Adedara, Isaac A; Rosemberg, Denis B; Souza, Diogo O; Farombi, Ebenezer O; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joao B T
Luteolin (3', 4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a polyphenolic compound found in foods of plant origin and has been reported to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. However, there is dearth of information on the beneficial effects of luteolin on methylmercury (MeHg), a long-established neurotoxic compound in animals and humans. This study evaluated the effect of luteolin on MeHg-induced behavioral and biochemical deficits, using lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea as an alternative and complementary animal model. The insects were exposed for 35 consecutive days to either MeHg alone (0.05 mg/g feed) or in combination with luteolin at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/g feed. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel arena and subsequently, biochemical analyses were carried out using the cockroaches' heads. Luteolin supplementation dose-dependently reversed the MeHg-induced locomotor deficits and enhanced the exploratory profiles of MeHg-exposed cockroaches as confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Luteolin reversed the MeHg-induced acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition, decreased dichlorofluorescein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels, but increased total thiol level and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the treated cockroaches. In conclusion, luteolin prevented oxidative stress indices and neurobehavioral deficits in a Nauphoeta cinerea model of MeHg toxicity.
Schimpf, N G; Matthews, P G D; White, C R
The regulation of insect respiratory gas exchange has long been an area of interest. In particular, the reason why insects from at least five orders exhibit patterns of gas exchange that include regular periods of spiracular closure has been the source of much controversy. Three adaptive hypotheses propose that these discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) evolved to either limit water loss across respiratory surfaces, facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. It is possible that DGCs evolved independently multiple times and for different reasons, but for DGCs to be a plausible target for natural selection, they must be heritable and confer a fitness benefit. In a previous study of cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, we demonstrated that DGCs are repeatable and extend survival under food and water restriction. Here, we show for the first time that DGCs are heritable, suggesting that they are a plausible target for natural selection.
Bartrim, Hamish; Matthews, Philip G D; Lemon, Sussan; White, Craig R
The function and mechanism underlying discontinuous gas exchange in terrestrial arthropods continues to be debated. Three adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origin or maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), which may have evolved to reduce respiratory water loss, facilitate gas exchange in high CO2 and low O2 micro-environments, or to ameliorate potential damage as a result of oversupply of O2. None of these hypotheses have unequivocal support, and several non-adaptive hypotheses have also been proposed. In the present study, we reared cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea in selected levels of O2 throughout development, and examined how this affected growth rate, tracheal morphology and patterns of gas exchange. O2 level in the rearing environment caused significant changes in tracheal morphology and the exhibition of DGCs, but the direction of these effects was inconsistent with all three adaptive hypotheses: water loss was not associated with DGC length, cockroaches grew fastest in hyperoxia, and DGCs exhibited by cockroaches reared in normoxia were shorter than those exhibited by cockroaches reared in hypoxia or hyperoxia.
Carrazoni, Thiago; de Avila Heberle, Marines; Perin, Ana Paula Artusi; Zanatta, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Polyana Veloso; Dos Santos, Fabiola Duarte Machado; de Almeida, Carlos Gabriel Moreira; Vaz Breda, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Douglas Silva; Pinto, Paulo Marcos; da Costa, Jaderson Costa; Carlini, Celia Regina; Dal Belo, Cháriston André
Ureases of Canavalia ensiformis are natural insecticides with a still elusive entomotoxic mode of action. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity induced by Jack Bean Urease (JBU) in Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier). To carry out this study we have employed biochemical and neurophysiological analysis of different cockroach organ systems. The injection of the insects with JBU (0.75-6μg/g animal), although not lethal within 24h, caused significant inhibition of the brain acetylcholinesterase activity (60±5%, p<0.05, n=6). JBU (1.5μg/200μL), acetylcholine (0.3μg/200μL) or neostigmine (0.22μg/200μL), induced a positive cardiac chronotropism (∼25%) in the cockroaches (p<0.05, n=9). JBU (6μg/g) increased the insects' grooming activity (137±7%), similarly to octopamine (15μg/g) (p<0.05, n=30, respectively). Pretreating the insects with phentolamine (0.1μg/g) prevented the JBU- or octopamine-induced increase of grooming activity. JBU (6μg/g) caused 65±9% neuromuscular blockade in the cockroaches, an effect prevented by bicuculline (5μg/g) (p<0.05, n=6). JBU (6μg/g) decreased the frequency whilst increasing the amplitude of the spontaneous neural compound action potentials (1425±52.60min(-1), controls 1.102±0.032mV, p<0.05, n=6, respectively). Altogether the results indicate that JBU induces behavioral alterations in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches probably by interfering with the cholinergic neurotransmission. The neuromuscular blocking activity of JBU suggests an interplay between acetylcholine and GABA signaling. The search for novel natural molecules with insecticide potential has become a necessity more than an alternative. Understanding the mode of action of candidate molecules is a crucial step towards the development of new bioinsecticides. The present study focused on the neurotoxicity of Canavalia ensiformis urease, a natural insecticide, in cockroaches and revealed interferences on the cholinergic, octopaminergic and GABA
Rodrigues, N R; Nunes, M E M; Silva, D G C; Zemolin, A P P; Meinerz, D F; Cruz, L C; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Posser, T; Franco, J L
Organic and inorganic forms of mercury are highly neurotoxic environmental contaminants. The exact mechanisms involved in mercury neurotoxicity are still unclear. Oxidative stress appears to play central role in this process. In this study, we aimed to validate an insect-based model for the investigation of oxidative stress during mercury poisoning of lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. The advantages of using insects in basic toxicological studies include the easier handling, rapid proliferation/growing and absence of ethical issues, comparing to rodent-based models. Insects received solutions of HgCl2 (10, 20 and 40mgL(-1) in drinking water) for 7d. 24h after mercury exposure, animals were euthanized and head tissue samples were prepared for oxidative stress related biochemical determinations. Mercury exposure caused a concentration dependent decrease in survival rate. Cholinesterase activity was unchanged. Catalase activity was substantially impaired after mercury treatment 40mgL(-1). Likewise, GST had a significant decrease, comparing to control. Peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity was inhibited at concentrations of 20mgL(-1) and 40mgL(-1) comparing to control. These results were accompanied by decreased GSH levels and increased hydroperoxide and TBARS formation. In conclusion, our results show that mercuric compounds are able to induce oxidative stress signs in insect by modulating survival rate as well as inducing impairments on important antioxidant systems. In addition, our data demonstrates for the first time that Nauphoeta cinerea represents an interesting animal model to investigate mercury toxicity and indicates that the GSH and thioredoxin antioxidant systems plays central role in Hg induced toxicity in insects.
Bouchebti, Sofia; Durier, Virginie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Rivault, Colette; Lihoreau, Mathieu
Many animals have evolved strategies to reduce risks of inbreeding and its deleterious effects on the progeny. In social arthropods, such as the eusocial ants and bees, inbreeding avoidance is typically achieved by the dispersal of breeders from their native colony. However studies in presocial insects suggest that kin discrimination during mate choice may be a more common mechanism in socially simpler species with no reproductive division of labour. Here we examined this possibility in the subsocial cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a model species for research in sexual selection, where males establish dominance hierarchies to access females and control breeding territories. When given a binary choice between a sibling male and a non-sibling male that had the opportunity to establish a hierarchy prior to the tests, females mated preferentially with the dominant male, irrespective of kinship or body size. Despite the lack of kin discrimination during mate choice, inbred-mated females incurred significant fitness costs, producing 20% less offspring than outbred-mated females. We discuss how the social mating system of this territorial cockroach may naturally limit the probability of siblings to encounter and reproduce, without the need for evolving active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, such as kin recognition. PMID:27655156
Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R
Ventilatory control of internal CO(2) plays an important role in regulating extracellular acid-base balance in terrestrial animals. While this phenomenon is well understood among vertebrates, the role that respiration plays in the acid-base balance of insects is in need of much further study. To measure changes in insect haemolymph pH, we implanted micro pH optodes into the haemocoel of cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). They were then exposed to normoxic, hypoxic, hyperoxic and hypercapnic atmospheres while their haemolymph pH, VCO(2) and abdominal ventilation frequency were measured simultaneously. Intratracheal O(2) levels were also measured in separate experiments. It was found that cockroaches breathing continuously control their ventilation to defend a haemolymph pH of 7.3, except under conditions where hypoxia (<10% O(2)) induces hyperventilation, or where ambient hypercapnia is in excess of haemolymph (>1% CO(2)). In contrast, intratracheal O(2) levels fluctuated widely, but on average remained above 15% in normoxic (21% O(2)) atmospheres. Decapitation caused the cockroaches to display discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). The alternating periods of ventilation and apnoea during DGCs caused haemolymph pH to fluctuate by 0.11 units. Exposure to hypoxia caused haemolymph pH to increase and initiated brief bouts of spiracular opening prior to the active ventilation phase. The spontaneous occurrence of DGCs in decapitated cockroaches indicates that central pattern generators in the thoracic and abdominal ganglia generate the periodic gas exchange pattern in the absence of control from the cephalic ganglion. This pattern continues to maintain gas exchange, but with less precision.
Ruebhart, David R; Radcliffe, Wendy L; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins produced by cyanobacteria pose a risk to public health as they occur in drinking water reservoirs and recreational lakes and accumulate in the food chain. One of these PSP toxins, saxitoxin (STX) is one of the most toxic nonprotein substances known. Accordingly, there is a requirement to monitor for these toxins. The standard bioassay used to detect these toxins is the mouse bioassay; however, its use is constrained by animal ethics guidelines and practical considerations. Reported here is the use of the globally distributed speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea as a bioassay test organism for the selective detection of PSP toxicity of Anabaena circinalis aqueous extract and STX. N. cinerea was shown to be tolerant to pure cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) at doses 10-fold greater than mouse LD₅₀ values while being sensitive to STX. Similarly, N. cinerea was shown to be tolerant of toxin-containing aqueous extracts of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Nodularia spumigena while being sensitive to A. circinalis. Peak sensitivity to STX was 60 min postinjection with a KD₅₀ of 31.2 ng/g body weight. While this was approximately 3-fold less sensitive than the mouse bioassay, the insect test organism was around 34-fold smaller in mass than a mouse (20 g); thus one-tenth the amount of toxin in absolute quantity was required to reach an ED₅₀ level. The N. cinerea bioassay presents a selective test for PSP toxicity that is rapid, economical, efficient, and simple to perform.
Kou, Rong; Chen, Shu-Chun; Chen, Ying-Ru; Ho, Hsiao-Yung
Although agonistic behavior in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea, has been known for more than 40 years, this is the first study to directly collect and quantify the emitted pheromones. In the present study, emitted volatile pheromones were collected from each male pair for 60 min during the first encounter fight and identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The major compound collected was 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B). The strength of the attack by the dominant male was classified into three categories from weakest (C) to strongest (A). Of the 92 pairs, eight (8.7%) showed no agonistic interactions, and the amount of 3H-2B collected was 121.8±37.7 ng/male pair. In the five pairs (5.4%) displaying attack strength C, the amount of 3H-2B collected was 689.6±273.7 ng/male pair, and the attack duration was 9.6±2.4 min. In the 53 pairs (57.6%) showing attack strength B, the corresponding values were 5396.2±449.0 ng/male pair and 22.7±1.6 min, while those for the 26 pairs (28.3%) showing attack strength A were 7910.4±1120.6 ng/male pair and 24.9±2.9 min. For both attack strengths A and B, a linear relationship was found between the amount of 3H-2B collected and attack duration, suggesting that the longer the duration of the attack, the more 3H-2B was emitted. In addition, the rate of 3H-2B emission for attack strength A was significantly higher than that for attack strength B. Using Vaseline-coating, we demonstrated that, in the first encounter fight, the 3H-2B was emitted by the dominant male.
Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis
The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function.
Schimpf, Natalie G.; Matthews, Philip G. D.; White, Craig R.
Summary Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams) of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier) (speckled cockroaches) to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR) and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration). We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness. PMID:23259052
Chen, Shu-Chun; Yang, Rou-Ling; Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Chou, Szu-Ying; Kou, Rong
In the lobster cockroach Nauphoete cinerea, the dominant subordinate hierarchy formed via the agonistic interactions is unstable, and changes in rank order are common. Our previous results showed that in the first encounter fight during initial rank formation, microgram levels of 3H-2B are released by the aggressive posture (AP)-adopting dominant male. In the present study, the pattern of daily pheromone (3H-2B) release during the domination period and on the day of rank switch, rank duration, and rank switch frequency were investigated in three-male groups and six-male groups to examine the effect of higher frequency of agonistic encounters. The results showed that, in the three-male groups (50-day observation period), daily 3H-2B release rate was not constant, but fluctuated, the average duration of dominant rank was 16.6 ± 2.0 days, rank switch occurred in 58.8% of groups, and the frequency of rank switching (average number of rank switches/group/50 days) was 1.4 ± 0.2. For the six-male groups (30-day observation period), the daily 3H-2B release rate also fluctuated, but the duration of dominant rank was significantly shorter at 4.2 ± 0.6 days, rank switch occurred in 100% of groups, and the frequency of rank switching (average number of rank switches/group/30 days) was significantly higher at 6.9 ± 0.6. The results for both sets of male groups showed that as a new rank formed (either on the first encounter day or on the day of rank switching), the dominant status was significantly associated with a higher 3H-2B release rate. In the animal kingdom, fighting usually involves communication or the exchange of signals, and the results of this study indicated that the fluctuating daily 3H-2B release rate adopted by the dominants is a kind of strategic release and the 3H-2B release rate is a signal used to determine dominance.
Murzagulov, G S; Saltykova, E S; Gaĭfullina, L R; Nikolenko, A G
The work deals with effect of density of population on functional activity of components pf protective system of adult individuals and nymphs of the marble cockroach. The resistance of individuals has been noted to decrease both at individual maintenance and under conditions of overpopulation. Changes in activities of enzymes of antioxidative and phenoloxidase systems are studied ion the insect hemolymph and intestine. Possible consequences of isolation and overpopulation are discussed both for stability and for individual development.
Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Gromenko, V A; Rudenskaya, Y A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Zhuzhikov, D P
Compartmentalization of proteinases, amylases, and pH in the midgut of Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. (Blattoptera:Blaberidae) was studied in order to understand the organization of protein and starch digestion. Total proteolytic activity measured with azocasein was maximal at pH 11.5 both in anterior (AM) and posterior (PM) halves of the midgut, but the bulk of activity (67%) was found in PM. Total AM and PM preparations were fractionated on a Sephadex G-50 column and further analysed by means of activity electrophoresis and specific inhibitors and activators. The major activity in PM was classified as an unusual SH-dependent proteinase with M(r) 24,000 and pH optimum with synthetic substrate BApNA at 10.0. The enzyme was 43-fold activated in the presence of 1 mM DTT, insensitive to synthetic inhibitors of serine (PMSF, TLCK, TPCK) and cysteine (IAA, E-64) proteinases, strongly inhibited by STI, and displayed four active bands on zymograms. In PM, activities of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, subtilisin-like, and cysteine proteinases were observed. Aspartic and metalloproteinases were not detected. In AM, activity of unusual SH-dependent proteinase also dominated and activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinase was observed, but their levels were much lower than in PM. Distribution of amylase activity, exhibiting an optimum at pH 6.0, was quite the opposite. The major part of it (67%) was located in AM. Treatment of amylase preparation with proteinases from AM and PM reduced amylase activity twofold. pH of the midgut contents was 6.0-7.2 in AM, 6.4-7.6 in the first and 8.8-9.3 in the second halves of PM. Thus, pH in AM is in good agreement with the optimal pH of amylase, located in this compartment, but the activity of proteinases, including the ability to degrade amylase, in such an environment is low. Active proteolysis takes place in the second half of PM, where pH of the gut is close to the optimal pH of proteinases. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S
Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat.
Juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), is first detectable after dorsal closure, a conspicuous event in embryogenesis. The present research found that the timing of dorsal closure was consistently at about 45% of the total embryonic development time across most of the oviparous and ovoviviparous cockroach species examined. These included the ovoviviparous cockroaches Blaberus discoidalis, Byrsotria fumigata, Rhyparobia maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Phoetalia pallida, Schultesia lampyridiformis, and Panchlora nivea, as well as the oviparous cockroaches Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Eurycotis floridana, and Supella longipalpa. However, the only known viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata completed dorsal closure at 20.8% of embryo development time. Methyl farnesoate (MF), the immediate precursor of JH III, is considered a functional molecule in crustaceans; however, in insects its function is still unclear. To understand the role of JH and MF in cockroach embryos, I compared JH and MF biosynthesis and release in several cockroach species of known phylogenetic relationships. Using a radiochemical assay, the present research showed that cockroach embryos representing all three reproductive modes produced and released both JH and MF, as previously shown for B. germanica, N. cinerea, and D. punctata. Members of a pair of embryonic CA from B. discoidalis, B. fumigata, R. maderae, and D. punctata were incubated with and without farnesol. MF accumulated in large amounts only in CA of R. maderae in the presence of farnesol, which indicates that control of the last step of biosynthesis of JH, conversion of MF into JH by MF epoxidase, is probably a rate-limiting step in this species.
Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung
Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.
Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R
The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.
Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R
Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.
Clopton, Richard E
Complete synoptic redescriptions, including complete morphometric data for all life cycle stages, species recognition characters, and differential comparisons are presented for the 4 gregarine species comprising Blabericola . Blabericola cubensis ( Peregrine, 1970 ), Blabericola haasi (Geus, 1969), Blabericola migrator ( Clopton, 1995 ), and Blabericola princisi ( Peregrine, 1970 ) are redescribed from their type hosts, i.e., the discoid cockroach Blaberus discoidalis , the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea , the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa , and the Bolivian cockroach Blaberus boliviensis , respectively. These gregarine species descriptions are stabilized through deposition of extensive new voucher collections. Species of Blabericola are distinguished by differences in relative metric ratios, morphology of oocysts, and by relative metric ratios of mature gamonts in association. This work is discussed as a model for morphological species descriptions in the Eugregarinorida including the 6 principles for morphological gregarine species descriptions, i.e., a centroid and population variation approach, adequate sample size, partitioning developmental variation and sexual dimorphism, recognition and minimization of fixation and physiological artifacts to eliminate false morphotypes, and comparative data sets across multiple life cycle stages.
Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R
Metabolic rate and respiratory gas exchange patterns vary significantly both between and within species, even after a number of biotic and abiotic factors are taken into account. This suggests that such variation is of evolutionary importance, but the life history implications of this variation remain relatively poorly characterized. In the present study, we examine the effect of metabolic variation on starvation and desiccation resistance in the speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. We also compare the starvation and desiccation resistance of individuals that exchange respiratory gases continuously with those that breathe discontinuously. We show that metabolic rate has no effect on survival during food and water restriction, but cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) live longer than those that do not and those provisioned with water lived longer than those that were not. This finding represents the first demonstration that DGCs confer a fitness benefit, and supports the oldest hypothesis for the evolution of DGCs (which suggests that DGCs arose or are maintained to reduce respiratory water loss) as we also reveal reduced water loss (both respiratory and total) in cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange.
Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter
Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but 'friction pads', mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion.
Zhou, Yanmin; Robinson, Adam; Viney, Christine; Federle, Walter
The flexibility of insect adhesive pads is crucial for their ability to attach on rough surfaces. Here, we used transparent substrates with micropillars to test in adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) whether and how the stiffness of smooth adhesive pads changes when shear forces are applied, and whether the insect's age has any influence. We found that during pulls towards the body, the pad's ability to conform to the surface microstructures was improved in comparison to a contact without shear, suggesting that shear forces make the pad more compliant. The mechanism underlying this shear-dependent increase in compliance is still unclear. The effect was not explained by viscoelastic creep, changes in normal pressure, or shear-induced pad rolling, which brings new areas of cuticle into surface contact. Adhesive pads were significantly stiffer in older cockroaches. Stiffness increased most rapidly in cockroaches aged between 2.5 and 4 months. This increase is probably based on wear and repair of the delicate adhesive cuticle. Recent wear (visualised by Methylene Blue staining) was not age dependent, whereas permanent damage (visible as brown scars) accumulated with age, reducing the pads' flexibility.
Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter
Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but ‘friction pads’, mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion. PMID:18331984
Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John
It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881
Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John
It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Czapla, T H; Hopkins, T L; Kramer, K J
Catecholamines and related o-diphenols extracted from the cuticle and hemolymph of adult cockroaches during sclerotization and pigmentation of the cuticle were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with electrochemical detection. At ecdysis, dopamine (DA) o-conjugates predominated in the hemolymph of Periplaneta americana, P. australasiae, P. fuliginosa, P. brunnea, and Blatta orientalis (Blattidae); Blattella germanica (Blattellidae); and Gromphadorhina portentosa and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae). N-Acetyldopamine (NADA) conjugates were second in abundance in these species, but were major in the hemolymph of the other blaberoid species, Leucophaea maderae and Nauphoeta cinerea. After ecdysis NADA became the major hemolymph catecholamine in all species as DA decreased rapidly. N-beta-Alanyldopamine (NBAD) concentrations in the hemolymph remained low in all species, although NBAD and its metabolite, N-beta-alanylnorepinephrine (NBANE), were generally the major catecholamines in tanning cuticle. Catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) occurred mainly as a conjugate(s) at high levels in the hemolymph of nymphs and adults of all blattid species. Only trace amounts were detected in B. germanica and Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae), and none was found in any of the blaberoid species. High concentrations of NBANE and NBAD accumulated in tanning cuticle of B. germanica, G. portentosa, and all blattid species, whereas NADA and DA predominated in cuticle from the other blaberoid species, particularly L. maderae and N. cinerea. However, cockroaches as a group appear to utilize both the N-acetyl and N-beta-alanyl catecholamines for stabilization of the exoskeleton. The Blattidae differed most from the other families in having considerably higher concentrations of catecholamines in hemolymph and cuticle, as well as the large amounts of catechol conjugates in the hemolymph.
South, Sandra H; House, Clarissa M; Moore, Allen J; Simpson, Stephen J; Hunt, John
Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of elaborate male sexual traits. Handicap models of sexual selection predict that male sexual traits should covary positively with condition, making them reliable indicators of male quality. However, most studies have either manipulated condition through varying diet quantity and/or caloric content without knowledge of specific nutrient effects or have correlated proxies of condition with sexual trait expression. We used nutritional geometry to quantify protein and carbohydrate intake by male cockroaches, Nauphoeta cinerea, and related this to sex pheromone expression, attractiveness, and dominance status. We found that carbohydrate, but not protein, intake is related to male sex pheromone expression and attractiveness but not dominance status. Additionally, we related two condition proxies (weight gain and lipid reserves) to protein and carbohydrate acquisition. Weight gain increased with the intake of both nutrients, whereas lipid reserves only increased with carbohydrate intake. Importantly, lipid accumulation was not as responsive to carbohydrate intake as attractiveness and thus was a less-accurate condition proxy. Moreover, males preferentially consumed high carbohydrate diets with little regard for protein content suggesting that they actively increase their carbohydrate intake thereby maximizing their reproductive fitness by being attractive.
... Arkansas Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia California Wisconsin ... to cockroaches and their droppings. Pests need food, water and shelter to survive. There are changes you ...
Katial, Rohit K
The ubiquitous existence of cockroaches and the large-scale domestic infestation seen in inner cities make cockroach proteins a significant indoor allergen and a risk factor for asthma among inner-city residents. Studies have shown that early exposure to high levels of allergen may lead to the development of asthma in individuals with a genetic predisposition to asthma. Although field trials at cockroach abatement do not yield promising results, integrated pest management still remains the best control strategy. In highly susceptible or symptomatic patients, allergen-specific immunotherapy may be beneficial, although data are limited. As molecular techniques improve and recombinant allergens are developed, a more novel form of T-cell-specific immunotherapy may prove to be efficacious without the anaphylactic side effects seen with traditional allergy vaccines.
St. Julien, Laurie
Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…
St. Julien, Laurie
Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…
Pola, J; Valdivieso, R; Zapata, C; Moneo, I; Duce, F; Larrad, L; Losada, E
Hypersensitivity to cockroach antigen has been recognized as an important cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma. To assess the frequency of cockroach hypersensitivity in our country, 150 asthmatic atopic subjects were studied using skin testing and in vitro assays for cockroach-specific IgE antibodies (Oriental and German cockroaches). Twenty-two of 61 patients who had a positive history of cockroach exposure had positive skin tests, and only 3 of 89 patients who had no history of exposure had positive skin reactions. Of 25 patients with positive skin tests, 23 showed specific IgE antibodies against oriental and German cockroaches using RAST and EIA techniques. In summary, approximately 15% of asthmatic atopics in Madrid area are sensitive to cockroaches (positive skin test + specific IgE antibodies). These results indicate that cockroach hypersensitivity should be considered in every patient with perennial asthma.
Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver
Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.
Obagbuwa, Ibidun C.; Abidoye, Ademola P.
An adaptive cockroach swarm optimization (ACSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to strengthen the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm. The ruthless component of CSO algorithm is modified by the employment of blend crossover predator-prey evolution method which helps algorithm prevent any possible population collapse, maintain population diversity and create adaptive search in each iteration. The performance of the proposed algorithm on 16 global optimization benchmark function problems was evaluated and compared with the existing CSO, cuckoo search, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithms.
Jacobson, M; Beroza, M
The structure (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclopropyl propionate) previously assigned to the sex attractant of the American cockroach has now been shown by additional physical and chemical data and biological inactivity of the synthetic preparation to be incorrect. The structure of this attractant remains to be determined.
Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine
The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…
Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine
The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…
Pomés, Anna; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Randall, Thomas A; Chapman, Martin D; Arruda, L Karla
This review addresses the most recent developments on cockroach allergen research in relation to allergic diseases, especially asthma. The number of allergens relevant to cockroach allergy has recently expanded considerably up to 12 groups. New X-ray crystal structures of allergens from groups 1, 2, and 5 revealed interesting features with implications for allergen standardization, sensitization, diagnosis, and therapy. Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma particularly among children and young adults living in inner-city environments, posing challenges for disease control. Environmental interventions targeted at reducing cockroach allergen exposure have provided conflicting results. Immunotherapy may be a way to modify the natural history of cockroach allergy and decrease symptoms and asthma severity among sensitized and exposed individuals. The new information on cockroach allergens is important for the assessment of allergen markers of exposure and disease, and for the design of immunotherapy trials.
M.E. Ostry; M.J. Moore; S.A.N. Worrall
An annotated bibliography of the major literature related to butternut (Juglans cinerea) from 1890 to 2002. Includes 230 citations and a topical index. Topics include diseases, conservation, genetics, insect pests, silvics, nut production, propagation, silviculture, and utilization.
Bourbeau, P; Holla, V; Piemontese, S
Neisseria cinerea is an organism that has only recently been implicated as a human pathogen. In this case, N. cinerea was identified as the cause of ophthalmia neonatorum (conjunctivitis) in a 2-day-old girl.
Obagbuwa, I. C.; Adewumi, A. O.
Hunger component is introduced to the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm to improve its searching ability and population diversity. The original CSO was modelled with three components: chase-swarming, dispersion, and ruthless; additional hunger component which is modelled using partial differential equation (PDE) method is included in this paper. An improved cockroach swarm optimization (ICSO) is proposed in this paper. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on well known benchmarks and compared with the existing CSO, modified cockroach swarm optimization (MCSO), roach infestation optimization RIO, and hungry roach infestation optimization (HRIO). The comparison results show clearly that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms. PMID:24959611
Tsai, J J; Kao, M H; Wu, C H
This study was performed to test the hypersensitivity of asthmatics to American and German cockroaches, which are both common in Taiwan. A total of 236 asthmatic patients received skin prick test using allergen extracts from both American and German cockroaches, and 596 sera from asthmatic patients were analyzed for their specific IgE against German cockroach extract. The results of skin test showed that 39.4 and 36.4% asthmatic patients were hypersensitive to American and German cockroaches. Fifteen among 236 patients were only allergic to American cockroaches and 8 were only allergic to German cockroaches. Using the Pharmacia CAP system, 36% of the sera were found to contain the specific IgE to German cockroach extract. Eighty-nine sera positive for German cockroach extract were then tested for their reactivity to American cockroach extract using the fluoroallergosorbent test (FAST). Sixty among 89 (68%) of their sera contained American cockroach-specific IgE. The correlation coefficient between both parameters was r = 0.45. Immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition studies were performed to analyze the IgE-binding components and the cross-reactivity between American and German cockroaches. The results showed that there are different IgE-binding components between American and German cockroaches. Sera containing specific IgE to both species of cockroach were absorbed with both species of cockroach extracts. The specific IgE to German cockroaches can be absorbed by American cockroach extract in all selected sera and the specific IgE to American cockroaches can only partially be absorbed by German cockroaches. The nonabsorbed allergens in American cockroaches had molecular weights of 33 and 50 kD. In conclusion, one-third of the asthmatic population tested was allergic to cockroaches. Although most cockroach-hypersensitive patients were allergic to both American and German cockroaches, more asthmatic patients were allergic to American cockroaches in Taiwan. The use of
Steinberg, D R; Bernstein, D I; Gallagher, J S; Arlian, L; Bernstein, I L
Six laboratory workers who were exposed to American cockroaches (AC) and German cockroaches (GC) while they were performing immunologic experiments were evaluated for cockroach hypersensitivity. Prick skin testing and RAST were performed with whole body extracts (1:20 wt/vol) of AC, brown-banded (BB), and GC species as well as hemolymph and fecal (F) extracts of AC. Three of six workers reported work-related nasal and ocular symptoms associated with xenografting and bleeding of cockroaches. All three symptomatic workers exhibited cutaneous reactivity to at least one cockroach antigen. Elevated RAST binding was observed in one of the three symptomatic workers. A nasal provocation to AC was positive in the most symptomatic worker at a provocative dose of 3.2 X 10(-3) mg causing a 50% decrease of nasal flow rate from baseline. After pretreatment with nasal cromolyn, the provocative dose causing a 50% decrease from baseline increased to 2.6 X 10(-1) mg. Nasal provocation with the same concentrations of AC were negative in two skin test negative subjects. RAST-inhibition studies demonstrated cross inhibition of the serum-specific IgE binding to AC-hemolymph by AC, GC, and BB whole body extracts. However, specific IgE binding to AC-F was inhibited by AC-F and AC but not by GC or BB whole body extracts, suggesting there was greater specificity of the F allergens. This study demonstrated that cockroach allergens elicit IgE-dependent upper respiratory sensitization in the workplace.
Oldenburg, Marcus; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver
In various investigated populations, sensitization to cockroaches was observed in 8% of screened subjects from temperate climatic zones and in 36% of those from tropical zones. Because of the numerous hiding places and food storages aboard a ship the crews can be highly exposed to cockroaches. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches and potentially associated health risks in seafarers. In July 2005, a total of 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance program for a cross-sectional study (response 95.4%). A standardized interview and a skin prick test (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. In cockroach-sensitized seafarers total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04-4.66). The prevalence of sensitization to any of the other nine common allergen mixtures tested was lower (between 2.1 and 12.4%). Neither current or past cockroach exposure on board nor cumulative cockroach exposure and time since last cockroach exposure were associated with cockroach sensitization. Among cockroach SPT-positive seamen, cockroach-specific IgE was detected in 52.8%. Five out of 37 (13.5%) SPT-positive seamen exhibited an obstructive ventilation pattern. The prevalence of work-related atopic symptoms was 9.0% (n = 13). These symptoms were not related to cockroach sensitization. The high prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches among seamen in the presented study emphasizes the strong sensitization potency of these insects. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to assess the clinical relevance of
Do, D C; Zhao, Y; Gao, P
Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins have provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen-presenting cell (APC) function in T-cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often coexist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.
Do, Danh C.; Zhao, Yilin; Gao, Peisong
Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins has provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen presenting cell (APC) function in T cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often co-exist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:26706467
"Archy and Mehitabel," a collection of 48 newspaper columns by Don Marquis on the aspirations and foibles of man, can be used effectively to spark the interests of today's students. Marquis' delightful dialogue between the humorous and learned cockroach, Archy, and his cliche-ridden but lovable friend, Mehitabel the cat, are written in free verse.…
Arruda, L Karla; Barbosa, Michelle C R; Santos, Ana Beatriz R; Moreno, Adriana S; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna
Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50- 64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients.
Romański, B; Dziedziczko, A; Pawlik-Miskiewicz, K; Wilewska-Klubo, T; Zbikowska-Gotz, M
Cockroach allergy was investigated in a group of 56 patients with atopic bronchial asthma (37 men and 19 women with ages ranging from 16 to 65) all allergic to house dust antigen. In all patients, both intracutaneous tests and bronchial provocation tests were performed with cockroach antigen prepared from the species most common in Poland, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis. Positive skin reactions to cockroach antigen were found in 17 patients while an immediate bronchoconstrictive response was noted in 11. In the authors opinion, cockroach antigens may be partly responsible for the antigenic properties of house dust and may play a causative role in some cases of atopic asthma.
Barbosa, Michelle C. R.; Santos, Ana Beatriz R.; Moreno, Adriana S.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomés, Anna
Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50–64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients. PMID:24563284
Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Hindley, J; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D
Cockroach allergy is a widespread health problem in the world, associated with the development of asthma. The German and American cockroach species are important producers of a wide variety of allergens. Knowledge of their structure and function contributes to understand their role in allergy and to design tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy.
Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Yoder, Jay A
The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) has become popular as a pet and as an educational tool in classrooms, zoos, and museums. To determine whether proteins in G. portentosa are allergens and whether these allergens cross-react with those of other cockroach species. Sera from cockroach-sensitive individuals and control subjects were used to probe immunoblots for the presence of circulating IgE that bound to proteins present in extracts of 4 cockroach species. Serum from an individual sensitized to G portentosa had circulating IgE that bound to proteins in extracts of all 4 cockroach species. Eight of 15 Blatella germanica-sensitized patients had IgE that bound to proteins in extracts prepared from G portentosa. Rabbit antiserum to Periplaneta americana and to Bla g 1 also contained antibody that bound to proteins in G. portentosa extract, demonstrating antigenic cross-reactivity among these cockroach species. Allergists, teachers, parents, and patients should be aware that sensitization and allergic reactions to the Madagascar hissing cockroach can occur. Caution should be taken if these exotic cockroaches are used in educational exercises in schools, museums, and zoos to protect predisposed individuals.
Chew, Ginger L
In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics, much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies for decreasing exposures.
Chew, Ginger L.
In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies to decrease exposures. PMID:22825884
Shah, Punit; Atwood, James A; Orlando, Ron; El Mubarek, Hind; Podila, Gopi K; Davis, Maria R
Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) is a filamentous fungus infecting more than 200 plant species, causing significant economic losses worldwide. Secreted proteins are released as an initial response of the fungus to its plant host. We report the use of a high-throughput LC-MS/MS approach to analyze B. cinerea BO5.10 secreted proteins. Secretions were collected from fungus grown on a solid substrate of cellophane membrane while mock infecting media supplemented with the extract of full red tomato, ripened strawberry or Arabidopsis leaf extract. Overall, 89 B. cinerea proteins were identified from all growth conditions. Sixty proteins were predicted to contain a SignalP motif indicating the extracellular location of the proteins. Seven proteins were observed in all the growth conditions implying a constitutive nature of their secretion. Identified in the secretions were transport proteins, proteins well-characterized for carbohydrate metabolism, peptidases, oxidation/reduction, and pathogenicity factors that provide important insights into how B. cinerea may use secreted proteins for plant infection and colonization.
The authors investigated the possibility of controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica , by using chromosome translocations. The first...translocations for control in B. germanica . Such mechanisms are potentially capable of reducing field populations.
Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M
The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.
Juglans cinerea (butternut) is a deciduous tree native to the United States and Canada with oblong-lemon shaped nuts with oily texture and pleasant flavor. Butternut wood is softer than wood of the black walnut making it a favorite wood for woodcarvers. In North America butternut is seriously thre...
Pomés, Anna; Arruda, Luisa Karla
Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy.
Pomés, Anna; Arruda, L. Karla
Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy. PMID:23916425
Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik
Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.
Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik
Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces. PMID:24324610
Nalyanya, Godfrey; Gore, J Chad; Linker, H Michael; Schal, Coby
Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 in public school buildings. Two school districts included six schools that used conventional pest control and one district included seven schools that used IPM to control pests. Cockroach traps were deployed to assess the level of infestation, settled dust samples were collected in food service areas, classrooms, and other school areas, and the Bla g 1 allergen was quantified by ELISA. Both cockroach counts and Bla g 1 concentrations were dependent on the pest control approach, with highly significant differences between IPM-treated schools and conventionally treated schools in both the cockroach mean trap counts (0 versus 82.6 +/- 17.3 cockroaches/trap/wk, respectively) and in the amount of Bla g 1 in dust samples (2.8 +/- 0.3 versus 30.6 +/- 3.4 U/g dust). Cockroaches and Bla g 1 were primarily associated with food preparation and food service areas and much less with classrooms and offices. Our data extend recent findings from studies in homes, showing that cockroach allergens can be reduced by cockroach elimination alone or by integrating several tactics including education, cleaning, and pest control. IPM is not only effective at controlling cockroaches but also can lead to long-term reductions in cockroach allergen concentrations, resulting in a healthier environment for students and school personnel.
Lai, Ka Man
Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination. PMID:28106812
Lai, Ka Man
Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.
Wada, Kota; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito
Exposure to cockroaches is a major risk factor for asthma. Products from cockroaches may contain proteases and ligands for pattern recognition receptors. These molecules may activate airway inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, that are involved in asthma. Among inner-city children, cockroach allergens play an especially important role in increasing asthma morbidity. The molecular mechanism for this association between cockroach exposure and asthma is not fully understood. Enzymatic activities from cockroaches activate inflammatory cells in the airways and may also exacerbate certain human airway diseases, such as asthma. We recently reported that cockroach extracts contain pepstatin A-sensitive proteases that activate PAR-2 and induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils. This review focuses on the effects of cockroach on various inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and T cells, in allergic reactions.
Sanchez, Carlos J; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Liang, Hong
Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%.
Honkanen, Anna; Takalo, Jouni; Heimonen, Kyösti; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti
Reliable vision in dim light depends on the efficient capture of photons. Moreover, visually guided behaviour requires reliable signals from the photoreceptors to generate appropriate motor reactions. Here, we show that at behavioural low-light threshold, cockroach photoreceptors respond to moving gratings with single-photon absorption events known as 'quantum bumps' at or below the rate of 0.1 s(-1). By performing behavioural experiments and intracellular recordings from photoreceptors under identical stimulus conditions, we demonstrate that continuous modulation of the photoreceptor membrane potential is not necessary to elicit visually guided behaviour. The results indicate that in cockroach motion detection, massive temporal and spatial pooling takes place throughout the eye under dim conditions, involving currently unknown neural processing algorithms. The extremely high night-vision capability of the cockroach visual system provides a roadmap for bio-mimetic imaging design.
Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong
Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855
Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.
Wang, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Tan, Hong
Three new metabolites, gamma-abscisolactone (1), botrytisic acids A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Botrytis cinerea TB-3-H8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, IR, UV, and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was isolated from natural resource for the first time. The structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (CCDC-265897).
Benes, J; Dzupova, O; Krizova, P; Rozsypal, H
Reported here is a case of infective endocarditis caused by the saprophytic species Neisseria cinerea. To the best of our knowledge, this etiology has not been documented in the medical literature previously. The patient was an intravenous drug addict who developed tricuspid endocarditis with lung embolism. The disease was cured after treatment with ampicillin/clavulanate that was changed to ceftriaxone after an embolic event.
Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen
Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.
Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang
The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.
Li, Chen; Wohrl, Toni; Lam, Han; Full, Robert
Small insects must be able to right themselves from an upside-down orientation to survive. Previous studies described diverse self-righting strategies in insects. Here, we compare the self-righting behaviors in three cockroach species on a flat, rigid ground to begin to reveal what governs the choice of dominant behaviors. All species self-righted successfully (75 +/- 11 % probability) and quickly (as low as 140 ms and typically within 2 s). The smallest winged American cockroach, which has the most elongate, least flattened body, and longest legs, primarily pushed legs against the ground to roll its body to the side to self-right (relative frequency = 93%). The largest wingless Madagascar hissing cockroach with the shortest legs primarily (84%) hyperextended body to roll to the side and then rubbed its legs on the ground to self-right. The intermediate winged discoid cockroach, which has the least elongate, most flattened body, more often (57%) abducted wings and flexed body to raise center of mass and reduce ground contact and rotated about the wing edges to self-right. We hypothesize that, given morphological and physiological constraints, the gravitational potential energy landscape resulting from the animals' body/appendage-ground interaction governs their dominant behaviors. Our study provides inspiration for robotics, as many current terrestrial robots have rigid, cuboidal bodies which hinder self-righting.
Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong
Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.
Mungan, D; Celik, G; Sin, B; Bavbek, S; Demirel, Y; Misirligil, Z
Exposure to cockroach has been reported to cause asthma in many parts of the world. Although house-dust-mite is known to be the most important indoor allergen in Turkey, there are few data on the prevalence of allergy to cockroaches. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of cockroach sensitivity in asthmatic Turkish patients to see whether it is also an important source of asthma in addition to house-dust mites. A total of 206 patients demonstrating the characteristic features of asthma were included in the study. Sixty-three percent of the patients were considered atopic, and 37% were found to be nonatopic by skin prick tests. Mite allergens were the most common cause of indoor allergy (50%), while cockroach sensitivity was detected in 25.7% of all the asthmatics. Among all cockroach-sensitive patients, 70% were also positive for mites. A female predominance was observed in cockroach-sensitive patients, as 44% of atopic women and 34% of atopic men had positive skin tests with cockroach allergen. The average duration of asthma was 7.1+/-5.6 years in cockroach-sensitive asthmatics, and there was no difference between groups in average duration of asthma (P>0.05). Mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics constituted 73.6%, 20.7%, and 5.7% of the cockroach-sensitive patients, respectively. These data indicate that cockroach is also an important source of domestic infestation in Turkey. Thus, it seems reasonable to suggest the need for cockroach allergen in the routine battery of inhalant skin tests in this geographic location. However, possible cross-reactivity with mites has to be taken into consideration during the clinical evaluation of subjects with cockroach sensitivity, especially in our patient population with such high rates of house-dust-mite allergy.
Daoubi, Mourad; Deligeorgopoulou, Athina; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Hitchcock, Peter B; Hanson, James R; Collado, Isidro G
Diisophorone (1) was tested against two strains of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Fungal sensitivity varied according to the strain. B. cinera 2100 was more sensitive than B. cinereaUCA992: its mycelial growth was significantly inhibited at concentrations of 50 ppm and above. Although diisophorone (1) showed an effective control of B. cinerea, a detoxification mechanism was present. The detoxification of racemic diisophorone (1) by B. cinerea was investigated. Incubation with two strains of B. cinerea gave one and four biotransformation products (2-5), respectively. Their structures were established as the known 8beta-hydroxydiisophorone (2), 6alpha-hydroxydiisophorone (3), 6beta-hydroxydiisophorone (4) and 8beta,14beta-dihydroxydiisophorone (5) on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR analysis [heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY)] and an X-ray crystallographic study.
Asthma is a major public health concern. Cockroach allergen exposure and cockroach allergic sensitization could contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. However, the underlying immune mechanism and the genetic etiology remain unclear. Recent advances have demonstrated that several receptors (PAR-2, TLRs, CLRs) and their pathways mediate antigen uptake from the environment and induce allergies by signaling T cells to activate an inappropriate immune response. Cockroach-derived protease can disturb airway epithelial integrity via PAR-2 and leads to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen, resulting in activation of innate immune cells (e.g., DCs) via binding to either TLRs or CLRs. The activated DCs can direct cells of the adaptive immune system to facilitate promotion of Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization. Mannose receptor (MR), as a CLR, has been shown to mediate Bla g2 (purified cockroach allergen) uptake by DCs and to determine allergen-induced T cell polarization. Additionally, genetic factors may play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and related phenotypes (HLA-D, TSLP, IL-12A, MBL2). In this review, we have focused on studies on the cockroach allergen induced immunologic responses and genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.
Asthma is a major public health concern. Cockroach allergen exposure and cockroach allergic sensitization could contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. However, the underlying immune mechanism and the genetic etiology remain unclear. Recent advances have demonstrated that several receptors (PAR-2, TLRs, CLRs) and their pathways mediate antigen uptake from the environment and induce allergies by signaling T cells to activate an inappropriate immune response. Cockroach-derived protease can disturb airway epithelial integrity via PAR-2 and leads to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen, resulting in activation of innate immune cells (e.g., DCs) via binding to either TLRs or CLRs. The activated DCs can direct cells of the adaptive immune system to facilitate promotion of Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization. Mannose receptor (MR), as a CLR, has been shown to mediate Bla g2 (purified cockroach allergen) uptake by DCs and to determine allergen-induced T cell polarization. Additionally, genetic factors may play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and related phenotypes (HLA-D, TSLP, IL-12A, MBL2). In this review, we have focused on studies on the cockroach allergen induced immunologic responses and genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:22272212
Lemos, A A; Lemos, J A; Prado, M A; Pimenta, F C; Gir, E; Silva, H M; Silva, M R R
The fungal pathogenic flora of the external surface of 103 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) collected from the intensive care unit of a hospital were investigated. In this study, a high percentage of test cockroaches (93.2%) were found to carry fungi of medical importance. The main fungi isolated were species of Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Information about the carriage of pathogenic fungi by cockroaches in hospital environment is scanty. The results suggest that cockroaches can play a role in dissemination of fungi, which they can carry on their external surface.
Rabito, Felicia A; Carlson, John C; He, Hua; Werthmann, Derek; Schal, Coby
Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes. One hundred two children aged 5 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial testing the use of insecticidal bait on cockroach counts and asthma morbidity. Homes were visited 6 times and asthma symptoms were assessed every 2 months. After adjustment, intervention homes had significantly fewer cockroaches than did control homes (mean change in cockroaches trapped, 13.14; 95% CI, 6.88-19.39; P < .01). Children in control homes had more asthma symptoms and unscheduled health care utilization in the previous 2 weeks (1.82, 95% CI, 0.14-3.50, P = .03; 1.17, 95% CI, 0.11-2.24, P = .03, respectively) and a higher proportion of children with FEV1 of less than 80% predicted (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.60-20.57; P = .01) compared with children living in intervention homes. Previous research has demonstrated improvement in asthma health outcomes using multifaceted interventions. The strategic placement of insecticidal bait, which is inexpensive, has low toxicity, and is widely available, resulted in sustained cockroach elimination over 12 months and was associated with improved asthma outcomes. This single intervention may be an alternative to multifaceted interventions currently recommended to improve asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Macchia, Mario; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia
An HPLC-ESIMS(n) method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray positive ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry, has been used to rapidly identify and guide the isolation of phenolic constituents from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of T. cinerea. On the basis of the results of the online screening by HPLC-ESIMS (n), 17 phenolic constituents, including two new compounds, namely demethylapollinin 7- O- β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and cineroside A (17), were isolated, and their structures were unambiguously assigned by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments.
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Rivault, Colette
Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics) was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics) in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects. PMID:21811557
Moran, David T.; Chapman, Kent M.; Ellis, Richard A.
Campaniform sensilla on cockroach legs provide a good model system for the study of mechanoreceptive sensory transduction. This paper describes the structure of campaniform sensilla on the cockroach tibia as revealed by light- and electron-microscopy. Campaniform sensilla are proprioceptive mechanoreceptors associated with the exoskeleton. The function of each sensillum centers around a single primary sense cell, a large bipolar neuron whose 40 µ-wide cell body is available for electrophysiological investigation with intracellular microelectrodes. Its axon travels to the central nervous system; its dendrite gives rise to a modified cilium which is associated with the cuticle. The tip of the 20 µ-long dendrite contains a basal body, from which arises a 9 + 0 connecting cilium. This cilium passes through a canal in the cuticle, and expands in diameter to become the sensory process, a membrane-limited bundle of 350–1000 parallel microtubules. The tip of the sensory process is firmly attached to a thin cap of exocuticle; mechanical depression of this cap, which probably occurs during walking movements, effectively stimulates the sensillum. The hypothesis is presented that the microtubules of the sensory process play an important role in mechanoelectric transduction in cockroach campaniform sensilla. PMID:5545101
Tests were conducted with Bedbugs , Cimex lectularius German cockroaches, Blatella germanica and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana strains...that 0.5% diazinon should control bedbugs and 0.05% diazinon should control German cockroaches and 3.0% malathion should control American cockroaches
Boeckh, J; Priesner, E; Schneider, D; Jacobson, M
The recently isolated sex attractant of the female American cockroach elicits an electical response in the antennae of males, females, and mymphs of this species. These electroantennograms are known to be summated receptor (generator) potentials of many olfactory sensillae stimulated simultaneously. Many other odorous substances also elicit such responses in the cockroach antenna.
Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo
Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.
Tomlinson, J A; Dickinson, M J; Boonham, N
To develop a sensitive, rapid and simple method for detection of Botrytis cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) that would be suitable for use outside a conventional laboratory setting. A LAMP assay was designed based on the intergenic spacer of the B. cinerea nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The resulting assay was characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity using DNA extracted from cultures. The assay consistently amplified 65 pg B. cinerea DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed with a range of other fungal pathogens, with the exception of the closely related species Botrytis pelargonii. Use of a novel real-time LAMP platform (the OptiGene Genie I) allowed detection of B. cinerea in infected rose petals, with amplification occurring in <15 min. The LAMP assay that was developed is suitable for rapid detection of B. cinerea in infected plant material. The LAMP method combines the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid-based methods with simplified equipment and a reduced reaction time. These features make the method potentially suitable for on-site use, where the results of testing could help to inform decisions regarding the storage and processing of commodities affected by B. cinerea, such as cut flowers, fruit and vegetables. © 2010 British Crown Copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology 51, 650-657 © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Silva, Isabel; Cooper, Bruce; Scharf, Michael E
Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.
Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.
Sriwichai, P; Nacapunchai, D; Pasuralertsakul, S; Rongsriyam, Y; Thavara, U
This study aimed to investigate the species distribution of indoor cockroaches in dwellings in Bangkok. Commercial sticky traps were used to catch cockroaches in 128 private residences (40 single houses, 49 townhouses, 39 apartments), 34 offices, and 30 small groceries. The cockroaches were identified as Periplaneta americana, Supella longipalpa, Blattella germanica, Neostylopyga rhombifolia, P. brunnea, P. australasiae, Pycnoscelus surinamensis, and B. lituricallis; two were unidentified species. The most common species were P. americana, S. longipalpa and B. germanica--most of which were nymphal stages. P. americana and S. longipalpa infested all kinds of buildings, especially private residences (50.0% and 17.2%, respectively) and offices (61.8% and 58.8%, respectively); they were also found mostly (15.1%) in mixed infestation and with no predominant species. B. germanica (26.7%) were significantly predominant in groceries. Air conditioners have no influence on cockroach distribution.
Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L
Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.
Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...
during treadmill running in the cockroach , Blaberus discoidalis: JJ. Fast running. /. Comp. Physiol. A. 182:23- 33. Presentations R. Beer gave an...PERFORMANCE REPORT A Cockroach -Like Hexapod Robot for Natural Terrain Locomotion Grant N00014-96-1-0708 Period of Performance: 3 Years Starting...Date: January 1,1996 June 24, 1998 Randall D. Beer Principal Investigator Department of Computer Engineering and Science Department of Biology
Cristescu, Simona M.; De Martinis, Domenico; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Parker, David H.; Harren, Frans J. M.
A laser-based ethylene detector was used for on-line monitoring of ethylene released by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in tomato fruit. Ethylene data were combined with the results of a cytological analysis of germination of B. cinerea conidia and hyphal growth. We found that aminoethoxyvinylglycine and aminooxyacetic acid, which are competitive inhibitors of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid pathway, did not inhibit the ethylene emission by B. cinerea and that the fungus most likely produces ethylene via the 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid pathway. B. cinerea is able to produce ethylene in vitro, and the emission of ethylene follows the pattern that is associated with hyphal growth rather than the germination of conidia. Ethylene production in vitro depended on the l-methionine concentration added to the plating medium. Higher values and higher emission rates were observed when the concentration of conidia was increased. Compared with the ethylene released by the fungus, the infection-related ethylene produced by two tomato cultivars (cultivars Money Maker and Daniela) followed a similar pattern, but the levels of emission were 100-fold higher. The time evolution of enhanced ethylene production by the infected tomatoes and the cytological observations indicate that ethylene emission by the tomato-fungus system is not triggered by the ethylene produced by B. cinerea, although it is strongly synchronized with the growth rate of the fungus inside the tomato. PMID:12406723
Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.
Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079
Dolter, J; Wong, J; Janda, J M
Twenty-two strains of Neisseria cinerea were recovered from paediatric patients over a 7-year period and forwarded to the Microbial Diseases Laboratory for biochemical identification and/or confirmation. Eighteen of these 22 strains (82%) were recovered from the eyes of very young children (< or = 1 year), > 50% occurring during the neonatal period. The majority of eye isolates were involved in a variety of ocular infections including orbital cellulitis, conjunctivitis, and eye discharge (most common); in four of the 13 instances (31%) where laboratory data was available, Neisseria cinerea was recovered in pure culture. Neisseria cinerea isolates were often submitted to the Microbial Diseases Laboratory as possible 'N. gonorrhoeae' or 'Neisseria species' due to problems resulting from the use of commercial assays or unfamiliarity with the organism. These observations indicate that N. cinerea can produce eye infections in very young children, who presumably acquire this organism vertically from the mother during birth. Accurate identification of N. cinerea in such infants can preclude the social trauma and possible legal ramifications which can initially result from its misidentification as N. gonorrhoeae.
Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie
For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a "mouse diet", the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.
Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D
Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls.
Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M
The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward.
Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi
Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.
Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie
For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species. PMID:27706376
Sun, Bao-Qing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Gjesing, Birgitte; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Zhong, Nan-Shan
Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients. The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches. Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females. Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients, 88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der p sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach. A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.
Carlson, John C; Rabito, Felicia A; Werthmann, Derek; Fox, Mark
American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes. Cockroaches released into yards were collected in the homes, suggesting that yards, rather than sewers, are a more important source niche. A field trial applying boric acid granules to the yard was performed in an effort to reduce entry of cockroaches. There was a significant reduction in the cockroach antigen collected in intervention homes compared with controls.
AbuQamar, Synan F.; Moustafa, Khaled; Tran, Lam-Son P.
Botrytis cinerea is a dangerous plant pathogenic fungus with wide host ranges. This aggressive pathogen uses multiple weapons to invade and cause serious damages on its host plants. The continuing efforts of how to solve the “puzzle” of the multigenic nature of B. cinerea’s pathogenesis and plant defense mechanisms against the disease caused by this mold, the integration of omic approaches, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, along with functional analysis could be a potential solution. Omic studies will provide a foundation for development of genetic manipulation and breeding programs that will eventually lead to crop improvement and protection. In this mini-review, we will highlight the current progresses in research in plant stress responses to B. cinerea using high-throughput omic technologies. We also discuss the opportunities that omic technologies can provide to research on B. cinerea-plant interactions as an example showing the impacts of omics on agricultural research. PMID:27895649
Schal, C; Chiang, A S
Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.
GRAYSON, J M
Specimens of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from two different locations near Owensboro, Ky., USA, were tested in the laboratory for resistance to diazinon and malathion. Those from one location were reared for three generations, and those from the other for four generations, before testing was completed. The results showed that both strains possessed resistance to diazinon, but neither strain was resistant to malathion. The males and females of one strain were, respectively, 2.5 and 2.6 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 3.0 and 3.8 times resistant at LC(90): while those of the other strain were 5.8 and 8.0 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 9.3 and 15.3 times resistant at LC(90).
Castro, Miguel; Kramer, Kurt; Valdivia, Lorena; Ortiz, Sylvia; Castillo, Antonio
Botrytis cinerea CCg425 contains a 33-nm isometric mycovirus whose genome is a 6.8-kb double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecule. Virulence bioassays, performed by direct plug mycelial inoculation on bean plant leaves, showed that B. cinerea CCg425 displays less fungal aggressivity than B. cinerea CKg54, a virulent fungal strain that is not infected by dsRNA mycoviruses. B. cinerea CCg425 also showed lower laccase activity and conidiation rate than B. cinerea CKg54. Furthermore, infection of B. cinerea CKg54 with viral particles purified from B. cinerea CCg425 resulted in diminished virulence of the infected fungus. Collectively, our results indicate that mycovirus infection confers hypovirulence to the fungal host.
Tatfeng, Y M; Usuanlele, M U; Orukpe, A; Digban, A K; Okodua, M; Oviasogie, F; Turay, A A
Cockroaches (Diploptera punctata) are basically tropical insects and will do their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. Their involvement in the transmission of tropical diseases is poorly investigated in Africa. A study on the bacterial, fungal and parasitic profile of cockroaches trapped in and around houses in Ekpoma was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. Of a total of 234 cockroaches trapped from different sites (toilets, parlours, kitchens and bedrooms) in houses with pit latrines and water system, the bacterial, fungal and parasitic isolates were identical irrespective of the site, these included: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serretia marcescens, S. aureus, S. feacalis, S. epidermidis, Aeromonas sp, Candida sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, cysts of E. hystolitica, oocysts of C. parvum, C. cayetenensis and Isospora belli, cysts of Balantidium coli, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunalae, Enterobius vermicularis, ova Trichuris trichura, larva of Strongyloides stercoralis. Cockroaches trapped in the toilets of houses with pit latrines had a mean bacterial and parasites count of 12.3 x 10(10) org/ml and 98 parasites/ml respectively, while those trapped in the houses with water system had a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 89.5 x 10(7) org/ml and 31 parasites/ml respectively. A bacterial count of 78.9 x 10(7) org/ml was recorded from cockroaches trapped from the kitchens of houses with pit latrines. On the other hand a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 23.7 x 10(6) org/ml and 19 parasites/ml were recorded from kitchens of houses with water system. Cockroaches represent an important reservoir for infectious pathogens, therefore, control of cockroaches will substantially minimise the spread of infectious diseases in our environment.
Kang, B C; Wilson, M; Price, K H; Kambara, T
Antigens/allergens of three common cockroach extracts, crude whole body extract of the American cockroach (CRa-A), crude whole body extract of the German cockroach (CRa-G), and crude whole body extract of the Oriental cockroach (CRa-O), were studied with crossed immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blot analysis. Sera of cockroach-allergic patients with asthma, 10 from Chicago, Ill. (C group) and six patients from Lexington, Ky. (L group), were used; results were then compared with sera of control subjects with asthma. Qualitative differences in protein bands were noted among CRa-A, CRa-G, and CRa-O by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allergen bands on Western blot were analyzed for distribution by molecular weight (MW) with relative intensity scores. Results were compared by species and by geography. Two to 12 allergenic bands of variable MW (14 kd to greater than 116 kd) were identified by 13 of 16 individual sera from cockroach-allergic patients from all three extracts. CRa-A demonstrated 55 bands with an intensity score of 125; CRa-G, 58 bands with an intensity score of 100; and CRa-O, 51 bands with an intensity score of 108. Allergenic bands of CRa-A were identified by six sera of the C group and one sera of the L group, whereas bands of both CRa-G and CRa-O were noted by nine sera of the C group and four sera of the L group. All three species had an allergen band in MW range of 40 to 45 kd that reacted to most sera from cockroach-allergic patients with asthma.
Paula M. Pijut
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) (Fig. 1a), also known as white walnut or oilnut, is a hardwood species in the family Juglandaceae, section Trachycaryon (Manning, 1978), or more appropriately, section Cardiocaryon (Fjellstrom & Parfitt, 1994). This hardwood species is valued for its wood and edible...
Aleu; Hanson; Galan; Collado
Biotransformation of the fungistatic sesquiterpenoid patchoulol (1) by the fungus Botrytis cinerea affords the 5-, 7- and (8R)-hydroxy (2, 3, and 5) derivatives as the major metabolites, together with a number of minor metabolites (4, 6-9) arising from hydroxylation at C-2, C-3, C-5, C-9, C-13, and C-14.
Paula M. Pijut
Juglans cinerea L. is a hardwood species valued for its wood and edible nuts. Butternut canker disease (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) threatens its survival. Vegetative propagation will be required to produce clones of genotypes selected for resistance to butternut canker disease. In 2000, 10 trees were randomly selected...
AbuQamar, Synan; Moustafa, Khaled; Tran, Lam Son
Biotic factors affect plant immune responses and plant resistance to pathogen infections. Despite the considerable progress made over the past two decades in manipulating genes, proteins and their levels from diverse sources, no complete genetic tolerance to environmental stresses has been developed so far in any crops. Plant defense response to pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea, is a complex biological process involving various changes at the biochemical, molecular (i.e. transcriptional) and physiological levels. Once a pathogen is detected, effective plant resistance activates signaling networks through the generation of small signaling molecules and the balance of hormonal signaling pathways to initiate defense mechanisms to the particular pathogen. Recently, studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and crop plants have shown that many genes are involved in plant responses to B. cinerea infection. In this article, we will review our current understanding of mechanisms regulating plant responses to B. cinerea with a particular interest on hormonal regulatory networks involving phytohormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA). We will also highlight some potential gene targets that are promising for improving crop resistance to B. cinerea through genetic engineering and breeding programs. Finally, the role of biological control as a complementary and alternative disease management will be overviewed.
Southern, P M; Kutscher, A E
We report two cases of bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea. One was a 2.5-yr-old boy with otitis media and pneumonia, who responded to treatment with amoxicillin. The other was a 47-yr-old man with underlying ethanol abuse who developed severe polymicrobial sepsis due to apparent intraabdominal disease. This man died despite extensive antimicrobial therapy.
Snoddy, Edward T; Appel, Arthur G
Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Because this species is a peridomestic pest, mulch preferences may be a key part of an integrated pest management program for homeowners. Five mulches were used: cypress, oak leaf litter, pine straw, rubber, and topsoil. Large arena experiments showed that adult male Asian cockroaches preferred oak leaf litter and pine straw, while adult females preferred oak leaf litter and rubber mulches. Nymphal stages preferred rubber (48.3-62.5% for small and medium instars, respectively) to all other mulches. All stages of the Asian cockroach showed very little preference to topsoil (0%) and cypress mulch (6.3%). Ebeling choice box tests confirmed lack of preference or repellency of adult males to topsoil (17.8 +/- 3.6%) and rubber mulch (15.7 +/- 3.6%). Continuous exposure experiments indicated that pine straw was significantly more toxic to adult males than other mulches (66.7 +/- 18.4% mortality at 7 d). Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach may be mediated by characteristics of the interstitial spaces in the different mulches. Rubber mulch afforded smaller, more humid spaces that were inaccessible to adults. Because cypress mulch was least preferred by nymphs and adults, use of cypress mulch in an integrated pest management program around homes may help to reduce Asian cockroach populations and limit insecticide exposure to humans, animals, and the environment.
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby
Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect-insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites.
Lo, Nathan; Beninati, Tiziana; Stone, Fred; Walker, James; Sacchi, Luciano
Phylogenetic relationships among termites, mantids and the five traditionally recognized cockroach families have been the subject of several studies during the last half-century. One cockroach lineage that has remained notably absent from such studies is the Nocticolidae. This group of small, elusive surface- and cave-dwelling species from the Old World Tropics has been proposed to represent an additional family. Using molecular sequences, we performed an initial phylogenetic examination of Nocticola spp. The hypothesis that they are phylogenetically divergent was confirmed from the analyses of three genes and a combined dataset. To supplement our phylogenetic analyses, we attempted to amplify 16S rRNA from the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti, present in all cockroaches studied to date. Unexpectedly, amplification was unsuccessful in all Nocticola spp. examined. This result was confirmed by microscopic examinations of fat body tissue. These Nocticola spp. are the first cockroaches found to be uninfected by B. cuenoti, which raise questions about when the bacterium first infected cockroaches.
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby
Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect–insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557
Váczy, Kálmán Z; Sándor, Erzsébet; Karaffa, Levente; Fekete, Erzsébet; Fekete, Eva; Arnyasi, Mariann; Czeglédi, Levente; Kövics, György J; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P
Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of Botryotinia fuckeliana) causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants including grapes. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of a grape pathogenic population of B. cinerea in the area of Eger, Hungary. A total of 109 isolates from 12 areas were sampled. Based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin (tub1) locus, they all belong to group II, a phylogenetic species within B. cinerea. Seventy-four isolates were classified as transposa, with both the Flipper and Boty transposons, and 10 were classified as vacuma, lacking both transposons. The remaining isolates contained either only Flipper (13) or Boty (12). Multilocus analysis of sequences from tub1 and two other loci (elongation factor 1-alpha, tef1, and a minisatellite from the intron of an ATPase, MSB1) led to poor phylogenetic resolution of strains in individual clades. Analysis of five microsatellites (Bc2, Bc3, Bc5, Bc6, and Bc10) resulted in 55 microsatellite haplotypes within the 109 strains. No correlation was detected among individual haplotypes and the presence/absence of Flipper and/or Boty, the geographic origin, or the year of isolation. Application of the index of association, the chi-square test, and the phi test consistently indicated that the population of Hungarian isolates of B. cinerea undergoes sexual reproduction. However, the index of association test suggested the presence of some clonality, and the fixation index showed a low or occasionally moderate level of fixation in the Flipper populations. We conclude that the B. cinerea populations in Hungary consist of a strongly recombining group II phylogenetic species.
Wu, C H; Luo, S F; Wong, D W
Serum from atopics hypersensitive to the American cockroach were examined for their specific IgE to American and German cockroaches by the fluoroallergosorbent test (FAST). Of 44 sera tested, 86.4% (38/44) contained IgE to American and German cockroaches, and 13.6% (6/44) were found to be positive for American cockroach alone by FAST. Nine individual sera containing IgE antibodies to both cockroaches were used to analyze the cross-reacting allergens in the crude American and German cockroach extracts by FAST inhibition and immunoblotting FAST-inhibition studies showed various degrees but similar inhibition of binding of human IgE to solid-phase American cockroach extract. Proteins from both cockroach extracts were separated on SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting, and the results showed considerable heterogeneity in the IgE-binding patterns with each of the cockroach extracts for the same nine individual sera. Components with apparent molecular weights of 60, 52, 49, 38, and 12 kDa from both the American and German cockroaches were able to bind IgE antibody. These results suggest the presence of cross-reactive allergens in the American and the German cockroaches.
Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas
Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.
Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L.
Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon—the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host. PMID:22327579
Cockroaches are among the most ancient winged insects, the earliest fossils dating back to about 400 million years. Several conflicting phylogenies for cockroach families, subfamilies, and genera have been proposed in the past. In addition, the relationship of Cryptocercidae to other cockroach families and the relationship between the cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and the termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis, have generated debate. In this paper, a phylogeny for cockroaches, mantids, and termites based on DNA sequence of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes is presented. The results indicated that cockroaches are a monophyletic group, whose sister group is Mantoidea. The inferred relationship among cockroach families was in agreement with the presently accepted phylogeny. However, there was only partial congruence at the subfamily and the generic levels. The phylogeny inferred here does not support a close relationship between C. punctulatus and M. darwiniensis. The apparent synapomorphies of these two species are likely a manifestation of convergent evolution because there are similarities in biology and habitat. PMID:7534409
Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives.
Ding, Zhongtao; Zhang, Zhi; Zhong, Juan; Luo, Di; Zhou, Jinyan; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Shu, Dan; Tan, Hong
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical phytohormone which plays an important role in plant stress resistance. Moreover, ABA is also found to regulate the activation of innate immune cells and glucose homeostasis in mammals. Therefore, this ‘stress hormone’ is of great importance to theoretical research and agricultural and medical applications. Botrytis cinerea is a well-known phytopathogenic ascomycete that synthesizes ABA via a pathway substantially different from higher plants. Identification of the functional genes involved in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea would be of special interest. We developed an ABA-overproducing mutant strain, B. cinerea TBC-A, previously and obtained a 41.5-Mb genome sequence of B. cinerea TBC-A. In this study, the transcriptomes of B. cinerea TBC-A and its ancestral strain TBC-6 were sequenced under identical fermentation conditions. A stringent comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes participating in the metabolic pathways related to ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea. This study provides the first global view of the transcriptional changes underlying the very different ABA productivity of the B. cinerea strains and will expand our knowledge of the molecular basis for ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea. PMID:27892476
Komatsu, N; Kawakami, Y; Banzai, A; Ooi, H K; Uchida, A
The so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" were examined by morphological observations and by breeding experiments to elucidate their actual taxonomical status. Fourteen groups (isolate) of "Ogasawara cockroaches" collected from Iwoto-A, Iwoto-B, Hahajima, Chichijima, Nishijima, Nakodojima, Tokunoshima-A, Tokunoshima-B, Okinawato- A, Okinawa-B, Amamiooshima, Miyakojima, Ishigakijima and Hawaii, were bred and passaged in our laboratory. Cockroaches collected from the field were first reared individually and the sexes of their offspring examined. Cockroaches collected from Iwoto, Tokushima and Okinawa, were found to consist of two groups; those whose offspring were all female and the other whose offspring consist of both male and female. Cross-breeding experiments showed that individuals from the group that did not produce any male but only female offspring were parthenogenetic. On the contrary, the group that have bisexual individuals produced both male and female offspring in a ratio of 1:1. Our results show that the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" consist of 2 species, namely, Pycnoscelus surinamensis and Pycnoscelus indicus. There are areas in which both species co-habitated together and there are also areas in which either only one of the two species can be found. The group that reproduces only female offspring and only through parthenogenesis was identified as P. surinamensis. The group that reproduces heterosexually and produce male and female offspring was identified as P. indicus. Thus, the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" found in Japan actually consist of 2 species, namely, P. surinamensis and P. indicus, which can be differentiated using the solitary breeding method to demonstrate parthenogenesis in the former and the need for sexual reproduction in the latter.
Koehler, P G; Atkinson, T H; Patterson, R S
Abamectin was fed to German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), in non-choice tests. LT50s and LC50s were estimated by probit analysis. The LT50s for the German cockroach ranged from 4.4 to 1.7 d for males, from 9.0 to 2.4 d for females, and from 4.4 to 1.6 d for nymphs for bait concentrations of abamectin between 0.0025 and 0.0500%. The LC50s of abamectin were 0.0110 and 0.0040% from males, 0.0240 and 0.0090% for females, and 0.0200 and 0.0080% for nymphs at 3 and 6 d, respectively. The LT50 values of 0.0550% abamectin bait were 3.4, 3.4, 2.4, 7.5, 2.9, and 4.5 d for Periplaneta americana (L.), P. fuliginosa (Serville), P. brunnea Burmeister, P. australasiae (F.), Blatta orientalis L., and Supella longipalpa (Serville). Although the bait was effective against various cockroach species, time to death for the larger species was longer than for the German cockroach. In preference tests in which male German cockroaches were allowed to feed on rat chow or abamectin bait, all died within 5 d of exposure to abamectin bait. Abamectin bait consumption was not significantly lower than that of untreated rat chow. Arena tests with 0.0550% abamectin bait resulted in 31-75% mortality of German cockroaches after 9 d, with most control being achieved by treating harborages with the bait. The hydramethylnon standard resulted in 65% mortality after 9 d.
Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.
Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.
Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P<0.05) without a significant difference between hospital and household environments (P>0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej
In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.
Burgess, N. R. H.; McDermott, S. N.; Whiting, J.
Methods of maintaining and feeding and of infecting cockroaches with pathogenic organisms were investigated. Cockroaches fed on known concentrations of Escherichia coli O119, Esch. coli O1, Alkalescens Dispar O group 2 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's Bacillus) were maintained in Petri dishes. The effect of various diets on the survival of these organisms within the hind-gut and faeces was observed. With a `normal' diet of gruel Esch. coli O119 was isolated for up to 20 days, Esch. coli O1 for 17 days and ADO 2 for 15 days. Sh. dysenteriae 1 was isolated only sporadically to the third day. PMID:4571613
Burgess, N R; McDermott, S N; Whiting, J
Methods of maintaining and feeding and of infecting cockroaches with pathogenic organisms were investigated.Cockroaches fed on known concentrations of Escherichia coli O119, Esch. coli O1, Alkalescens Dispar O group 2 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's Bacillus) were maintained in Petri dishes. The effect of various diets on the survival of these organisms within the hind-gut and faeces was observed. With a ;normal' diet of gruel Esch. coli O119 was isolated for up to 20 days, Esch. coli O1 for 17 days and ADO 2 for 15 days. Sh. dysenteriae 1 was isolated only sporadically to the third day.
Kim, Joon-Oh; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Gumilang, Adiyantara; Chung, Keun; Choi, Ki Young; Kim, Kyoung Su
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid. Fludioxonil was the most effective (EC50 < 0.1 μg/ml), and pyrimethanil was the least effective (EC50 = 50 μg/ml), at inhibiting the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Fenpyrazamine and pyrimethanil showed relatively low effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and conidial production of B. cinerea. Our results are useful for the management of B. cinerea and as a basis for monitoring the sensitivity of B. cinerea strains to fungicides. PMID:27904464
Boyce, J M; Mitchell, E B; Knapp, J S; Buttke, T M
Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. 14C-labeled gas was produced significantly faster (P less than 0.02) by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the 14C-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.
Boyce, J.M.; Mitchell, E.B. Jr.; Knapp, J.S.; Buttke, T.M.
Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. UC-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the UC-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.
Cheng, Chi-Hua; Yang, Chia-Ann; Peng, Kou-Cheng
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 grown in the presence of deactivated Botrytis cinerea in culture include a putative l-amino acid oxidase and have suggested the involvement of this enzyme in the antagonistic mechanism. Here, we hypothesized that the mycoparasitic process of Trichoderma spp. against B. cinerea involves two steps; that is, an initial hyphal coiling stage and a subsequent hyphal coiling stage, with different coiling rates. The two-step antagonism of T. harzianum ETS 323 against B. cinerea during the mycoparasitic process in culture was evaluated using a biexponential equation. In addition, an l-amino acid oxidase (Th-l-AAO) was identified from T. harzianum ETS 323. The secretion of Th-l-AAO was increased when T. harzianum ETS 323 was grown with deactivated hyphae of B. cinerea. Moreover, in vitro assays indicated that Th-l-AAO effectively inhibited B. cinerea hyphal growth, caused cytosolic vacuolization in the hyphae, and led to hyphal lysis. Th-l-AAO also showed disease control against the development of B. cinerea on postharvest apple fruit and tobacco leaves. Furthermore, an apoptosis-like response, including the generation of reactive oxygen species, was observed in B. cinerea after treatment with Th-l-AAO, suggesting that Th-l-AAO triggers programmed cell death in B. cinerea. This may be associated with the two-step antagonism of T. harzianum ETS 323 against B. cinerea.
Smith, L M; Appel, A G
German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), catch by five types of traps and modifications of each, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Cockroach catch differed significantly among traps. Lo-line trap caught the greatest number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (23% small nymphs, 39% of gravid females, and 60% of other size classes in the experimental arena). Jar traps caught the least number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (range, 7-23% of each size class trapped). Modifications of traps also altered catch of cockroaches. Food bait tablets increased catch significantly; however, increases were small (<10%). Size of traps did not affect catch; whole traps or half traps caught the same number of cockroaches. Jar traps were much less effective than sticky traps, catching only half the number of cockroaches as sticky traps. A thin layer of petrolatum was a more effective barrier in jar traps to cockroach escape than powdered Olancha clay. Traps with petrolatum caught about twice as many cockroaches as traps with clay. Trapping of any of six life stages was not significantly affected by catch of any of the other stages. Rather, trap catch of each life stage was dependent on the number of that life stage available in the experimental arenas. In conclusion, of the traps tested, the Lo-line trap was the most sensitive for measuring cockroach catch, whereas the Detector trap (one third of trap) was the most economical trap (greatest sensitivity for lowest cost).
