyperresponsiveness, allergen-specific IgE, and T helper type 2 cell cytokine production in comparison with allergen alone. These effects were allergen specific and IL-10 dependent. They were durable for weeks after the last challenge, providing a substantial advantage over the current desensitization protocols. Mechanistically, XHA promoted CD44-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling, diminished dendritic cell maturation, and reduced the induction of allergen-specific CD4 T-helper responses. XHA and other potential strategies that target CD44 are promising alternatives for the treatment of asthma and allergic sinusitis.

  1. Repeatedly high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and cockroach sensitization among inner-city children.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Perzanowski, Matthew; Liu, Xinhua; Maher, Christina; Gil, Eric; Torrone, David; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

    2015-07-01

    Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been associated with the development and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited evidence on whether these pollutants are associated with the development of cockroach sensitization, a strong risk factor for urban asthma. We hypothesized that repeatedly high PAH exposure during childhood would be associated with increased risk of new cockroach sensitization. As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study in New York, a spot urine sample was collected from children at age 5 years (2003-2008) and again at age 9-10 years (2008-2012; n=248) and analyzed for 10 PAH metabolites. Repeatedly high PAH (High-High) exposure was defined as measures above median for age 5 PAH metabolites at both time points. Child blood samples at age 5 and 9 years were analyzed for total, anti-cockroach, mouse, dust mite, cat and dog IgE. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with multivariable modified Poisson regression. Individual PAH metabolite levels, except for 1-naphthol (1-OH-NAP), increased by 10-60% from age 5 to age 9-10. The prevalence of cockroach sensitization increased from 17.6% (33/188) at age 5 to 33.0% (62/188) at 9 years (p=0.001). After controlling for potential covariates including cockroach sensitization at age 5 in regression analyses, positive associations were found between repeatedly high exposure (High-High) to 1-OH-NAP, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-PHEN), or 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and cockroach sensitization at age 9 (p-values<0.05). Compared to Low-Low exposure, the relative risk (RR) [95% CI] with repeatedly high exposure was 1.83 [1.06-3.17] for 1-OH-NAP, 1.54 [1.06-2.23] for 3-OH-PHEN, and 1.59 [1.04-2.43] for 1-OH-PYR. Repeatedly high levels of urinary PAH metabolites during childhood may increase likelihood of sensitization to cockroach allergen in urban inner-city children at

  2. Cockroach surveys in 14 provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S

    2001-12-01

    Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INFECTIONS OF THE AMERICAN COCKROACHES IN PAVEH CITY, KERMANSHAH PROVINCE

    PubMed Central

    Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. Goal: The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. Methods: The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Results: Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary. PMID:27047261

  4. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INFECTIONS OF THE AMERICAN COCKROACHES IN PAVEH CITY, KERMANSHAH PROVINCE.

    PubMed

    Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji

    2016-02-01

    American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary.

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  7. Household characteristics and allergen and endotoxin levels in Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, W; Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Khoury, A; Woodcock, A

    2010-07-01

    Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. Dust samples were collected from mattresses and floors of 457 homes in the Syrian city of Aleppo and analysed for antigens and endotoxins. The most important predictors for detectable levels of house-dust mite allergen Der p 1 were Arabic-style houses (OR 3.21) and newer houses (OR 1.56). In homes without cats, rubber mattresses were associated with detectable cat allergen Fel d 1 in mattress dust (OR 1.6). Cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was significantly more likely to be detected in houses over 20 years old than newer houses. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in wool/cotton mattresses and older houses.

  8. Is allergic sensitization relevant in severe asthma? Which allergens may be culprit?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Carlo; Savi, Eleonora; Ridolo, Erminia; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2017-01-01

    Severe asthma is a major health concern. The allergic (IgE-mediated) form of asthma is well known from a pathogenic viewpoint. We searched the available literature to identify which allergens are most frequently associated with severe, refractory or life threatening asthma. According to the results, molds, pet dander, cockroach and ragweed were more frequently responsible for severe asthma. Thunderstorm asthma, in addition, represents a special association between allergic sensitization and an external climatic factor. A detailed knowledge of the most harmful allergens is mandatory for an appropriate diagnostic and preventive approach.

  9. Identification and characterization of an arginine kinase as a major allergen from silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wu, Yulan; Xia, Qingyou; Chen, Jiajie; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important insect in the textile industry and its pupa are used in Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine. The silk, urine and dander of silkworms is often the cause of allergies in sericulture workers and the pupa has been found to be a food allergen in China. Recent studies have focused on reporting cases of silkworm allergies, but only a few studies have addressed the specific allergens present in the B. mori silkworm. We collected sera from 10 patients with a positive skin prick test to silkworm crude extract (SCE) and analyzed these samples by Western blot and ELISA. The cDNA of arginine kinase from the B. mori silkworm was also cloned and expressed in high yield in Escherichia coli. Allergenicity and cross-allergenicity of the recombinant B. mori arginine kinase (rBmAK) were investigated by ELISA inhibition assay. Collected sera all reacted to a 42-kDa protein in a Western blot with SCE as the antigen. Preincubation of sera with rBmAK eliminated the reactivity of the patients' sera to this 42-kDa band. All patient sera also exhibited positive reactivity to SCE in an ELISA assay. BmAK also demonstrated cross-reactivity with a recombinant AK from cockroach. Arginine kinase from the B. mori silkworm is a major allergen and crossreacts with cockroach AK. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Comparative study of integrated pest management and baiting for German cockroach management in public housing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of a building-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo. The buildings were divided into two groups: bait treatment and IPM. Apartments in the bait alone group were treated with Maxforce FC Select (0.01% fipronil) during the first 12 wk and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel (2.15% hydramethylnon) from 16 wk when necessary. For the IPM group, cockroaches were flushed and vacuumed at the beginning of the study; sticky traps were placed in all apartments to monitor and reduce cockroach numbers; educational materials were delivered to the residents; and Maxforce FC Select and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel were applied to kill cockroaches. Two seminars were presented to the manger, and Community Service Program staff of the Gary Housing Authority to help gain tenant cooperation in the program. Effects of the treatments were monitored using sticky traps (six per apartment) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 29 wk after treatment. More treatments were applied during each monitoring visit when necessary. Those apartments with high levels of infestations (> or =12 cockroaches in six traps) before treatment were used to compare the IPM and bait only treatments. IPM resulted in significantly greater trap catch reduction than the bait treatment. The IPM (n=12) and bait only treatment (n=11) resulted in 100.0 and 94.6%, respectively, reduction in trap catch after 16 wk. At 29 wk, only one apartment in the IPM group had a high level (>12 cockroaches) of cockroach infestation. In contrast, five apartments in the bait treatment group had high level infestations at 29 wk based on overnight trapping counts; thus, IPM is a more sustainable method of population reduction. Sanitation levels in the IPM group significantly improved at 29 wk (n=11) compared with that at the beginning of

  11. Anterior rhinomanometry in nasal allergen challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1998-11-01

    Even simple and relatively safe provocation procedures like nasal allergen challenges, should aim to allow detection of positivity with the less possible discomfort to the patient. The objective of this work was to evaluate if the use of rhinomanometric measurements during nasal provocation procedures could allow a decrease in the total administered allergen dose, causing less symptoms to the patients but without increasing the number of false-negatives, comparatively to clinical scores or nasal peak-flow measurements. Our results showed that performing rhinomanometric measurements during nasal HDM challenge procedures can lead in many patients to a reduction in the total dose of allergen administered during the challenge, without loss of sensitivity or specificity. This allergen dose reduction translates in less time consumed during the provocation and less patients' discomfort.

  12. Genetic Control of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-17

    The authors investigated the possibility of controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica , by using chromosome translocations. The first...translocations for control in B. germanica . Such mechanisms are potentially capable of reducing field populations.

  13. Allergen Sensitization Profiles in a Population-Based Cohort of Children Hospitalized for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; McLinden, Daniel J.; Lierl, Michelle B.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity. A better understanding of allergen sensitization patterns among children hospitalized for asthma could help clinicians tailor care more effectively. To our knowledge, however, sensitization profiles among children hospitalized for asthma are unknown. Objectives: We sought to describe allergen sensitization profiles and the distribution of self-reported in-home exposures among children hospitalized for asthma. We also sought to assess how sensitization profiles varied by sociodemographic and clinical factors. Methods: This population-based cohort study includes data for 478 children, aged 4–16 years, hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation. Predictors included child age, race, sex, insurance status, reported income, salivary cotinine, exposure to traffic-related air pollution, asthma and atopic history, and season of admission. Outcomes included serum IgE specific to Alternaria alternata/A. tenuis, Aspergillus fumigatus, American cockroach, mouse epithelium, dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae), cat dander, and dog dander (deemed sensitive if IgE ≥ 0.35). Self-reported adverse exposures included mold/mildew, water leaks, cockroaches, rodents, and cracks or holes in the walls or ceiling. Presence of carpeting and furry pets was also assessed. Measurements and Main Results: More than 50% of included patients were sensitized to each of Alternaria, Aspergillus, dust mite, cat dander, and dog dander; 28% were sensitized to cockroach and 18% to mouse. Roughly 68% were sensitized to three or more allergens with evidence of clustering. African American children, compared with white children, were more likely to be sensitized to Alternaria, Aspergillus, cockroach, and dust mite (all P < 0.01). White children were more likely to be sensitized to mouse, cat, and dog (all P < 0.01). Lower income was associated with cockroach sensitization whereas higher income was associated

  14. New tree nut allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  15. Cross-reactivity between cockroach and ladybug using the radioallergosorbent test.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew T; Levin, Todd; Dolen, William

    2009-11-01

    Home infestations from Harmonia axyridis (ladybug) occur throughout the United States. IgE-mediated sensitization with allergic disease has been reported. The prevalence of ladybug sensitization has been studied by questionnaire and allergy testing in patients diagnosed as having allergic disease. Cross-reactivity with cockroach exists. To determine the prevalence of ladybug specific IgE in the general population by specific IgE immunoassay and to examine cross-reactivity to cockroach. An experimental solid phase for use in immunoassay was prepared using a ladybug extract, and performance characteristics were determined. Serum samples from 100 adult blood bank donors were tested using the ladybug specific IgE immunoassay. Known ladybug IgE-positive serum samples obtained from symptomatic patients were used to study crossreactivity with German cockroach by specific IgE immunoassay inhibition. The mean background response of the assay solid phase was 51 fluorescent units with an analytical cutoff of 59 fluorescent units. It was estimated that a response of 88 fluorescent units corresponds to a specific IgE concentration of 0.1 kUa/L. The extinction dilution curve was linear to 0.1 kUa/L. The assay cutoff was set at 0.1 kUa/L. Of the 100 blood donor serum samples, 10 were positive for ladybug specific IgE. Inhibition assays revealed partial cross-reactivity with German cockroach. Although an immunoassay solid phase prepared with ladybug whole body extract will identify persons in a general population sensitized to epitopes found in the extract, clinicians performing allergy testing using whole body ladybug extract should be aware that a positive result may or may not indicate that exposure to actual ladybug allergens is causing sensitization.

  16. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of an indoxacarb gel bait against two cockroach species (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anikwe, Joseph Chuks; Adetoro, Fouad Abidemi; Anogwih, Joy Anuri; Makanjuola, Winifred Ayinke; Kemabonta, Kehinde Abike; Akinwande, Kayode Lawrence

    2014-08-01

    Indoxacarb gel bait was evaluated for its efficacy in the laboratory and field against American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), and German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Advion 0.6% indoxacarb gel bait was toxic to both P. americana and B. germanica. There were no significant differences in the LT50 (h) values for treatment levels of 0.25 g, 0.5 g, and 1.0 g gel applied against P. americana, whereas gel applied at 0.5 g to B. germanica had a significantly greater LT50 (h) in the laboratory than the gel treatments on P. americana. The LT50 for both cockroach species ranged from 40.65 to 145.60 h. There was no control mortality in the laboratory bioassays. In the field, 55 houses were treated with 0.5 g of 6-8 spots of indoxacarb gel bait per kitchen of two or three bedroom bungalows from three Local Government Areas of Lagos State, comprising Surulere (22), Alimosho (12), and Shomolu (21). Mean reduction in cockroach populations varied from location to location based on the level of infestations. Percentage reductions in the indoxacarb gel-treated units ranged from 3.5% at 1 d after treatment to 99.8% at 14 d at Surulere, while reductions ranged from 8.9% at 1 d after treatment to 99.7% at 14 d at Shomolu; a similar trend was observed for Alimosho. Indoxacarb gel bait was highly effective in the control of cockroaches.

  18. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  19. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  20. Biorational control programme for the German cockroach (Blattaria: Blattellidae) in selected urban communities.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.

  1. Field trial on the control effect of fipronil bait against German cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%. PMID:16969066

  2. Field trial on the control effect of fipronil bait against German cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-09-01

    A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%.

  3. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  4. Cockroaches Probably Cleaned Up after Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces. PMID:24324610

  5. Comparative mites and cockroaches sensitization study in three cities of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cavazos Galván, Mario; Guerrero Núñez, Belinda; Ramírez Aragón, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    patients reacted to P. americana and 1 to B. germanica. Only 2 patients out of 58 in the study resulted in negative skin tests to mites and cockroachs allergens. Only 2 patients out of 58 in the study resulted in negative skin tests, which demonstrates the high sensibilizing capacity from mite and cockroach allergens in patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Although the patient group is small, it reveals that mites from the Pyroglyphidae families D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and E. maynei are the most sensibilizing in the three cities under research, without regards of geographic and climatic conditions as they were the most frequent skin reactants and produced greater skin symptoms in patients, with several differences in respect to skin reactivity, as they were greater in Monterrey than Tampico and Irapuato. Although there is crossed reactivity between mites of the Pyroglyphidae family, it might be convenient to routinely include E. maynei in the skin test panel practiced to patients with respiratory allergies in the cities under research, and maybe also B. tropicalis in Tampico. In comparison with mites, cockroaches produced little skin reactivity in the patients.

  6. Pest and allergen exposure and abatement in inner-city asthma: a work group report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergy/Air Pollution Committee.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, William J; Rangsithienchai, Pitud A; Wood, Robert A; Rivard, Don; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Chew, Ginger L; Seltzer, James M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-03-01

    Our work group report details the importance of pest allergen exposure in inner-city asthma. We will focus specifically on mouse and cockroach exposure. We will discuss how exposure to these pests is common in the inner city and what conditions exist in urban areas that might lead to increased exposure. We will discuss how exposure is associated with allergen sensitization and asthma morbidity. Finally, we will discuss different methods of intervention and the effectiveness of these tactics.

  7. Analysis of olive allergens.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Montealegre, C; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2012-04-15

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Besides this, some cases of contact dermatitis and food allergy to the olive fruit and olive oil have been also described. Several scientific studies dealing with olive allergens has been reported, being the information available about them constantly increasing. Up to date, twelve allergens have been identified in olive pollen while just one allergen has been identified in olive fruit. This review article describes considerations about allergen extraction and production, also describing the different methodologies employed in the physicochemical and immunological characterization of olive allergens. Finally, a revision of the most relevant studies in the analysis of both olive pollen and olive fruit allergens is carried out.

  8. Molecular approaches to allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Briza, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Molecular approaches to allergen standardization include the development of purified natural or recombinant allergen standards whose structural and allergenic properties have been validated, in tandem with certified immunoassays for allergen measurement. Purified allergens can be used individually or incorporated into multiple allergen standards. Multicenter international collaborative studies are required to validate candidate allergen standards and immunoassays, as a prelude to being approved by regulatory agencies. Mass spectrometry is a sophisticated and powerful proteomics tool that is being developed for allergen analysis. Recent results using pollen allergens show that mass spectrometry can identify and measure specific allergens in a complex mixture and can provide precise information of the variability of natural allergen extracts. In future, the combined use of immunoassays and mass spectrometry will provide complete standardization of allergenic products. Molecular standardization will form the basis of new allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, as well as assessment of environmental exposure, and will improve the quality of treatment options for allergic patients.

  9. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  10. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos J; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-04-06

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%.

  11. Cockroach optomotor responses below single photon level.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Anna; Takalo, Jouni; Heimonen, Kyösti; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti

    2014-12-01

    Reliable vision in dim light depends on the efficient capture of photons. Moreover, visually guided behaviour requires reliable signals from the photoreceptors to generate appropriate motor reactions. Here, we show that at behavioural low-light threshold, cockroach photoreceptors respond to moving gratings with single-photon absorption events known as 'quantum bumps' at or below the rate of 0.1 s(-1). By performing behavioural experiments and intracellular recordings from photoreceptors under identical stimulus conditions, we demonstrate that continuous modulation of the photoreceptor membrane potential is not necessary to elicit visually guided behaviour. The results indicate that in cockroach motion detection, massive temporal and spatial pooling takes place throughout the eye under dim conditions, involving currently unknown neural processing algorithms. The extremely high night-vision capability of the cockroach visual system provides a roadmap for bio-mimetic imaging design.

  12. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  13. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  15. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  16. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  17. A review on emerging frontiers of house dust mite and cockroach allergy research.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Meher, B R

    Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed.

  18. Emerging pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.

  19. Molecular Diagnosis of Shrimp Allergy: Efficiency of Several Allergens to Predict Clinical Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Mariona; Grishina, Galina; Yang, Ariana C; Sánchez-García, Silvia; Lin, Jing; Towle, David; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; Sampson, Hugh A; Ayuso, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of shellfish allergy remains a challenge for clinicians. Several shellfish allergens have been characterized and their IgE epitopes identified. However, the clinical relevance of this sensitization is still not clear. The objective of this study was to identify allergens and epitopes associated with clinical reactivity to shrimp. Shrimp-sensitized subjects were recruited and grouped based on the history of shrimp-allergic reactions and challenge outcome. IgE reactivity to recombinant crustacean allergens, and IgE and IgG4 reactivity to peptides were determined. Subjects sensitized to dust mites and/or cockroach without shrimp sensitization or reported allergic reactions, as well as nonatopic individuals, were used as controls. A total of 86 subjects were recruited with a skin prick test to shrimp; 74 reported shrimp-allergic reactions, 58 were allergic (38 positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge and 20 recent anaphylaxis), and 16 were tolerant. All subjects without a history of reactions had negative challenges. The individuals with a positive challenge more frequently recognized tropomyosin and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins than those found tolerant by the challenge. Especially a sarcoplasmic-calcium-binding-protein positive test is very likely to result in a positive challenge, though the frequency of recognition is low. Subjects with dust mite and/or cockroach allergy not sensitized to shrimp recognized arginine kinase and hemocyanin. Several epitopes of these allergens may be important in predicting clinical reactivity. Tropomyosin and sarcoplasmic-calcium-binding-protein sensitization is associated with clinical reactivity to shrimp. Myosin light chain testing may help in the diagnosis of clinical reactivity. Arginine kinase and hemocyanin appear to be cross-reacting allergens between shrimp and arthropods. Detection of IgE to these allergens and some of their epitopes may be better diagnostic tools in the routine workup

  20. The aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.

  1. Self-righting behavior of cockroaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Wohrl, Toni; Lam, Han; Full, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Small insects must be able to right themselves from an upside-down orientation to survive. Previous studies described diverse self-righting strategies in insects. Here, we compare the self-righting behaviors in three cockroach species on a flat, rigid ground to begin to reveal what governs the choice of dominant behaviors. All species self-righted successfully (75 +/- 11 % probability) and quickly (as low as 140 ms and typically within 2 s). The smallest winged American cockroach, which has the most elongate, least flattened body, and longest legs, primarily pushed legs against the ground to roll its body to the side to self-right (relative frequency = 93%). The largest wingless Madagascar hissing cockroach with the shortest legs primarily (84%) hyperextended body to roll to the side and then rubbed its legs on the ground to self-right. The intermediate winged discoid cockroach, which has the least elongate, most flattened body, more often (57%) abducted wings and flexed body to raise center of mass and reduce ground contact and rotated about the wing edges to self-right. We hypothesize that, given morphological and physiological constraints, the gravitational potential energy landscape resulting from the animals' body/appendage-ground interaction governs their dominant behaviors. Our study provides inspiration for robotics, as many current terrestrial robots have rigid, cuboidal bodies which hinder self-righting.