Bassirpour, Gillian; Zoratti, Edward
Purpose of review To provide a summary and discussion of cockroach allergy and clinical trials of cockroach allergen immunotherapy. Recent findings Cockroach allergen exposure among sensitized children is increasingly recognized as a key factor contributing to asthma morbidity. Recent trials suggest that cockroach immunotherapy has promise as a treatment strategy with studies demonstrating immunomodulatory and clinical effects. However, a few obstacles need to be overcome to realize the full potential of this treatment modality as cockroach allergic patients often exhibit complex sensitization patterns to multiple cockroach-associated proteins and an immunodominant allergen has not been identified. These factors have made it difficult to produce standardized cockroach allergen extracts that are potent and provide the broad allergen profiles needed for optimal treatment. There have been important advances in the identification and cloning of cockroach allergens and several strategies are being developed to provide therapeutic cockroach allergen products with enhanced clinical efficacy. Summary Allergen immunotherapy has the capability of modulating the immune response to cockroach allergen and has potential as a valuable treatment modality. Further studies of the clinical efficacy along with the development of improved therapeutic products are needed to advance our knowledge and realize the full potential of this promising therapy. PMID:25144264
Bassirpour, Gillian; Zoratti, Edward
To provide a summary and discussion of cockroach allergy and clinical trials of cockroach allergen immunotherapy. Cockroach allergen exposure among sensitized children is increasingly recognized as a key factor contributing to asthma morbidity. Recent trials suggest that cockroach immunotherapy holds promise as a treatment strategy with studies demonstrating immunomodulatory and clinical effects. However, a few obstacles need to be overcome to realize the full potential of this treatment modality as cockroach-allergic patients often exhibit complex sensitization patterns to multiple cockroach-associated proteins, and an immunodominant allergen has not been identified. These factors have made it difficult to produce standardized cockroach allergen extracts that are potent and provide the broad allergen profiles needed for optimal treatment. There have been important advances in the identification and cloning of cockroach allergens, and several strategies are being developed to provide therapeutic cockroach allergen products with enhanced clinical efficacy. Allergen immunotherapy has the capability of modulating the immune response to cockroach allergen and has potential as a valuable treatment modality. Further studies of the clinical efficacy, along with the development of improved therapeutic products, are needed to advance our knowledge and realize the full potential of this promising therapy.
Wood, Robert A; Togias, Alkis; Wildfire, Jeremy; Visness, Cynthia M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Gruchalla, Rebecca; Hershey, Gurjit; Liu, Andrew H; O'Connor, George T; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Zoratti, Edward; Little, Frederic; Granada, Mark; Kennedy, Suzanne; Durham, Stephen R; Shamji, Mohamed H; Busse, William W
Cockroach allergy is a key contributor to asthma morbidity in children living in urban environments. We sought to document immune responses to cockroach allergen and provide direction for the development of immunotherapy for cockroach allergy. Four pilot studies were conducted: (1) an open-label study to assess the safety of cockroach sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in adults and children; (2) a randomized, double-blind biomarker study of cockroach SLIT versus placebo in adults; (3) a randomized, double-blind biomarker study of 2 doses of cockroach SLIT versus placebo in children; and (4) an open-label safety and biomarker study of cockroach subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in adults. The adult SLIT trial (n = 54; age, 18-54 years) found a significantly greater increase in cockroach-specific IgE levels between the active and placebo groups (geometric mean ratio, 1.92; P < .0001) and a trend toward increased cockroach-specific IgG4 levels in actively treated subjects (P = .09) but no evidence of functional blocking antibody response. The pediatric SLIT trial (n = 99; age, 5-17 years) found significant differences in IgE, IgG, and IgG4 responses between both active groups and the placebo group but no consistent differences between the high- and low-dose groups. In the SCIT study the treatment resulted in significant changes from baseline in cockroach IgE, IgG4, and blocking antibody levels. The safety profile of cockroach immunotherapy was reassuring in all studies. The administration of cockroach allergen by means of SCIT is immunologically more active than SLIT, especially with regard to IgG4 levels and blocking antibody responses. No safety concerns were raised in any age group. These pilot studies suggest that immunotherapy with cockroach allergen is more likely to be effective with SCIT. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang
Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures). The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach's moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell's response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell's response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air (absolutely) and the
Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.
The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.
Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S; Benson, Ryan W; Godoy, Veronica G
The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.
Gretchen Schultz; Chris Peterson; Joel Coats
Recent research has focused on the repellent properties of extracts from the catnip plant (Nepeta cataria) and the Osage orange (Maclura pornifera) fruit. This chapter includes results on German cockroach (Blattella germanica), and house fly (Musca domestics) contact irritancy to catnip...
Nagaty, H F; Emami-Nouri, M
A case of invasion of the human ear by the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L) IN Mash'had, Khorassan, Iran is described. As far as the Author is aware this is the first such case recorded and published from Iran.
Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S
Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy.
Sabree, Zakee L.; Kambhampati, Srinivas; Moran, Nancy A.
Nitrogen acquisition and assimilation is a primary concern of insects feeding on diets largely composed of plant material. Reclaiming nitrogen from waste products provides a rich reserve for this limited resource, provided that recycling mechanisms are in place. Cockroaches, unlike most terrestrial insects, excrete waste nitrogen within their fat bodies as uric acids, postulated to be a supplement when dietary nitrogen is limited. The fat bodies of most cockroaches are inhabited by Blattabacterium, which are vertically transmitted, Gram-negative bacteria that have been hypothesized to participate in uric acid degradation, nitrogen assimilation, and nutrient provisioning. We have sequenced completely the Blattabacterium genome from Periplaneta americana. Genomic analysis confirms that Blattabacterium is a member of the Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes), with its closest known relative being the endosymbiont Sulcia muelleri, which is found in many sap-feeding insects. Metabolic reconstruction indicates that it lacks recognizable uricolytic enzymes, but it can recycle nitrogen from urea and ammonia, which are uric acid degradation products, into glutamate, using urease and glutamate dehydrogenase. Subsequently, Blattabacterium can produce all of the essential amino acids, various vitamins, and other required compounds from a limited palette of metabolic substrates. The ancient association with Blattabacterium has allowed cockroaches to subsist successfully on nitrogen-poor diets and to exploit nitrogenous wastes, capabilities that are critical to the ecological range and global distribution of cockroach species. PMID:19880743
Shrimp are among a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergy, and shrimp allergens have been demonstrated to cross-react with arthropod proteins, such as those from cockroaches. Edible insects are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have a high nutrition value....
Ko, Alexander E; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Bait formulations are widely used to control German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations. To perform optimally, these formulations must compete favorably with non-toxic alternative foods present within the insect's habitat. We hypothesized that the nutritional history of cockroaches and their acceptance or avoidance of glucose would affect their food preference and thus bait efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment, first providing glucose-accepting and glucose-averse cockroaches nutritionally defined diets and then offering them identical diets containing the insecticide hydramethylnon as a bait proxy to evaluate the effect of diets of differing macronutrient composition on bait performance. The interaction between diet composition and bait composition affected the survival of adult males as well as first-instar nymphs exposed to excretions produced by these males. Survival analyses indicated different responses of glucose-averse and glucose-accepting insects, but generally any combination of diet and bait that resulted in high diet intake and low bait intake reduced secondary kill. This study represents a comprehensive examination of the effect of alternative foods on bait efficacy. We suggest that disparities between the nutritional quality of baits and the foods that are naturally available could profoundly impact the management of German cockroach infestations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Wharton, D R; Black, E D; Merritt, C; Wharton, M L; Bazinet, M; Walsh, J T
The sex attractant of the female American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), has been collected and isolated by a combination of extraction, distillation, and chromatographic procedures. Progress through these procedures has been followed by bioassay and by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The attractant has been isolated by gas chromatography, and characterization by mass spectrometry is proceeding.
Farooq, Afgan; Tahara, Satoshi; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman; Ahmed, Zafar; Hüsnü, Can Başer K; Demirci, Fatih
(-)-alpha-Pinene (1), a major constituent of many aromatic plants was biotransformed by the plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford three new metabolites, characterized as 3beta-hydroxy-(-)-beta-pinene (10%) (3), 9-hydroxy-(-)-a-pinene (12%) (4), 4beta-hydroxy-(-)-alpha-pinene-6-one (16%) (5) by physical and spectroscopic methods. A known metabolite verbenone (2) was also obtained.
Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih
(-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.
Finkers, Richard; van den Berg, Petra; van Berloo, Ralph; ten Have, Arjen; van Heusden, Adriaan W; van Kan, Jan A L; Lindhout, Pim
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus was identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as S. habrochaites LYC4. In order to identify loci involved in quantitative resistance (QTLs) to B. cinerea, a population of 174 F(2) plants was made originating from a cross between S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker and S. habrochaites LYC4. The population was genotyped and tested for susceptibility to grey mold using a stem bioassay. Rbcq1, a QTL reducing lesion growth (LG) and Rbcq2, a QTL reducing disease incidence (DI) were identified. Rbcq1 is located on Chromosome 1 and explained 12% of the total phenotypic variation while Rbcq2 is located on Chromosome 2 and explained 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Both QTL effects were confirmed by assessing disease resistance in two BC(2)S(1) progenies segregating for either of the two QTLs. One additional QTL, Rbcq4 on Chromosome 4 reducing DI, was identified in one of the BC(2)S(1) progenies. F(2) individuals, homozygous for the Rbcq2 and Rbcq4 alleles of S. habrochaites showed a reduction of DI by 48%. QTLs from S. habrochaites LYC4 offer good perspectives for breeding B. cinerea resistant tomato cultivars.
Ramírez, Vicente; Agorio, Astrid; Coego, Alberto; García-Andrade, Javier; Hernández, M José; Balaguer, Begoña; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Zarra, Ignacio; Vera, Pablo
In this study, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor MYB46, previously described to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in the vascular tissue of the stem, is pivotal for mediating disease susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. We identified MYB46 by its ability to bind to a new cis-element located in the 5' promoter region of the pathogen-induced Ep5C gene, which encodes a type III cell wall-bound peroxidase. We present genetic and molecular evidence indicating that MYB46 modulates the magnitude of Ep5C gene induction following pathogenic insults. Moreover, we demonstrate that different myb46 knockdown mutant plants exhibit increased disease resistance to B. cinerea, a phenotype that is accompanied by selective transcriptional reprogramming of a set of genes encoding cell wall proteins and enzymes, of which extracellular type III peroxidases are conspicuous. In essence, our results substantiate that defense-related signaling pathways and cell wall integrity are interconnected and that MYB46 likely functions as a disease susceptibility modulator to B. cinerea through the integration of cell wall remodeling and downstream activation of secondary lines of defense.
Riet-Correa, F; Carvalho, K S; Riet-Correa, G; Barros, S S; Simões, S V D; Soares, M P; Medeiros, R M T
Tephrosia cinerea has been associated with ascites and liver fibrosis in sheep in Brazil. The dried plant was fed ad libitum to three sheep for 55-80 days. Three additional sheep were used as controls. All the treated sheep presented with hypoalbuminemia and increased γ-glutamyltransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Anorexia, apathy, rough coat, ascites, and emaciation were observed after 45-60 days of feeding with T. cinerea. At necropsy 55-80 days after feeding of the plant commenced, the treated sheep had ascites, hydrothorax and hydropericardium, and their livers were firm and whitish, with a nodular surface. Histologically, the main hepatic lesions were periacinar fibrosis associated with hemorrhages and necrosis. On electron microscopy, a severe swelling of sinusoidal endothelial cells, frequently obstructing the lumen of the sinusoid was observed. The space of Disse was compressed by the swollen endothelial cells and microvilli usually present on the surface of hepatocytes adjacent to the space of Disse were not apparent. Dense bundles of collagen fibers were present in the spaces of Disse and within the sinusoids between profiles of swollen endothelial cells. It is concluded that T. cinerea causes periacinar fibrosis, similar to poisoning by Galenia africana in sheep and goats and veno-occlusive disease in different species.
Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Leadbetter, Jared R
We examined the diversity of a marker gene for homoacetogens in two cockroach gut microbial communities. Formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS or fhs) libraries prepared from a wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, were dominated by sequences that affiliated with termite gut treponemes. No spirochete-like sequences were recovered from the omnivorous roach Periplaneta americana, which was dominated by Firmicutes-like sequences.
Coleman, Amaziah T; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Bai, Shasha; Brown, Rita H; Perry, Tamara T
Home characteristics and aeroallergen exposure in rural US children with asthma are poorly described. To examine the relationship between cockroach and mouse allergen concentrations and home characteristics of children with asthma in the rural Arkansas Delta. The home environments of rural children with asthma were examined using home environment questionnaire and home inspection. Bedroom and kitchen dust was analyzed for cockroach and mouse allergen concentrations. The median age of participants was 9 years, and 84% were African American. Most participants (78%) resided in single-family homes. Evidence of cockroaches was detected in 13% of homes and evidence of rodents was detected in 23% of homes. Detectable Bla g 1 was found in 58% of kitchens and 43% of bedrooms, Bla g 2 was detected in 37% of kitchens and 28% of bedrooms, and Mus m 1 was found in 81% of kitchens and 97% of bedrooms. Evidence of cockroaches in any room was associated with Bla g 1 concentrations of ≥2 U/g (odds ratio 21.71, 95% confidence interval 4.26-118.39) and Bla g 2 concentrations of ≥2 U/g (odds ratio 21.90 95% confidence interval 4.30-138.91). Multifamily vs single-family dwellings were more likely to have Bla g 2 concentrations of ≥2 U/g (odds ratio 3.52, 95% confidence interval 1.0-11.82). Home characteristics were not associated with Mus m 1. Mouse and cockroach allergens were detected in most rural homes; however, concentrations were relatively low compared with those previously reported in inner-city homes. Few home characteristics predicted allergen concentrations. Further studies are needed to establish clinically relevant associations that might place rural children with asthma at risk for poor clinical outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590304. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perzanowski, Matthew S; Chew, Ginger L; Divjan, Adnan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ridder, Robert; Tang, Deliang; Diaz, Diurka; Goldstein, Inge F; Kinney, Patrick L; Rundle, Andrew G; Camann, David E; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L
Sensitization to cockroach is one of the strongest identified risk factors for greater asthma morbidity in low-income urban communities; however, the timing of exposures relevant to the development of sensitization has not been elucidated fully. Furthermore, exposure to combustion byproducts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can augment the development of allergic sensitization. We sought to test the hypotheses that domestic cockroach allergen measured prenatally would predict cockroach sensitization in early childhood and that this association would be greater for children exposed to higher PAH concentrations. Dominican and African American pregnant women living in New York City were enrolled. In the third trimester expectant mothers wore personal air samplers for measurement of 8 nonvolatile PAHs and the semivolatile PAH pyrene, and dust was collected from homes for allergen measurement. Glutathione-S-transferase μ 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphisms were measured in children. Allergen-specific IgE levels were measured from the children at ages 2, 3, 5, and 7 years. Bla g 2 in prenatal kitchen dust predicted cockroach sensitization at the ages of 5 to 7 years (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.15; P = .001; n = 349). The association was observed only among children with greater than (RR, 1.22; P = .001) but not less than (RR, 1.07; P = .24) the median sum of 8 nonvolatile PAH levels. The association was most pronounced among children with higher PAH levels and null for the GSTM1 gene (RR, 1.54; P = .001). Prenatal exposure to cockroach allergen was associated with a greater risk of allergic sensitization. This risk was increased by exposure to nonvolatile PAHs, with children null for the GSTM1 mutation particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H G; Teichert, Holger
A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. The results suggest that the plant-cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species.
Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H. G.; Teichert, Holger
Background and Aims A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Methods Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). Key Results The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. Conclusions The results suggest that the plant–cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species. PMID:18567597
continuation of studies designed to enhance our understanding of population behavior and dynamics of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). It...Entomol. Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C.B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and ,togenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics
and Identlfy by block number) Genetic control Cockroach behavior A Blattella germanica C20 ABSTRACT fConfinue an reverse aide It necessary and Idenllfy...Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C. B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ. Entomol... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics
A unique type of sterility, embryonic trapping, is an ancillary effect of high lethality in the German cockroach . Lethal effects, such as those...of shipboard and other German cockroach infestations. The first research objective involved procedures for sexing and identifying double males. Two...3;7;12) males into the Kennedy strain was initiated. Data, though incomplete, leave little doubt that releases into one generation of cockroaches will result in population suppression in the next.
Memona, H; Manzoor, F; Anjum, A A
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat. Relative abundance and frequency were measured for each bacterial species on external and internal surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitations, two major species of cockroaches were isolated, i.e., Periplaneta americana (P americana) and Blattella germanica (B germanica). Out of 240 cockroaches collected, 167 were P americana and 73 were B germanica In total, 11 bacterial species were isolated, but no different bacterial load in each habitat was observed. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the external surface of cockroaches was found to be Escherichia coli (10.31%). In contrast, the most common isolate from the internal gut tract of cockroaches was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with relative frequency of 19.96%. Jaccard's index of similarity of bacterial species found on cockroaches was highest (0.3125) in houses, whereas Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity was highest for hospitals (0.2174). The highest Shannon-Wiener's diversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroaches collected from the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (2.610632). No Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia were found in the digestive tract of any cockroach.
Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Izzaudin, Nik Ahmad Irwan; Razak, Ainul Farhana Abdul
A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches.
Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Izzaudin, Nik Ahmad Irwan; Razak, Ainul Farhana Abdul
A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches. PMID:28228922
Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.
Kim, Tina; Rust, Michael K
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become an important invasive species throughout the southwestern United States and has been reported in the southern United States. It is rapidly replacing the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (L.), in urban areas of the southwestern United States as the most important peri-domestic species. They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls. On occasion, they will invade dwellings. At 26.7 degrees C, male and female nymphs developed into adults in an average of 222 and 224 d, respectively. Both males and females had five nymphal instars. Adult females deposited up to 25 oothecae. The oothecae averaged 16.8 eggs and 13.9 nymphs emerged per egg capsule, resulting in an 82.7% hatch rate. Adults lived for at least 612 d. Two parameters that might contribute to the success of Turkestan cockroaches compared with oriental cockroaches are that the developmental period of the nymphs of Turkestan cockroaches are shorter and adult female Turkestan cockroaches produce considerably more oothecae than do oriental cockroaches. These may explain the observations by Pest Management Professionals that Turkestan cockroaches are displacing oriental cockroaches in outdoor habitats throughout the southwestern United States.
Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu
A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.
Oothuman, P; Jeffery, J; Aziz, A H; Abu Bakar, E; Jegathesan, M
A survey was conducted in 4 paediatric wards in Malaysia to determine the distribution of various species of cockroaches and to examine their gut contents for bacteria. Cockroaches were trapped from food dispensing areas (kitchens), store rooms, cupboards and open wards. 104 cockroaches were caught, consisting of Periplaneta americana (67.3%), Blattella germanica (26%), P. brunnea (4.8%), and Supella longipalpa (1.9%). Bacteria were isolated from all cockroaches except 3 P. americana. Many bacterial species were identified, including the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic species Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebseilla oxytoca, K. ozaena and Serratia marcescens.
Fotedar, R.; Shriniwas, U. B.; Verma, A.
A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi. PMID:1879483
Sham, Arjun; Moustafa, Khaled; Al-Shamisi, Shamma; Alyan, Sofyan; Iratni, Rabah
The WRKY33 transcription factor was reported for resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Using microarray-based analysis, we compared Arabidopsis WRKY33 overexpressing lines and wrky33 mutant that showed altered susceptibility to B. cinerea with their corresponding wild-type plants. In the wild-type, about 1660 genes (7% of the transcriptome) were induced and 1054 genes (5% of the transcriptome) were repressed at least twofold at early stages of inoculation with B. cinerea, confirming previous data of the contribution of these genes in B. cinerea resistance. In Arabidopsis wild-type plant infected with B. cinerea, the expressions of the differentially expressed genes encoding for proteins and metabolites involved in pathogen defense and non-defense responses, seem to be dependent on a functional WRKY33 gene. The expression profile of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid- and phytoprostane A1-treated Arabidopsis plants in response to B. cinerea revealed that cyclopentenones can also modulate WRKY33 regulation upon inoculation with B. cinerea. These results support the role of electrophilic oxylipins in mediating plant responses to B. cinerea infection through the TGA transcription factor. Future directions toward the identification of the molecular components in cyclopentenone signaling will elucidate the novel oxylipin signal transduction pathways in plant defense. PMID:28207847
Jurick, Wayne M; Macarisin, Otilia; Gaskins, Verneta L; Park, Eunhee; Yu, Jiujiang; Janisiewicz, Wojciech; Peter, Kari A
Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold and is an economically important postharvest pathogen of fruit, vegetables, and ornamentals. Fludioxonil-sensitive B. cinerea isolates were collected in 2011 and 2013 from commercial storage in Pennsylvania. Eight isolates had values for effective concentrations for inhibiting 50% of mycelial growth of 0.0004 to 0.0038 μg/ml for fludioxonil and were dual resistant to pyrimethanil and thiabendazole. Resistance was generated in vitro, following exposure to a sublethal dose of fludioxonil, in seven of eight dual-resistant B. cinerea isolates. Three vigorously growing B. cinerea isolates with multiresistance to postharvest fungicides were further characterized and found to be osmosensitive and retained resistance in the absence of selection pressure. A representative multiresistant B. cinerea strain caused decay on apple fruit treated with postharvest fungicides, which confirmed the in vitro results. The R632I mutation in the Mrr1 gene, associated with fludioxonil resistance in B. cinerea, was not detected in multipostharvest fungicide-resistant B. cinerea isolates, suggesting that the fungus may be using additional mechanisms to mediate resistance. Results from this study show for the first time that B. cinerea with dual resistance to pyrimethanil and thiabendazole can also rapidly develop resistance to fludioxonil, which may pose control challenges in the packinghouse environment and during long-term storage.
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...
Botrytis cinerea causes grey mold of apple fruit and is one of the most economically important postharvest pathogens of global concern. Eight fludioxonil sensitive B. cinerea isolates from Pennsylvania had EC50 values ranging from 0.004 to 0.0038 µg/ml fludioxonil that were dual resistant to pyrimet...
von Kietzell, M; Richter, H; Bruderer, T; Goldenberger, D; Emonet, S; Strahm, C
Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed.
Zhu, Xiaofei; Li, Min; Cao, Huiling; Yang, Xuewen
Neisseria cinerea has been rarely found in blood cultures. In this study, we are reporting a case of a Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) patient in whose blood Neisseria cinerea was found and led a fatal consequence. This case will call our attentions to the uncommon pathogens in the pathogenicity of end-stage patients. PMID:26131259
Zhu, Xiaofei; Li, Min; Cao, Huiling; Yang, Xuewen
Neisseria cinerea has been rarely found in blood cultures. In this study, we are reporting a case of a Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) patient in whose blood Neisseria cinerea was found and led a fatal consequence. This case will call our attentions to the uncommon pathogens in the pathogenicity of end-stage patients.
Richter, H.; Bruderer, T.; Goldenberger, D.; Emonet, S.; Strahm, C.
Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed. PMID:26511743
Knapp, J S; Hook, E W
Neisseria cinerea is a commensal Neisseria sp. which was first described in 1906 but was subsequently misclassified as a subtype of Branhamella catarrhalis. N. cinerea resembles Neisseria gonorrhoeae in both cultural and biochemical characteristics and, thus, may also have been misidentified as N. gonorrhoeae. Of 202 patients whose oropharynges were colonized by Neisseria spp., N. cinerea was isolated in 57 (28.2%) patients, including 25 (30.1%) of 83 women, 22 (23.9%) of 92 heterosexual men, and 10 (37.0%) of 27 homosexual men in Seattle, Wash., in 1983 to 1984. N. cinerea was isolated from the urethra of only one (1.1%) patient. The oropharynges of many individuals were colonized persistently by strains of N. cinerea and other Neisseria spp.
Cooper, R.; Lee, H.; Butler, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Yi, J.; Vinson, B.; Liang, H.
We investigate effects of bending stress on piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a polymer sensor. The sensor was designed and fabricated into a special size and shape so that it can be attached to small insects, such as the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) to measure the insects' locomotion. The performance of the sensor is studied using a controlled linear stage to buckle the sensor mimicking the bending of the sensor due to the leg movements of cockroaches. For comparison, a roach robot was used for multi-leg study. Results indicate that buckling motion of the sensor produce an output that is different from regular stretching effect. The sensor-generated charge depends on the localized stress distribution and dipole alignment. This paper discusses the methods of characterization of piezoelectricity useful for insect applications.
Cloarec, A.; Rivault, C.; Fontaine, F.; Le Guyader, A.
The potential risk of bacterial dissemination due to the presence of cockroaches (Blattella germanica, Blattellidae) in low-income flats was investigated. Cockroaches can carry a great variety of bacterial species; we identified 30 different species from 52 different flats. Klebsiella oxycytoca, K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were the most frequently found. Pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria represented 54% of all the bacterial identifications. Bacteria were carried either on the cuticle or in the gut. Contamination through external contact is sufficient to insure bacterial diffusion. There was a very low level of overlap estimated by Pianka's index (a) between the bacterial flora of neighbouring blocks of flats, and (b) between bacterial flora of different flats in the same block. PMID:1468532
Titlow, Josh S; Majeed, Zana R; Hartman, H Bernard; Burns, Ellen; Cooper, Robin L
The cockroach ventral nerve cord preparation is a tractable system for neuroethology experiments, neural network modeling, and testing the physiological effects of insecticides. This article describes the scope of cockroach sensory modalities that can be used to assay how an insect nervous system responds to environmental perturbations. Emphasis here is on the escape behavior mediated by cerci to giant fiber transmission in Periplaneta americana. This in situ preparation requires only moderate dissecting skill and electrophysiological expertise to generate reproducible recordings of neuronal activity. Peptides or other chemical reagents can then be applied directly to the nervous system in solution with the physiological saline. Insecticides could also be administered prior to dissection and the escape circuit can serve as a proxy for the excitable state of the central nervous system. In this context the assays described herein would also be useful to researchers interested in limb regeneration and the evolution of nervous system development for which P. americana is an established model organism.
Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa
The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor.
Gao, Peisong; Grigoryev, Dmitry N.; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Mu, Deguang; Wright, Jerry M.; Cheadle, Christopher; Togias, Alkis; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Schroeder, John T.; Barnes, Kathleen C.
Summary Background Sensitization to cockroach allergen is one of the strongest predictors of asthma morbidity, especially among African Americans. Objective Our aims were to determine the genomic basis of cockroach sensitization and the specific response to cockroach antigen. Methods We investigated the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of co-cultured plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD4+ T cells and the “transcript signature” of the immune response to cockroach antigen using high-throughput expression profiling of co-cultured cells. Results We observed significantly elevated levels of IL-13, IL-10 and TNF-α, but undetectable levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-α, when cultures were exposed to crude cockroach antigen. A significant difference was observed for IL-13 between cockroach allergic and non-allergic individuals (p = 0.039). Microarray analyses demonstrated a greater response at 48 hours compared to 4 hours, with 50 genes being uniquely expressed in cockroach antigen-treated cells, including CD14, S100A8, CCL8, and IFI44L. The increased CD14 expression was further observed in purified pDCs, human monocytic THP-1 cells, and supernatant of co-cultured pDCs and CD4+ T cells in exposure to cockroach extract. Furthermore, the most differential expression of CD14 between cockroach allergy and non-cockroach allergy was only observed among individuals with the CC “high-risk” genotype of the CD14 -260C/T. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) analyses suggested the interferon-signaling as the most significant canonical pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest these differentially expressed genes, particularly CD14, and genes in the interferon-signaling pathway may be important candidates for further investigation of their role in the immune response to cockroach allergen. PMID:20618347
Background Many insects, including ants, are infected by maternally inherited Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria though other secondary endosymbionts have not been reported in ants. It has been suggested that the ability of Wolbachia to invade and remain in an ant population depends on the number of coexisting queens in a colony. We study the genetic and social structure of populations in the ant Formica cinerea which is known to have populations with either monogynous or polygynous colonies. We screen populations for several endosymbiotic bacteria to evaluate the presence of different endosymbionts, possible association between their prevalence and the social structure, and the association between endosymbiont prevalence and genetic differentiation of ant populations. Results We found three endosymbiotic bacteria; 19% of the nests were infected by Wolbachia, 3.8% by Cardinium and 33% by Serratia. There was significant variation among the populations regarding the proportion of nests infected by Serratia, Wolbachia and the pooled set of all the endosymbionts. Some individuals and colonies carried two of the bacteria, the frequency of double infections agreeing with the random expectation. The proportion of infected ants (individuals or colonies) did not correlate significantly with the population level relatedness values. The difference in the prevalence of Wolbachia between population pairs correlated significantly with the genetic distance (microsatellites) of the populations. Conclusions The discovery of several endosymbionts and co-infections by Wolbachia and Cardinium demonstrate the importance of screening several endosymbionts when evaluating their possible effects on social life and queen-worker conflicts over sex allocation. The low prevalence of Wolbachia in F. cinerea departs from the pattern observed in many other Formica ants in which all workers have been infected. It is likely that the strain of Wolbachia in F. cinerea differs from those in other
Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.
Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)
Hoban, Sean; Anderson, Robert; McCleary, Tim; Schlarbaum, Scott; Romero-Severson, Jeanne
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is an eastern North American forest tree severely threatened by an exotic fungal pathogen, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum. We report here 13 nuclear microsatellites for genetic evaluation of the remaining natural populations. Summary statistics are reported for individuals from a population of butternuts in central Kentucky (N = 63). All markers were polymorphic, with an average of 13.7 alleles per locus observed. Four loci exhibited significantly fewer heterozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). © 2007 The Authors.
Zhou, Bin; Yuan, Jingdong; Zhou, Yixuan; Yang, Jun; James, Alan W; Nair, Usha; Shu, Xiji; Liu, Wei; Kanangat, Siva; Yoo, Tai June
Bla g 2 is one of the most potent cockroach allergens. No effective treatment or vaccination strategies are yet available. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of Bla g 2 DNA vaccination in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. C57/BL6 mice were given Bla g 2 DNA vaccine prior to sensitization with recombinant Bla g 2 (rBla g 2) antigens, followed by nebulized rBla g 2 challenge. Bla g 2 vaccine could express at both transcriptional and translational levels in mammalian cells. Moreover, Bla g 2 vaccine significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell infiltrate and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and markedly decreased allergen-induced inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and Bla g 2-specific IgE in serum upon challenge with rBla g 2. Importantly, Bla g 2 vaccine could induce the production of antigen-specific IFN-γ and downregulated Th2 pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Thus, DNA vaccination showed protective efficacy against a clinically relevant allergen, Bla g 2.
Bartzokas, C. A.; McCarthy, K.; Shackleton, W. B.; Baker, B. F.
In these studies it is shown that the common "British" and "American" adult cockroaches can survive exposure to formaldehyde fumigation carried out at double the strength and for four times as long as is recommended for disinfection of rooms. It is further reported that vaccinia virus ingested prior to the fumigation survives in the cockroach gut and may be excreted up to 5 days later. Since cockroaches are ubiquitous and are to be found in most hospitals, laboratories and animal houses, these findings should be considered whenever fumigation is called for. Images Plate 1 PMID:563890
Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Tong, Ying; Zhu, Junwei Jerry; Qiu, Xinghui; Zeng, Xiaopeng
Background The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats) loci were also predicted. Conclusions/Significance The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes. PMID:25265537
Bellés, X; Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Ding, Q I; Edwards, J P; Weaver, R J; Tobe, S S
Allatostatins (ASTs) of the Tyr/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly Leu/Ile-NH2 family are a group of insect neuropeptides that inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata. We have obtained genomic DNA sequences that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica, Blaberus (cranufer and Supella longipalpa. The sequences obtained are similar to those of Diploptera punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species are similar in size, and the organization of the ASTs that they contain (there are 13 or 14, depending on the species) have been conserved. With the sequences of these precursors, and using the homologous sequence in the orthopteran Schistocera gregari as an outgroup, a phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was carried out. The dendrograms obtained from these analyses. using the amino acid as well as the nucleotide sequences, are comparable with current models for cockroach phylogeny. Parsimony analysis was also used to study the genealogy of the different ASTs within the same precursor. Results suggest that the AST sequences were generated through a process of internal gene duplication which occurred before these species diverged from each other in evolutionary time.
Liccardi, G; Noschese, P; Salzillo, A; Morandi, M; Calderaro, F; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G
The aim of our study was the evaluation of the role of these insects as causative agents of perennial rhinitis. We studied 317 subjects of both sexes (175 F and 142 M) living in Naples area and examined consecutively in our Centre for perennial nasal symptoms of suspected IgE mediated aetiology. All patients underwent the following diagnostic procedures: anamnestic procedures by using an internal questionnaire, clinical examination, skin prick test by using commercially available allergenic extracts and an allergenic extract containing the whole bodies of Blattella germanica and orientalis, Periplaneta americana. Blood samples for specific IgE determinations and a rhinologic visit were also carried out in patients with cockroach skin Prick test positivity. 14 of 317 subjects, prevalently young males, presented a skin positivity to cockroach allergens. All patients showed a moderate low degree of cutaneous and a low degree of serologic sensitization to allergens of these insects. Our preliminary data seem to demonstrate a mild role of cockroaches as causative agents of perennial rhinitis in Naples area. Further studies are necessary for a more appropriate knowledge of this allergy.
Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam
Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira.
Nalepa, Christine A; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Shimada, Keisuke; Saito, Yukari; Arellano, Consuelo; Matsumoto, Tadao
Species in the wood-feeding genus Salganea within the cockroach subfamily Panesthiinae (Blaberidae) typically live in biparental families; their first instars suffer high mortality when removed from adults, and in at least one species, adults are known to feed neonates on oral liquids. In the closely related gregarious wood-feeding genus Panesthia , no parental interaction with offspring is known. We compared the external morphology of first instars of these two genera and found that eye development and cuticular pigmentation at hatching are correlated with social structure. First instars of Panesthia have a dark cuticle and well-developed eyes. First instars of Salganea have a pale, transparent cuticle, and eyes significantly smaller than those of Panesthia relative to adult eye size. The body size of the first-instar of Salganea esakii is significantly smaller than that of Panesthia angustipennis spadica , relative to adult body size (24.0 and 27.4% of adult head-capsule width, respectively), but a more general survey suggests that, overall, neonate size may be similar in the two genera. We compared the first instars of these two taxa of Panesthiinae to those in the biparental, wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus (Cryptocercidae) and discuss how decreased investment in both integumentary and ocular development in subsocial cockroaches parallels that seen in altricial vertebrates.
Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E
Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.
Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W
Many low-income housing units in the United States continue to have chronic German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), infestations and high prevalence of cockroach allergens despite the availability of highly effective cockroach control products. Several studies have demonstrated the greater effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) compared with routine chemical interventions in apartment buildings and the benefit of cockroach allergen reduction using IPM. Yet, there has been little information on the cost and benefit of community-wide cockroach IPM, which is critical for voluntary adoption of IPM programs. We evaluated a community-wide IPM program in two low-income apartment complexes in Gary, IN. The program included education of staff and residents, monthly monitoring, and nonchemical (laying sticky traps) and chemical treatment based on monitoring results. One complex of 191 apartments was treated with cockroach gel bait, boric acid dust, and sticky traps by state licensed entomologists from Purdue University (E-IPM group). The other complex of 251 apartments was treated by pest management professionals (PMPs) from a contractor (C-IPM group) following the same protocol as the E-IPM group. Purdue University researchers trained Gary Housing Authority (GHA) staff on cockroach biology and management and cockroach allergen reduction techniques. GHA staff educated all residents in the two complexes on cockroach control and allergen reduction through printed materials, demonstrations, or both. Purdue University entomologists conducted the initial and monthly monitoring in both complexes (laying six sticky traps per apartment and retrieving them the next day) with the assistance from GHA to evaluate program effectiveness, guide insecticide applications, and identify apartments with poor sanitation conditions. Dust samples were collected from kitchen floors of 72 cockroach-infested apartments at the beginning, and again at 6 and 12 mo to evaluate changes in
Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie
Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.
An extract from German cockroach appears effective in inhibiting browning on apples and potatoes. Successful identification of inhibitor(s) of PPO from German cockroach would be useful to the fruit and vegetable segments of the food industry, due to the losses they incur from enzymatic browning. Ide...
The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…
The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…
Gorelkin, V S; Severina, I Iu; Isavnina, I L
This work deals with study of role of the hair plate (HP) and of the campaniform sensilla (CS) on legs of the cockroach Periplaneta americana in the system of walking control. These receptors were shown to induce their regulatory, correctional effect on the rhythm of the cockroach steps depending on the external circumstances. These effects are mainly realized only at slow walking.
Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S; Martin, W R
The susceptibility of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.); smoky brown cockroaches, P. fuliginosa (Serville); oriental cockroaches, Blatta orientalis L.; German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.); and brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa (F.), to Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (All strain) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. A 1-ml water suspension containing 500,000 nematodes was placed on filter paper in a petri dish or the pad of a bait station. German, brown-banded, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches died within 1 d after placement in the petri dishes. The relative order for the LT50s were American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than brown-banded = German. All cockroaches actively groomed nematodes from legs and antennae of forced (petri dish) exposure. The LT50s for S. carpocapsae for nonforced (bait station) exposure were significantly greater than those for forced exposure. The LT50s were 3.25, 4.13, 9.86, and 11.38 d for brown-banded, German, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches, respectively. The relative order of the LT50s after forced (American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than German = brown-banded) and nonforced (American greater than smoky-brown greater than oriental greater than German greater than brown-banded) exposure to S. carpocapsae was inversely related to the moisture of their preferred habitats.
Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B.; Donkor, Eric S.; Attah, Simon K.; Duedu, Kwabena O.; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.
Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital. PMID:24137051
Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Donkor, Eric S; Attah, Simon K; Duedu, Kwabena O; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F
Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital.
Nalyanya, G; Schal, C
Lures that are used to attract German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), to traps were compared in olfactometer assays in the laboratory and in trapping experiments in cockroach-infested homes and a swine farm. In olfactometer assays, AgriSense GP-2 was the most attractive lure, followed by peanut butter, and distiller's grain. Other lures, including Trapper tablet; Victor pheromone, a crude fecal extract that ostensibly contains B. germanica aggregation pheromone; and Victor food lure elicited upwind orientation from <50% of the test insects. Peanut butter and distiller's grain were equally attractive in trapping experiments in swine production barns and they captured significantly more cockroaches than the GP-2 tablet or the Victor pheromone lure; the commercial lures failed to attract significantly more cockroaches than the unbaited control traps. When tested against blank controls, cockroaches preferred to rest in shelters that contained the aggregation pheromone-based lure (Victor), but this lure was the least attractive to cockroaches in olfactometer assays. These results do not support claims that commercial crude fecal extracts attract cockroaches to traps, and they highlight a need for developing more attractive lures for detection of cockroaches and for monitoring populations.
The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…
The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…
Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie
Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961
Helm, R M; Squillace, D L; Jones, R T; Brenner, R J
Whole-body extracts of the feral and peridomestic Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai) and the three domestic cockroach species, German (Blattella germanica), American (Periplaneta americana), and Oriental (Blatta orientalis), were compared allergenically using an IgE serum pool from 4 German cockroach sensitive individuals. In crossover radioallergosorbent inhibition analysis, the Asian cockroach shared allergenic activity primarily with the German cockroach polymer and to a lesser extent with either the American or Oriental cockroach polymers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and thin-layer isoelectric focusing analysis of the extracts showed similar although varying intensities of Coomassie blue stained banding patterns among five extracts analyzed. Electroblotting analysis with 12.5% SDS-PAGE of the whole-body German cockroach extract and IgE serum from individuals sensitive to German cockroach revealed eight allergenic components with apparent molecular weights of 92, 80, 67, 48, 36, 27, 25 and 18 kD. Five components could be identified in the whole-body extract of the Asian cockroach corresponding to apparent molecular weights of 92, 67, 48, 40, and 32 kD. Analysis of individual serum by immunoblot analysis with each of the cockroach extracts showed considerable heterogenicity in the IgE-binding pattern. Although the Asian cockroach demonstrated considerable cross-reacting allergenic components to German and relatively fewer cross-reacting allergenic components to either the Oriental or American, it is too early to establish genus- or species-specific cockroach allergens. It is important to point out that German cockroach sensitive individuals should be made aware of the potential exposure of Asian cockroach aeroallergens both indoors and outdoors in areas with high infestations of Asian cockroaches.
Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby
The Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, first introduced to Florida in 1986, has been spreading throughout the southeastern United States. Populations can reach extremely high densities and cause damage to crops as well as become a nuisance in residential settings. Because the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is its closest extant relative, we characterized the B. asahinai male response to blattellaquinone, the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, in an effort to develop monitoring tools for B. asahinai. Electroantennogram (EAG) analysis was conducted on B. asahinai and B. germanica males and females, and revealed that the antennae of males of both species responded significantly more to blattellaquinone than females, and in both males and females absolute EAG responses of B. asahinai were greater than in B. germanica males and females, respectively. However, normalized male EAG response curves and ED50 values (effective dose to elicit 50% of maximal response) did not differ significantly between the two species. Results of field trapping experiments demonstrated that male B. asahinai were more attracted to blattellaquinone than any other life stage, and 10 μg of blattellaquinone attracted the most males. These results suggest that blattellaquinone or a similar compound might be a component of the sex pheromone of B. asahinai females.
Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Chen, Wei-Chen; Peng, Chien-Fang
Cockroaches may harbor and disseminate microorganisms to the environment. In this study, Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica were collected from 40 households in Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Cockroach infestation was found in 50% of the studied households and 226 cockroaches (123 P. americana and 103 B. germanica) collected by trapping. P. americana was more often found in the kitchen (70.7%) whereas B. germanica in the storage room (51.5%) and kitchen (36.9%). There was no significant difference between the percentages of P. americana (99.9%) and B. germanica (98.0%) carrying bacteria. A total of 25 species of bacteria was isolated from P. americana and only 21 from B. germanica. Antibiotic resistance was found in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus species isolated from the cockroaches. These findings suggest a potential role of cockroaches in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance in households.
Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J
Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.
Fu, Xue; Ye, Lefu; Ge, Feng
Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance. German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system. Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital). However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats. The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface. There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction. Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats. The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there. The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.
Lin, Ying-Zi; Cui, Yu-Bao; Yang, Wen; Rao, Lang-Yu; Pan, Wan; Chen, Jin-Long
"ZA-type" cages were used to capture cockroaches in 267 sites of 5 cities in Hainan. Species were identified and bacteria were isolated by routine method. 441 cockroaches were collected and identified as five species belonging to two genera, 75.3% being Periplaneta americana. More cockroaches were found in sewerage. Bacteria were detected from 82.4% of cockroaches, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp, Bacillus proteus and sort of mycetes. Therefore, the dominant species is Periplaneta americana in Hainan, and the high bacteria-carrying behavior of cockroaches indicates its importance in disease transmission.
Ponce de León, Inés; Oliver, Juan Pablo; Castro, Alexandra; Gaggero, Carina; Bentancor, Marcel; Vidal, Sabina
Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i) whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora) and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea), could infect Physcomitrella, and ii) whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN) producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1) or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193), could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1)), resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193) produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1) or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B. cinerea induce this
Tarver, Matthew R.; Florane, Christopher B.; Grimm, Casey C.; Pakala, Suman B.; Cottone, Carrie B.; Riegel, Claudia; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Slater, Jay E.
Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2.2.21 software. Whole termite extracts were analyzed by mass-spectrometry, immunoassay with IgG and scFv antibodies to cockroach allergens, and human IgE from serum samples of cockroach allergic patients. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results indicate greater than 60% similarity between predicted termite proteins and German and American cockroach allergens, including Bla g 2/Per a 2, Bla g 3/Per a 3, Bla g 5, Bla g 6/Per a 6, Bla g 7/Per a 7, Bla g 8, Per a 9, and Per a 10. Peptides from whole termite extract were matched to those of the tropomyosin (Bla g 7), arginine kinase (Per a 9), and myosin (Bla g 8) cockroach allergens by mass-spectrometry. Immunoblot and ELISA testing revealed cross-reaction between several proteins with IgG and IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens. Several termite proteins, including the hemocyanin and tropomyosin orthologs of Blag 3 and Bla g 7, were shown to crossreact with cockroach allergens. This work presents support for the hypothesis that termite proteins may act as allergens and the findings could be applied to future allergen characterization, epitope analysis, and clinical studies. PMID:28767688
Medsker, Brock H; Forno, Erick; Han, Yueh-Ying; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, Maria; Alcorn, John F; Canino, Glorisa J; Celedón, Juan C
Little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status or cockroach allergen on immune responses in school-age children, particularly in tropical environments. To examine whether cockroach allergen and/or socioeconomic status is associated with plasma cytokine levels in Puerto Rican children. This was a cross-sectional study of 532 children (6-14 years old) with (n = 272) and without (n = 260) asthma in San Juan (Puerto Rico). House dust allergens (cockroach [Bla g 2], dust mite [Der p 1], cat dander [Fel d 1], dog dander [Can f 1], and mouse urinary protein [Mus m 1]) were quantified using monoclonal antibody arrays. A panel of 14 cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) was measured in plasma samples. Low household income was defined as less than $15,000 per year (below the median income for Puerto Rico in 2008-2009). Linear regression was used for the analysis of cockroach allergen and plasma cytokines. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for low income and other allergen levels, cockroach allergen was significantly associated with decreased IL-17A and with increased levels of 8 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-25, IL-31, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α). After stratifying this analysis by cockroach allergy (ie, having a cockroach positive immunoglobulin E reaction), our findings remained largely unchanged for children sensitized to cockroach but became weaker and statistically nonsignificant for non-sensitized children. Cockroach allergen has broad effects on adaptive immune responses in school-age children in a tropical environment, particularly in those sensitized to cockroach. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mattison, Christopher P; Khurana, Taruna; Tarver, Matthew R; Florane, Christopher B; Grimm, Casey C; Pakala, Suman B; Cottone, Carrie B; Riegel, Claudia; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Slater, Jay E
Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2.2.21 software. Whole termite extracts were analyzed by mass-spectrometry, immunoassay with IgG and scFv antibodies to cockroach allergens, and human IgE from serum samples of cockroach allergic patients. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results indicate greater than 60% similarity between predicted termite proteins and German and American cockroach allergens, including Bla g 2/Per a 2, Bla g 3/Per a 3, Bla g 5, Bla g 6/Per a 6, Bla g 7/Per a 7, Bla g 8, Per a 9, and Per a 10. Peptides from whole termite extract were matched to those of the tropomyosin (Bla g 7), arginine kinase (Per a 9), and myosin (Bla g 8) cockroach allergens by mass-spectrometry. Immunoblot and ELISA testing revealed cross-reaction between several proteins with IgG and IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens. Several termite proteins, including the hemocyanin and tropomyosin orthologs of Blag 3 and Bla g 7, were shown to crossreact with cockroach allergens. This work presents support for the hypothesis that termite proteins may act as allergens and the findings could be applied to future allergen characterization, epitope analysis, and clinical studies.
Yilmaz, Aygen; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sekerel, Bülent E; Adalioğlu, Gönül; Saraçlar, Yildiz
Exposure to cockroach may lead to exacerbations of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in sensitized patients. Although there is a widespread belief that cockroach allergy is a common problem in patients with respiratory allergies, little is known in Turkish children. In order to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cockroach allergy in respiratory allergic children, we performed a study in newly referred children with respiratory allergies. All patients underwent questionnaire-interview and skin prick tested with common inhalant allergens in addition to two cockroach allergens: Blatella germanica (Bg) and Periplaneta americana (Pa). A subgroup of patients was also serologically investigated for specific IgE against Bg and house dust mite. Three hundred- and thirty-seven children aged 2-16 years were recruited for the study and 77.7% of these were atopic, with the most common indoor and outdoor allergens of house dust mite (47.5%) and grass pollens (45.1%), respectively. According to the prick test results, allergies to Bg and Pa were 11.9% and 7.4%, respectively, and there was a weak correlation between size of the prick test and specific IgE levels for Bg allergen. Almost 30% of the cockroach-sensitive patients were allergic to both cockroach antigens. Seventy percent of cockroach-sensitive patients were also sensitive to house dust mite, and only 1% were monosensitive. Dwellings in the Middle Anatolia and Black Sea regions were less commonly infested by cockroach compared to the dwellings in other regions. In conclusion, our preliminary study showed that cockroach sensitization is common among children with respiratory allergies irrespective of infestation history, suggesting that addition of cockroach allergen to the routine allergy screening panel is critical.
Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Vichyanond, Pakit; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Tapchaisri, Pramuan
Periplaneta americana is the predominant cockroach (CR) species and a major source of indoor allergens in Thailand. Nevertheless, data on the nature and molecular characteristics of its allergenic components are rare. We conducted this study to identify and characterize the P. americana allergenic protein. A random heptapeptide phage display library and monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to a the P. americana component previously shown to be an allergenic molecule were used to identify the MAb-bound mimotope and its phylogenic distribution. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, peptide mass fingerprinting, and BLAST search were used to identify the P. americana protein containing the MAb-specific epitope. We studied the allergenicity of the native protein using sera of CR-allergic Thai patients in immunoassays. The mimotope peptide that bound to the MAb specific to P. americana was LTPCRNK. The peptide has an 83-100% identity with proteins of Anopheles gambiae, notch homolog scalloped wings of Lucilia cuprina, delta protein of Apis mellifera; neu5Ac synthase and tyrosine phosphatase of Drosophila melanogaster, and a putative protein of Drosophila pseudoobscura. This finding implies that the mimotope-containing molecule of P. americana is a pan-insect protein. The MAb-bound protein of P. americana was shown to be arginine kinase that reacted to IgE in the sera of all of the CR-allergic Thai patients by immunoblotting, implying its high allergenicity. In conclusion, our results revealed that P. americana arginine kinase is a pan-insect protein and a major CR allergen for CR-allergic Thai patients.
McCarthy, K.; Bartzokas, C. A.; Baker, B. F.
Adult cockroaches were found to survive up to 22 weeks when provided with 1% Formalin (0.4% formaldehyde) in lieu of drinking water. Given 4% Formalin or 2% glutaraldehyde they survived up to 41 days. During the experiments eggs were laid and hatched and the offspring continued to grow. Combined with surface disinfection, this may hold out a simple method of rendering adult cockroaches gnotobiotic or even axenic. PMID:413865
Ait Barka, E; Eullaffroy, P; Clément, C; Vernet, G
We evaluated the potential of chitosan both to stimulate plant development and to induce protection from Botrytis cinerea in Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. The presence of 1.75% (v/v) chitogel in the culture medium was the optimal concentration for in vitro grapevine plantlet growth, as determined by measurements on enhancement of root and shoot biomass. Photosynthesis and related parameters were also stimulated in chitogel-treated plantlets. Chitogel reduced the development of Botrytis cinerea and induced cytological alterations to the pathogen. When challenged with the fungus, a significant decrease in disease incidence was observed in plants growing on medium supplemented with chitogel. Furthermore, exogenous foliar applications of chitogel to plantlets growing on chitogel-free medium sensitized them so as to be protected against Botrytis cinerea attack. Our results indicate that chitogel can be used in the vineyard as a means to attain protection against Botrytis cinerea and that its application may counteract the wide use of chemical pesticides.
Boyce, J M; Taylor, M R; Mitchell, E B; Knapp, J S
We describe what appears to be the first reported case of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Neisseria cinerea. The isolate metabolized glucose when tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation Kits (Johnston Laboratories), but did not produce detectable acid in cystine-Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) agar medium or in modified oxidation-fermentation medium. Clinical laboratories that rely on the BACTEC method for differentiation of pathogenic neisseriae should be aware of the fact that N. cinerea may mimic N. gonorrhoeae when tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits. The ability of N. cinerea to grow well on tryptic soy and Mueller-Hinton agars and its inability to grow on modified Thayer-Martin medium are characteristics which help to distinguish N. cinerea from N. gonorrhoeae.
Site-specific restriction endonuclease R. Nci II has been purified from Neisseria cinerea strain 32615. The enzyme recognizes the sequence 5' GATC 3' and its activity is inhibited by the presence of methylated adenine residue within the recognition sequence.
Dogra, Nittya K; Kumar, Suresh
Vernonia cinerea Less. (ash-coloured fleabane; Asteraceae) is a widely distributed plant throughout India. The plant has reputation as folklore medicine in various traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been evaluated for varied pharmacological activities to validate its traditional claims, and has been scientifically reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, renoprotective, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial activities, etc. This review emphasises on ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of V. cinerea.
George, M J; DeBin, J A; Preston, K E; Chiu, C; Haqqie, S S
We present an unusual case of recurrent (chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) CAPD-associated peritonitis caused by Neisseria cinerea. Using DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we determined that the recurrent infection was caused by reinfection with a different N. cinerea strain rather than relapse with the index strain and that the probable origin of the reinfecting organism was the patient's upper respiratory tract.
Dadakova, K; Havelkova, M; Kurkova, B; Tlolkova, I; Kasparovsky, T; Zdrahal, Z; Lochman, J
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine resulting in significant reductions in yield and fruit quality. In order to examine the molecular mechanisms that characterize the interaction between B. cinerea and the host plant, the grapevine cytoplasmic proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The interaction between Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cells and B. cinerea was characterized by the increase in spot abundance of 30 proteins, of which 21 were successfully identified. The majority of these proteins were related to defence and stress responses and to cell wall modifications. Some of the modulated proteins have been previously found to be affected by other pathogens when they infect V. vinifera but interestingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were influenced by B. cinerea have not been shown to be modulated by any other pathogen studied to date. Transcript analysis using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction additionally revealed the up-regulation of several acidic, probably extracellular, chitinases. The results indicate that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are likely to be important mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Although gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine, little information is available about proteomic changes in this pathosystem. These results suggest that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are important molecular mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Surprisingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were modulated by B. cinerea have not been shown to be affected by any other pathogen studied to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Newland, Philip L; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman M; Hama, Noriyuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Jackson, Christopher W
Electric fields are pervasively present in the environment and occur both as a result of man-made activities and through natural occurrence. We have analysed the behaviour of cockroaches to static electric fields and determined the physiological mechanisms that underlie their behavioural responses. The behaviour of animals in response to electric fields was tested using a Y-choice chamber with an electric field generated in one arm of the chamber. Locomotory behaviour and avoidance were affected by the magnitude of the electric fields with up to 85% of individuals avoiding the charged arm when the static electric field at the entrance to the arm was above 8-10 kV m(-1). Electric fields were found to cause a deflection of the antennae but when the antennae were surgically ablated, the ability of cockroaches to avoid electric fields was abolished. Fixation of various joints of the antennae indicated that hair plate sensory receptors at the base of the scape were primarily responsible for the detection of electric fields, and when antennal movements about the head-scape joint were prevented cockroaches failed to avoid electric fields. To overcome the technical problem of not being able to carry out electrophysiological analysis in the presence of electric fields, we developed a procedure using magnetic fields combined with the application of iron particles to the antennae to deflect the antennae and analyse the role of thoracic interneurones in signalling this deflection. The avoidance of electric fields in the context of high voltage power lines is discussed.
Atiokeng Tatang, R. J.; Tsila, H. G.
Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females) were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%), Trichuris (11.97%), Capillaria (6.16%), Toxocara (4.86%), Hook Worm (4.86%), and Eimeria (2.73%). The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27%) of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%). The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%). Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99%) as compared to those from kitchens (22.63%) and houses (11.14%). Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms' eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision. PMID:28912965
Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja
Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.
Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo
Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1-2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis based on the characterized clusters of Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, and Deltaproteobacteria showed that many OTUs present in both cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance.
Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja
Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections. PMID:27340653
Haspel, Gal; Gefen, Eran; Ar, Amos; Glusman, J Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic
Unlike predators, which immediately consume their prey, parasitoid wasps incapacitate their prey to provide a food supply for their offspring. We have examined the effects of the venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa on the metabolism of its cockroach prey. This wasp stings into the brain of the cockroach causing hypokinesia. We first established that larval development, from egg laying to pupation, lasts about 8 days. During this period, the metabolism of the stung cockroach slows down, as measured by a decrease in oxygen consumption. Similar decreases in oxygen consumption occurred after pharmacologically induced paralysis or after removing descending input from the head ganglia by severing the neck connectives. However, neither of these two groups of cockroaches survived more than six days, while 90% of stung cockroaches survived at least this long. In addition, cockroaches with severed neck connectives lost significantly more body mass, mainly due to dehydration. Hence, the sting of A. compressa not only renders the cockroach prey helplessly submissive, but also changes its metabolism to sustain more nutrients for the developing larva. This metabolic manipulation is subtler than the complete removal of descending input from the head ganglia, since it leaves some physiological processes, such as water retention, intact.
Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo
Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1–2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis based on the characterized clusters of Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, and Deltaproteobacteria showed that many OTUs present in both cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance. PMID:27054320
The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.
Luo, Shi-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Liang-Liang; Peng, Qun-Long; Song, Cai-Lu; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Ye, Wen-Cai
Four new isocoumarins (1-4), along with three known ones (5-7), were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the whole body of the traditional Chinese insect medicine, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The structures with absolute configurations of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray diffraction experiment and CD analyses. Compounds 3-5 showed significant cytotoxic activities in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values in the ranges 6.41-23.91 μM and 6.67-39.07 μM, respectively.
Mullins, Donald E
Cockroaches are a group of insects that evolved early in geological time. Because of their antiquity, they for the most part display generalized behavior and physiology and accordingly have frequently been used as model insects to examine physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved with water balance, nutrition, reproduction, genetics, and insecticide resistance. As a result, a considerable amount of information on these topics is available. However, there is much more to be learned by employing new protocols, microchemical analytical techniques, and molecular biology tools to explore many unanswered questions.
Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.
Akagi, Aya; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Stotz, Henrik U
The plant hormone ethylene regulates fruit ripening, other developmental processes, and a subset of defense responses. Here, we show that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS)-silenced apple (Malus domestica) fruit that express a sense construct of ACS were more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea than untransformed apple, demonstrating that ethylene strengthens fruit resistance to B. cinerea infection. Because ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to contribute to resistance against B. cinerea via the ethylene-signaling pathway, we cloned four ERF cDNAs from fruit of M. domestica: MdERF3, -4, -5, and -6. Expression of all four MdERF mRNAs was ethylene dependent and induced by wounding or by B. cinerea infection. B. cinerea infection suppressed rapid induction of wound-related MdERF expression. MdERF3 was the only mRNA induced by wounding and B. cinerea infection in ACS-suppressed apple fruit, although its induction was reduced compared with wild-type apple. Promoter regions of all four MdERF genes were cloned and putative cis-elements were identified in each promoter. Transient expression of MdERF3 in tobacco increased expression of the GCC-box containing gene chitinase 48.
Li, Feng-Xia; Ma, Hui-Quan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Chao
The study on antagonistic mechanism of biocontrol strains gives the premise and basis for efficient and stable biological control. This study aimes to overcome of biocontrol agent in aspects of complicated and diversified mode of action, short-lasting and unstable efficacy in the production processes. This study elucidated the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus cereus strain B-02 on Botrytis cinerea by detecting changes in morphology, ultrastructure and physiology in affected hyphae of Botrytis cinerea. Which provided certain theoretical and practical significance for biological control of gray mould caused by B. cinerea. B. cereus strain B-02 isolated from tomato rhizosphere mightily suppressed gray mold in tomato caused by B. cinerea. Spore germination and hyphal growth of B. cinerea were inhibited by B. cereus strain B-02. Changes of cell morphology such as distortion, shrinking and swelling were observed by SEM. TEM observation further indicated the ultrastructural alterations of hyphae, including mitochondrion reduction, un-membranous inclusion in cytoplasm, considerable thickening of cell walls, and electronic density enhancement. LSCM observation revealed the fluorescence intensity of nucleus DNA, mitochondrion DNA and reactive oxygen radical in treated hyphae were all stronger than control and the difference was significant (P < 0.01). These results indicated that the antagonistic effects of B. cereus strain B-02 on B. cinerea were likely due to a combination of abnormal synthesis of nucleus DNA and mitochondrion DNA and multifarious ultrastructural alterations in hyphal cell.
Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong
Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen-treated AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-)) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice as compared with WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR, and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of i.v.-injected GFP(+) MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared with WT. The AhR-mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium prepared from cockroach extract-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migration, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity.
Lee, Mey-Fann; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Lin, Shyh-Jye; Song, Pei-Pong
Cockroaches are important sources of indoor airborne allergens. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is the second leading inhalant allergen causing allergic airway diseases in Taiwan. We previously reported a difference in pathogenicity of different allergen components from American cockroaches. To analyze the environmental profile of American cockroach allergen components. Polyclonal antibodies were generated to recombinant American cockroach allergens, Per a 1 through Per a 10. The levels of each allergen in (1) whole-body extracts and feces from American cockroaches and in (2) fresh-frozen 6-month-old and 12-month-old dead American cockroaches were evaluated by immunoblotting and quantified. Levels of allergen components from patients' household dust samples were determined by competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Per a 1, 2, and 10 proteins were present predominantly in roach feces, whereas other allergen components were found predominantly in roach bodies. There was a time-dependent decrease in total levels of some allergen proteins. Although levels of Per a 4, 5, 6, and 9 significantly decreased to less 20% of the basal level, there was no significant change in levels of Per a 2, 7, and 10 after 1-year decomposition. The most abundant allergen components in 20 dust samples from patients' houses were Per a 9, Per a 10, and Per a 2. The concentration of 10 American cockroach allergen components differed in the environment. Per a 2 and Per a 10 can be used as markers of long-term environmental cockroach control and Per a 9 as current status of control in patients' houses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vršanský, Peter; Liang, Jun-Hui; Ren, Dong
We describe the extinct cockroach family Fuziidae fam. nov., represented by
Nehring, Volker; Dani, Francesca R; Calamai, Luca; Turillazzi, Stefano; Bohn, Horst; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; d'Ettorre, Patrizia
Cockroaches of the genus Attaphila regularly occur in leaf-cutting ant colonies. The ants farm a fungus that the cockroaches also appear to feed on. Cockroaches disperse between colonies horizontally (via foraging trails) and vertically (attached to queens on their mating flights). We analysed the chemical strategies used by the cockroaches to integrate into colonies of Atta colombica and Acromyrmex octospinosus. Analysing cockroaches from nests of two host species further allowed us to test the hypothesis that nestmate recognition is based on an asymmetric mechanism. Specifically, we test the U-present nestmate recognition model, which assumes that detection of undesirable cues (non-nestmate specific substances) leads to strong rejection of the cue-bearers, while absence of desirable cues (nestmate-specific substances) does not necessarily trigger aggression. We found that nests of Atta and Acromyrmex contained cockroaches of two different and not yet described Attaphila species. The cockroaches share the cuticular chemical substances of their specific host species and copy their host nest's colony-specific cuticular profile. Indeed, the cockroaches are accepted by nestmate but attacked by non-nestmate ant workers. Cockroaches from Acromyrmex colonies bear a lower concentration of cuticular substances and are less likely to be attacked by non-nestmate ants than cockroaches from Atta colonies. Nest-specific recognition of Attaphila cockroaches by host workers in combination with nest-specific cuticular chemical profiles suggest that the cockroaches mimic their host's recognition labels, either by synthesizing nest-specific substances or by substance transfer from ants. Our finding that the cockroach species with lower concentration of cuticular substances receives less aggression by both host species fully supports the U-present nestmate recognition model. Leaf-cutting ant nestmate recognition is thus asymmetric, responding more strongly to differences than to
Nässel, D R; Persson, M G; Muren, J E
During the purification of tachykinin-related peptides from the brain of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae, a few other peptides were collected in adjacent high-performance liquid chromatography fractions. Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and chemical synthesis revealed that one of these peptides had the sequence DNSQWGGFA. This nonamidated nonapeptide was designated baratin and appears not to be related to any known insect peptide. Baratin was not found to be bioactive in the L. maderae hindgut or oviduct muscle contraction assay. (Both synthetic nonamidated and amidated baratin were tested.) To screen for possible sites of action, we raised a rabbit antiserum to baratin. We found baratin-immunoreactive (BAR-IR) interneurons throughout the cockroach central nervous system. Some prominent brain neuropils were supplied by BAR-IR neuron processes: the central body, the calyx, and lobes of the mushroom bodies, parts of the optic lobe, and the tritocerebral neuropil. Additionally we found BAR-IR neurosecretory cells in the median neurosecretory cell group with processes supplying the storage lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In each of the thoracic and abdominal ganglia processes of BAR-IR projection neurons and local neurons were seen. The baratin antiserum also labeled neurons in the brain of the locust Locusta migratoria, some of which are similar to those of the cockroach. A prominent system of interganglionic BAR-IR processes was found in the locust subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia. This was formed by four large projection neurons with cell bodies in the abdominal ganglia A1-2. The processes of these BAR-IR neurons are distributed dorsally and laterally in each of the ventral nerve cord ganglia. When baratin (10(-6)-10(-4) M) was applied to desheathed abdominal ganglia of locusts and cockroaches, we could monitor bursts of action potentials in neurons with axons in the anterior abdominal nerve (nerve 1), but not in the posterior nerve (nerve 2). In
Gielen, S; Aerts, R; Seels, B
To reduce the use of chemical agents, that are causing damage to the environment, in the fight against Botrytis cinerea, different BCA's were tested for their possibility to control Botrytis cinerea in a biological way. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the different micro organisms and Elot-Vis, experiments were carried out in climate chambers with 5 weeks old tomato plants. Leafs on the plant were inoculated with drops of a suspension that contained spores of Botrytis cinerea. The possible antagonists that were tested in these experiments were Trichoderma harzianum (Trichodex), T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. hamatum (T382), Bacillus subtilis (Serenade and Phytovit) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7NSK2 and KMPCH). For all these different micro organisms the direct and the indirect influence on Botrytis cinerea was investigated. In tests where the direct influence of the antagonists was examined, the spores of the moulds or the bacteria were suspended together with spores of Botrytis cinerea and subsequently drops of this suspension were pippeted on the leafs. After a while by ideal circumstances for Botrytis cinerea the infections on the inoculated leafs were counted. For the indirect influence of the antagonists, also leafs of 5 weeks old tomato plants were inoculated with a suspension of Botrytis cinerea spores. The roots of the tomato plants that were used for testing the indirect influence were treated during there growth with a suspension of the antagonist to see if induced systemic resistance pathway (ISR) was activated. For testing the effectiveness of Elot-Vis, tomato plants were sprayed a few times with a solution of this product during their growth. Results of the climate chamber test of the plants that were treated with Elot-Vis, showed a reduction of Botrytis cinerea infections on the inoculated leafs. Biological control agents seem to be not always very effective against Botrytis cinerea. The biological control agents that are containing micro
Rivault, C.; Cloarec, A.; Le Guyader, A.
Sanitation is an important problem in relation to the control of pests in urban environments. This investigation analysed the potential risk related to the presence of cockroaches and their capacity for disseminating bacteria in six different types of buildings: hospital nursing area and out-patient area, swimming-pool pool-side and toilet area, low-income flats and food-handling places. Fifty-six species of bacteria were identified from 157 samples, 14 of these have previously been reported as potentially pathogenic for man and vertebrates. Similarities were found between samples collected in (a) the hospital out-patient area and food-handling establishments and (b) the hospital nursing area and flats. Pool-sides possessed a poorer bacterial flora. There was a greater bacterial specific diversity in food-handling establishments, flats and swimming-bath toilet area. Enterobacter cloacae. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca were dominant species in flats and the hospital nursing area. Therefore, cockroaches can play a role in disseminating bacteria, which they can carry passively on their cuticle. PMID:8472775
Saifullah, A.S.M.; Page, Terry L.
In the cockroach, olfactory sensitivity as measured by the amplitude of the electroantennogram (EAG) is regulated by the circadian system. We wished to determine how this rhythm in antennal response was reflected in the activity of individual olfactory receptor neurons. The amplitude of the electroantennogram (EAG) and the activity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in single olfactory sensilla were recorded simultaneously for 3–5 days in constant darkness from an antenna of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. Both EAG amplitude and the spike frequency of the ORNs exhibited circadian rhythms with peak amplitude/activity occurring in the subjective day. The phases of the rhythms were dependent on the phase of the prior light cycle and thus were entrainable by light. Ablation of the optic lobes abolished the rhythm in EAG amplitude as has been previously reported. In contrast, the rhythm in ORN response persisted following surgery. These results indicated that a circadian clock outside the optic lobes can regulate the responses of olfactory receptor neurons and further that this modulation of the ORN response is not dependent on the circadian rhythm in EAG amplitude. PMID:19346451
Baba, Yoshichika; Comer, Christopher M
The organization of the antennal muscles, nerves, and motor neurons has been investigated in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Antennal movements have been observed by video analysis, muscle actions have been determined by dissection and direct mechanical testing, and the motor neurons innervating each muscle have been defined with a recently developed selective backfill method. A model of the antennomotor system of Periplaneta has thus been established and compared with that of crickets. Five muscles located within the head capsule insert on the most proximal antennal segment, the scape. By their action, they allow the scape to move in essentially any direction within the dorsoventral and anteroposterior planes. An additional pair of muscles, one dorsal and one ventral, are found within the scape. They insert on the pedicel and move the pedicel in the dorsal-ventral plane. These seven muscles are controlled by at least 17 motor neurons with somata located in the deutocerebrum. By their action, these motor neurons enable cockroaches to move the long flagellum of each antenna through a wide range of positions in the frontal space, medio-laterally, and also allow depression toward the substrate and elevation well above the level of the head. The antennal motor neurons have been classified into five morphological types based on soma and axon location. Each morphological type has been correlated with a particular pattern of muscle innervation and control. The neurites of all motor neurons are located along the medial aspect of the dorsal lobe of the deutocerebrum.
Vácha, Martin; Puzová, Tereza; Kvícalová, Markéta
The sense that allows birds to orient themselves by the Earth's magnetic field can be disabled by an oscillating magnetic field whose intensity is just a fraction of the geomagnetic field intensity and whose oscillations fall into the medium or high frequency radio wave bands. This remarkable phenomenon points very clearly at one of two existing alternative magnetoreception mechanisms in terrestrial animals, i.e. the mechanism based on the radical pair reactions of specific photosensitive molecules. As the first such study in invertebrates, our work offers evidence that geomagnetic field reception in American cockroach is sensitive to a weak radio frequency field. Furthermore, we show that the 'deafening' effect at Larmor frequency 1.2 MHz is stronger than at different frequencies. The parameter studied was the rise in locomotor activity of cockroaches induced by periodic changes in the geomagnetic North positions by 60 deg. The onset of the disruptive effect of a 1.2 MHz field was found between 12 nT and 18 nT whereas the threshold of a doubled frequency field 2.4 MHz fell between 18 nT and 44 nT. A 7 MHz field showed no impact even in maximal 44 nT magnetic flux density. The results indicate resonance effects rather than non-specific bias of procedure itself and suggest that insects may be equipped with the same magnetoreception system as the birds.
Cochran, D. G.
Four strains of German cockroaches have been exposed to a variety of insecticides in an effort to obtain more information on the cross-resistance phenomenon in this species. The insecticides chlordane, aldrin, and lindane were each tested against chlordane-resistant, lindane-resistant, and non-resistant strains. The insecticides diazinon and Sevin were each tested against DDT-resistant, chlordane-resistant, and non-resistant strains. Adult females were used exclusively in these tests. The data are presented in the form of regression lines. The results show that the DDT-resistant strain is highly resistant to Sevin but is susceptible to diazinon, while the chlordane-resistant strain is susceptible to both of these compounds. Furthermore, the chlordane- and the lindane-resistant strains are both highly resistant to chlordane and to aldrin, but show only low-level resistance to lindane. The over-all picture of cross-resistance between insecticidal groups in the German cockroach is still one of relative simplicity. At the present time the only real exception is that reported in this paper: the DDT-resistant strain was found to be resistant to the carbamate insecticide Sevin. PMID:13694211
Domenici, P.; Booth, D.; Blagburn, J.M.; Bacon, J. P.
Summary Anti-predator behaviour is vital for most animals, and calls for accurate timing and swift motion. While fast reaction times  and predictable, context-dependent, escape initiation distances  are common features of most escape systems, previous work has highlighted the need for unpredictability in escape directions, in order to prevent predators from learning a repeated, fixed pattern [3–5]. Ultimate unpredictability would result from random escape trajectories. Although this strategy would deny any predictive power to the predator, it would also result in some escape trajectories towards the threat. Previous work has shown that escape trajectories are in fact generally directed away from the threat, although with a high variability [5–8]. However, the rules governing this variability are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate tha t individual cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, a much studied model prey species [9–14]) keep each escape unpredictable by running along one of a set of preferred trajectories at fixed angles from the direction of the threatening stimulus. These results provide a new paradigm for understanding the behavio ural strategies for escape responses, underscoring the need to revisit the neural mechanisms controlling escape directions in the cockroach and similar animal models, and the evolutionary forces driving unpredictable, or “protean” , anti-predator behaviour. PMID:19013065
Mizrahi, A; Libersat, F
Independent coding of wind direction in cockroach giant interneurons. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2655-2661, 1997. In this study we examined the possible role of cell-to-cell interactions in the localization processing of a wind stimulus by the cockroach cercal system. Such sensory processing is performed primarily by pairs of giant interneurons (GIs), a group of highly directional cells. We have studied possible interactions among these GIs by comparing the wind sensitivity of a given GI before and after removing another GI with the use of photoablation. Testing various combinations of GI pairs did not reveal any suprathreshold interactions. This was true for all unilateral GI pairs on the left or right side as well as all the bilateral GI pairs (left and right homologues). Those experiments in which we were able to measure synaptic activity did not reveal subthreshold interactions between the GIs either. We conclude that the GIs code independently for a given wind direction without local GI-GI interactions. We discuss the possible implications of the absence of local interactions on information transfer in the first station of the escape circuit.
Watanabe, Hidehiro; Mizunami, Makoto
Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control salivation exhibited increased responses to an odor after conditioning trials in which the odor was paired with sucrose solution. However, no direct evidence of conditioning of salivation was obtained. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioning trials on the level of salivation. Untrained cockroaches exhibited salivary responses to sucrose solution applied to the mouth but not to peppermint or vanilla odor applied to an antenna. After differential conditioning trials in which an odor was paired with sucrose solution and another odor was presented without pairing with sucrose solution, sucrose-associated odor induced an increase in the level of salivation, but the odor presented alone did not. The conditioning effect lasted for one day after conditioning trials. This study demonstrates, for the first time, classical conditioning of salivation in species other than dogs and humans, thereby providing the first evidence of sophisticated neural control of autonomic function in insects. The results provide a useful model system for studying cellular basis of conditioning of salivation in the simpler nervous system of insects.
Carrasco, Purificación; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; van de Pol, Claudia; Baixeras, Joaquín; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo
The cockroach gut harbors a wide variety of microorganisms that, among other functions, collaborate in digestion and act as a barrier against pathogen colonization. Blattabacterium, a primary endosymbiont, lives in the fat body inside bacteriocytes and plays an important role in nitrogen recycling. Little is known about the mode of acquisition of gut bacteria or their ecological succession throughout the insect life cycle. Here we report on the bacterial taxa isolated from different developmental instars of the cockroach Blattella germanica. The bacterial load in the gut increased two orders of magnitude from the first to the second nymphal stage, coinciding with the incorporation of the majority of bacterial taxa, but remained similar thereafter. Pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the microbial composition differed significantly between adults and nymphs. Specifically, a succession was observed in which Fusobacterium accumulated with aging, while Bacteroides decreased. Blattabacterium was the only symbiont found in the ootheca, which makes the vertical transmission of gut bacteria an unlikely mode of acquisition. Scanning electron microscopy disclosed a rich bacterial biofilm in third instar nymphs, while filamentous structures were found exclusively in adults.
Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic
Accumulating evidence suggest that nonhuman organisms, including invertebrates, possess the ability to make non-random choices based purely on ongoing and endogenously-created neuronal processes. We study this precursor of spontaneity in cockroaches stung by A. compressa, a parasitoid wasp that employs cockroaches as a live food supply for its offspring. This wasp uses a neurotoxic venom cocktail to 'hijack' the nervous system of its cockroach prey and manipulate specific features of its decision making process, thereby turning the cockroach into a submissive 'zombie' unable to self-initiate locomotion. We discuss different behavioral and physiological aspects of this venom-induced 'zombified state' and highlight at least one neuronal substrate involved in the regulation of spontaneous behavior in insects.