  2. Do mite avoidance measures affect mite and cat airborne allergens?

    PubMed

    Carswell, F; Oliver, J; Weeks, J

    1999-02-01

    Effective mite allergen avoidance measures are presumed to reduce airborne allergens yet the quantity in the air is rarely measured. To monitor airborne allergen during a placebo-controlled mite allergen avoidance study. Bedrooms of 56 atopic asthmatic children were randomly allocated to hot washing and encasing covers + acaricide (active regime) or placebo treatment. Dust was collected from the mattress, bedding and carpets; airborne allergen was measured using Casella samplers and dust settling in open Petri dishes. Der p 1, Der p 2 and Fel d 1 were measured. After 24 weeks of mite allergen avoidance the Casella air-samplers collected Der p 1 less frequently in active than placebo-treated bedrooms (0 vs. 29%, P<0.05) and Petri dishes in the active group collected less than baseline (0.2 vs. 0.6 ng/day P<0.05). Homes without cats had less cat allergen than cat-owning homes and when actively treated for 24 weeks showed a greater reduction (P = 0.03) in mattress cat allergen than the placebo group. Encasing covers and hot washing of bed linen reduced mite aeroallergen (and mattress cat allergen in the absence of cats). This could mean dual benefits to a patient sensitive to both mite and cat.

  3. Allergen sensitization to aeroallergens including Blomia tropicalis among adult and childhood asthmatics in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Lee, Bee-Wah; Visitsuntorn, Nualanong; Charoenratanakul, Suchai; Ruangrak, Sirirat; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit

    2003-12-01

    To study prevalence of allergen sensitization among asthmatics in Thailand, skin prick tests (SPT) were performed in 84 pediatric, 71 adult asthmatics and 71 adult volunteers. Allergen extracts used for testing included common allergens in Thailand and in Singapore. The incidence of positive SPT to any allergen among the three groups (childhood, adult patients and adult controls) were 64.3%, 43.7% and 35.2%, respectively. Dermatophagoides were the most common allergens sensitized by both pediatric (58.3%) and adult asthmatics (40.8%). Twenty-four children (28.6%) and 8 adult patients (11.3%) were sensitized to storage mites (Blomia tropicalis and/or Austroglyciphagus malaysiensis). All patients sensitized to Blomia tropicalis were sensitized to Dermatophagoides. Twenty-seven percent and 15.5% of childhood and adult asthmatics were sensitized to cockroach allergens. The rates of sensitization to oil palm pollen in childhood and adult asthmatics were 8.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Sensitization to other pollens and spores were less than 5%. This study confirms the importance of Dermatophagoides among Thai asthmatics.

  4. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian

    2009-09-01

    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  6. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  7. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  8. Cockroaches as carriers of fungi of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Lemos, A A; Lemos, J A; Prado, M A; Pimenta, F C; Gir, E; Silva, H M; Silva, M R R

    2006-01-01

    The fungal pathogenic flora of the external surface of 103 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) collected from the intensive care unit of a hospital were investigated. In this study, a high percentage of test cockroaches (93.2%) were found to carry fungi of medical importance. The main fungi isolated were species of Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Information about the carriage of pathogenic fungi by cockroaches in hospital environment is scanty. The results suggest that cockroaches can play a role in dissemination of fungi, which they can carry on their external surface.

  9. COCKROACH COUNTS AND HOUSE DUST ALLERGEN CONCENTRATIONS AFTER PROFESSIONAL COCKROACH CONTROL AND CLEANING. (R827352C012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. COCKROACH COUNTS AND HOUSE DUST ALLERGEN CONCENTRATIONS AFTER PROFESSIONAL COCKROACH CONTROL AND CLEANING. (R827352C012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. [Nasal allergenic provocation test].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E

    2000-01-01

    This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.

  12. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  13. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  14. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.

  15. Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) may be an important allergen in the development of asthma among exposed children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Park, H S; Kim, H Y; Jee, Y K; Son, J W; Bae, J M; Lee, M H; Cho, S H; Min, K U; Kim, Y Y

    2001-04-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that spider mites are important allergens in the development of asthma in fruit-cultivating farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitization rate to the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) in children living in rural areas, and to determine the allergenic cross-reactivity with other mites. A total of 7254 children (ages 7-15 years) living in rural areas were enrolled, and each subject was evaluated by a questionnaire and a skin prick test. Allergenic cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. The most common sensitizing allergens were house dust mites, followed by citrus red mite and cockroach. High serum-specific IgE bindings to the citrus red mite were detected in 21 of 100 randomly selected subjects. The prevalence of asthma was higher among those with positive skin responses to the citrus red mite than with negative skin responses to this mite. ELISA inhibition tests showed that IgE bindings to this mite were minimally inhibited with additions of domestic mites. Spider mites such as the citrus red mite may be important outdoor allergens among children living in rural areas, and spider mite-derived allergens have unique allergenic determinants compared with domestic mites.

  16. Indoor allergen exposure in west and East Germany: a cause for different prevalences of asthma and atopy?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, T

    1999-01-01

    West and East Germans have been living in two different political systems for 40 years. These two populations have become a classic epidemiological example for the hypothesis that lifestyle changes accompanying the industrial and economic development of modern societies are responsible for an increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases. A higher prevalence of atopic sensitization, asthma, and hay fever was found in young West Germans after the unification. It has been hypothesized that this phenomenon was at least partially due to the installation of insulating windows and central heating systems in Western homes, favoring the growth of microorganisms like mites and moulds and increasing indoor allergen exposure. This review summarizes studies that have investigated reservoir concentrations of indoor allergens in public buildings and private homes in East and West Germany. Whereas a higher prevalence of atopic sensitization in West Germans was found for nearly all tested allergens (cat, mite, pollen), allergen exposure was higher only for cat allergens, but probably not for mite and cockroach allergens or moulds. The published data do not support the view that the differences in specific sensitization are caused by differences in the exposure to specific allergens.

  17. Genetic engineering of plant food with reduced allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Stephan; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are a major health concern in industrialized countries. Since a specific immunotherapy for food allergies is not available in clinical routine praxis till now, reduction of allergens in foods, either by food processing or genetic engineering are strategies to minimize the risk of adverse reactions for food allergic patients. This review summarizes biotechnological approaches, especially the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, for the reduction of selected allergens in plant foods. So far, only a limited number of reports showing proof-of-concept of this methodology are available. Using RNAi an impressive reduction of allergen accumulation was obtained which was stable in the next generations of plants. Since threshold doses for most food allergens are not known, the beneficial effect has to be evaluated by oral challenge tests in the future. The article critically addresses the potential and limitations of genetic engineering, as well as of alternative strategies to generate "low allergic" foods.

  18. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  19. Allergens in corticosteroid vehicles.

    PubMed

    Coloe, Jacquelyn; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Whereas allergy to vehicle ingredients (ie, excipients and preservatives) in topical steroid vehicles is well recognized, there are no data regarding which vehicle ingredients are in common use or on which vehicles and active molecules are associated with which ingredients. To produce descriptive data on the use of allergenic vehicle ingredients in prescription topical corticosteroids. The package insert for every steroid in widespread use in the United States was obtained from the manufacturer and used to generate an ingredient list for the product. There are seven vehicle ingredients that are commonly used in topical corticosteroid vehicles that are well-known allergens: propylene glycol, sorbitan sesquioleate, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, lanolin, and fragrance. Of 166 topical corticosteroids, 128 (including all creams) had at least one of these vehicle ingredients. More generic products were free of allergens than were branded products. Solutions and ointments were the least allergenic vehicles. The most commonly present potential allergens were propylene glycol and sorbitan sesquioleate. Most prescription topical corticosteroids have the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis owing to vehicle ingredients. Dermatologists should be aware of this possibility and should consider prescribing agents that do not contain potentially allergenic vehicle ingredients.

  20. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  1. Characterization of the Juvenile Hormone Pathway in the Viviparous Cockroach, Diploptera punctata

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F.; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway. PMID:25706877

  2. Descending influences on escape behavior and motor pattern in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, P L; Ritzmann, R E

    2001-10-01

    The escape behavior of the cockroach is a ballistic behavior with well characterized kinematics. The circuitry known to control the behavior lies in the thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, and abdominal nerve cord. Some evidence suggests inputs may occur from the brain or suboesophageal ganglion. We tested this notion by decapitating cockroaches, removing all descending inputs, and evoking escape responses. The decapitated cockroaches exhibited directionally appropriate escape turns. However, there was a front-to-back gradient of change: the front legs moved little if at all, the middle legs moved in the proper direction but with reduced excursion, and the rear legs moved normally. The same pattern was seen when only inputs from the brain were removed, the suboesophageal ganglion remaining intact and connected to the thoracic ganglia. Electromyogram (EMG) analysis showed that the loss of or reduction in excursion was accompanied by a loss of or reduction in fast motor neuron activity. The loss of fast motor neuron activity was also observed in a reduced preparation in which descending neural signals were reversibly blocked via an isotonic sucrose solution superfusing the neck connectives, indicating that the changes seen were not due to trauma. Our data demonstrate that while the thoracic circuitry is sufficient to produce directional escape, lesion or blockage of the connective affects the excitability of components of the escape circuitry. Because of the rapidity of the escape response, such effects are likely due to the elimination of tonic descending inputs.

  3. Native troponin-T of the American cockroach (CR), Periplaneta americana, binds to IgE in sera of CR allergic Thais.

    PubMed

    Khantisitthiporn, Onruedee; Sookrung, Nitat; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Srimanote, Potjanee; Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2007-12-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is the predominant cockroach (CR) species in Thailand and a major source of indoor allergens second only to the house dust mite. The incidence of CR allergy among allergic Thai patients is increasing but basic information on the allergenic components is scarce. In this study a recombinant troponin-T was produced by using cDNA prepared from RNA of the P. americana as a template and PCR primers designed from the P. americana troponin-T sequence deposited in the GenBank database. The recombinant protein (Mr approximately 50) did not bind to IgE in the sera of 18 skin prick test positive CR allergic patients. Rabbit polyclonal antiserum (PAb) against the recombinant troponin-T was produced and used in preparing an affinity column for the purification of native troponin-T from the crude P. americana extract (Mr approximately 47). IgE-immunoblotting revealed that the native protein bound to IgE in 3 of the 18 (16.7%) patients. Our results imply that native P. americana troponin-T, but not its recombinant counterpart, is a minor allergen among the CR allergic Thais.

  4. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  5. Passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies for treatment and prevention of allergy

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sabine; Linhart, Birgit; Wild, Carmen; Wiedermann, Ursula; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    IgE antibody-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. To investigate therapeutic and preventive effects of passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies on allergy in mouse models we used clinically relevant pollen allergens. In a treatment model, mice were sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and to the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 and then received passive immunization with rabbit IgG antibodies specific for the sensitizing or an unrelated allergen. In a prevention model, mice obtained passive immunization with allergen-specific rabbit IgG before sensitization. Kinetics of the levels of administered IgG antibodies, effects of administered allergen-specific IgG on allergen-specific IgE reactivity, the development of IgE and IgG responses and on immediate allergic reactions were studied by ELISA, rat basophil leukaemia degranulation assays and skin testing, respectively. Treated mice showed an approximately 80% reduction of allergen-specific IgE binding and basophil degranulation which was associated with the levels of administered allergen-specific IgG antibodies. Preventive administration of allergen-specific IgG antibodies suppressed the development of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibody responses as well as allergen-induced basophil degranulation and skin reactivity. Our results show that passive immunization with allergen-specific IgG antibodies is effective for treatment and prevention of allergy to clinically important pollen allergens in a mouse model and thus may pave the road for the clinical application of allergen-specific antibodies in humans. PMID:23182706

  6. Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study

  7. Local Enhancement Promotes Cockroach Feeding Aggregations

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Rivault, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics) was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics) in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects. PMID:21811557

  8. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF COCKROACH CAMPANIFORM SENSILLA

    PubMed Central

    Moran, David T.; Chapman, Kent M.; Ellis, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Campaniform sensilla on cockroach legs provide a good model system for the study of mechanoreceptive sensory transduction. This paper describes the structure of campaniform sensilla on the cockroach tibia as revealed by light- and electron-microscopy. Campaniform sensilla are proprioceptive mechanoreceptors associated with the exoskeleton. The function of each sensillum centers around a single primary sense cell, a large bipolar neuron whose 40 µ-wide cell body is available for electrophysiological investigation with intracellular microelectrodes. Its axon travels to the central nervous system; its dendrite gives rise to a modified cilium which is associated with the cuticle. The tip of the 20 µ-long dendrite contains a basal body, from which arises a 9 + 0 connecting cilium. This cilium passes through a canal in the cuticle, and expands in diameter to become the sensory process, a membrane-limited bundle of 350–1000 parallel microtubules. The tip of the sensory process is firmly attached to a thin cap of exocuticle; mechanical depression of this cap, which probably occurs during walking movements, effectively stimulates the sensillum. The hypothesis is presented that the microtubules of the sensory process play an important role in mechanoelectric transduction in cockroach campaniform sensilla. PMID:5545101

  9. RESISTANCE LEVELS OF IZMIR, TURKEY BEDBUGS AND COCKROACHES TO INSECTICIDES 1966-67

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Tests were conducted with Bedbugs , Cimex lectularius German cockroaches, Blatella germanica and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana strains...that 0.5% diazinon should control bedbugs and 0.05% diazinon should control German cockroaches and 3.0% malathion should control American cockroaches

  10. Olfactory Receptor Response to the Cockroach Sexual Attractant.

    PubMed

    Boeckh, J; Priesner, E; Schneider, D; Jacobson, M

    1963-08-23

    The recently isolated sex attractant of the female American cockroach elicits an electical response in the antennae of males, females, and mymphs of this species. These electroantennograms are known to be summated receptor (generator) potentials of many olfactory sensillae stimulated simultaneously. Many other odorous substances also elicit such responses in the cockroach antenna.

  11. Testing small molecule analogues of the Acanthocheilonema viteae immunomodulator ES-62 against clinically relevant allergens.

    PubMed

    Janicova, L; Rzepecka, J; Rodgers, D T; Doonan, J; Bell, K S; Lumb, F E; Suckling, C J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2016-06-01

    ES-62 is a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae that protects against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in mice by virtue of covalently attached anti-inflammatory phosphorylcholine (PC) residues. We have recently generated a library of small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 based around its active PC moiety as a starting point in novel drug development for asthma and identified two compounds - termed 11a and 12b - that mirror ES-62's protective effects. In this study, we have moved away from OVA, a model allergen, to test the SMAs against two clinically relevant allergens - house dust mite (HDM) and cockroach allergen (CR) extract. We show that both SMAs offer some protection against development of lung allergic responses to CR, in particular reducing eosinophil infiltration, whereas only SMA 12b is effective in protecting against eosinophil-dependent HDM-induced allergy. These data therefore suggest that helminth molecule-induced protection against model allergens may not necessarily translate to clinically relevant allergens. Nevertheless, in this study, we have managed to demonstrate that it is possible to produce synthetic drug-like molecules based on a parasitic worm product that show therapeutic potential with respect to asthma resulting from known triggers in humans.

  12. Specific allergens evoking immune reactions in the lung: relationship to asthma.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, T A; Chapman, M D; Pollart, S; Luczynska, C M; Ward, G W

    1991-04-01

    Over the last 20 yrs our understanding of the relationship of allergens to asthma has changed completely. This is due to several interrelated developments: firstly, it is clear that bronchial hyperreactivity can be increased by allergen exposure and that it is at least in part reversible; secondly, it is now generally accepted that asthma involves inflammation of the bronchi in which eosinophils play an important role; thirdly, there are a large number of studies demonstrating an epidemiological relationship between immediate hypersensitivity to dust mites and asthma; finally, it has been shown that natural exposure to dust mite allergens is very different from bronchial provocation. Together these findings have lead to the view that indoor allergens can play a major role in causing bronchial inflammation with consequent bronchial reactivity and that this is usually not apparent to the patient. Recently three studies in the USA have established that immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalants can also be important risk factors for acute asthma. In these studies both dust mites and pollens were significant, but cat and cockroach allergy were also important. The results imply that the management of all asthma requires evaluation of the role of immediate hypersensitivity and that treatment of inflammation in the lungs should include both anti-inflammatory drugs and allergen avoidance.

  13. Further studies in allergenic identity between house dust and the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, 1961.

    PubMed

    Morita, Y; Miyamoto, T; Horiuchi, Y; Oshima, S; Katsuhata, A

    1975-12-01

    The sera from 99 Japanese asthmatic subjects were studied for the allergenic similarity between house dust and the House-dust Mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, 1961. A close correlation (correlation coefficient 0.92, P less than 0.01) was obtained between house dust and the mite with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). High correlation was not noted between house dust and other allergens such as smoky brown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa, Aspergillus, book lice, Liposcelis bostricophilus, Cheyletus malaccensis and Tribolium confusum. IgE antibody to the mite reduced significantly after the incubation of the sera with house dust and IgE antibody to house dust reduced markedly after the incubation of the sera with the mite. These results further support the view that the mite is the most important allergenic component in house dust.

  14. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  15. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  16. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.

  18. Water solutions of boric acid and sugar for management of German cockroach populations in livestock production systems.