Barbieri, M; Salami, A; Cordone, G; Sovatzis, A; Mora, F; Cordone, M P; Mora, R; Yoo, T J
Allergies are a widespread phenomenon and one that is in continuous expansion, especially in large cities. A heretofore underestimated allergen, at least in Italy, is the cockroach. Between April and June 2000, we administered a prick test (including the cockroach antigen in the allergen kit) to 163 patients. The prick test was executed utilizing histamine as the positive control and a normal diluent as the negative control; both indoor allergens (including dermatophagoids and dog and cat epithelium) and outdoor allergens (including trees, grasses, pollens and spores) were employed. The results obtained were evaluated by comparing the reaction provoked by these allergens to that of the histamine. About 20% of the patients who reacted to the other indoor allergens also tested positive to the cockroach antigen. Also on the basis of experiences previously carried out in other countries (United States, Korea, Japan, Turkey), the cockroach must be borne in mind as a possible significant cause of allergic reactions in Italy, too.
Inward, Daegan; Beccaloni, George; Eggleton, Paul
Termites are instantly recognizable mound-builders and house-eaters: their complex social lifestyles have made them incredibly successful throughout the tropics. Although known as 'white ants', they are not ants and their relationships with other insects remain unclear. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses, the most comprehensive yet attempted, show that termites are social cockroaches, no longer meriting being classified as a separate order (Isoptera) from the cockroaches (Blattodea). Instead, we propose that they should be treated as a family (Termitidae) of cockroaches. It is surprising to find that a group of wood-feeding cockroaches has evolved full sociality, as other ecologically dominant fully social insects (e.g. ants, social bees and social wasps) have evolved from solitary predatory wasps.
Jacobson, M; Beroza, M; Yamamoto, R T
The highly potent sex attractant of the female American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), has been isolated in pure form and identified as 2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidene-cyclopropyl propionate. The hydrogenated form of the attractant has been synthesized.
Harmanci, E; Metintas, M; Alatas, F; Erginel, S; Mutlu, S
Allergy to cockroach and latex are said to be causes of asthma particularly in some groups. We studied allergy to cockroach and latex in asthmatic patients from Eskisehir (Anatolia), Turkey in order to determine whether these allergens play an important role in the Anatolian region. A total of 216 asthmatic patients (mean age 43.7+/-11.0 years) were skin tested with common aeroallergens, Blatella germanica and latex. Sixty-three patients were allergic (29.1%) and 153 were nonallergic (70.8%) according to skin test results. Sensitization to pollens (57%) and mites (55.5%) was most common among allergic patients. We found a low sensitization to cockroach (4.7%) and latex (1.4%). We suggested that cockroach sensitization plays a small role in sensitization in our geographic area and that latex sensitization is low in allergic asthmatic patients who were referred for reasons other than latex-related symptoms.
Vartak, P H; Tungikar, V B; Sharma, R N
Several terpenoids were assessed for their repellent/toxic properties against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house flies (Musca domestica) and cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Impregnated wide mesh netting was used in the case of the Dipterans, while treated filtered paper was employed for the bioassays with cockroaches. Persistence of the repellent chemicals was studied. Doses ranged from 5-20 gm/M2 for the Dipterans and 25-100 mg per 4 x 4 cm filter paper for the cockroaches. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) offered the maximum protection of the chemicals tested against mosquitoes but was not so effective against house flies and cockroaches. Citral and Eugenol were effective against all the three test insects. Other test compounds afforded varying degrees of protection. Application strategy and utility of the findings are discussed.
Li, Boqiang; Peng, Huaimin; Tian, Shiping
Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various post-harvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS), and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability, and capsule formation between the mutant and wild-type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild-type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild-type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mold caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild-type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy.
Li, Boqiang; Peng, Huaimin; Tian, Shiping
Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various post-harvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS), and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability, and capsule formation between the mutant and wild-type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild-type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild-type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mold caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild-type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy. PMID:27199931
Sharpe, Deana; Fan, Lihua; McRae, Ken; Walker, Brad; MacKay, Ron; Doucette, Craig
Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are fungal pathogens that cause the decay of many fruits and vegetables. Ozone may be used as an antimicrobial agent to control the decay. The effect of gaseous ozone on spore viability of B. cinerea and mycelial growth of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum were investigated. Spore viability of B. cinerea was reduced by over 99.5% (P < 0.01) and height of the aerial mycelium was reduced from 4.7 mm in the control to less than 1 mm after exposure to 450 or 600 ppb ozone for 48 h at 20 degrees C. Sporulation of B. cinerea was also substantially inhibited by ozone treatments. However, ozone had no significant effect on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in vitro. Decay and quality parameters including color, chlorophyll fluorescence (CF), and ozone injury were further assessed for various horticultural commodities (apple, grape, highbush blueberry, and carrot) treated with 450 ppb of ozone for 48 h at 20 degrees C over a period of 12 d. Lesion size and height of the aerial mycelium were significantly reduced by the ozone treatment on carrots inoculated with mycelial agar plugs of B. cinerea or S. sclerotiorum. Lesion size was also reduced on treated apples inoculated with 5 x 10(6) spores/mL of B. cinerea, and decay incidence of treated grapes was reduced. The 450 ppb ozone for 48 h treatment had no significant effect on color of carrots and apples or on CF of apples and grapes. Ozone, an environmentally sound antimicrobial agent, inactivates microorganisms through oxidization and residual ozone spontaneously decomposes to nontoxic products. It may be applied to fruits and vegetables to reduce decay and extend shelf life.
Libersat, Frederic; Gal, Ram
The parasitoid Jewel Wasp uses cockroaches as a live food supply for its developing larvae. The adult wasp uses mechanoreceptors on its stinger to locate the host's cerebral ganglia and injects venom directly into the cockroach's "brain," namely in the subesophageal ganglion and in and around the central complex in the supraesophageal ganglion. As a result, the cockroach first engages in continuous grooming for roughly 30 min. Dopamine identified in the wasp's venom is likely to cause this grooming, as injecting a dopamine-receptor antagonist into the cockroach hemolymph prior to a wasp's sting greatly reduced the venom-induced, excessive grooming. Conversely, injecting a dopamine-receptor agonist into the brain induces excessive grooming in normal cockroaches. A second effect of the head-sting is the induction of a long-lasting lethargic state, during which the cockroach demonstrates a dramatically reduced drive to self-initiate locomotion. Unlike most paralyzing venoms, Ampulex's venom seems to affect the "motivation" of its host to initiate locomotion, rather than affecting the motor centers directly. In fact, the venom specifically increases thresholds for the initiation of walking-related behaviors and, once such behaviors are initiated, affects their maintenance without affecting the walking-pattern generators. Thus, the venom manipulates neuronal centers within the cerebral ganglia that are specifically involved in the initiation and maintenance of walking. We have shown that in stung cockroaches focal injection of an octopaminergic receptor agonist around the central complex area in the brain partially restores walking. Another likely candidate target of the venom is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. Opioid receptor agonists increase startle threshold in control cockroaches and using a bioassay for opioid receptors, we found that the venom blocks opioid-like receptors. This effect is reversed with naloxone, an
preferred environment of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is that favored by man. It thrives particularly well where there are large...Keil, C. B. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cock- roach ( Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Ent. (in press). 1981. This... Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Entomol. (in press). 1981. Ross, M. H. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German Cockroach. Ab- stracts XVIth
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is the prevalent species in the district of Rostock. There was also an occurrence of Blatta orientalis and, in one case, of Periplaneta australasiae. Periplaneta americana is occasionally introduced from warmer regions of the globe via containers. Extent and intensity of infestation of many buildings has increased making large-scale control measures necessary. Most control measures have been taken in food industry enterprises. The quantity of cockroach control increases with growing population density.
Jeong, Kyoung-Jin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chung-Ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon
Cockroach infestations have been linked with allergic diseases such as asthma in humans. Bla g 5, sigma class glutathione S-transferase (GST), is the major cockroach allergen which has the highest IgE response value of all cockroach allergens. Although several cockroach allergens have been identified and cloned, information regarding their B ell and T cell IgE-binding epitopes is limited. In order to analyze the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 5, full-length and five peptide fragments (A, 1-100 amino acid residue; B, 91-200; Ba, 1-125; Bb, 1-150; Bc, 1-175) were expressed. Twelve (37.5%) of 32 sera from cockroach-sensitized subjects showed positive IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 5 (rBla g 5). Six strong positive sera were selected for the epitope study. Recombinant proteins not containing 176-200 amino acid residues were unable to react to sera from cockroach sensitized individuals, suggesting that this region contains the IgE-binding epitope. Despite strong IgE reactivity to rBla g 5, the pooled serum from 5 cockroach-sensitized patients did not show IgE reactivity to all synthetic peptides consisting of 15 residues covering 161-200 amino acids. These results suggest the possibility that Bla g 5 may have a conformational epitope in the C-terminal region. GST is the important target for the development of vaccines and drugs against allergic diseases because of high cross-reactivity among insect species. This study will aid recombinant allergen research for immunotherapy of cockroach allergens and other insect allergens.
Zhukovskaya, Marianna I
The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.
Buczkowski, G; Kopanic, R J; Schal, C
Foraging cockroaches ingest insecticide baits, translocate them, and can cause mortality in untreated cockroaches that contact the foragers or ingest their excretions. Translocation of eight ingested baits by adult male Blattella germanica (L.) was examined in relation to the type of the active ingredient, formulation, and foraging area. Ingested boric acid, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and hydramethylnon that were excreted by adults in small dishes killed 100% of first instars within 10 d and >50% of second instars within 14 d. Residues from these ingested baits were also highly effective on nymphs in larger arenas and killed 16-100% of the adults. However, when the baits and dead cockroaches were removed from the large arenas and replaced with new cockroaches, only residues of the slow-acting hydramethylnon killed most of the nymphs and adults, whereas residues of fast acting insecticides (chlorpyrifos and fipronil) killed fewer nymphs and adults. Excretions from cockroaches that ingested abamectin baits failed to cause significant mortality in cockroaches that contacted the residues. These results suggest that hydramethylnon is highly effective in these assays because cockroaches that feed on the bait have ample time to return to their shelter and defecate insecticide-laden feces. The relatively high concentration of hydramethylnon in the bait (2.15%) and its apparent stability in the digestive tract and feces probably contribute to the efficacy of hydramethylnon. To control for differences among baits in inert ingredients and the amount of active ingredient, we compared 1% chlorpyrifos with 1% hydramethylnon in identical baits. Again, hydramethylnon residues provided greater secondary kill, but the results highlighted the importance of the inert ingredients. We conclude that, in the absence of cannibalism and necrophagy, translocation of baits and secondary kill are most effective with slow acting insecticides in palatable baits that can traverse the digestive tract
Salehzadeh, A; Tavacol, P; Mahjub, H
To determine the possible role of cockroaches in dissemination of medically important microorganisms, a study was carried out in public hospitals and residential areas of Hamadan city, west of Iran. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. The total number of Blattella germanica collected from hospitals were 133 as the case group. The cockroaches collected from residential areas were 45 as the control group. A total of 178 cockroaches were collected, over a period of two years (133 from hospitals; and 45 from residential areas) in Hamadan. Medically important microorganisms were isolated from external and internal surfaces using standard methods. In the case group, 130 out of 133 (98%) Blattella germanica showed contamination with high bacterial load (more than 1 x 10(3)) whereas only 2 out of 45 (4.45%) cockroaches of the control group were carrying medically important bacteria with high bacterial load. Bacteriological examinations revealed that almost all test cockroaches had at least one of the following microorganisms either in their body surface or digestive tract. Enterobacter (22.6%), Klebsiela (21%), Enterococcus (17.3%), Staphylococcus (16.5%), Esherichia coli and Streptococcus (8.3%), Pseudomonas (3%), and also Shigella, Haemophilus and group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus each less than 1%. In addition the results showed (74.4.%) of test cockroaches harboured fungi-Candida (48.9%), Mucor (10.5%), Aspergillus niger (7.5%), Rhizopus (4.5) and also Penicillium and Aspergillus fumigans each 1.5%. Some parasitic worms of medical importance were also isolated from the test cockroaches, but carriage rates were low. The data from this study emphasise the importance of cockroaches as potential vectors of medically important microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria and fungi in hospital environments.
Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong
Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen treated AhR-deficient (AhR−/−) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared to wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen challenged AhR−/− mice as compared to WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes, cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of intravenously injected GFP+ MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR−/− mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared to WT. The AhR mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium (ECM) prepared from CRE-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migrations, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGFβ1 neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity. PMID:26561548
Zhukovskaya, Marianna I.
The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor. PMID:25401135
Le Guyader, A; Rivault, C; Chaperon, J
A simultaneous study of cockroach (Supella supellectilium) distribution and of associated carried bacterial flora has been made in the main hospital in Rennes (France). Wild cockroaches carry a high number of bacterial species that can be related to the normal environmental flora and a contaminant flora acquired from particular environments. The diversity of carried bacterial species reveals a proximity factor between continguous floors of the building which leads us to suppose that cockroaches are able to forage from one floor to the other.
Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L; Hofer, Markus J; Brune, Andreas
The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic.
Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A
Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.
Cowan, N J; Lee, J; Full, R J
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is reported to follow walls at a rate of up to 25 turns s(-1). During high-speed wall following, a cockroach holds its antenna relatively still at the base while the flagellum bends in response to upcoming protrusions. We present a simple mechanosensory model for the task-level dynamics of wall following. In the model a torsional, mass-damper system describes the cockroach's turning dynamics, and a simplified antenna measures distance from the cockroach's centerline to a wall. The model predicts that stabilizing neural feedback requires both proportional feedback (difference between the actual and desired distance to wall) and derivative feedback (velocity of wall convergence) information from the antenna. To test this prediction, we fit a closed-loop proportional-derivative control model to trials in which blinded cockroaches encountered an angled wall (30 degrees or 45 degrees ) while running. We used the average state of the cockroach in each of its first four strides after first contacting the angled wall to predict the state in each subsequent stride. Nonlinear statistical regression provided best-fit model parameters. We rejected the hypothesis that proportional feedback alone was sufficient. A derivative (velocity) feedback term in the control model was necessary for stability.
Comer, C M; Parks, L; Halvorsen, M B; Breese-Terteling, A
Cockroaches ( Periplaneta americana) orient their antennae toward moving objects based on visual cues. Presumably, this allows exploration of novel objects by the antennal flagellum. We used videographic and electrophysiological methods to determine if receptors on the flagellum are essential for triggering escape, or if they enable cockroaches to discriminate threatening from non-threatening objects that are encountered. When a flagellum was removed, and replaced with a plastic fiber, deflection of a "prosthetic flagellum" still activated the descending mechanosensory interneurons associated with escape and produced typical escape responses. However, escape was essentially eliminated by constraining the movement of the scape and pedicel at the antennal base. When cockroaches approached and briefly explored the surface of a spider or another cockroach with the flagellum, they produced escape significantly more often in response to subsequent controlled contact from a spider than from a cockroach. This discrimination did not depend on visual or wind-sensory input, but required flagellar palpation of the surface. The crucial sensory cues appear to involve texture rather than surface chemicals. These results indicate that cockroaches acquire basic information on stimulus identity during exploration of surfaces with flagellar receptors, but that basal receptors are triggers for escape behavior.
Zarchi, Ali Akbar Karimi; Vatani, Hadi
The presence of cockroaches has health implications, such as nosocomial infection, as the insects move freely from areas within and around hospitals that may harbor pathogenic organisms. The goals of the present study were to determine species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches found in three Tehran hospitals, and to determine distribution of potential vectors by species and sex. The study is descriptive laboratory research. A total of 305 cockroaches from three species were trapped and identified: Periplaneta americana (65.6%), Blatella germanica (12.1%), and Blatta orientalis (22.3%). From these potential vectors, 19 species of bacteria were isolated and identified. After transportation of cockroaches to the laboratory, separation of the whole-homogenized suspension of each species was carried out. Identification of the isolated bacteria was performed according to Burgey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th Edition. The most common species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Group D, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris. No statistical significance was found between sex and species of cockroach carrying bacteria (p > 0.05), but significance was found for sex in Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus non-group A&B (p < 0.05).
Buczkowski, G; Schal, C
Horizontal transmission of insecticide occurs when foragers contact or ingest an insecticide, return to the aggregation or nest, and translocate the insecticide to the shelter and its vicinity. Relatively more sedentary members of the population then contact or eat the translocated insecticide and die. We evaluated three different methods of delivering fipronil to adult male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), for their potential to cause such secondary mortality in various developmental stages of the cockroach. Adult males topically treated with 5 ng of fipronil (approximately LD99) caused low mortality in untreated nymphs and no mortality in untreated adults within the same aggregation. Males exposed to residual fipronil on a glass surface translocated more insecticide, resulting in higher mortality of cockroaches they contacted, but only early instars were affected and no adult mortality was observed. Ingested fipronil bait, however, was most effectively translocated, and caused high mortality of untreated adults and nymphs. Ingestion of fipronil also caused greater secondary kill compared with a topical application of 25 ng, approximately the same amount recovered from the exterior of males that ingested 1 mg of 0.05% fipronil bait. Secondary mortality in the untreated population was significantly affected by the duration of contact between the treated and untreated cockroaches, the quantity and freshness of excretions from the treated insects, and the accessibility of the secretions to untreated cockroaches. The mechanisms that cause secondary kill may include ingestion of excreted fipronil residues, cannibalism of bait-fed cockroaches, as well as contact with fipronil-contaminated substrates.
The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a ‘higher center’ known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism. PMID:28045911
Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L.; Hofer, Markus J.
The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic. PMID:26655763
Emanuel, Stav; Libersat, Frederic
The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.
Bujang, N S; Lee, C Y
The interspecific competition between a new cockroach pest species in Southeast Asia, the Smooth cockroach, Symploce pallens (Stephens) and the ubiquitous German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) was studied under different food and water regimes (unlimited food and water [control], limited water, limited food and limited food and water). Both species were found to have equal chances to coexist when both food and water are unlimited, when food is a limiting factor, and when both food and water are limited. However, under shorter evaluation periods (eg. 60 and 120 days), the intrinsic rate of increase (rn) of S. pallens appeared to be significantly lower than that of the B. germanica. This is possibly due to the shorter nymphal development period and higher fecundity of the latter species when compared to S. pallens. Both the food and water availability factor showed significant effects on the rn of both species.
Attractivity of some heat-isolating materials (glass wool, mineral wool, foam polystyrol, "texdur"-sheets and textile isolating mats) to the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L. and the effects on rate of increase were studied in the laboratory in comparison with folded cardboard as a check. The influence of structure (pressed sheets or loosely quilted materials) and exposition (single, piled or between sheets of plaster) was represented. Loose glass wool, open or between plaster sheets, shows a clearly higher attractivity than the other materials tested. increase of populations on glass wool is almost the same as on folded cardboards. The solid variants were less suitable for the settlement of the cockroaches. General recommendations for the prevention of infestations by cockroaches are given.
Wang, Hancheng; Wang, Jin; Li, Licui; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Maosheng; Shang, Shenghua; Yu, Zhihe
Tobacco grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal disease worldwide. Boscalid, carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and propiconazole are representative botryticides for grey mold management. This research investigated the sensitivities of B. cinerea from tobacco to these chemicals using the Biolog FF Microplate. All five chemicals showed inhibitory activity, with average EC50 values of 0.94, 0.05, 0.50, 0.61 and 0.31 μg ml−1, respectively. B. cinerea metabolized 96.8% of tested carbon sources, including 29 effectively and 33 moderately, but the metabolic fingerprints differed under pressures imposed by these botryticides. For boscalid, B. cinerea was unable to metabolize many substrates related to tricarboxylic acid cycle. For carbendazim, carbon sources related to glycolysis were not metabolized. For iprodione, use of most carbon substrates was weakly inhibited, and the metabolic profile was similar to that of the control. For propiconazole, no carbon substrates were metabolized and the physiological and biochemical functions of the pathogen were totally inhibited. These findings provide useful information on metabolic activities of these botryticides, and may lead to future applications of the Biolog FF Microplate for examining metabolic effects of other fungicides on other fungi, as well as providing a metabolic fingerprint of B. cinerea that could be useful for identification. PMID:27491536
Cantu, Dario; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Powell, Ann L T
The ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is a destructive and ubiquitous plant pathogen and represents a model organism for the study of necrotrophic fungal pathogens. Higher fungi possess a complex and dynamic multilayer cell wall involved in crucial aspects of fungal development, growth and pathogenicity. Plant resistance to microbial pathogens is determined often by the capacity of the plant to recognize molecular patterns associated with the surface of an interacting microbe. Here we report the chemical characterization of cell walls from B. cinerea during axenic growth. Neutral sugars and proteins constituted most of the mass of the B. cinerea cell walls, although chitin and uronic acids were detected. Glucose was the most abundant neutral sugar, but arabinose, galactose, xylose and mannose also were present. Changes in cell wall composition during culture were observed. As the culture developed, protein levels declined, while chitin and neutral sugars increased. Growth of B. cinerea was associated with a remarkable decline in the fraction of its cell wall material that was soluble in hot alkali. These results suggest that the cell wall of B. cinerea undergoes significant modifications during growth, possibly becoming more extensively covalently cross-linked, as a result of aging of mycelia or in response to decreasing nutrient supply or as a consequence of increasing culture density.
He, Lili; Liu, Yang; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi
Antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and their mode of action against two postharvest pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum) were investigated in this study. ZnO NPs with sizes of 70 ± 15 nm and concentrations of 0, 3, 6 and 12 mmol l(-1) were used. Traditional microbiological plating, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy were used to study antifungal activities of ZnO NPs and to characterize the changes in morphology and cellular compositions of fungal hyphae treated with ZnO NPs. Results show that ZnO NPs at concentrations greater than 3 mmol l(-1) can significantly inhibit the growth of B. cinerea and P. expansum. P. expansum was more sensitive to the treatment with ZnO NPs than B. cinerea. SEM images and Raman spectra indicate two different antifungal activities of ZnO NPs against B. cinerea and P. expansum. ZnO NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea by affecting cellular functions, which caused deformation in fungal hyphae. In comparison, ZnO NPs prevented the development of conidiophores and conidia of P. expansum, which eventually led to the death of fungal hyphae. These results suggest that ZnO NPs could be used as an effective fungicide in agricultural and food safety applications.
Nambeesan, Savithri; AbuQamar, Synan; Laluk, Kristin; Mattoo, Autar K; Mickelbart, Michael V; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Handa, Avtar K
Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines overexpressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild-type plants and were examined for responses to the fungal necrotrophs Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and larvae of the chewing insect tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). The Spd-accumulating transgenic tomato lines were more susceptible to B. cinerea than the wild-type plants; however, responses to A. solani, P. syringae, or M. sexta were similar to the wild-type plants. Exogenous application of ethylene precursors, S-adenosyl-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, or PA biosynthesis inhibitors reversed the response of the transgenic plants to B. cinerea. The increased susceptibility of the ySpdSyn transgenic tomato to B. cinerea was associated with down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. These data suggest that PA-mediated susceptibility to B. cinerea is linked to interference with the functions of ethylene in plant defense.
Stöckli, Martina; Lin, Chia-Wei; Sieber, Ramon; Plaza, David F; Ohm, Robin A; Künzler, Markus
Biofilm formation on fungal hyphae and production of antifungal molecules are strategies of bacteria in their competition with fungi for nutrients. Since these strategies are often coordinated and under control of quorum sensing by the bacteria, interference with this bacterial communication system can be used as a counter-strategy by the fungi in this competition. Hydrolysis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (HSL), a quorum sensing molecule used by Gram-negative bacteria, by fungal cultures has been demonstrated. However, the enzymes that are responsible for this activity, have not been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized two paralogous HSL hydrolyzing enzymes from the coprophilous fungus Coprinopsis cinerea. The C. cinerea HSL lactonases belong to the metallo-β-lactamase family and show sequence homology to and a similar biochemical activity as the well characterized lactonase AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis. We show that the fungal lactonases, similar to the bacterial enzymes, are kept intracellularly and act as a sink for the bacterial quorum sensing signals both in C. cinerea and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing C. cinerea lactonases, due to the ability of these signal molecules to diffuse over the fungal cell wall and plasma membrane. The two isogenes coding for the C. cinerea HSL lactonases are arranged in the genome as a tandem repeat and expressed preferentially in vegetative mycelium. The occurrence of orthologous genes in genomes of other basidiomycetes appears to correlate with a saprotrophic lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, D; Wang, J; Shao, X; Xu, F; Wang, H
The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has been evaluated as a potential eco-friendly antifungal agent against Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mode of action of tea tree oil (TTO) and its components against B. cinerea. Of the components we tested in contact phase, terpinen-4-ol had the highest antifungal activity, followed by TTO, α-terpineol, terpinolene, then 1,8-cineole. As one of characteristic components of TTO, terpinen-4-ol treatment led to pronounced alterations in mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, membrane permeability under scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and fluorescent microscope, and also reduced the ergosterol content of fungi. As another characteristic component, 1,8-cineole caused serious intracellular damage but only slightly affected B. cinerea otherwise. When terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole were used together, the synergistic antifungal activity was significantly higher than either component by itself. The results of our study confirmed that terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole act mainly on the cell membranes and organelles of B. cinerea, respectively, and when combined are similar to TTO in antifungal activity due to their differences. Understanding the mechanism of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole antifungal action to B. cinerea is helpful for investigation on their synergistic effect and explaining antifungal action modes of TTO. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Botrytis cinerea is a pathogenic fungus causing gray mold disease on numerous economically important crops and ornamental plants. This study was conducted to characterize the biological and molecular features of a novel RNA mycovirus, Botrytis cinerea RNA virus 1 (BcRV1), in the hypovirulent strain ...
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of table grapes grown in the Central Valley of California. Understanding fungicide-resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of pre-harvest fungicide programs for control of postharvest gray mold. Baseline s...