    PubMed

    Gore, J Chad; Zurek, Ludek; Santangelo, Richard; Stringham, S Michael; Watson, D Wes; Schal, Coby

    2004-04-01

    Pest management in confinement swine production relies primarily on calendar-based applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, regulatory restrictions imposed by the U.S. Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, the large financial obligation of pesticide registration, and development of insecticide resistance have led to a renewed search for alternative control methods. Boric acid dust has long served as an insecticide in urban pest management and has been shown an effective alternative for use in sensitive environments such as swine production. However, dust formulations are difficult to apply and require specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of liquid baits containing boric acid for the control of German cockroaches in a commercial swine nursery. Bait, consisting of 1 or 2% boric acid and 0.5 M sucrose, was deployed in 21 bait delivery tubes per room. Results of a 2-yr study showed significant reductions in cockroach populations. When baits were withdrawn in the summer, the cockroach population increased significantly faster than when the baits were removed during the winter. These data indicate that liquid formulations of boric acid effectively reduce the burden of cockroach infestation in swine production. This approach should have applications in structures in other urban and agricultural environments.

  19. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  20. T cell responses induced by allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, E

    2010-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is recognized as a highly effective practice in the treatment of patients with severe allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and is recommended by World Health Organization as an integrated part of allergy management strategy. Several studies have shown that allergen-specific immunotherapy, based on the administration of increasing doses of allergen, achieves a hyposensitization and reduces both early and late responses occurring during the natural exposure to the allergen itself. This is the unique antigen-specific immunomodulatory treatment in current use for human diseases. Successful immunotherapy is associated with reductions in symptoms and medication scores and improved quality of life. After interruption it usually confers long-term remission of symptoms and prevents the onset of new sensitizations in children up to a number of years. Subcutaneous immunotherapy usually suppresses the allergen-induced late response in target organs, likely due to the reduction of the infiltration of T cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and neutrophils. In addition to the reduction of cells of allergic inflammation, immunotherapy also decreases inflammatory mediators at the site of allergen exposure. This review provides an update on the immunological T cell responses induced by conventional subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy, and gives a unifying view to reconciling the old dualism between immunoredirecting and immunoregulating mechanisms. PMID:20408857

  1. Redefining the major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are “major” allergens and allergens of less importance. “Major allergens” have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract

  2. Seed-based oral vaccines as allergen-specific immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-based vaccines have advantages over conventional vaccines in terms of scalability, lack of requirement for cold chain logistics, stability, safety, cost-effectiveness and needle-free administration. In particular, when antigen is expressed in seeds, high production is possible and immunogenicity is not lost even if stocked at ambient temperature for several years. Induction of immune tolerance (desensitization) to allergen is a principle strategy for controlling allergic diseases, and is generally carried out by subcutaneous injection. Seed-based oral administration offers a straightforward and inexpensive alternative approach to deliver vaccines effectively to the GALT without loss of activity. Consumption of transgenic seeds containing modified hypo-allergenic tolerogen or T-cell epitope peptides derived from allergens has no or very few severe side effects and can induce immune tolerance leading to reduction of allergen-specific IgE production, T-cell proliferation and release of histamine. Suppression of allergen-specific clinical symptoms results. Thus, seed-based allergy vaccines offer an innovative and convenient allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approach as an alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  3. Human β-defensin HBD3 binds to immobilized Bla g2 from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Deborah E; Martin, Aaron D; Brogden, Kim A

    2014-03-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) is a small, well-characterized peptide in mucosal secretions with broad antimicrobial activities and diverse innate immune functions. Among these functions is the ability of HBD3 to bind to antigens. In this study, we hypothesize that HBD3 binds to the allergen Bla g2 from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica). The ability of HBD1 (used as a control β-defensin) and HBD3 to bind to Bla g2 and human serum albumin (HSA, used as a control ligand) was assessed using the SensíQ Pioneer surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy biosensor system. HBD1 was observed to bind weakly to Bla g2, while HBD3 demonstrated a stronger affinity for the allergen. HBD3 was assessed under two buffer conditions using 0.15 M and 0.3 M NaCl to control the electrostatic attraction of the peptide to the chip surface. The apparent K(D) of HBD3 binding Bla g2 was 5.9±2.1 μM and for binding HSA was 4.2±0.7 μM, respectively. Thus, HBD3, found in mucosal secretions has the ability to bind to allergens like Bla g2 possibly by electrostatic interaction, and may alter the ability of Bla g2 to induce localized allergic and/or inflammatory mucosal responses.

  4. Allergens involved in the cross-reactivity of Aedes aegypti with other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, Jose Fernando; Puerta, Leonardo; Lafosse-Marin, Sylvie; Subiza, Jose Luis; Caraballo, Luis; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

    2017-06-01

    Cross-reactivity between Aedes aegypti and mites, cockroaches, and shrimp has been previously suggested, but the involved molecular components have not been fully described. To evaluate the cross-reactivity between A aegypti and other arthropods. Thirty-four serum samples from patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis were selected, and specific IgE to A aegypti, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Periplaneta americana. and Litopenaeus vannamei was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was investigated using pooled serum samples from allergic patients, allergenic extracts, and the recombinant tropomyosins (Aed a 10.0201, Der p 10, Blo t 10, Lit v 1, and Per a 7). Four IgE reactive bands were further characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight. Frequency of positive IgE reactivity was 82.35% to at least one mite species, 64.7% to A aegypti, 29.4% to P americana, and 23.5% to L vannamei. The highest IgE cross-reactivity was seen between A aegypti and D pteronyssinus (96.6%) followed by L vannamei (95.4%), B tropicalis (84.4%), and P americana (75.4%). Recombinant tropomyosins from mites, cockroach, or shrimp inhibited the IgE reactivity to the mosquito at a lower extent than the extracts from these arthropods. Several bands of A aegypti cross-reacted with arthropod extracts, and 4 of them were identified as odorant binding protein, mitochondrial cytochrome C, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and protein with hypothetical magnesium ion binding function. We identified 4 novel cross-reactive allergens in A aegypti allergenic extract. These molecules could influence the manifestation of allergy to environmental allergens in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Indoor allergens, asthma, and asthma-related symptoms among adolescents in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Salo MS, Päivi M.; MD, Jiang Xia; PhD, C. Anderson Johnson; MD, Yan Li; Avol PhD, Edward L.; MD, Jie Gong; London MD, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Information on indoor allergen exposures among non-Western populations, which have lower prevalence of atopic illness, is scant. We examined whether exposures to common indoor allergens were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma and asthma-related symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study of 4185 ninth grade students was conducted at 22 randomly selected schools in Wuhan, China. Information on respiratory health and exposures to indoor allergens was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire completed in class. Results Having animals currently was associated with persistent cough (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI ] 1.21–2.11) and wheeze (POR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.03–1.94). Early-life exposure to animals was also associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.35–2.82). Associations with respiratory symptoms strengthened with higher levels of exposure and for exposure in both early childhood and in adolescence. Exposure to cockroaches and having mold/water damage in the home contributed especially to wheezing (POR=2.03, 95% CI 1.41–2.90 for cockroaches; POR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.82–3.40 for mold/water damage). Conclusions Indoor allergen exposures were positively associated with asthma diagnosis and persistent respiratory symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Neither early-life nor current exposure to animals was protective for asthma or asthma-related symptoms. PMID:15350953

  6. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  7. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  8. Allergenicity of processed food.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  9. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  10. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  11. Identification of allergens in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) pollen.

    PubMed

    Focke, M; Hemmer, W; Hayek, B; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    1998-10-01

    Pollen from oilseed rape (OSR), Brassica napus, an increasingly cultivated oilplant from the Brassicaceae, has been recognized as a potential cause of allergic sensitization. Allergens have been hardly investigated. We characterized IgE binding proteins in OSR pollen by immunoblot, immunoblot inhibition and specific monoclonal antibodies using sera from 89 patients sensitized to OSR. Two low-molecular-weight allergens of 6/8 kD and 14 kD as well as a high molecular-weight cluster (27-69 kD) comprising six cross-reactive peptides could be identified. The three allergens were recognized by 50, 34 and 80% of patients, respectively. Immunoblot IgE binding to OSR could be totally inhibited by rye pollen and moderately by birch pollen (6/8 and 14 kD) while mugwort had little effect. An anti-profilin-specific monoclonal antibody bound specifically to a 14-kD protein in OSR. Binding to the 6/8-kD rape allergen could be effectively inhibited by rAln g 2, a calcium-binding protein from alder. Periodate treatment led to a significant reduction in IgE binding to the 27 to 69-kD OSR allergens indicating that carbohydrate determinants are involved in IgE binding. OSR proteins were capable to quench IgE binding to timothy grass pollen proteins of >/=60 kD suggesting that grass pollen group 4 allergens cross-react with the 27 to 69-kD cluster in OSR. The data demonstrate that OSR pollen is allergenic and indicate that the identified allergens represent cross-reacting homologues of well-known pollen allergens, i.e. calcium-binding proteins, profilins, and high-molecular-weight glycoproteins. Via cross-reactivity, exposure to OSR pollen may be a prolonging and aggravating factor in underlying birch and grass pollen allergy.

  12. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  13. Indoxacarb biotransformation in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Silva, Isabel; Cooper, Bruce; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-11-01

    Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.

  14. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  15. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  16. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  17. [Prevalence of positive skin tests to indoor allergens in preschooler children with respiratory allergy in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Baeza Bacab, Manuel Antonio; Dávila Velázquez, Jorge Rubén; Loeza Medina, Sergio Ramón

    2005-01-01

    Infantile asthma and rhinitis are commonly thought to be caused by indoor allergens but preschooler children are not commonly skin tested. To know the frequency of skin test reactivity to indoor allergens in allergic preschooler children. We evaluated 176 children (103 females/73 males) between 2 and 5 years old with respiratory allergy. All of the children tested had at least one positive skin test (house dust mite, cockroach, dog, feathers, and cat). Seventy seven children had allergic rhinitis (44%), 68 had asthma and rhinitis (39%), and 31 had only asthma (18%). One hundred thirty two (75%) of the children were skin test positive to house dust mite, 91 (52%) to cockroach, 31 (18%) to dog, 25 (14%) to feathers, and 24 (14%) to cat. Furthermore, the frequency of sensitization to house dust mite has an increase associated with the age of the patients with a significant difference at 5 years old (odds ratio=11.63, I.C. 95%=3.83-37.10; p <0.001). The most frequent indoor allergen was house dust mite, with a trend directly proportional to age of the patients.

  18. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2010-07-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a major residential pest with the potential to vector various pathogens and produce and disseminate household allergens. Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation of this important pest is critical to efforts to eradicate infestations, yet little is known in this regard. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation within and among 18 apartments from six apartment complexes located in Raleigh, NC. No departure from panmixia was found between rooms within apartments, indicating that active dispersal resulting in gene flow may occur among rooms within apartment units. Alternatively, aggregations within apartments may exist in relative isolation under a metapopulation framework, derived from a recent, common source. Thus, in the event of population control practices leading to incomplete cockroach eradication within an apartment, recolonization of shelters and rooms is likely to occur from a genetically similar aggregation. A pattern of isolation-by-distance across the six apartment complexes indicated that dispersal was more common within complexes than among them, and F statistics suggested greater genetic similarity between apartments in a single building than between separate buildings of an apartment complex. Similarly, neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses were able to cluster only those apartments that were within a single building, indicating higher dispersal with associated gene flow within buildings than between them. The lack of any broader connectivity, as indicated by significant F(ST) and G-tests suggests that human-mediated dispersal of B. germanica between buildings of an apartment complex or between complexes occurs infrequently enough to have negligible effects on gene flow.

  19. Herbal medicine treatment reduces inflammation in a murine model of cockroach allergen–induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoun; Natarajan, Sudha; Bae, Hyunsu; Jung, Sung-Ki; Cruikshank, William; Remick, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a significant disease among children, and its prevalence has increased notably during the last 2 decades. A traditional Korean medicine, So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT), has been used for the treatment of asthma in Asia for centuries, but its mechanism for reducing bronchopulmonary inflammation in asthma has yet to be elucidated. Objective To investigate whether the herbal extract SCRT inhibits inflammation in a mouse model of cockroach allergen–induced asthma. Methods A house dust extract containing endotoxin and cockroach allergens was used for immunization and 2 additional pulmonary challenges in BALB/c mice. Mice were treated with SCRT or vehicle 1 hour before each pulmonary challenge. Respiratory parameters were evaluated by whole-body plethysmography and forced oscillation methods 24 hours after the last challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected, and histologic sections of lung were prepared either 4 or 24 hours after the last house dust extract challenge. Results SCRT treatment significantly reduced the hyperreactivity of the airways as measured by whole-body plethysmography and direct measurement of airway resistance. Inflammation was significantly inhibited by SCRT treatment as demonstrated by reduced plasma IgE levels and improved pulmonary histologic characteristics. SCRT significantly reduced the number of neutrophils in the BAL fluid and also significantly reduced the BAL levels of CXC chemokines, providing a potential mechanism for the reduced inflammation. In a similar fashion, SCRT reduced eosinophil recruitment and BAL levels of eotaxin and RANTES. Conclusion These data indicate that SCRT treatment alleviates asthma-like pulmonary inflammation via suppression of specific chemokines. PMID:21802024

  20. Thermal processing effects on peanut allergen Ara h 2 allergenicity in mice and its antigenic epitope structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenju; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhang, Tong; Cai, Qin; Chen, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Ara h 2 was purified from peanuts that were thermally treated by various processes, including boiling, glycation, frying and roasting. The allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice and the influence of thermal processing on the structural characteristics, and binding capacity of three core antigenic epitopes were studied. The results demonstrated that boiling, glycation and frying induced the down-regulation of the allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice, the collapse of its tertiary/secondary structure, and a reduction in the core epitope binding capacity; roasting showed a comparable allergenicity and the weakest inhibitory effect on core epitope binding capacity. These results indicate that thermal processing causes alteration of the protein structure and core epitopes of Ara h 2, and may affect its allergenicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  2. Indoor allergens in settled dust from kindergartens in city of Łódź, Poland.

    PubMed

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Buczyńska, Alina; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the levels of house dust mite (Der p1), dog (Can f1), cat (Fel d1) and cockroach (Bla g2) allergens in kindergartens localized in an urban agglomeration. A quantitative analysis of allergens was carried out in settled dust samples collected by vacuuming the floor surface in three kindergartens (N = 84) and children's clothing (N = 36). The samples were collected in spring-summer and autumn-winter periods as well as at the beginning and end of the week. The allergen dust concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). The mean geometric concentrations (±geometric standard deviations) of allergens Der p1, Can f1, Fel d1 and Bla g2 determined in kindergartens were: 0.02 ± 3.21 μg/g of dust; 0.97 ± 4.49 μg/g of dust; 0.30 ± 4.43 μg/g of dust and 0.01 ± 3.08 μg/g of dust, respectively. Younger classrooms (children aged from 3 to 4 years) were characterized by almost twice higher mean concentration of allergen Fel d1, as compared to older classrooms (children aged from 5 to 6 years) (p < 0.05). A significant impact of seasonality on the level of dog allergen Can f1 was found (p < 0.05). No significant weekly variation was found in average concentrations of the allergens. Children who had a dog and/or cat at home were characterized by high concentrations of allergens Can f1 and Fel d1 on their clothes (59.2 ± 5.39 μg Can f1/g of dust; 3.63 ± 1.47 μg Fel d1/g of dust), significantly higher than concentrations of allergens in children who did not have any pets (p < 0.001). Special attention should be paid to keeping the kindergarten rooms tidy and clean and to an appropriate choice of furnishings and fittings which would prevent the proliferation of the house dust mite and accumulation of allergens.

  3. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  4. Survey of indoor cockroaches in some dwellings in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Sriwichai, P; Nacapunchai, D; Pasuralertsakul, S; Rongsriyam, Y; Thavara, U

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the species distribution of indoor cockroaches in dwellings in Bangkok. Commercial sticky traps were used to catch cockroaches in 128 private residences (40 single houses, 49 townhouses, 39 apartments), 34 offices, and 30 small groceries. The cockroaches were identified as Periplaneta americana, Supella longipalpa, Blattella germanica, Neostylopyga rhombifolia, P. brunnea, P. australasiae, Pycnoscelus surinamensis, and B. lituricallis; two were unidentified species. The most common species were P. americana, S. longipalpa and B. germanica--most of which were nymphal stages. P. americana and S. longipalpa infested all kinds of buildings, especially private residences (50.0% and 17.2%, respectively) and offices (61.8% and 58.8%, respectively); they were also found mostly (15.1%) in mixed infestation and with no predominant species. B. germanica (26.7%) were significantly predominant in groceries. Air conditioners have no influence on cockroach distribution.

  5. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  6. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  7. Indoor environmental quality in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Spickett, J; Rumchev, K; Lee, A H; Stick, S

    2006-02-01

    To investigate indoor environmental quality in classrooms, assessments were undertaken in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia. Dust allergens, air pollutants and physical parameters were monitored in the four schools at four times (summer school term, autumn holiday, winter school term and winter holiday) in 2002. The levels of particulate matter (PM(10)) and volatile organic compounds were similar between the four primary schools. Although slightly decreased levels of dust-mite and cat allergens were observed in the 'low allergen' school, the reductions were not statistically significant and the allergen levels in all schools were much lower than the recommended sensitizing thresholds. However, significantly lower levels of relative humidity and formaldehyde level during summer-term were recorded in the 'low allergen' school. In conclusion, the evidence here suggests that the 'low allergen' school did not significantly improve the indoor environmental quality in classrooms. Practical Implications School is an important environment for children in terms of exposure to pollutants and allergens. By assessing the levels of key pollutants and allergens in a low allergen school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia, this study provides useful information for implementation of healthy building design that can improve the indoor environment in schools.

  8. A Cockroach-Like Hexapod Robot for Natural Terrain Locomotion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    during treadmill running in the cockroach , Blaberus discoidalis: JJ. Fast running. /. Comp. Physiol. A. 182:23- 33. Presentations R. Beer gave an...PERFORMANCE REPORT A Cockroach -Like Hexapod Robot for Natural Terrain Locomotion Grant N00014-96-1-0708 Period of Performance: 3 Years Starting...Date: January 1,1996 June 24, 1998 Randall D. Beer Principal Investigator Department of Computer Engineering and Science Department of Biology

  9. Inhalant Allergens in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes Câmara Camacho, Irene

    2017-02-23

    This review aims to present in a simple manner the work performed in Portugal regarding the identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in the country and the sensitization levels in Portuguese patients. Much of the data was summarized in tables and illustrated on maps, enabling the community of clinicians, researchers, and patient organizations to access the knowledge about the research performed. This study provides an overview about the distribution of aeroallergens in Portugal, signaling regions and critical periods of exposure of the sensitized population. The illustrated data can help the community of allergy specialists to view the temporal and spatial distribution of aeroallergens across the country. In addition, this information can guide clinicians to select the most appropriate allergens for allergy diagnostic testing, treatment, and allergen avoidance.

  10. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries.

    PubMed

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a "mouse diet", the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  11. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    PubMed

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-10-23

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls.

  12. Olfactory discrimination of structurally similar alcohols by cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M

    2002-11-01

    The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward.

  13. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.

  14. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species. PMID:27706376

  15. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  16. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  17. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides.

  18. Control of airborne and liquid-borne fungal and pet allergens using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the dog, cat allergens (Can f 1 and Fel d 1) and fungal allergens (Alt a 1 and Asp f 1) were aerosolized and exposed to the microwave irradiation (2450 MHz) at different output powers for up to 2 min. The allergen bioaerosols were collected by a BioSampler, and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control and microwave-irradiated Asp f 1 allergens were also tested with IgEs in human blood sera samples. For airborne Asp f 1 and Alt a 1 allergens, the allergenicity was shown to decrease about 50% when exposed to microwave irradiation at 385 and 119 W and relatively no change at 700 W. For airborne Can f 1 allergen, the allergenicity was shown to increase about 70% when exposed to the irradiation at 385 W, but remained relatively unchanged at 700 and 119 W. In contrast, airborne Fel d 1 allergen was observed to lose allergenicity completely at 700 W, and retained about 40% and 80% at 385 and 119 W, respectively. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests showed that changes detected in IgE levels in human blood sera mixtures were not statistically significant for the control and microwave-irradiated waterborne Asp f 1 allergens. This study implies that although certain allergenicity reductions were observed for some allergens in certain cases, particular care should be taken when the microwave irradiation is used to disinfect food, water, and air because of its complex effects.

  19. Evaluation of Conidia-Dust Formulation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae to Biocontrol the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F.

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, Mona; Mossadegh, Mohammad Saeed; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa (F.) as a mechanical vector of pathogens and source of allergens has recently become widespread in the city of Ahvaz, southwestern Iran. Objectives: This research was done to evaluate the efficacy of a dust-formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IRAN 437C, as a common entomopathogenous fungus, against S. longipalpa. Materials and Methods: Conidia dust-formulations of M. anisopliae were prepared in proportions of 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% with bad wheat flour as the carrier. Cockroaches were exposed to surfaces treated with 1.5 mg/cm2 of the formulations under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Results: Cockroach mortality rates increased and survival times (ST50) decreased with an increased proportion of conidia from 1% to 100% but records taken for mortality and survival time from proportions of 25%, 50% and 100% were not significantly different. The mortality rates reached 100% and 90-100% in adults and nymphs, respectively on the seventh day. The lowest ST50 was related to the proportion of 100% (3 days). Probit analysis indicated LD50 and LD90 values of 1.7 × 106 and 1.7 × 107 conidia/cm2 for adults and these values changed to 4.5 × 106 and 2.9 × 107 for third and fourth instar nymphs at three days post exposure. Proportion of 25% caused mortality rates of 87%, 81% and 73% in adult, adult & nymph and nymph populations, respectively at four days after exposure under room conditions. Conclusions: Conidia dust-formulation of M. anospliae isolate IRAN 437C could present a promising alternative to control the brown-banded cockroach. PMID:25371804

  20. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin and cockroach-induced asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyunil; Moon, Junghee; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is a master regulator of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and is also a suppressor of SKP2 and HER2/ErbB2. There are an increasing number of reports describing the functions of Foxp3 in cell types other than Tregs. In this context, we evaluated the functions of Foxp3 in ovalbumin- and cockroach-induced asthma models. Foxp3-EGFP-expressing adenovirus or EGFP control adenovirus was administered intratracheally (i.t.), followed by challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or cockroach extract to induce asthma. Th2 cytokine and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as serum IgE levels, were analyzed. Histological analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of Foxp3 expression on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adenoviral Foxp3 was expressed only in lung epithelial cells, and not in CD4+ or CD8+ cells. BALF from Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significantly reduced numbers of total immune cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in response to cockroach allergen or OVA. In addition, Foxp3 expression in the lung reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in BALF and serum, respectively. Moreover, histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 expression substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airways, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, when Tregs were depleted by diphtheria toxin in Foxp3DTR mice, the anti-asthmatic functions of Foxp3 were not altered in OVA-challenged asthma models. In this study, our results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells, and not in Tregs, inhibited OVA- and cockroach extract-induced asthma. PMID:27633092

  1. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin and cockroach-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyunil; Moon, Junghee; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-09-16

    Foxp3 is a master regulator of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and is also a suppressor of SKP2 and HER2/ErbB2. There are an increasing number of reports describing the functions of Foxp3 in cell types other than Tregs. In this context, we evaluated the functions of Foxp3 in ovalbumin- and cockroach-induced asthma models. Foxp3-EGFP-expressing adenovirus or EGFP control adenovirus was administered intratracheally (i.t.), followed by challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or cockroach extract to induce asthma. Th2 cytokine and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as serum IgE levels, were analyzed. Histological analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of Foxp3 expression on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adenoviral Foxp3 was expressed only in lung epithelial cells, and not in CD4(+) or CD8(+) cells. BALF from Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significantly reduced numbers of total immune cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in response to cockroach allergen or OVA. In addition, Foxp3 expression in the lung reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in BALF and serum, respectively. Moreover, histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 expression substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airways, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, when Tregs were depleted by diphtheria toxin in Foxp3(DTR) mice, the anti-asthmatic functions of Foxp3 were not altered in OVA-challenged asthma models. In this study, our results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells, and not in Tregs, inhibited OVA- and cockroach extract-induced asthma.

  2. Hormonal control of sexual receptivity in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Schal, C; Chiang, A S

    1995-09-29

    Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.

  3. Resistance to diazinon in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    GRAYSON, J M

    1961-01-01

    Specimens of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from two different locations near Owensboro, Ky., USA, were tested in the laboratory for resistance to diazinon and malathion. Those from one location were reared for three generations, and those from the other for four generations, before testing was completed. The results showed that both strains possessed resistance to diazinon, but neither strain was resistant to malathion. The males and females of one strain were, respectively, 2.5 and 2.6 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 3.0 and 3.8 times resistant at LC(90): while those of the other strain were 5.8 and 8.0 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 9.3 and 15.3 times resistant at LC(90).

  4. Climate and Allergic Sensitization to Airborne Allergens in the General Population: Data from the French Six Cities Study.

    PubMed

    Charpin, Denis; Ramadour, Myriam; Lavaud, François; Raherison, Chantal; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frederic; Pauli, Gabrielle; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    The results of international epidemiological surveys show large geographical variations in skin test reactivity but do not provide a rationale for such variations. To assess the relationship between climate and allergic sensitization in schoolchildren. In the present study, we analyzed data from a multicenter, epidemiological survey that included 6,461 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years, living in 6 French cities scattered around France. The protocol also included a battery of skin prick tests to common airborne allergens. The crude prevalence of sensitization to each allergen was estimated for each city and then adjusted for potential confounding factors. This analysis was repeated for monosensitization and for allergens grouped into 2 categories: indoor allergens, i.e., house dust mite (HDM), cat, and cockroach allergens, and outdoor allergens, i.e., birch pollen, grass pollen, and Alternaria. We also grouped cities according to their location on the coast, i.e., Marseille and Bordeaux, or inland, i.e., Créteil, Clermont-Ferrand, Reims, and Strasbourg. A difference in prevalence of sensitization to each airborne allergen or allergens grouped into indoor and outdoor categories was found between cities, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Also, a higher prevalence of sensitization to HDM, cat dander, and, broadly speaking, indoor allergens, was found in children living on the coast than in those living inland, whereas they showed a lower prevalence of sensitization to birch pollen. Between-city differences in the prevalence of monosensitization were also statistically significant. Children living in coastal cities had a higher rate of monosensitization to indoor allergens and a lower prevalence of sensitization to birch pollen. The higher prevalence of allergic sensitization in children from coastal cities is most likely due to climatic conditions, such as proximity from sea and humidity. Differences in sensitization to birch allergens could be

  5. Micro-regional hypersensitivity variations to inhalant allergens in the city of Zagreb and Zagreb County.

    PubMed

    Toth, Ivan; Peternel, Renata; Gajnik, Davorin; Vojniković, Bozo

    2011-09-01

    Depending on the geographic and climatic region and vegetation, allergenic plants are characteristic for certain areas and the pollen concentrations of various plant species depend on the fenophase of each single species and most of all on the climatic and meteorological conditions of a certain area. It is precisely because of these specific characteristics that the hypersensitivity of patients to various types of pollen allergens differs according to the geographic regions. The aim of this paper is to determine the frequency of inhalation allergies in adult population (> 19 years of age) caused by single types of allergens according to the defined space units (micro-regions) with special emphasis on the rural and urban areas. A number of 2,192 patients have been tested for allergy skin prick tests over a period of four years. Every patient was asked to fill in the questionnaire which contained 29 questions. The results of skin prick testing show that out of a total of 2,192 patients 86.72% were sensitized to pollen, 36.45% to mites, 2.46% to spores of fungi and mould and 5.1% of patients to other allergens which include the allergens of cockroaches, feathers and animal hair (p < 0.001). The largest number of poly-sensitized persons allergic to pollen allergens was sensitized to allergens from the pollen of plants that belong to the botanical family of grass. There were 25.36% patients mono-sensitized to individual allergens. In the northern and western parts of the city and the county, the majority of persons were sensitized to the birch pollen allergens, and this is statistically much more than the share of patients with the place of residence in the southern and eastern parts of the city and the county. In the southern and eastern locations prevails the share of sensitized persons to ambrosia which is statistically much more than the share of patients with the place of residence in the northern and western part of the city and the county.

  6. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J. David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A.; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PMID:23938214

  7. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: a practice parameter.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-10-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  8. DETERIORATED HOUSING CONTRIBUTES TO HIGH COCKROACH ALLERGEN LEVELS IN INNER-CITY HOUSEHOLDS. (R827027)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. DETERIORATED HOUSING CONTRIBUTES TO HIGH COCKROACH ALLERGEN LEVELS IN INNER-CITY HOUSEHOLDS. (R827027)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Tatfeng, Y M; Usuanlele, M U; Orukpe, A; Digban, A K; Okodua, M; Oviasogie, F; Turay, A A

    2005-12-01

    Cockroaches (Diploptera punctata) are basically tropical insects and will do their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. Their involvement in the transmission of tropical diseases is poorly investigated in Africa. A study on the bacterial, fungal and parasitic profile of cockroaches trapped in and around houses in Ekpoma was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. Of a total of 234 cockroaches trapped from different sites (toilets, parlours, kitchens and bedrooms) in houses with pit latrines and water system, the bacterial, fungal and parasitic isolates were identical irrespective of the site, these included: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serretia marcescens, S. aureus, S. feacalis, S. epidermidis, Aeromonas sp, Candida sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, cysts of E. hystolitica, oocysts of C. parvum, C. cayetenensis and Isospora belli, cysts of Balantidium coli, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunalae, Enterobius vermicularis, ova Trichuris trichura, larva of Strongyloides stercoralis. Cockroaches trapped in the toilets of houses with pit latrines had a mean bacterial and parasites count of 12.3 x 10(10) org/ml and 98 parasites/ml respectively, while those trapped in the houses with water system had a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 89.5 x 10(7) org/ml and 31 parasites/ml respectively. A bacterial count of 78.9 x 10(7) org/ml was recorded from cockroaches trapped from the kitchens of houses with pit latrines. On the other hand a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 23.7 x 10(6) org/ml and 19 parasites/ml were recorded from kitchens of houses with water system. Cockroaches represent an important reservoir for infectious pathogens, therefore, control of cockroaches will substantially minimise the spread of infectious diseases in our environment.

  11. Air pollution and allergens.

    PubMed

    Bartra, J; Mullol, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Jáuregui, I; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles--particularly those that use diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are composed of a carbon core upon which high-molecular weight organic chemical components and heavy metals deposit. Over 80% of all DEPs are in the ultrafine particle range (< 0.1 pm in diameter). Air pollutants not only have a direct or indirect effect upon the individual, but also exert important actions upon aeroallergens. Pollen in heavily polluted zones can express a larger amount of proteins described as being allergenic. Through physical contact with the pollen particles, DEPs can disrupt the former, leading to the release of paucimicronic particles and transporting them by air--thus facilitating their penetration of the human airways. Climate change in part gives rise to variations in the temperature pattern characterizing the different seasons of the year. Thus, plants may vary their pollination calendar, advancing and prolonging their pollination period. In addition, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations and temperatures, plants increase their pollen output. Climate change may also lead to the extinction of species, and to the consolidation of non-native species--with the subsequent risk of allergic sensitization among the exposed human population. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence on the effect of air pollution upon allergens, increasing exposure to the latter, their concentration and/or biological allergenic activity.

  12. Cockroach sensitization mitigates allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptom severity in patients allergic to house dust mites and pollen.

    PubMed

    He, Weijing; Jimenez, Fabio; Martinez, Hernan; Harper, Nathan L; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Carrillo, Andrew; Ingale, Puraskar; Liu, Ya-Guang; Ahuja, Seema S; Clark, Robert A; Rather, Cynthia G; Ramirez, Daniel A; Andrews, Charles P; Jacobs, Robert L; Ahuja, Sunil K

    2015-09-01

    Modifiers of symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) are imprecisely characterized. The hygiene hypothesis implicates childhood microbial exposure as a protective factor. Cockroach sensitization (C+) might be a proxy for microbial exposure. We sought to determine whether C+ assayed by means of skin prick tests influenced AR symptom severity in controlled and natural settings. Total symptom scores (TSSs) were recorded by 21 participants with house dust mite allergy (M+) in the natural setting and during repeated exposures of 3 hours per day to house dust mite allergen in an allergen challenge chamber (ACC). In M+ participants the peripheral blood and nasal cells were assayed for T-cell activation and transcriptomic profiles (by using RNA sequencing), respectively. Participants allergic to mountain cedar (n = 21), oak (n = 34), and ragweed (n = 23) recorded TSSs during separate out-of-season exposures to these pollens (any pollen sensitization [P+]) in the ACC; a subset recorded TSSs in the pollination seasons. The hierarchy of TSSs (highest to lowest) among M+ participants tracked the following skin prick test sensitization statuses: M+P+C- > M+P+C+ > M+P-C- > M+P-C+. In nasal cells and peripheral blood the immune/inflammatory responses were rapidly resolved in M+P+C+ compared with M+P+C- participants. Among those allergic to pollen, C+ was associated with a lower TSS during pollen challenges and the pollination season. After aggregated analysis of all 4 ACC studies, C+ status was associated with a 2.8-fold greater likelihood of a lower TSS compared with C- status (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.18-6.67; P = .02). C+ status is associated with mitigation of AR symptom severity in adults with AR. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  14. Biotransformation strategy to reduce allergens in propolis.

    PubMed

    Gardana, Claudio; Barbieri, Andrea; Simonetti, Paolo; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2012-07-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous, sticky, dark-colored material produced by honeybees. Propolis today, due to its medicinal properties, is increasingly popular and is extensively used in food, beverages, and cosmetic products. Besides its numerous positive properties, propolis may also have adverse effects, such as, principally, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis in apiarists and in consumers with an allergic predisposition. In this study, we found appropriate conditions for removing caffeate esters, which are the main allergenic components, from raw propolis. The proposed method consists of the resuspension of propolis in a food grade solvent, followed by a biotransformation based on the cinnamoyl esterase activity of Lactobacillus helveticus. We showed that the reduction of caffeate esters by L. helveticus did not affect the content of flavonoids, which are the main bioactive molecules of propolis. Furthermore, we verified that the biotransformation of propolis did not cause a loss of antimicrobial activity. Finally, we demonstrated that the ability of L. helveticus to hydrolyze caffeate esters in propolis is strain specific. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is simple, employs food grade materials, and is effective in selectively removing allergenic molecules without affecting the bioactive fraction of propolis. This is the first study demonstrating that the allergenic caffeate esters of propolis can be eliminated by means of a bacterial biotransformation procedure.

  15. Biotransformation Strategy To Reduce Allergens in Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Gardana, Claudio; Barbieri, Andrea; Simonetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous, sticky, dark-colored material produced by honeybees. Propolis today, due to its medicinal properties, is increasingly popular and is extensively used in food, beverages, and cosmetic products. Besides its numerous positive properties, propolis may also have adverse effects, such as, principally, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis in apiarists and in consumers with an allergic predisposition. In this study, we found appropriate conditions for removing caffeate esters, which are the main allergenic components, from raw propolis. The proposed method consists of the resuspension of propolis in a food grade solvent, followed by a biotransformation based on the cinnamoyl esterase activity of Lactobacillus helveticus. We showed that the reduction of caffeate esters by L. helveticus did not affect the content of flavonoids, which are the main bioactive molecules of propolis. Furthermore, we verified that the biotransformation of propolis did not cause a loss of antimicrobial activity. Finally, we demonstrated that the ability of L. helveticus to hydrolyze caffeate esters in propolis is strain specific. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is simple, employs food grade materials, and is effective in selectively removing allergenic molecules without affecting the bioactive fraction of propolis. This is the first study demonstrating that the allergenic caffeate esters of propolis can be eliminated by means of a bacterial biotransformation procedure. PMID:22522681

  16. Blattabacteria, the endosymbionts of cockroaches, have small genome sizes and high genome copy numbers.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, María José; Neef, Alexander; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Navarro, Lara; Jiménez, Ricardo; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2008-12-01

    Blattabacteria are intracellular endosymbionts of cockroaches and primitive termites that belong to the class Flavobacteria and live only in specialized cells in the abdominal fat body of their hosts. In the present study we determined genome sizes as well as genome copy numbers for the endosymbionts of three cockroach species, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and Blatta orientalis. The sole presence of blattabacteria in the fat body was demonstrated by rRNA-targeting techniques. The genome sizes of the three blattabacteria were determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The resulting total genome sizes for the three symbionts were all approximately 650 +/- 15 kb. Comparison of the genome sizes with those of free-living Bacteroidetes shows extended reduction, as occurs in other obligatory insect endosymbionts. Genome copy numbers were determined based on cell counts and determination of DNA amounts via quantitative PCR. Values between 10.2 and 18.3 and between 323 and 353 were found for the symbionts of P. americana and B. orientalis respectively. Polyploidy in intracellular bacteria may play a significant role in the genome reduction process.

  17. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions.

    PubMed

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef; Hartl, Arnulf

    2016-07-01

    Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect.

  18. Interaction of dinotefuran and its analogues with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of cockroach nerve cords.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuki; Okumoto, Takashi; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the action of dinotefuran (MTI-446, 1-methyl-2-nitro-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)guanidine), a recently developed insecticide, on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), we determined the potencies of the compound and 15 analogues in inhibiting the specific binding of [3H]epibatidine (EPI), a nAChR agonist, and [3H]alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT), a competitive nAChR antagonist, to the nerve cord membranes of American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Racemic dinotefuran inhibited [3H]EPI binding with an IC50 of 890 nM and [3H]alpha-BGT binding with an IC50 of 36.1 microM. Scatchard analysis indicated that the dinotefuran inhibition of [3H]EPI binding was a competitive one. Slight structural modification caused a drastic reduction in potency; only four analogues were found to be equipotent to or more potent than dinotefuran. Chloropyridinyl and chlorothiazolyl neonicotinoid insecticides displayed two or three orders of magnitude higher potency than dinotefuran. There was a good correlation between the IC50 values of tested compounds obtained with [3H]EPI and those obtained with [3H]alpha-BGT. A better correlation was observed between 3-h knockdown activities (KD50) against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and IC50 values obtained from [3H]EPI assays than between 24-h lethal activities (LD50) and IC50 values. While the results indicate that dinotefuran and its analogues interact with the ACh-binding site in cockroach nAChRs, it remains to be elucidated why they displayed lower potencies than those expected based on their insecticidal activities.

  19. Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Edward T; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-02-01

    Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Because this species is a peridomestic pest, mulch preferences may be a key part of an integrated pest management program for homeowners. Five mulches were used: cypress, oak leaf litter, pine straw, rubber, and topsoil. Large arena experiments showed that adult male Asian cockroaches preferred oak leaf litter and pine straw, while adult females preferred oak leaf litter and rubber mulches. Nymphal stages preferred rubber (48.3-62.5% for small and medium instars, respectively) to all other mulches. All stages of the Asian cockroach showed very little preference to topsoil (0%) and cypress mulch (6.3%). Ebeling choice box tests confirmed lack of preference or repellency of adult males to topsoil (17.8 +/- 3.6%) and rubber mulch (15.7 +/- 3.6%). Continuous exposure experiments indicated that pine straw was significantly more toxic to adult males than other mulches (66.7 +/- 18.4% mortality at 7 d). Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach may be mediated by characteristics of the interstitial spaces in the different mulches. Rubber mulch afforded smaller, more humid spaces that were inaccessible to adults. Because cypress mulch was least preferred by nymphs and adults, use of cypress mulch in an integrated pest management program around homes may help to reduce Asian cockroach populations and limit insecticide exposure to humans, animals, and the environment.

  20. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby

    2015-12-22

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect-insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites.

  1. Cockroaches that lack Blattabacterium endosymbionts: the phylogenetically divergent genus Nocticola.

    PubMed

    Lo, Nathan; Beninati, Tiziana; Stone, Fred; Walker, James; Sacchi, Luciano

    2007-06-22

    Phylogenetic relationships among termites, mantids and the five traditionally recognized cockroach families have been the subject of several studies during the last half-century. One cockroach lineage that has remained notably absent from such studies is the Nocticolidae. This group of small, elusive surface- and cave-dwelling species from the Old World Tropics has been proposed to represent an additional family. Using molecular sequences, we performed an initial phylogenetic examination of Nocticola spp. The hypothesis that they are phylogenetically divergent was confirmed from the analyses of three genes and a combined dataset. To supplement our phylogenetic analyses, we attempted to amplify 16S rRNA from the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti, present in all cockroaches studied to date. Unexpectedly, amplification was unsuccessful in all Nocticola spp. examined. This result was confirmed by microscopic examinations of fat body tissue. These Nocticola spp. are the first cockroaches found to be uninfected by B. cuenoti, which raise questions about when the bacterium first infected cockroaches.

  2. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect–insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557

  3. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119

  4. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  5. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of labile Lolium perenne major allergens in mixes.

    PubMed

    Irañeta, S G; Acosta, D M; Duran, R; Apicella, C; Orlando, U D; Seoane, M A; Alonso, A; Duschak, V G

    2008-08-01

    It is well known that allergen extracts used for specific therapy of allergic disorders are commonly stored as mixtures, causing an alteration of its stability. The aim of this report is to identify pollen allergens susceptible to degradation during storage of mixtures containing different sources of proteases in the absence of glycerol as a preserving agent. Mixes containing Lolium perenne (Lol p) pollen extract with either Aspergillus fumigatus or Periplaneta americana extracts were prepared and co-incubated for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken off at fixed times and comparatively tested by in vitro and in vivo assays with atopic patients. Selected pollinic allergens were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. ELISA inhibition evidenced the loss of potency from ryegrass extract, and immunoblotting assays showed the degradation of specific pollinic allergens during storage of mixtures containing protease-rich sources. An in vivo intradermal skin assay confirmed the gradual loss of the biological activity of L. perenne pollen extract co-incubated with non-related protease-rich extracts in comparison with that of the control pollen extract. MALDI-TOF MS analysis allowed us to determine that Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are susceptible to proteolysis whereas Lol p 4 was found to be resistant to degradation during storage. Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 degradation is responsible for the loss of the biological activity of L. perenne pollen extract when co-incubated with protease-rich fungal and cockroach extracts in the same vial for months in the absence of glycerol as a preserving agent. The integrity of these major allergens must be preserved to increase the vaccine stability and to assure efficacy when mixes are used for immunotherapy.

  7. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  8. The Bacterial Community in the Gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis Reflects the Close Evolutionary Relatedness of Cockroaches and Termites

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon—the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host. PMID:22327579

  9. Association analysis of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Shinya; Koike, Soichi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2009-06-01

    Food allergy patients are known to present with allergic reactions to multiple allergens, but extrapolating these associations is difficult. Data mining, a procedure that analyzes characteristic combinations among large amounts of information, is often used to analyze and predict consumer purchasing behaviour. We applied this technique to the extrapolation of food allergen associations in allergy patients. We sent 1510 families our 'Questionnaire survey for the prevention of food allergies'. Responses noting 6549 allergens came from 878 families with 1383 patients, including 402 with anaphylaxis. Some results of the survey have already been published and here we presented the results of our association analysis of combinations of food allergens. Egg, milk, wheat, peanuts, and buckwheat are the most common food allergens. The most common simultaneous combinations of these allergens were 'egg-milk', 'egg-wheat', and 'milk-wheat'. The occurrence probability of a combination (i.e. one person suffering from a certain allergen also suffers from another) is called 'confidence'. Confidence was higher for 'chicken-egg', 'abalone-salmon eggs', and 'matsutake mushroom-milk'. As well, the combinations of 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', and 'squid-crab' also indicated higher values in a statistical examination of the occurrence probabilities of these allergen combinations (Z-score). From the results of the association analysis, we speculated that some food allergens, such as abalone, orange, salmon, chicken, pork, matsutake mushroom, peach and apple did not independently induce food allergies. We also found that combinations, such as 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', 'squid-crab', 'chicken-beef', and 'salmon-mackerel' had strong associations.

  10. A phylogeny of cockroaches and related insects based on DNA sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, S

    1995-01-01

    Cockroaches are among the most ancient winged insects, the earliest fossils dating back to about 400 million years. Several conflicting phylogenies for cockroach families, subfamilies, and genera have been proposed in the past. In addition, the relationship of Cryptocercidae to other cockroach families and the relationship between the cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and the termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis, have generated debate. In this paper, a phylogeny for cockroaches, mantids, and termites based on DNA sequence of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes is presented. The results indicated that cockroaches are a monophyletic group, whose sister group is Mantoidea. The inferred relationship among cockroach families was in agreement with the presently accepted phylogeny. However, there was only partial congruence at the subfamily and the generic levels. The phylogeny inferred here does not support a close relationship between C. punctulatus and M. darwiniensis. The apparent synapomorphies of these two species are likely a manifestation of convergent evolution because there are similarities in biology and habitat. PMID:7534409

  11. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives.

  12. Species clarification of Ogasawara cockroaches which inhabit Japan.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, N; Kawakami, Y; Banzai, A; Ooi, H K; Uchida, A

    2015-03-01

    The so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" were examined by morphological observations and by breeding experiments to elucidate their actual taxonomical status. Fourteen groups (isolate) of "Ogasawara cockroaches" collected from Iwoto-A, Iwoto-B, Hahajima, Chichijima, Nishijima, Nakodojima, Tokunoshima-A, Tokunoshima-B, Okinawato- A, Okinawa-B, Amamiooshima, Miyakojima, Ishigakijima and Hawaii, were bred and passaged in our laboratory. Cockroaches collected from the field were first reared individually and the sexes of their offspring examined. Cockroaches collected from Iwoto, Tokushima and Okinawa, were found to consist of two groups; those whose offspring were all female and the other whose offspring consist of both male and female. Cross-breeding experiments showed that individuals from the group that did not produce any male but only female offspring were parthenogenetic. On the contrary, the group that have bisexual individuals produced both male and female offspring in a ratio of 1:1. Our results show that the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" consist of 2 species, namely, Pycnoscelus surinamensis and Pycnoscelus indicus. There are areas in which both species co-habitated together and there are also areas in which either only one of the two species can be found. The group that reproduces only female offspring and only through parthenogenesis was identified as P. surinamensis. The group that reproduces heterosexually and produce male and female offspring was identified as P. indicus. Thus, the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" found in Japan actually consist of 2 species, namely, P. surinamensis and P. indicus, which can be differentiated using the solitary breeding method to demonstrate parthenogenesis in the former and the need for sexual reproduction in the latter.

  13. Toxicity of abamectin to cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Koehler, P G; Atkinson, T H; Patterson, R S

    1991-12-01

    Abamectin was fed to German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), in non-choice tests. LT50s and LC50s were estimated by probit analysis. The LT50s for the German cockroach ranged from 4.4 to 1.7 d for males, from 9.0 to 2.4 d for females, and from 4.4 to 1.6 d for nymphs for bait concentrations of abamectin between 0.0025 and 0.0500%. The LC50s of abamectin were 0.0110 and 0.0040% from males, 0.0240 and 0.0090% for females, and 0.0200 and 0.0080% for nymphs at 3 and 6 d, respectively. The LT50 values of 0.0550% abamectin bait were 3.4, 3.4, 2.4, 7.5, 2.9, and 4.5 d for Periplaneta americana (L.), P. fuliginosa (Serville), P. brunnea Burmeister, P. australasiae (F.), Blatta orientalis L., and Supella longipalpa (Serville). Although the bait was effective against various cockroach species, time to death for the larger species was longer than for the German cockroach. In preference tests in which male German cockroaches were allowed to feed on rat chow or abamectin bait, all died within 5 d of exposure to abamectin bait. Abamectin bait consumption was not significantly lower than that of untreated rat chow. Arena tests with 0.0550% abamectin bait resulted in 31-75% mortality of German cockroaches after 9 d, with most control being achieved by treating harborages with the bait. The hydramethylnon standard resulted in 65% mortality after 9 d.

  14. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  15. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nasirian, H

    2017-05-11

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P<0.05) without a significant difference between hospital and household environments (P>0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

  17. AllergenFP: allergenicity prediction by descriptor fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Ivan; Naneva, Lyudmila; Doytchinova, Irini; Bangov, Ivan

    2014-03-15

    Allergenicity, like antigenicity and immunogenicity, is a property encoded linearly and non-linearly, and therefore the alignment-based approaches are not able to identify this property unambiguously. A novel alignment-free descriptor-based fingerprint approach is presented here and applied to identify allergens and non-allergens. The approach was implemented into a four step algorithm. Initially, the protein sequences are described by amino acid principal properties as hydrophobicity, size, relative abundance, helix and β-strand forming propensities. Then, the generated strings of different length are converted into vectors with equal length by auto- and cross-covariance (ACC). The vectors were transformed into binary fingerprints and compared in terms of Tanimoto coefficient. The approach was applied to a set of 2427 known allergens and 2427 non-allergens and identified correctly 88% of them with Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.759. The descriptor fingerprint approach presented here is universal. It could be applied for any classification problem in computational biology. The set of E-descriptors is able to capture the main structural and physicochemical properties of amino acids building the proteins. The ACC transformation overcomes the main problem in the alignment-based comparative studies arising from the different length of the aligned protein sequences. The conversion of protein ACC values into binary descriptor fingerprints allows similarity search and classification. The algorithm described in the present study was implemented in a specially designed Web site, named AllergenFP (FP stands for FingerPrint). AllergenFP is written in Python, with GIU in HTML. It is freely accessible at http://ddg-pharmfac.net/Allergen FP. idoytchinova@pharmfac.net or ivanbangov@shu-bg.net.

  18. Allergen Peptides, Recombinant Allergens and Hypoallergens for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are among the most common health issues worldwide. Specific immunotherapy has remained the only disease-modifying treatment, but it is not effective in all patients and may cause side effects. Over the last 25 years, allergen molecules from most prevalent allergen sources have been isolated and produced as recombinant proteins. Not only are these molecules useful in improved allergy diagnosis, but they also have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of allergic disease by means of immunotherapy. Panels of unmodified recombinant allergens have already been shown to effectively replace natural allergen extracts in therapy. Through genetic engineering, several molecules have been designed with modified immunological properties. Hypoallergens have been produced that have reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T cell reactivity and T cell peptides which stimulate allergen-specific T cells, and these have already been investigated in clinical trials. New vaccines have been recently created with both reduced IgE and T cell reactivity but retained ability to induce protective allergen-specific IgG antibodies. The latter approach works by fusing per se non-IgE reactive peptides derived from IgE binding sites of the allergens to a virus protein, which acts as a carrier and provides the T-cell help necessary for immune stimulation and protective antibody production. In this review, we will highlight the different novel approaches for immunotherapy and will report on prior and ongoing clinical studies.

  19. Fourier domain OCT imaging of American cockroach nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.

  20. Laboratory transmission of Enterobacteriaceae by the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, N. R. H.; McDermott, S. N.; Whiting, J.

    1973-01-01

    Methods of maintaining and feeding and of infecting cockroaches with pathogenic organisms were investigated. Cockroaches fed on known concentrations of Escherichia coli O119, Esch. coli O1, Alkalescens Dispar O group 2 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's Bacillus) were maintained in Petri dishes. The effect of various diets on the survival of these organisms within the hind-gut and faeces was observed. With a `normal' diet of gruel Esch. coli O119 was isolated for up to 20 days, Esch. coli O1 for 17 days and ADO 2 for 15 days. Sh. dysenteriae 1 was isolated only sporadically to the third day. PMID:4571613

  1. Laboratory transmission of enterobacteriaceae by the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, N R; McDermott, S N; Whiting, J

    1973-03-01

    Methods of maintaining and feeding and of infecting cockroaches with pathogenic organisms were investigated.Cockroaches fed on known concentrations of Escherichia coli O119, Esch. coli O1, Alkalescens Dispar O group 2 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's Bacillus) were maintained in Petri dishes. The effect of various diets on the survival of these organisms within the hind-gut and faeces was observed. With a ;normal' diet of gruel Esch. coli O119 was isolated for up to 20 days, Esch. coli O1 for 17 days and ADO 2 for 15 days. Sh. dysenteriae 1 was isolated only sporadically to the third day.

  2. Gastrointestinal digestion of food allergens: effect on their allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the in vitro digestion models developed to assess the stability digestion of food allergens, as well as the factors derived from the methodology and food structure that may affect the assay results. The adequacy of using the digestion stability of food allergens as a criterion for assessing potential allergenicity is also discussed. Data based on the traditional pepsin digestibility test in simulated gastric fluid are discussed in detail, with special attention to the influence of the pH and pepsin: allergen ratio in the pepsinolysis rate. This review points out the importance of using physiologically relevant in vitro digestion systems for evaluating digestibility of allergens. This would imply the sequential use of digestive enzymes in physiological concentrations, simulation of the stomach/small intestine environment (multi-phase models) with addition of surfactants such as phospholipids or bile salts, as well as the consideration of the gastrointestinal transit and the effect of the food matrices on the allergen digestion and subsequent absorption through the intestinal mucosa. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion protocols should be preferably combined with immunological assays in order to elucidate the role of large digestion-resistant fragments and the influence of the food matrix on the stimulation of the immune system.

  3. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  4. DermAll nanomedicine for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Garaczi, Edina; Szabó, Kornélia; Francziszti, László; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R; Molnár, Levente; Bitai, Tamás; Jánossy, Tamás; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2013-11-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies is characterized with long treatment duration and high risk of side effects. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a novel ASIT, called DermAll, in an experimental allergic rhinitis model. We designed and characterized DermAll-OVA, a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. DermAll-OVA was administered topically with DermaPrep device to target Langerhans cells. To detect the clinical efficacy of DermAll ASIT we quantified the nasal symptoms and characterized the immunomodulatory activity of DermAll ASIT by measuring cytokine secretion after OVA-stimulation of splenocytes and antibodies from the sera. In allergic mice DermAll ASIT was as safe as Placebo, balanced the allergen-induced pathogenic TH2-polarized immune responses, and decreased the clinical symptoms by 52% [32%, 70%] compared to Placebo. These studies suggest that DermAll ASIT is safe and should significantly improve the immunopathology and symptoms of allergic diseases. A novel allergen-specific immunotherapy for IgE-mediated allergies is presented in this paper, using an experimental allergic rhinitis model and a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin as model allergen. Over 50% reduction of symptoms was found as the immune system's balance was favorably altered toward more TH2-polarized immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenic reactivity of processed cashew and pistachio.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Sanchiz, Africa; Ballesteros, Isabel; Easson, Michael; Grimm, Casey C; Dieguez, M Carmen; Linacero, Rosario; Burbano, Carmen; Maleki, Soheila J

    2018-02-15

    Cashew and pistachio allergies are considered a serious health problem. Previous studies have shown that thermal processing, pressurization and enzymatic hydrolysis may reduce the allergenic properties of food by changing the protein structure. This study assesses the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after thermal treatment (boiling and autoclaving), with or without pressure (autoclaving), and multiple enzymatic treatments under sonication, by SDS-PAGE, western blot and ELISA, with serum IgE of allergic individuals, and mass spectroscopy. Autoclaving and enzymatic hydrolysis under sonication separately induced a measurable reduction in the IgE binding properties of pastes made from treated cashew and pistachio nuts. These treatments were more effective with pistachio allergens. However, heat combined with enzymatic digestion was necessary to markedly lower IgE binding to cashew allergens. The findings identify highly effective simultaneous processing conditions to reduce or even abolish the allergenic potency of cashew and pistachio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  7. Gal d 6 is the second allergen characterized from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Amo, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Blanco, Juan; Villota, Julian; Juste, Sonsoles; Moneo, Ignacio; Caballero, María Luisa

    2010-06-23

    Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients. The study was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting and IgE-immunoblotting-inhibition assays. An egg yolk extract was fractioned by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the new allergen detected was characterized by N-terminal amino acid analysis. A total of 5 of the 27 patients (18%) detected a yolk allergen of an apparent molecular weight of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Heating and reduction treatments did not affect its allergenicity, although digestion with simulated gastric fluid diminished the IgE-binding capacity of the allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded with the YGP42 protein, a fragment of the vitellogenin-1 precursor. Thus, a second egg yolk allergen has been described and designated Gal d 6 by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee.

  8. Taxis but not private cars are mite allergen reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, E A; Justino, C M; Pereira, F L; Segundo, G R; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Silva, D A

    2006-01-01

    Indoor allergens are major causative agents in allergic disease development. Besides homes, public transport vehicles have been considered important mite and pet allergen reservoirs. Our recent studies on allergen exposure in automobiles showed that different allergen levels are found in private cars versus taxis. We quantified group 1 Dermatophagoides spp. (Der 1), Felis domesticus (Fel d 1), and Canis familiaris (Can f 1) allergen levels by ELISA in dust samples from 60 taxi and 60 private car upholstered seats. Mean levels of Der 1 and Fel d 1 were significantly higher in taxis than private cars. A significantly higher percentage of taxis (42%) harboring sensitizing levels of Der 1 compared to private cars (5%) was also found. In spite of the low mean Fel d 1 levels, comparison of the percentage of vehicles with moderate Fel d 1 levels showed a significant difference between taxis and private cars (43% vs. 20%). On the other hand, mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in private cars compared to taxis concomitant with a significantly higher percentage of private cars containing moderate Can f 1 levels than taxis (53% vs. 28%). We conclude that upholstered seats from Brazilian taxis but not private cars constitute an important mite allergen reservoir. Thus, additional effective measures for the reduction of allergen exposure in vehicles within the global allergen avoidance strategy should also be routinely accomplished to minimize the induction of sensitization and symptoms in allergic patients.

  9. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity.

  10. Comparison of several traps for catching German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, L M; Appel, A G

    2008-02-01

    German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), catch by five types of traps and modifications of each, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Cockroach catch differed significantly among traps. Lo-line trap caught the greatest number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (23% small nymphs, 39% of gravid females, and 60% of other size classes in the experimental arena). Jar traps caught the least number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (range, 7-23% of each size class trapped). Modifications of traps also altered catch of cockroaches. Food bait tablets increased catch significantly; however, increases were small (<10%). Size of traps did not affect catch; whole traps or half traps caught the same number of cockroaches. Jar traps were much less effective than sticky traps, catching only half the number of cockroaches as sticky traps. A thin layer of petrolatum was a more effective barrier in jar traps to cockroach escape than powdered Olancha clay. Traps with petrolatum caught about twice as many cockroaches as traps with clay. Trapping of any of six life stages was not significantly affected by catch of any of the other stages. Rather, trap catch of each life stage was dependent on the number of that life stage available in the experimental arenas. In conclusion, of the traps tested, the Lo-line trap was the most sensitive for measuring cockroach catch, whereas the Detector trap (one third of trap) was the most economical trap (greatest sensitivity for lowest cost).

  11. Effects of Early Life Exposure to Allergens and Bacteria on Recurrent Wheeze and Atopy in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Susan V.; Wood, Robert A.; Boushey, Homer; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Kattan, Meyer; O’Connor, George T.; Sandel, Megan T.; Calatroni, Agustin; Matsui, Elizabeth; Johnson, Christine C.; Lynn, Henry; Visness, Cynthia M.; Jaffee, Katy F.; Gergen, Peter J.; Gold, Diane R.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Fujimura, Kei; Rauch, Marcus; Busse, William W.; Gern, James E

    2014-01-01

    Background Wheezing illnesses cause major morbidity in infants and are frequent precursors to asthma. Objective To examine environmental factors associated with recurrent wheezing in inner-city environments. Methods The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study examined a birth cohort at high risk for asthma (n=560) in Baltimore, Boston, New York, and St. Louis. Environmental assessments included allergen exposure, and in a nested case-control study of 104 children, the bacterial content of house dust collected in the first year of life. Associations were determined among environmental factors, aeroallergen sensitization, and recurrent wheezing at age three. Results Cumulative allergen exposure over the first three years was associated with allergic sensitization, and sensitization at age three was related to recurrent wheeze. In contrast, first year exposure to cockroach, mouse and cat allergens was negatively associated with recurrent wheeze (OR 0.60, 0.65, and 0.75, p≤0.01). Differences in house-dust bacterial content in the first year, especially reduced exposure to specific Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes, was associated with atopy and atopic wheeze. Exposure to high levels of both allergens and this subset of bacteria in the first year of life was most common among children without atopy or wheeze. Conclusions In inner-city environments, children with the highest exposure to specific allergens and bacteria during their first year were least likely to develop recurrent wheeze and allergic sensitization. These findings suggest that concomitant exposure to high levels of certain allergens and bacteria in early life may be beneficial, and suggest new preventive strategies for wheezing and allergic diseases. PMID:24908147

  12. The evaporative function of cockroach hygroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures). The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach's moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell's response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell's response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air (absolutely) and the

  13. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  14. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces.

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S; Benson, Ryan W; Godoy, Veronica G

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  15. Natural insect repellents: activitity against mosquitoes and cockroaches

    Treesearch

    Gretchen Schultz; Chris Peterson; Joel Coats

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the repellent properties of extracts from the catnip plant (Nepeta cataria) and the Osage orange (Maclura pornifera) fruit. This chapter includes results on German cockroach (Blattella germanica), and house fly (Musca domestics) contact irritancy to catnip...

  16. The german cockroach, Blatella germanica L, from the human ear.

    PubMed

    Nagaty, H F; Emami-Nouri, M

    1977-07-01

    A case of invasion of the human ear by the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L) IN Mash'had, Khorassan, Iran is described. As far as the Author is aware this is the first such case recorded and published from Iran.

  17. Nitrogen recycling and nutritional provisioning by Blattabacterium, the cockroach endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Sabree, Zakee L.; Kambhampati, Srinivas; Moran, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition and assimilation is a primary concern of insects feeding on diets largely composed of plant material. Reclaiming nitrogen from waste products provides a rich reserve for this limited resource, provided that recycling mechanisms are in place. Cockroaches, unlike most terrestrial insects, excrete waste nitrogen within their fat bodies as uric acids, postulated to be a supplement when dietary nitrogen is limited. The fat bodies of most cockroaches are inhabited by Blattabacterium, which are vertically transmitted, Gram-negative bacteria that have been hypothesized to participate in uric acid degradation, nitrogen assimilation, and nutrient provisioning. We have sequenced completely the Blattabacterium genome from Periplaneta americana. Genomic analysis confirms that Blattabacterium is a member of the Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes), with its closest known relative being the endosymbiont Sulcia muelleri, which is found in many sap-feeding insects. Metabolic reconstruction indicates that it lacks recognizable uricolytic enzymes, but it can recycle nitrogen from urea and ammonia, which are uric acid degradation products, into glutamate, using urease and glutamate dehydrogenase. Subsequently, Blattabacterium can produce all of the essential amino acids, various vitamins, and other required compounds from a limited palette of metabolic substrates. The ancient association with Blattabacterium has allowed cockroaches to subsist successfully on nitrogen-poor diets and to exploit nitrogenous wastes, capabilities that are critical to the ecological range and global distribution of cockroach species. PMID:19880743

  18. Diet quality affects bait performance in German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Ko, Alexander E; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-10-01

    Bait formulations are widely used to control German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations. To perform optimally, these formulations must compete favorably with non-toxic alternative foods present within the insect's habitat. We hypothesized that the nutritional history of cockroaches and their acceptance or avoidance of glucose would affect their food preference and thus bait efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment, first providing glucose-accepting and glucose-averse cockroaches nutritionally defined diets and then offering them identical diets containing the insecticide hydramethylnon as a bait proxy to evaluate the effect of diets of differing macronutrient composition on bait performance. The interaction between diet composition and bait composition affected the survival of adult males as well as first-instar nymphs exposed to excretions produced by these males. Survival analyses indicated different responses of glucose-averse and glucose-accepting insects, but generally any combination of diet and bait that resulted in high diet intake and low bait intake reduced secondary kill. This study represents a comprehensive examination of the effect of alternative foods on bait efficacy. We suggest that disparities between the nutritional quality of baits and the foods that are naturally available could profoundly impact the management of German cockroach infestations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Isolation of the Sex Attractant of the American Cockroach.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D R; Black, E D; Merritt, C; Wharton, M L; Bazinet, M; Walsh, J T

    1962-09-28

    The sex attractant of the female American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), has been collected and isolated by a combination of extraction, distillation, and chromatographic procedures. Progress through these procedures has been followed by bioassay and by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The attractant has been isolated by gas chromatography, and characterization by mass spectrometry is proceeding.

  20. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  1. Diversity of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetases in the guts of the wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus and the omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2010-07-01

    We examined the diversity of a marker gene for homoacetogens in two cockroach gut microbial communities. Formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS or fhs) libraries prepared from a wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, were dominated by sequences that affiliated with termite gut treponemes. No spirochete-like sequences were recovered from the omnivorous roach Periplaneta americana, which was dominated by Firmicutes-like sequences.

  2. Allergens in celery and zucchini.

    PubMed

    Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, D; Reindl, J; Anliker, M D; Wüthrich, B; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm allergy to celery tuber and to zucchini, for the first time, by DBPCFC, and to identify the allergens recognized by IgE from DBPCFC-positive patients. Therefore, raw vegetables were hidden in a broccoli drink, and a DBPCFC-procedure was developed that consisted of a spit and swallow protocol, making sure that the procedure was safe for the patients and that reactions strictly localized to the oral cavity as well as systemic reactions could be reproduced by DBPCFC. The allergens in celery and zucchini extract were identified by immunoblot inhibition using allergen extracts, recombinant allergens and purified N-glycans as inhibitors. Celery allergy was confirmed in 69% (22/32) of subjects with a positive case history. Four subjects with a history of allergic reactions to zucchini had a positive DBPCFC to this vegetable. During DBPCFC, systemic reactions were provoked in 50% (11/22) of the patients to celery, and in 3/4 of the zucchini-allergic patients. The Bet v 1-related major celery allergen was detected by IgE of 59% (13/22) of the patients. Cross-reactive carbohydrate epitopes (CCD) bound IgE of 55% (12/22) of the celery-allergic patients and in 2/4 of the subjects with zucchini allergy. Profilin was a food allergen in celery in 23% (5/22) and in zucchini in 2/4 of the cases. A zucchini-specific allergen was detected by IgE from one patient. We conclude that ubiquitous cross-reactive structures are important in allergy to both, celery and zucchini, and that a specific association to birch pollen allergy exists in allergy to celery (mediated by Api g 1), but not in zucchini allergy.

  3. Ara h 2 cross-linking catalyzed by MTGase decreases its allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Lian, Jun; Zhao, Ruifang; Li, Kun; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-03-22

    Peanuts, whose major allergen is Ara h 2, are included among the eight major food allergens. After reduction using dithiothreitol (DTT), cross-linking of Ara h 2 could be catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), a widely used enzyme in the food industry. In this study, Ara h 2 cross-linking was catalyzed by MTGase after it was reduced by DTT. Using mass spectrometry and PLINK software, five cross-linkers were identified, and five linear allergen epitopes were found to be involved in the reactions. The IgE binding capacity of cross-linked Ara h 2 was found to be significantly lower compared to that of native and reduced Ara h 2. After simulated gastric fluid (SGF) digestion, the digested products of the cross-linked Ara h 2, again, had a significantly lower IgE binding capacity compared to untreated and reduced Ara h 2. Furthermore, reduced and cross-linked Ara h 2 (RC-Ara h 2) induced lower sensitization in mice, indicating its lower allergenicity. Reduction and MTGase-catalyzed cross-linking are effective methods to decrease the allergenicity of Ara h 2. The reactions involved linear allergen epitopes destroying the material basis of the allergenicity, and this might develop a new direction for protein desensitization processes.

  4. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Chung, S-Y; Yang, W; Krishnamurthy, K

    2008-06-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light, a nonthermal technology, was used to treat both the peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic properties of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated using a Xenon RS-3000C under the following conditions: 3 pulses/s, 14.6 cm from the central axis of the lamp, 4 min (extract) or 3 min (liquid peanut butter). After the treatment, the peanut samples were centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed by SDS-PAGE and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA). For comparison, boiling treatments were also performed. SDS-PAGE showed that while boiling treatment had little effect on the peanut allergens, PUV-light-treated samples displayed a reduced solubility or level of peanut allergens (63 kDa). Solubility of another allergen (18 to 20 kDa) was unaffected. Insoluble aggregates formed were responsible for the reduced level of allergens in PUV-light-treated samples. ciELISA showed that untreated samples exhibited an IgE binding 7-fold higher than the PUV-treated samples. It was concluded that PUV light was effective in reducing IgE binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The current study provides an approach to the development of a possibly less allergenic peanut product. However, the reduction in actual allergenicity needs to be confirmed by clinical studies.

  5. Efficacy of noviflumuron gel bait for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)-laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2006-05-01

    The insecticidal activity of a cockroach gel bait containing a chitin synthesis inhibitor, noviflumuron, was evaluated using laboratory and field strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Noviflumuron gel bait (0.01-5 mg g(-1)) caused > or = 90% nymphal mortality to laboratory and field strains of B. germanica in choice tests after 11 and 19 days of continuous exposure respectively. In 1 m x 1 m bioassay arenas, laboratory strain B. germanica population levels exposed to 5 mg g(-1) noviflumuron bait or 0.1 mg g(-1) fipronil gel bait were significantly lower than untreated population levels after 3 weeks and 1 week of exposure respectively. Various noviflumuron bait exposure periods (2, 4 and 7 weeks) caused similar population reductions, with a mean of 99.3 (+/- 0.3)% at 7 weeks. Fipronil gel bait caused 100% population reduction at 2 weeks post-exposure. The control population increased 89.0% at 7 weeks. In a simulated kitchen experiment with mixed stage laboratory populations, cockroach trap catches decreased 96.8 (+/- 2.0)% at 8 weeks in the 0.5 mg g(-1) noviflumuron bait treatment. The trap catches in the control increased 506.5 (+/- 493.7)% during the same period. Trap catch reduction by 0.1 mg g(-1) fipronil gel bait reached 100% at 4 weeks. Noviflumuron bait caused significantly lower nymph/total ratios to B. germanica populations in bioassay arenas from 2 weeks after exposure, demonstrating its effectiveness as a control agent for B. germanica with a pattern of activity similar to that expected from a chitin synthesis inhibitor.

  6. Navigating through the Jungle of Allergens: Features and Applications of Allergen Databases.

    PubMed

    Radauer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of available data on allergenic proteins demanded the establishment of structured, freely accessible allergen databases. In this review article, features and applications of 6 of the most widely used allergen databases are discussed. The WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database is the official resource of allergen designations. Allergome is the most comprehensive collection of data on allergens and allergen sources. AllergenOnline is aimed at providing a peer-reviewed database of allergen sequences for prediction of allergenicity of proteins, such as those planned to be inserted into genetically modified crops. The Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP) provides a database of allergen sequences, structures, and epitopes linked to bioinformatics tools for sequence analysis and comparison. The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is the largest repository of T-cell, B-cell, and major histocompatibility complex protein epitopes including epitopes of allergens. AllFam classifies allergens into families of evolutionarily related proteins using definitions from the Pfam protein family database. These databases contain mostly overlapping data, but also show differences in terms of their targeted users, the criteria for including allergens, data shown for each allergen, and the availability of bioinformatics tools. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Understanding allergic asthma from allergen inhalation tests

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W; Hargreave, Fredrick E; O’Byrne, Paul M; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation), advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma. PMID:17948142

  8. Recombinant allergens for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Oliver; Häfner, Dietrich; Nandy, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Recombinant DNA technology provides the means for producing allergens that are equivalent to their natural counterparts and also genetically engineered variants with reduced IgE-binding activity. The proteins are produced as chemically defined molecules with consistent structural and immunologic properties. Several hundred allergens have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins, and these provide the means for making a very detailed diagnosis of a patient's sensitization profile. Clinical development programs are now in progress to assess the suitability of recombinant allergens for both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Recombinant hypoallergenic variants, which are developed with the aim of increasing the doses that can be administered while at the same time reducing the risks for therapy-associated side effects, are also in clinical trials for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Grass and birch pollen preparations have been shown to be clinically effective, and studies with various other allergens are in progress. Personalized or patient-tailored immunotherapy is still a very distant prospect, but the first recombinant products based on single allergens or defined mixtures could reach the market within the next 5 years. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cockroaches as pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on inselbergs in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H G; Teichert, Holger

    2008-09-01

    A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. The results suggest that the plant-cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species.

  10. Cockroaches as Pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on Inselbergs in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H. G.; Teichert, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Methods Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). Key Results The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. Conclusions The results suggest that the plant–cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species. PMID:18567597

  11. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    continuation of studies designed to enhance our understanding of population behavior and dynamics of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). It...Entomol. Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C.B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and ,togenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics

  12. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    and Identlfy by block number) Genetic control Cockroach behavior A Blattella germanica C20 ABSTRACT fConfinue an reverse aide It necessary and Idenllfy...Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C. B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ. Entomol... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics

  13. The Use of Double Translocation to Control Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    A unique type of sterility, embryonic trapping, is an ancillary effect of high lethality in the German cockroach . Lethal effects, such as those...of shipboard and other German cockroach infestations. The first research objective involved procedures for sexing and identifying double males. Two...3;7;12) males into the Kennedy strain was initiated. Data, though incomplete, leave little doubt that releases into one generation of cockroaches will result in population suppression in the next.

  14. Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae): A Reservoir of Pathogenic Microbes in Human-Dwelling Localities in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Memona, H; Manzoor, F; Anjum, A A

    2016-10-15

    This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat. Relative abundance and frequency were measured for each bacterial species on external and internal surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitations, two major species of cockroaches were isolated, i.e., Periplaneta americana (P americana) and Blattella germanica (B germanica). Out of 240 cockroaches collected, 167 were P americana and 73 were B germanica In total, 11 bacterial species were isolated, but no different bacterial load in each habitat was observed. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the external surface of cockroaches was found to be Escherichia coli (10.31%). In contrast, the most common isolate from the internal gut tract of cockroaches was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with relative frequency of 19.96%. Jaccard's index of similarity of bacterial species found on cockroaches was highest (0.3125) in houses, whereas Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity was highest for hospitals (0.2174). The highest Shannon-Wiener's diversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroaches collected from the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (2.610632). No Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia were found in the digestive tract of any cockroach.

  15. Parasitic Gregarine blattarum Found Infecting American Cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, in a Population in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Izzaudin, Nik Ahmad Irwan; Razak, Ainul Farhana Abdul

    2017-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches.

  16. Parasitic Gregarine blattarum Found Infecting American Cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, in a Population in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Izzaudin, Nik Ahmad Irwan; Razak, Ainul Farhana Abdul

    2017-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches. PMID:28228922

  17. Mystery of the disappearing allergen: published allergens rarely seen again.

    PubMed

    Zapolanski, Tamar; Maibach, Howard I

    2008-01-01

    Patch testing is an important tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Although this technique can be accurate, occasionally the results may be inconclusive. A previously positive result to an allergen may become negative upon repeat testing, and this may complicate the process of achieving a definitive diagnosis. There are some potential explanations for such inconsistencies, including the Excited Skin Syndrome, irritant reactions, a need to repeat the diagnostic algorithm, "rogue" reactions, and "contact allergy." These explanations should be taken into account when interpreting these results. However, further knowledge is needed to solve the mystery of an allergen that subsequently disappears.

  18. Effects of tebufenozide on ovarian growth and sexual behavior in the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Kilani-Morakchi, S; Aribi, N; Farine, J P; Smagghe, G; Soltani, N

    2009-01-01

    Tebufenozide, a dibenzoylhydrazine insect growth regulator, was applied topically (1 microg/insect) on female adults of the German cockroach Blattella germanica and its effects on ovarian measurement and proteins contents were investigated during the first gonadotrophic cycle (0, 2, 4 and 6 days). Dissection of treated females showed a clear reduction in oocyte numbers and volume of the basal oocyte. The ovarian proteins content was also significantly reduced. Behavioral tests demonstrated that treatment of 6-days-old females with tebufenozide caused in 80% of the males an increase in numbers of antennal contacts, but there was no effect on the numbers of wing raisings. In contrast, it was striking that in 20% of the males there was a total loss of antennal contacts and wings raisings in response to a calling treated female. These behavior effects are probably caused by a reduced production of contact sex pheromone in the females and may help in explaining the lower ovary reproductive parameters.

  19. Nasal allergen challenge and mediators release.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E

    1997-11-01

    Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.

  20. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  1. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from cockroaches in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

  2. Life history and biology of the invasive Turkestan cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tina; Rust, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become an important invasive species throughout the southwestern United States and has been reported in the southern United States. It is rapidly replacing the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (L.), in urban areas of the southwestern United States as the most important peri-domestic species. They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls. On occasion, they will invade dwellings. At 26.7 degrees C, male and female nymphs developed into adults in an average of 222 and 224 d, respectively. Both males and females had five nymphal instars. Adult females deposited up to 25 oothecae. The oothecae averaged 16.8 eggs and 13.9 nymphs emerged per egg capsule, resulting in an 82.7% hatch rate. Adults lived for at least 612 d. Two parameters that might contribute to the success of Turkestan cockroaches compared with oriental cockroaches are that the developmental period of the nymphs of Turkestan cockroaches are shorter and adult female Turkestan cockroaches produce considerably more oothecae than do oriental cockroaches. These may explain the observations by Pest Management Professionals that Turkestan cockroaches are displacing oriental cockroaches in outdoor habitats throughout the southwestern United States.

  3. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  4. Bacterial pathogens isolated from cockroaches trapped from paediatric wards in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Oothuman, P; Jeffery, J; Aziz, A H; Abu Bakar, E; Jegathesan, M

    1989-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 4 paediatric wards in Malaysia to determine the distribution of various species of cockroaches and to examine their gut contents for bacteria. Cockroaches were trapped from food dispensing areas (kitchens), store rooms, cupboards and open wards. 104 cockroaches were caught, consisting of Periplaneta americana (67.3%), Blattella germanica (26%), P. brunnea (4.8%), and Supella longipalpa (1.9%). Bacteria were isolated from all cockroaches except 3 P. americana. Many bacterial species were identified, including the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic species Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebseilla oxytoca, K. ozaena and Serratia marcescens.

  5. Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Shriniwas, U. B.; Verma, A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi. PMID:1879483

  6. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients. PMID:24795722

  7. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  8. Shellfish allergens: tropomyosin and beyond.

    PubMed

    Faber, M A; Pascal, M; El Kharbouchi, O; Sabato, V; Hagendorens, M M; Decuyper, I I; Bridts, C H; Ebo, D G

    2016-12-27

    IgE-mediated shellfish allergy constitutes an important cause of food-related adverse reactions. Shellfish are classified into mollusks and crustaceans, the latter belonging to the class of arthropoda. Among crustaceans, shrimps are the most predominant cause of allergic reactions and thus more extensively studied. Several major and minor allergens have been identified and cloned. Among them, invertebrate tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and hemocyanin are the most relevant. This review summarizes our current knowledge about these allergens.

  9. New and emerging cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rosie F; Johnston, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    Human skin is exposed to a large variety of cosmetic allergens. Most allergic contact dermatitis occurs after exposure to fragrance, preservatives, and hair dyes. Such reactions can often be occult. As a result, a high index of suspicion is needed in assessing the patient with facial or cosmetic dermatitis. This contribution looks at why such a large number of chemicals are in everyday usage, at how dermatologists monitor trends in allergy to cosmetics, and at a number of new and emerging allergens to consider in the assessment of suspected cosmetic allergy.

  10. Allergen exposure modifies the relation of sensitization to fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels in children at risk for allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, Joanne E; Webb, Tara; Kwan, Doris; Kamel, Jimmy; Hoffman, Elaine; Milton, Donald K; Gold, Diane R

    2011-05-01

    Studies on airway inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), have focused on its relation to control of asthma, but the contribution of allergen exposure to the increase in FENO levels is unknown. We evaluated (1) whether FENO levels were increased in children with allergic sensitization or asthma; (2) whether specific allergen exposure increased FENO levels in sensitized, but not unsensitized, children; and (3) whether sedentary behavior increased FENO levels independent of allergen exposures. At age 12 years, in a birth cohort of children with a parental history of allergy or asthma, we measured bed dust allergen (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) by means of ELISA, specific allergic sensitization primarily based on specific IgE levels, and respiratory disease (current asthma, rhinitis, and wheeze) and hours of television viewing/video game playing by means of questionnaire. Children performed spirometric maneuvers before and after bronchodilator responses and had FENO levels measured by using electrochemical detection methods (NIOX MINO). FENO levels were increased in children with current asthma (32.2 ppb), wheeze (27.0 ppb), or rhinitis (23.2 ppb) compared with subjects without these respective symptoms/diagnoses (16.4-16.6 ppb, P < .005 for all comparisons). Allergic sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog, and dust mite) predicted higher FENO levels and explained one third of the variability in FENO levels. FENO levels were highest in children both sensitized and exposed to dust mite. Greater than 10 hours of weekday television viewing was associated with a 0.64-log increase in FENO levels after controlling for indoor allergen exposure, body mass index, and allergic sensitization. Allergen exposures and sedentary behavior (television viewing/video game playing) might increase airway inflammation, which was measured as the FENO. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  11. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, L. F.; Wildfire, J.; Lichtveld, M.; Kennedy, S.; El-Dahr, J. M.; Chulada, P. C.; Cohn, R.; Mitchell, H.; Thornton, E.; Mvula, M.; Sterling, Y.; Martin, W.; Stephens, K.; White, L.

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  12. IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 from German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Un, Sunjin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Kim, Chung-ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-09-01

    Bla g 6, a German cockroach allergen, shows homology to muscle protein troponin C. It contains four calcium-binding domains at amino acid (aa) residues 20-30, 56-67, 96-107, and 132-143, and its immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity is dependent upon calcium ion level. However, the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 have not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze the IgE binding epitopes from the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. The full-length of three Bla g 6 isoallergens (Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301) and five peptide fragments (P1: aa 1-111, P2: aa 1-95, P3: aa 33-111, P4: aa 80-151, and P5: aa 33-151) of Bla g 6.0101 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on 24 patients' sera that adjusted the final concentration 10 mM of CaCl(2) to determine the IgE activities of Bla g 6. Eight sera (33.3%), 9 sera (37.5%), and 11 sera (45.8%) showed IgE reactivity to Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301, respectively. Among the sera from the positive IgE reactivity, three patients' sera were selected and the IgE reactivity was measured by ELISA with the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. Based on IgE responses, one patient's serum exhibited the strongest IgE reactivity. We assumed that the aa between 96-151 residues, including the calcium binding domains III and IV, would be important for IgE binding. These results may provide information that will yield safe diagnostic methods and immunotherapeutics.

  13. Phthalocyanine-dyed fibers adsorb allergenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Sugihara, Y; Shirai, H; Wagatsuma, Y; Kusada, O; Matsuda, T; Kuroda, S; Higaki, S

    2006-05-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc)-dyed fiber is reported to reduce atopic symptoms in some patients when they use underwear made of the fiber. We investigated the adsorption of allergens on Pc-fiber. Pc-fiber trapped house dust/pollen/food allergens with varied molecular weight and pI. The adsorbed allergens were released in the presence of mild detergent. Pc-fiber did not change the molecular weight or disulfide bonding of the allergens. These observations imply that Pc-fiber is applicable as an "allergen trap" for a wide variety of products.

  14. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene.

  15. Peanut varieties with reduced Ara h 1 content indicating no reduced allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Krause, Susanne; Latendorf, Ties; Schmidt, Hendrik; Darcan-Nicolaisen, Yasemin; Reese, Gerald; Petersen, Arnd; Janssen, Ottmar; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard

    2010-03-01

    Peanut allergy is a major cause of food-induced severe anaphylactic reactions. To date, no medical care is available to prevent and treat peanut allergy and therefore hypoallergenic peanut varieties are of considerable health political and economic interest. Major allergens that induce IgE-responses in peanut-sensitive patients are Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4. In order to identify hypoallergenic peanuts, commercially locally available peanut varieties were screened for their allergen content. Ara h 1-deficient peanuts from Southeast Asia were identified by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, inhibition assays and ELISA. 2-D PAGE analyses demonstrated the different compositions of the tested extracts and revealed a number of variations of the allergen patterns of peanuts from different varieties. Mediator release experiments of these peanut extracts demonstrated similar allergenicities as compared with standard peanut extract. These results indicate that the allergenicity of peanuts with reduced Ara h 1 content might be compensated by the other allergens, and thus do not necessarily cause a reduction of allergenicity.

  16. Association Between Allergen Exposure in Inner-City Schools and Asthma Morbidity Among Students.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, William J; Permaul, Perdita; Petty, Carter R; Coull, Brent A; Baxi, Sachin N; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Lai, Peggy S; Gold, Diane R; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Home aeroallergen exposure is associated with increased asthma morbidity in children, yet little is known about the contribution of school aeroallergen exposures to such morbidity. To evaluate the effect of school-specific aeroallergen exposures on asthma morbidity among students, adjusting for home exposures. The School Inner-City Asthma Study was a prospective cohort study evaluating 284 students aged 4 to 13 years with asthma who were enrolled from 37 inner-city elementary schools in the northeastern United States between March 1, 2008, and August 31, 2013. Enrolled students underwent baseline clinical evaluations before the school year started and were then observed clinically for 1 year. During that same school year, classroom and home dust samples linked to the students were collected and analyzed for common indoor aeroallergens. Associations between school aeroallergen exposure and asthma outcomes during the school year were assessed, adjusting for home exposures. Indoor aeroallergens, including rat, mouse, cockroach, cat, dog, and dust mites, measured in dust samples collected from inner-city schools. The primary outcome was maximum days in the past 2 weeks with asthma symptoms. Secondary outcomes included well-established markers of asthma morbidity, including asthma-associated health care use and lung function, measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Among 284 students (median age, 8 years [interquartile range, 6-9 years]; 148 boys and 136 girls), exposure to mouse allergen was detected in 441 (99.5%) of 443 school dust samples, cat allergen in 420 samples (94.8%), and dog allergen in 366 samples (82.6%). Levels of mouse allergen in schools were significantly higher than in students' homes (median settled dust level, 0.90 vs 0.14 µg/g; P < .001). Exposure to higher levels of mouse allergen in school (comparing 75th with 25th percentile) was associated with increased odds of having an asthma symptom day (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1

  17. Nomenclature and structural biology of allergens.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ferreira, Fatima

    2007-02-01

    Purified allergens are named using the systematic nomenclature of the Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee of the World Health Organization and International Union of Immunological Societies. The system uses abbreviated Linnean genus and species names and an Arabic number to indicate the chronology of allergen purification. Most major allergens from mites, animal dander, pollens, insects, and foods have been cloned, and more than 40 three-dimensional allergen structures are in the Protein Database. Allergens are derived from proteins with a variety of biologic functions, including proteases, ligand-binding proteins, structural proteins, pathogenesis-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and calcium-binding proteins. Biologic function, such as the proteolytic enzyme allergens of dust mites, might directly influence the development of IgE responses and might initiate inflammatory responses in the lung that are associated with asthma. Intrinsic structural or biologic properties might also influence the extent to which allergens persist in indoor and outdoor environments or retain their allergenicity in the digestive tract. Analyses of the protein family database suggest that the universe of allergens comprises more than 120 distinct protein families. Structural biology and proteomics define recombinant allergen targets for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and identify motifs, patterns, and structures of immunologic significance.

  18. Dermatophagoides farinae allergens diversity identification by proteomics.

    PubMed

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-07-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.

  19. Stress-resolved and cockroach-friendly piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R.; Lee, H.; Butler, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Yi, J.; Vinson, B.; Liang, H.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate effects of bending stress on piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a polymer sensor. The sensor was designed and fabricated into a special size and shape so that it can be attached to small insects, such as the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) to measure the insects' locomotion. The performance of the sensor is studied using a controlled linear stage to buckle the sensor mimicking the bending of the sensor due to the leg movements of cockroaches. For comparison, a roach robot was used for multi-leg study. Results indicate that buckling motion of the sensor produce an output that is different from regular stretching effect. The sensor-generated charge depends on the localized stress distribution and dipole alignment. This paper discusses the methods of characterization of piezoelectricity useful for insect applications.

  20. Cockroaches as carriers of bacteria in multi-family dwellings.

    PubMed Central

    Cloarec, A.; Rivault, C.; Fontaine, F.; Le Guyader, A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential risk of bacterial dissemination due to the presence of cockroaches (Blattella germanica, Blattellidae) in low-income flats was investigated. Cockroaches can carry a great variety of bacterial species; we identified 30 different species from 52 different flats. Klebsiella oxycytoca, K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were the most frequently found. Pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria represented 54% of all the bacterial identifications. Bacteria were carried either on the cuticle or in the gut. Contamination through external contact is sufficient to insure bacterial diffusion. There was a very low level of overlap estimated by Pianka's index (a) between the bacterial flora of neighbouring blocks of flats, and (b) between bacterial flora of different flats in the same block. PMID:1468532

  1. Neural circuit recording from an intact cockroach nervous system.

    PubMed

    Titlow, Josh S; Majeed, Zana R; Hartman, H Bernard; Burns, Ellen; Cooper, Robin L

    2013-11-04

    The cockroach ventral nerve cord preparation is a tractable system for neuroethology experiments, neural network modeling, and testing the physiological effects of insecticides. This article describes the scope of cockroach sensory modalities that can be used to assay how an insect nervous system responds to environmental perturbations. Emphasis here is on the escape behavior mediated by cerci to giant fiber transmission in Periplaneta americana. This in situ preparation requires only moderate dissecting skill and electrophysiological expertise to generate reproducible recordings of neuronal activity. Peptides or other chemical reagents can then be applied directly to the nervous system in solution with the physiological saline. Insecticides could also be administered prior to dissection and the escape circuit can serve as a proxy for the excitable state of the central nervous system. In this context the assays described herein would also be useful to researchers interested in limb regeneration and the evolution of nervous system development for which P. americana is an established model organism.

  2. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor.

  3. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  4. Relationship between protein digestibility and allergenicity: comparisons of pepsin and cathepsin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Emily S; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2013-07-05

    An association between protein allergenicity and resistance to pepsin digestion in the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed. However, although widely accepted, such an association is inconsistent with known labile allergens and resistant nonallergens. Given the central role of antigen presenting cells, and in particular dendritic cells (DC), in the development of allergic responses, the stability of allergens to intracellular processing may be more relevant than resistance to extracellular pepsin digestion. We have characterised the expression by DC of cathepsins (proteolytic enzymes), and compared the proteolytic activity of the most highly expressed cathepsin with pepsin for a range of 9 allergens and 4 putative nonallergens. Cathepsin expression in bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC) derived from BALB/c strain mice was characterised by flow cytometry; cathepsins D, E and S were identified, with cathepsin D being the most highly expressed. Digestion studies revealed that the majority of allergens (5/9) were pepsin resistant, whereas non-allergens (3/4) were labile. If the generation of pepsin-resistant fragments was considered as a feature of allergenicity, this increased to 7/9 allergens and 4/4 nonallergens. In contrast, most of the proteins examined were resistant to cathepsin digestion, with significant digestion recorded for only 2/9 allergens and 2/4 non-allergens. Chemical reduction (to mimic intracellular reducing conditions) increased the susceptibility of proteins to digestion by cathepsins, but did not improve discrimination between allergens and nonallergens on this basis. These data confirm that there is a general relationship between resistance to digestion with pepsin and allergenicity. The relationship is not absolute, but the information gained from this characteristic does provide useful information in a weight of evidence approach for allergenicity assessment. The most abundant cathepsin detected in antigen processing BM-DC, cathepsin D, is not

  5. Update of the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database based on analysis of allergen sequences.

    PubMed

    Radauer, C; Nandy, A; Ferreira, F; Goodman, R E; Larsen, J N; Lidholm, J; Pomés, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rozynek, P; Thomas, W R; Breiteneder, H

    2014-04-01

    The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee, under the auspices of the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies, maintains the systematic nomenclature of allergenic proteins and publishes a database of approved allergen names on its Web site, www.allergen.org. In this paper, we summarize updates of allergen names approved at the meetings of the committee in 2011 through 2013. These changes reflect recent progress in identification, cloning, and sequencing of allergens. The goals of this update were to increase consistency in the classification of allergens, isoallergens, and variants and in the incorporation of the evolutionary classification of proteins into allergen nomenclature, while keeping changes of established names to a minimum in the interest of continuity. Allergens for which names have been updated include respiratory allergens from birch and ragweed pollen, midge larvae, and horse dander; food allergens from peanut, cow's milk, and tomato; and cereal grain allergens. The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee encourages researchers to use these updated allergen names in future publications.

  6. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  7. Characteristic motifs for families of allergenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Torres, Miguel; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner

    2008-01-01

    The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity. Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. To identify such areas, we first classified all allergens and their subdomains in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to their closest protein families as defined in Pfam, and identified conserved physicochemical property motifs characteristic of each group of sequences. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only 130 (of 9318 total) Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. Conserved physicochemical property motifs for the aligned sequences of the most populated Pfam families were identified with the PCPMer program suite and catalogued in the webserver Motif-Mate (http://born.utmb.edu/motifmate/summary.php). We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens. We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families (seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin) overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. PMID:18951633

  8. Observations on the effects of formaldehyde on cockroaches and their flora: I. Survival of vaccinia virus-infected cockroaches during fumigation with formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Bartzokas, C. A.; McCarthy, K.; Shackleton, W. B.; Baker, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    In these studies it is shown that the common "British" and "American" adult cockroaches can survive exposure to formaldehyde fumigation carried out at double the strength and for four times as long as is recommended for disinfection of rooms. It is further reported that vaccinia virus ingested prior to the fumigation survives in the cockroach gut and may be excreted up to 5 days later. Since cockroaches are ubiquitous and are to be found in most hospitals, laboratories and animal houses, these findings should be considered whenever fumigation is called for. Images Plate 1 PMID:563890

  9. De Novo Transcriptome of the Hemimetabolous German Cockroach (Blattella germanica)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Tong, Ying; Zhu, Junwei Jerry; Qiu, Xinghui; Zeng, Xiaopeng

    2014-01-01

    Background The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats) loci were also predicted. Conclusions/Significance The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes. PMID:25265537

  10. The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Bellés, X; Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Ding, Q I; Edwards, J P; Weaver, R J; Tobe, S S

    1999-01-01

    Allatostatins (ASTs) of the Tyr/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly Leu/Ile-NH2 family are a group of insect neuropeptides that inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata. We have obtained genomic DNA sequences that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica, Blaberus (cranufer and Supella longipalpa. The sequences obtained are similar to those of Diploptera punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species are similar in size, and the organization of the ASTs that they contain (there are 13 or 14, depending on the species) have been conserved. With the sequences of these precursors, and using the homologous sequence in the orthopteran Schistocera gregari as an outgroup, a phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was carried out. The dendrograms obtained from these analyses. using the amino acid as well as the nucleotide sequences, are comparable with current models for cockroach phylogeny. Parsimony analysis was also used to study the genealogy of the different ASTs within the same precursor. Results suggest that the AST sequences were generated through a process of internal gene duplication which occurred before these species diverged from each other in evolutionary time.

  11. Cockroaches breathe discontinuously to reduce respiratory water loss.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R

    2009-09-01

    The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.

  12. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira.

  13. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.

  14. Altricial development in subsocial wood-feeding cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Christine A; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Shimada, Keisuke; Saito, Yukari; Arellano, Consuelo; Matsumoto, Tadao

    2008-12-01

    Species in the wood-feeding genus Salganea within the cockroach subfamily Panesthiinae (Blaberidae) typically live in biparental families; their first instars suffer high mortality when removed from adults, and in at least one species, adults are known to feed neonates on oral liquids. In the closely related gregarious wood-feeding genus Panesthia , no parental interaction with offspring is known. We compared the external morphology of first instars of these two genera and found that eye development and cuticular pigmentation at hatching are correlated with social structure. First instars of Panesthia have a dark cuticle and well-developed eyes. First instars of Salganea have a pale, transparent cuticle, and eyes significantly smaller than those of Panesthia relative to adult eye size. The body size of the first-instar of Salganea esakii is significantly smaller than that of Panesthia angustipennis spadica , relative to adult body size (24.0 and 27.4% of adult head-capsule width, respectively), but a more general survey suggests that, overall, neonate size may be similar in the two genera. We compared the first instars of these two taxa of Panesthiinae to those in the biparental, wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus (Cryptocercidae) and discuss how decreased investment in both integumentary and ocular development in subsocial cockroaches parallels that seen in altricial vertebrates.

  15. Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis): newly identified important inhalant allergens in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Deok-In; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2005-06-01

    The nonstinging house ant, Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant), was recently identified as a cause of respiratory allergy. This study was performed to evaluate the extent of sensitization to pharaoh ant, and its clinical significance in asthmatic patients. We carried out skin prick tests in 318 patients with asthma. Specific IgE (sIgE) to pharaoh ant was measured by ELISA, and cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. Bronchial provocation testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. Fifty-eight (18.2%) of 318 patients showed positive skin responses to pharaoh ant, and 25 (7.9%) had an isolated response to pharaoh ant. Positive skin responses to pharaoh ant were significantly higher among patients with non-atopic asthma than among those with atopic asthma (26.0% vs. 14.9%, p<0.05). There was significant correlation between sIgE level and skin responses to pharaoh ant (rho=0.552, p<0.001). The ELISA inhibition tests indicated that pharaoh ant allergens had various pattern of cross-reactivity to house dust mites and cockroaches. Bronchial provocation tests to pharaoh ant were conducted for 9 patients, and eight showed typical asthmatic reactions. In conclusion, pharaoh ant is an important source of aeroallergens, and it should be included in the skin test battery for screening the causative allergens in patients with asthma.

  16. Pharaoh Ant (Monomorium pharaonis): Newly Identified Important Inhalant Allergens in Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Deok-In; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Jung-Won

    2005-01-01

    The nonstinging house ant, Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant), was recently identified as a cause of respiratory allergy. This study was performed to evaluate the extent of sensitization to pharaoh ant, and its clinical significance in asthmatic patients. We carried out skin prick tests in 318 patients with asthma. Specific IgE (sIgE) to pharaoh ant was measured by ELISA, and cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. Bronchial provocation testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. Fifty-eight (18.2%) of 318 patients showed positive skin responses to pharaoh ant, and 25 (7.9%) had an isolated response to pharaoh ant. Positive skin responses to pharaoh ant were significantly higher among patients with non-atopic asthma than among those with atopic asthma (26.0% vs. 14.9%, p<0.05). There was significant correlation between sIgE level and skin responses to pharaoh ant (rho=0.552, p<0.001). The ELISA inhibition tests indicated that pharaoh ant allergens had various pattern of cross-reactivity to house dust mites and cockroaches. Bronchial provocation tests to pharaoh ant were conducted for 9 patients, and eight showed typical asthmatic reactions. In conclusion, pharaoh ant is an important source of aeroallergens, and it should be included in the skin test battery for screening the causative allergens in patients with asthma. PMID:15953858

  17. Allergens induce enhanced bronchoconstriction and leukotriene production in C5 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Laura; Kim, Jiyoun; Bolgos, Gerald L; Siddiqui, Javed; Remick, Daniel G

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous genetic analysis has shown that a deletion in the complement component 5 gene-coding region renders mice more susceptible to allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) due to reduced IL-12 production. We investigated the role of complement in a murine model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. Methods In order to evaluate the role of complement B10 mice either sufficient or deficient in C5 were studied. Both groups of mice immunized and challenged with a house dust extract (HDE) containing high levels of cockroach allergens. Airways hyper-reactivity was determined with whole-body plesthysmography. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to determine pulmonary cellular recruitment and measure inflammatory mediators. Lung homogenates were assayed for mediators and plasma levels of IgE determined. Pulmonary histology was also evaluated. Results C5-deficient mice showed enhanced AHR to methylcholine challenge, 474% and 91% increase above baseline Penh in C5-deficient and C5-sufficient mice respectively, p < 0.001. IL-12 levels in the lung homogenate (LH) were only slightly reduced and BAL IL-12 was comparable in C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice. However, C5-deficient mice had significantly higher cysteinyl-leukotriene levels in the BAL fluid, 1913 +/- 246 pg/ml in C5d and 756 +/- 232 pg/ml in C5-sufficient, p = 0.003. Conclusion These data demonstrate that C5-deficient mice show enhanced AHR due to increased production of cysteinyl-leukotrienes. PMID:17044927

  18. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  19. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  20. Simple, Rapid, and Selective Isolation of 2S Albumins from Allergenic Seeds and Nuts.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Höper, Tessa; Westkamp, Imke; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2015-07-08

    The 2S albumins belong to the group of seed storage proteins present in different seeds and nuts. Due to their pronounced allergenic potential, which is often associated with severe allergic reactions, this protein family is of special interest in the field of allergen research. Here we present a simple, rapid, and selective method for the purification of 2S albumins directly from allergenic seeds and nuts. We systematically optimized the parameters "buffer system", "extraction temperature", "buffer molarity", and "pH " and were able to achieve 2S albumin purities of about 99% without further purification and demonstrate transferability of this method to nine different allergenic food matrices. Compared to conventional isolation routines, significant reduction of hands-on time and required laboratory equipment is achieved, but nonetheless higher protein yields are obtained. The presented method allows for the rapid purification of different 2S albumins including the corresponding isoforms from natural material.

  1. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  2. Polyphenol oxidase inhibitor(s) from German cockroach (Blattella germanica) extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract from German cockroach appears effective in inhibiting browning on apples and potatoes. Successful identification of inhibitor(s) of PPO from German cockroach would be useful to the fruit and vegetable segments of the food industry, due to the losses they incur from enzymatic browning. Ide...

  3. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  4. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  5. [Functional role of leg receptors of the cockroach Periplaneta americana in the system of walking control].

    PubMed

    Gorelkin, V S; Severina, I Iu; Isavnina, I L

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with study of role of the hair plate (HP) and of the campaniform sensilla (CS) on legs of the cockroach Periplaneta americana in the system of walking control. These receptors were shown to induce their regulatory, correctional effect on the rhythm of the cockroach steps depending on the external circumstances. These effects are mainly realized only at slow walking.

  6. Susceptibility of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S; Martin, W R

    1992-08-01

    The susceptibility of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.); smoky brown cockroaches, P. fuliginosa (Serville); oriental cockroaches, Blatta orientalis L.; German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.); and brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa (F.), to Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (All strain) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. A 1-ml water suspension containing 500,000 nematodes was placed on filter paper in a petri dish or the pad of a bait station. German, brown-banded, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches died within 1 d after placement in the petri dishes. The relative order for the LT50s were American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than brown-banded = German. All cockroaches actively groomed nematodes from legs and antennae of forced (petri dish) exposure. The LT50s for S. carpocapsae for nonforced (bait station) exposure were significantly greater than those for forced exposure. The LT50s were 3.25, 4.13, 9.86, and 11.38 d for brown-banded, German, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches, respectively. The relative order of the LT50s after forced (American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than German = brown-banded) and nonforced (American greater than smoky-brown greater than oriental greater than German greater than brown-banded) exposure to S. carpocapsae was inversely related to the moisture of their preferred habitats.

  7. Microbial Carriage of Cockroaches at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B.; Donkor, Eric S.; Attah, Simon K.; Duedu, Kwabena O.; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital. PMID:24137051

  8. Microbial carriage of cockroaches at a tertiary care hospital in ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Donkor, Eric S; Attah, Simon K; Duedu, Kwabena O; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital.

  9. Evaluation of attractants for monitoring populations of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Nalyanya, G; Schal, C

    2001-02-01

    Lures that are used to attract German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), to traps were compared in olfactometer assays in the laboratory and in trapping experiments in cockroach-infested homes and a swine farm. In olfactometer assays, AgriSense GP-2 was the most attractive lure, followed by peanut butter, and distiller's grain. Other lures, including Trapper tablet; Victor pheromone, a crude fecal extract that ostensibly contains B. germanica aggregation pheromone; and Victor food lure elicited upwind orientation from <50% of the test insects. Peanut butter and distiller's grain were equally attractive in trapping experiments in swine production barns and they captured significantly more cockroaches than the GP-2 tablet or the Victor pheromone lure; the commercial lures failed to attract significantly more cockroaches than the unbaited control traps. When tested against blank controls, cockroaches preferred to rest in shelters that contained the aggregation pheromone-based lure (Victor), but this lure was the least attractive to cockroaches in olfactometer assays. These results do not support claims that commercial crude fecal extracts attract cockroaches to traps, and they highlight a need for developing more attractive lures for detection of cockroaches and for monitoring populations.

  10. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  11. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  12. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  13. [Allergenic activity of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Petrova, N S; Sinitsyna, N E; Emel'ianova, O Iu; Kanchurin, A Kh

    1987-04-01

    The allergenic activities of the laboratory batches of D. farinae allergens have been studied by the methods of indirect mast-cell degranulation, neuroglial cytocrit, electrophoretic mobility changes. D. farinae allergens have been shown to possess specific activity. The method of changes in the electrophoretic mobility of sheep red blood cells has demonstrated that D. pteronyssimus and D. farinae allergens possess common allergenic properties.

  14. Electroantennogram Responses and Field Trapping of Asian Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) with Blattellaquinone, Sex Pheromone of the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2015-08-01

    The Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, first introduced to Florida in 1986, has been spreading throughout the southeastern United States. Populations can reach extremely high densities and cause damage to crops as well as become a nuisance in residential settings. Because the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is its closest extant relative, we characterized the B. asahinai male response to blattellaquinone, the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, in an effort to develop monitoring tools for B. asahinai. Electroantennogram (EAG) analysis was conducted on B. asahinai and B. germanica males and females, and revealed that the antennae of males of both species responded significantly more to blattellaquinone than females, and in both males and females absolute EAG responses of B. asahinai were greater than in B. germanica males and females, respectively. However, normalized male EAG response curves and ED50 values (effective dose to elicit 50% of maximal response) did not differ significantly between the two species. Results of field trapping experiments demonstrated that male B. asahinai were more attracted to blattellaquinone than any other life stage, and 10 μg of blattellaquinone attracted the most males. These results suggest that blattellaquinone or a similar compound might be a component of the sex pheromone of B. asahinai females.

  15. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    PubMed

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-07-03

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned.

  16. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  17. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  18. Isolation of bacteria with antibiotic resistance from household cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Chen, Wei-Chen; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2005-03-01

    Cockroaches may harbor and disseminate microorganisms to the environment. In this study, Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica were collected from 40 households in Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Cockroach infestation was found in 50% of the studied households and 226 cockroaches (123 P. americana and 103 B. germanica) collected by trapping. P. americana was more often found in the kitchen (70.7%) whereas B. germanica in the storage room (51.5%) and kitchen (36.9%). There was no significant difference between the percentages of P. americana (99.9%) and B. germanica (98.0%) carrying bacteria. A total of 25 species of bacteria was isolated from P. americana and only 21 from B. germanica. Antibiotic resistance was found in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus species isolated from the cockroaches. These findings suggest a potential role of cockroaches in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance in households.

  19. Quality of housing and allergy to cockroaches in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.

  20. Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xue; Ye, Lefu; Ge, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance. German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system. Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital). However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats. The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface. There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction. Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats. The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there. The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.

  1. Antibody reactivity to the major fish allergen parvalbumin is determined by isoforms and impact of thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Saptarshi, Shruti R; Sharp, Michael F; Kamath, Sandip D; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-04-01

    The EF-hand calcium binding protein, parvalbumin, is a major fish allergen. Detection of this allergen is often difficult due to its structural diversity among various fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-reactivity of parvalbumin in a comprehensive range of bony and cartilaginous fish, from the Asia-Pacific region, and conduct a molecular analysis of this highly allergenic protein. Using the monoclonal anti-parvalbumin antibody PARV-19, we demonstrated the presence of monomeric and oligomeric parvalbumin in all fish analysed, except for gummy shark a cartilaginous fish. Heat processing of this allergen greatly affected its antibody reactivity. While heating caused a reduction in antibody reactivity to multimeric forms of parvalbumins for most bony fish, a complete loss of reactivity was observed for cartilaginous fish. Molecular analysis demonstrated that parvalbumin cross-reactivity, among fish species, is due to the molecular phylogenetic association of this major fish allergen.

  2. [Exposition and sensitisation to indoor allergens, house dust mite allergen and cat allergens].

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, S; Felder-Kennel, A; Gabrio, T; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Piechotowski, I; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schwenk, M; Weidner, U; Zöllner, I

    2003-07-01

    The study examined the exposure to biological indoor air agents and their possible role for allergies and respiratory tract illnesses of children. It was conducted as a case control study (atopic vs non-atopic children) at the four surveillance public health departments in Baden-Württemberg in the winter season 1999/2000 and included 379 children of the fourth class. The concentrations of the house dust mite antigens Der F1, Der p1, and Der Gr2 as well as cat allergen Fel d1 were determined in the children's bedrooms on the ground and in the mattress. Specific IgE-antibodies against allergens from house dust, mites and cat were determined in the serum of the children. For mite allergens the following medians ( micro g/g) were estimated in floor dust: Der p1 = 0.6, Der f1 = 2.3, Gr2 = 0.1; in mattresses: Der p1 = 1.2, Der f1 = 3.4, Gr2 = 0.3. The median of Fel d1 in floor dust was 0.2 microg/g, in mattresses 0.1 microg/g. Sensitisation to dust mite allergen was found to be more prevalent than sensitisation to cat. The distribution of sensitisation among the cases and controls is different. Among the cases, more subjects were sensitised to dust mites (32.9 %) and cat (13.1 %). Among the controls, 17.1 % were sensitised to dust mites and 4.1 % to cat. The results showed no direct association between the prevalence of allergies or respiratory tract illnesses and the indoor concentrations of the allergens. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.

  3. [Investigation on species composition of cockroaches and bacteria-carrying on their bodies in five cities of Hainan].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Zi; Cui, Yu-Bao; Yang, Wen; Rao, Lang-Yu; Pan, Wan; Chen, Jin-Long

    2008-02-28

    "ZA-type" cages were used to capture cockroaches in 267 sites of 5 cities in Hainan. Species were identified and bacteria were isolated by routine method. 441 cockroaches were collected and identified as five species belonging to two genera, 75.3% being Periplaneta americana. More cockroaches were found in sewerage. Bacteria were detected from 82.4% of cockroaches, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp, Bacillus proteus and sort of mycetes. Therefore, the dominant species is Periplaneta americana in Hainan, and the high bacteria-carrying behavior of cockroaches indicates its importance in disease transmission.

  4. German cockroach frass proteases modulate the innate immune response via activation of protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Day, Scottie B; Zhou, Ping; Ledford, John R; Page, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Allergen exposure can induce an early innate immune response; however, the mechanism by which this occurs has not been addressed. In this report, we demonstrate a role for the active serine proteases in German cockroach (GC) feces (frass) and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 in modulating the innate immune response. A single exposure of GC frass induced inflammatory cytokine production and cellular infiltration in the airways of mice. In comparison, exposure to protease-depleted GC frass resulted in diminution of inflammatory cytokine production and airway neutrophilia, but had no effect on macrophage infiltration. Selective activation of PAR-2 confirmed that PAR-2 was sufficient to induce airway inflammation. Exposure of GC frass to PAR-2-deficient mice led to decreased immune responses to GC frass compared to wild-type mice. Using the macrophage as an early marker of the innate immune response, we found that GC frass induced significant release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from primary alveolar macrophages. This effect was dependent on the intrinsic proteases in GC frass. We confirmed GC frass-induced cytokine expression was mediated by activation of NF-kappaB and ERK in a macrophage cell line. Collectively, these data suggest a central role for GC frass protease-PAR-2 activation in regulating the innate immune response through the activation of alveolar macrophages. Understanding the potential role of protease-PAR-2 activation as a danger signal or adjuvant could yield attractive therapeutic targets.

  5. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  6. Observations on the effects of formaldehyde on cockroaches and their flora: II. Prolonged survival of cockroaches drinking formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde solutions.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, K.; Bartzokas, C. A.; Baker, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Adult cockroaches were found to survive up to 22 weeks when provided with 1% Formalin (0.4% formaldehyde) in lieu of drinking water. Given 4% Formalin or 2% glutaraldehyde they survived up to 41 days. During the experiments eggs were laid and hatched and the offspring continued to grow. Combined with surface disinfection, this may hold out a simple method of rendering adult cockroaches gnotobiotic or even axenic. PMID:413865

  7. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome.

  8. Food Allergens in Mattress Dust in Norwegian Homes - A Potentially Important Source of Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Fæste, Christiane K.; Granum, Berit; Egaas, Eliann; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup; Løvik, Martinus