Hong, Young-Shick; Cilindre, Clara; Liger-Belair, Gerard; Jeandet, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
Botrytis cinerea infection of grape berries leads to changes in the chemical composition of grape and the corresponding wine and, thus, affects wine quality. The metabolic effect of Botrytis infection in Champagne base wine was investigated through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. Isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, arginine, proline, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinate, malate, citrate, tartarate, fructose, glucose, oligosaccharides, amino acid derivatives, 2,3-butanediol, acetate, glycerol, tyrosine, 2-phenylethanol, trigonelline, and phenylpropanoids in a grape must and wine were identified by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and contributed to metabolic differentiations between healthy and botrytized wines by using multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA). Lowered levels of glycerol, 2,3-butanediol, succinate, tyrosine, valine derivative, and phenylpropanoids but higher levels of oligosaccharides in the botrytized wines were main discriminant metabolites, demonstrating that Botrytis infection of grape caused the fermentative retardation during alcoholic fermentation because the main metabolites responsible for the differentiation are fermentative products. Moreover, higher levels of several oligosaccharides in the botrytized wines also indicated the less fermentative behavior of yeast in the botrytized wines. This study highlights a metabolomic approach for better understanding of the comprehensive metabolic influences of Botrytis infection of grape berries in Champagne wines.
Kontkanen, Hanna; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Saloheimo, Markku; Bailey, Michael; Rättö, Marjaana; Mattila, Ismo; Mohsina, Marzia; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Buchert, Johanna
Three cutinase gene-like genes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) found with a similarity search were cloned and expressed in Trichoderma reesei under the control of an inducible cbh1 promoter. The selected transformants of all three polyesterase constructs showed activity with p-nitrophenylbutyrate, used as a model substrate. The most promising transformant of the cutinase CC1G_09668.1 gene construct was cultivated in a laboratory fermentor, with a production yield of 1.4 g liter−l purified protein. The expressed cutinase (CcCUT1) was purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography exploiting a C-terminal His tag. The N terminus of the enzyme was found to be blocked. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be around 18.8 kDa by mass spectrometry. CcCUT1 had higher activity on shorter (C2 to C10) fatty acid esters of p-nitrophenol than on longer ones, and it also exhibited lipase activity. CcCUT1 had optimal activity between pH 7 and 8 but retained activity over a wide pH range. The enzyme retained 80% of its activity after 20 h of incubation at 50°C, but residual activity decreased sharply at 60°C. Microscopic analyses and determination of released hydrolysis products showed that the enzyme was able to depolymerize apple cutin and birch outer bark suberin. PMID:19201950
Kontkanen, Hanna; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Saloheimo, Markku; Bailey, Michael; Rättö, Marjaana; Mattila, Ismo; Mohsina, Marzia; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Buchert, Johanna
Three cutinase gene-like genes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) found with a similarity search were cloned and expressed in Trichoderma reesei under the control of an inducible cbh1 promoter. The selected transformants of all three polyesterase constructs showed activity with p-nitrophenylbutyrate, used as a model substrate. The most promising transformant of the cutinase CC1G_09668.1 gene construct was cultivated in a laboratory fermentor, with a production yield of 1.4 g liter(-l) purified protein. The expressed cutinase (CcCUT1) was purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography exploiting a C-terminal His tag. The N terminus of the enzyme was found to be blocked. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be around 18.8 kDa by mass spectrometry. CcCUT1 had higher activity on shorter (C(2) to C(10)) fatty acid esters of p-nitrophenol than on longer ones, and it also exhibited lipase activity. CcCUT1 had optimal activity between pH 7 and 8 but retained activity over a wide pH range. The enzyme retained 80% of its activity after 20 h of incubation at 50 degrees C, but residual activity decreased sharply at 60 degrees C. Microscopic analyses and determination of released hydrolysis products showed that the enzyme was able to depolymerize apple cutin and birch outer bark suberin.
Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej
We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.
Zhang, Yingmei; Gandini, Carlo; Sabuneti, Andrew; Fasola, Mauro; Lambiase, Simonetta; Grigolo, Aldo
Organisms differ widely in their ability to metabolize and eliminate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We evaluated the retention of PCB congeners, reference standard mixture, experimentally injected into cockroach Blattella germanica, in relation to sex and time, and its elimination through the feces, exuviae and oothecae. The nymphs that died prematurely had a higher average PCB retention than those with a longer lifetime, 88% of the injected dose for those that died within 1 to 10 days, and 76% for those within 11-20 days. Diverse PCB congeners showed differential retention, and particularly the more volatile, low weight congeners were recovered in lower concentrations, the medium-weight ones were intermediate, while the high-weight congeners attained the highest concentration. PCBs were also detected in the excrements and in exuviae, which may therefore act as detoxification paths, and in the oothecae, thus showing that PCBs can be transferred from mother to progeny.
Maestro, José L; Tobe, Stephen S; Belles, Xavier
Several lines of evidence point to leucomyosuppressin (LMS) and myosuppressin-related peptides as inhibitory modulators of heartbeat frequency in arthropods. Previous studies in Blattella germanica demonstrated that heartbeat frequency decreases after ootheca formation, and remains low during the period of ootheca transport. Subsequent work in this cockroach resulted in the characterization of LMS and the cloning and sequencing of its precursor. The present paper describes the activity of LMS on modulation of heartbeat in B. germanica. Assays using semi-isolated heart preparations revealed that LMS reduces heartbeat frequency in a dose dependent manner, at physiological concentrations. Additional experiments showed that LMS inhibits heartbeat rates in vivo. Finally, injection of dsRNA for LMS elicited a decrease in LMS mRNA to virtually undetectable levels and heartbeat frequency increased significantly in females carrying oothecae. These data suggest that LMS contributes to the modulation of cardiac rhythm in B. germanica during the reproductive cycle.
Kwon, Hyung-Wook; Lent, David D; Strausfeld, Nicholas J
Spatial learning abilities were tested in restrained cockroaches by observing antennal projection responses towards the positions of a learned visual cue perceived monocularly by one eye in the context of a second stimulus provided to the contralateral eye. Memory of the position of the conditioning stimulus relative to the contralateral reference stimulus was tested by altering the relative positions of the two stimuli. Memory of the conditioning stimulus is retained if the angle between the conditioning stimulus and the contralateral reference stimulus is maintained. The results suggest that during learning the insect recognizes spatial relationships between the conditioning stimulus and the contralateral reference stimulus. Possible mechanisms, such as retinotopic matching versus angular matching, are discussed.
Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip
Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations.
Arendt, Andreas; Neupert, Susanne; Schendzielorz, Julia; Predel, Reinhard; Stengl, Monika
The sequence as well as the distribution pattern of SIFamide in the brain of different insects is highly conserved. As a general rule, at least four prominent SIFamide-immunoreactive somata occur in the pars intercerebralis. They arborize throughout the brain and the ventral nerve cord. Whereas SIFamide is implicated in mating and sleep regulation in Drosophila, other functions of this peptide remain largely unknown. To determine whether SIFamide plays a role in the circadian system of cockroaches, we studied SIFamide in Rhyparobia (= Leucophaea) maderae (Blaberidae), Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and Therea petiveriana (Polyphagidae). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed identical SIFamide sequences (TYRKPPFNGSIFamide) in the three species. In addition to four large immunoreactive cells in the pars intercerebralis (group 1), smaller SIFamide-immunoreactive somata were detected in the pars intercerebralis (group 2), in the superior median protocerebrum (group 3), and in the lateral protocerebrum (group 4). Additional cells in the optic lobe (group 5) and posterior protocerebrum (group 6) were stained only in P. americana. Almost the entire protocerebrum was filled with a beaded network of SIFamide-immunoreactive processes that especially strongly invaded the upper unit of the central body. Double-label experiments did not confirm colocalizations with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or the circadian coupling peptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF). In contrast to locusts, colocalization of SIFamide and histamine immunoreactivity occurred not in group 1, but in group 4 cells. Because the accessory medulla displayed SIFamide immunoreactivity and injections of SIFamide delayed locomotor activity rhythms circadian time-dependently, SIFamide plays a role in the circadian system of cockroaches. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1337-1360, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gannon, B; le Patourel, G; Young, R
Exposure to high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) killed adult and nymphal stages of the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) with LT50 values of 11.5-16.2 h for 60% CO2 in air and 5.7-7.1 h for 100% CO2 at 20 degrees C; corresponding LT50s at 28 degrees C were 2.8-4.6 h for 60% CO2 in air and 2.3-3.6 h for 100% CO2. Complete kill of mobile stages was obtained within 24 h using 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C. Survivors of treatments with 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C remained completely paralysed for up to 3 days post-treatment and took up to 5 days to regain normal movement, but adult females then resumed production of oothecae with no significant loss in fecundity. Oothecae 5 or 30 days after deposition required 60-84 h exposure to 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C to prevent emergence of nymphs but less time using 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, when adult females were treated with 100% CO2 and 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving 100% mortality) loss of weight was significantly greater than that following treatment with air at 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving no mortality). However, significantly greater weight loss also occurred when they were treated with dried air (< 10% r.h.) for 6 h, also with no mortality. The toxicity of CO2 to mobile stages of the oriental cockroach appeared to result from irreversible effects on the nervous system, rather than from water loss during exposure.
Boyce, J M; Mitchell, E B
Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria gonorrhoeae may occur at the same body sites and may have similar colony morphologies. Ideally, systems used for rapid identification of N. gonorrhoeae should be able to differentiate N. cinerea from gonococci. We tested seven N. cinerea strains using the Gonochek II (Du Pont Diagnostics), Minitek (BBL Microbiology Systems), RapID-NH (Innovative Diagnostics, Inc.), RIM-N (American Microscan), and Phadebact (Pharmacia Diagnostics) systems. We found that the reactions produced by N. cinerea in Gonochek II, Minitek, and RapID-NH kits could be confused with the results produced by some strains of N. gonorrhoeae. The susceptibility of N. cinerea to colistin, its ability to grow on tryptic soy or Mueller-Hinton agar, and its inability to grow on modified Thayer-Martin medium help differentiate it from gonococci.
Information on life-history traits is critical to understanding population dynamics of anurans. The objective of this study was to examine aspects of the reproductive ecology of Hyla cinerea in northwestern Florida. Four breeding localities in Leon County, Florida, were sampled over three seasons (2001-2003), amplexed pairs were found as early as 12 April and as late as 12 August. Egg clutches were counted from 51 amplexed pairs and adult size was measured in 43 pairs. Average clutch size was 1214 ?? 528 eggs (x- ?? SE, range = 359-2658). Female H. cinerea were slightly larger than males (x- ?? SE tibiofibula length = 24.9 ?? 2.2 and 24 ?? 1.7 mm, respectively). Female size was significantly positively correlated with clutch size and weakly correlated with size of the paired male. Comparison of the results of this study with previous research indicates that the reproductive ecology of H. cinerea varies across its geographic range.
Liñeiro, Eva; Chiva, Cristina; Cantoral, Jesús M; Sabido, Eduard; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier
Phosphorylation is one of the main post-translational modification (PTM) involved in signaling network in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, one of the most relevant phytopathogenic fungus. The data presented in this article provided a differential mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome of B. cinerea under two different phenotypical conditions induced by the use of two different elicitors: glucose and deproteinized Tomate Cell Walls (TCW). A total 1138 and 733 phosphoproteins were identified for glucose and TCW culture conditions respectively. Raw data are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier (PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003099). Further interpretation and discussion of these data are provided in our research article entitled "Phosphoproteome analysis of B.cinerea in response to different plant-based elicitors" (Liñeiro et al., 2016) .
Tayal, Pamil; Raj, Sumit; Sharma, Esha; Kumar, Manoj; Dayaman, Vikram; Verma, Nidhi; Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Dua, Meenakshi; Kapoor, Rupam; Johri, Atul Kumar
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen that infects many important crops. In an attempt to unravel some novel factors that govern pathogenicity in B. cinerea, Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) was deployed, and a number of tagged transformants were generated. Among these, a mutant, BCM-29 exhibited slower growth rate, reduced conidia size, conidiation and penetration. The mutant was also defective in secretion of oxalic acid (OA) and exhibited reduced activities of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methyl esterases (PME). TAIL-PCR followed by BLAST search identified the tagged gene as KLP-7 that encodes for kinesin. Targeted deletion of KLP-7 resulted in several folds decrease in virulence of mutants as compared to WT, while complementation of the gene helped in rescue of virulence traits. This is the first time when a unique kinesin KLP-7 that is mainly found in the phylum Pezizomycotina has been linked to virulence in B. cinerea.
Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Hassanzadeh, J; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D
Although it has been difficult to prove the direct involvement of cockroaches (i.e. insects of the order Blattaria) in the transmission of pathogenic agents to humans, such insects often carry microorganisms that are important in nosocomial infections, and their medical importance in the spread of bacteria cannot be ruled out. In houses and institutions with poor standards of hygiene, heavy infestations with cockroaches, such as the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), can occur. In the present study, cockroaches (126 B. germanica and 69 P. americana) were collected from four buildings (three public training hospitals and one house) in central Tehran, Iran. Each insect was processed, under sterile conditions, so that the bacteria on its external surfaces and in its alimentary tract and faecal pellets could be isolated and identified. The oldest and largest of the three hospitals sampled (a 1400-bed unit built 80 years ago) appeared to be the one most heavily infested with cockroaches, and cockroaches from this hospital accounted for most (65.4%) of the isolates of medically important bacteria made during the study. No significant difference was found between the percentages of P. americana and B. germanica carrying medically important bacteria (96.8% v. 93.6%; P>0.05). At least 25 different species of medically important bacteria were isolated and identified, and at least 22 were Gramnegative. The genus of enteric bacteria most frequently isolated from both cockroach species, at all four collection sites, was Klebsiella. The cockroaches from each hospital were much more likely to be found contaminated with medically important bacteria than those from the house. The hospital cockroaches were also more likely to be carrying medically important bacteria internally than externally (84.3% v. 64.1%; P<0.05). The implications of these and other recent results, for the control of cockroaches
Villa-Rojas, R; Sosa-Morales, M E; López-Malo, A; Tang, J
Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important post-harvest molds that cause quality deterioration of strawberries and other fruits even during refrigeration storage. This research studied the effects of thermal inactivation of B. cinerea in synthetic medium and strawberry puree using hot water baths at different temperatures. These media were studied in order to determine if results obtained in a solution with the major components of the fruit (synthetic media), are comparable to the ones obtained in fruit purees. The results demonstrated that B. cinerea spores can be inactivated by heat treatments using relatively low temperatures (42-46 °C). Inactivation curves were well described by first order kinetics (R² 0.91-0.99). B. cinerea conidia inoculated in synthetic medium required less time to achieve one log reduction in population than those inoculated in the fruit puree. D values were 22, 8.5, 4 and 1.4 min at 42, 44, 46 and 48 °C, respectively, in synthetic medium; while D values in strawberry puree were 44.9, 13.8, 4.7 and 1.4 min at 42, 44, 46 and 48 °C, respectively. The z values obtained were 4.15 and 5.08 °C for the strawberry puree and synthetic medium respectively, showing higher sensitivity of B. cinerea in fruit purees than in the synthetic medium. Thus, a change in the medium composition had a marked difference in the heat inactivation of B. cinerea conidia, and the results obtained in synthetic medium are not accurate to describe the behavior of the microorganism in the fruit.
Marchal, Richard; Warchol, Magda; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe
Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal pathogen particularly dreaded in the cool climate vineyard. It is responsible for important damage, especially the decrease in foamability of sparkling wines, such as Champagne. Different studies have shown that proteins are largely involved in the stabilization of Champagne foam despite their low concentration. Other works demonstrated changes in the electrophoretic characteristics of must proteins originating from botrytized grapes, although the cause of such alterations was never explained. In the first part of this study, results showed the release by B. cinerea of 3.5 mg/L total proteins in a synthetic liquid medium. Among these proteins, the presence of a protease activity on bovine serum albumin (BSA) and must proteins was demonstrated by using a colorimetric method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the model wine, the Bradford method showed a BSA loss of 66% after 24 h and a loss of 96% after 120 h. In the same model wine, the soluble must protein concentration decreased by 35% after 1 week and by 53% after 2 weeks while the control showed no protein loss. B. cinerea proteases were then able to degrade BSA and must proteins and were above all active at must and wine pH and in the presence of ethanol and SO(2). The second part of this work was dedicated to the relationship between the presence of B. cinerea proteases and its effects on the synthetic wine foaming properties. The addition of a B. cinerea culture medium (1/33 v/v) to the synthetic wine containing 21 mg/L soluble grape proteins induced a decrease in foamability by 60% after 1 week. For BSA in the model wine, the foamability decreased by 32% after 24 h and by 95% after 120 h, as shown by the colorimetric method. These experiments demonstrate for the first time the relationship between B. cinerea protease activity and the decrease in wine foaming properties.
Díaz, José; ten Have, Arjen; van Kan, Jan A.L.
Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative disease assays with plants pretreated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene perception, or salicylate; (b) quantitative disease assays with mutants or transgenes affected in the production of or the response to either ethylene or jasmonate; and (c) expression analysis of defense-related genes before and after inoculation of plants with B. cinerea. Plants pretreated with ethylene showed a decreased susceptibility toward B. cinerea, whereas pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, resulted in increased susceptibility. Ethylene pretreatment induced expression of several pathogenesis-related protein genes before B. cinerea infection. Proteinase inhibitor I expression was repressed by ethylene and induced by 1-methylcyclopropene. Ethylene also induced resistance in the mutant Never ripe. RNA analysis showed that Never ripe retained some ethylene sensitivity. The mutant Epinastic, constitutively activated in a subset of ethylene responses, and a transgenic line producing negligible ethylene were also tested. The results confirmed that ethylene responses are important for resistance of tomato to B. cinerea. The mutant Defenseless, impaired in jasmonate biosynthesis, showed increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. A transgenic line with reduced prosystemin expression showed similar susceptibility as Defenseless, whereas a prosystemin-overexpressing transgene was highly resistant. Ethylene and wound signaling acted independently on resistance. Salicylate and ethylene acted synergistically on defense gene expression, but antagonistically on resistance. PMID:12114587
Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby
The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.
Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S; Comins, Daniel L; Schal, Coby
The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male's antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis -- 11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system -- chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio -- have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.
Brown, Ashli E; France, Richard M; Grossman, Steven H
The isolation and characterization of homogeneous arginine kinase from the cockroach is reported. The purification protocol produces 6.6 mg of pure enzyme from 6.8 g of whole cockroach. The purified enzyme cross-reacts with a heterologous antibody and monoclonal antibody against arginine kinase from the shrimp. Both antibody preparations also cross-react with extracts from several species known to contain monomeric arginine kinase, but fail to react with extracts from organisms containing dimeric arginine kinase. Cockroach arginine kinase has a molecular mass of approximately 43,000 determined from measurements by gel filtration and gel electrophoresis. Compared with other arginine kinases, the enzyme from the cockroach is relatively thermostable (50% activity retained at 50 degrees C for 10 min) and has a pH optima of 8.5 and 6.5-7.5, for the forward and reverse reactions, respectively. Treatment with 5,5'dithiobis[2-nitrobenzoic acid] indicates that arginine kinase has a single reactive sulfhydryl group and, interestingly, the reaction is biphasic. The Michaelis constants for the phosphagen substrates, arginine: 0.49 mM, phosphoarginine: 0.94 mM, and nucleotide substrates MgATP: 0.14 mM, MgADP: 0.09 mM, are in the range reported for other arginine kinases. A 1% solution of pure enzyme has an absorbance of 7.0 at 280 nm. Calculations based on circular dichroic spectra indicate that arginine kinase from the cockroach has 12% alpha-helical structure. The intrinsic protein fluorescence emission maximum at 340 nm suggests that tryptophan residues are below the surface of the protein and not exposed to solvent. Arginine kinase from the cockroach and shrimp are known to be deleterious immunogens towards humans. The availability of pure protein, its characterization and potential regulation of activity, will be useful in developing agents to control the cockroach population and its destructive role in agriculture and human health.
Scott Horn; James L. Hanula
Wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae) are important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis Wilson (Piciformes: Picidae), an endangered species inhabiting pine (Pinus spp.) forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high...
Large numbers of a cockroach that resembled the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) were first observed during the winter of 2005-2006 in home turf settings in Weslaco, TX, 11 km from the United States border with northeastern Mexico. Subsequently, during nocturnal observations of arthropods ...
are several sorts, and 2) food substances. Two types of pheromones have been isolated from the German cockroach Blatella germanica . They are the sex...German cockroach, Blattella germanica . Initial investigations focused on the potential and capacity of the DD-136 strain of Neoaplectana carpocapsae
Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.
Sastre, J; Ibañez, M D; Lombardero, M; Laso, M T; Lehrer, S
Previous studies have established that cockroach allergens are important sensitizing agents in the induction of rhinitis and asthma principally in urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess skin test reactivity and specific IgE antibody reactivity to extracts of Periplaneta americana (P.a.), Blattella germanica (B.g.), B. orientalis (B.o.), and a fecal extract of B. germanica (FEB.g.) in a group of patients with rhinitis and asthma living in an urban area in Europe. We examined clinical characteristics and aerollergen sensitivities of 171 consecutive Madrid urban patients with rhinitis and asthma who met the criteria for the study. A comprehensive clinical evaluation was followed by skin prick test with common allergens and saline extracts of P.a., B.g., B.o., and FEB.g. and measurement of serum specific IgE antibody to cockroach extracts. The age of patients ranged from 7 to 68 years (mean 20.4 +/- 16). A total of 153 (90.5%) subjects were atopic and 19 (10%) were considered nonallergic. Pollen sensitivity (66.5%) was most prevalent, distantly followed by sensitivity to cockroach (25.7%), mite (20%), cat (15.5%), Alternaria alternata (14.5%), dog (14%), and food (2%). Skin test reactivity to cockroach extracts was 37 (21.6%) to B.o., 20 (11.6%) to P.a., 19 (11.1%) to B.g. and five (2.9%) to FEB.g. Twenty-one of these patients had rhinitis, 19 rhinitis and asthma, and one only asthma; 26 had perennial symptoms, while 16 had seasonal (spring) symptoms; three (1.7%) patients had only positive prick test to cockroach; all had perennial rhinitis and/or asthma. Eighteen (10.5%) patients had specific serum IgE (RAST 1 or 2) to B.o., 13 (7.6%) to P.a., and six (3.5%) to B.g. Eighty (46.7%) patients had visual evidence of cockroach infestation in their home, mostly B.o.; 31 had positive prick test to cockroach (P < 0.0003). The results indicate that sensitivity to outdoor allergens (pollen) is more prevalent than to indoor allergens. Cockroach sensitization is the
Esposito, W A; Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Chillrud, S N; Miller, R L; Kinney, P L
We designed and tested a sampling and analysis system for quantitative measurement of airborne cockroach allergen with sufficient sensitivity for residential exposure assessment. Integrated 1-week airborne particle samples were collected at 10-15 LPM in 19 New York City apartments in which an asthmatic child who was allergic to cockroach allergen resided. Four simultaneous air samples were collected in each home: at heights of 0.3 and 1 m in the child's bedroom and in the kitchen. Extracts of air samples were analyzed by ELISA for the cockroach allergen Bla g2, modified by amplifying the colorimetric signal generated via use of AMPLI-Q detection system (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA, USA). Settled dust samples were quantified by conventional ELISA. Of the homes where cockroach allergen was detected in settled dust, Bla g2 also was detected in 87% and 93% of air samples in the bedroom and kitchen, respectively. Airborne Bla g2 levels were highly correlated within and between the bedroom and kitchen locations (P < 0.001). Expressed as picogram per cubic meter, the room average geometric mean for Bla g2 concentrations was 1.9 pg/m³ (95% CI 0.63, 4.57) and 3.8 pg/m³ (95% CI 1.35, 9.25) in bedrooms and kitchens, respectively. This method offers an attractive supplement to settled dust sampling for cockroach allergen exposure health studies. Until now, cockroach allergen exposures have usually been assessed by collection and analysis of settled dust, on the assumption that airborne cockroach allergen cannot be reliably measured. In this study, a sensitive and quantitative method for measuring indoor airborne exposures to cockroach allergens involving a 7-day integrated total suspended particulate (TSP) sample collected at approximately 10-15 l/min was developed. Investigators are now empowered with an alternative exposure assessment method to supplement their studies and the understanding of allergen aerodynamics in the homes of children with asthma. We report
Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades
Shik, J Z; Schal, C; Silverman, J
Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization - an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited access to this critical metabolic fuel have compensatory behavioural and physiological strategies for meeting nutritional requirements. GA cockroaches had severely constrained intake, fat and N mass, and performance on glucose-based diets relative to wild-type (WT) cockroaches and did not appear to exhibit digestive strategies for retaining undereaten nutrients. However, a GA × WT 'hybrid' had lower glucose aversion than GA and greater access to macronutrients within glucose-based diets - while still having lower intake and survival than WT. Given these intermediate foraging constraints, hybrids may be a reservoir for this maladaptive trait in the absence of positive selection and may account for the rapid evolution of this trait following bait application.
Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.
Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon
We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Benzidane, Yassine; Touinsi, Sarra; Motte, Emilie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Leduc, Lionel; Thany, Steeve H
In the present study, the effect of thiamethoxam and clothianidin on the locomotor activity of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Because it has been proposed that thiamethoxam is metabolised to clothianidin, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the amount of clothianidin on thiamethoxam-treated cockroaches. One hour after neonicotinoid treatment, the time spent in the open-field-like apparatus significantly increased, suggesting a decrease in locomotor activity. The percentage of cockroaches displaying locomotor activity was significantly reduced 1 h after haemolymph application of 1 nmol g(-1) neonicotinoid, while no significant effect was found after topical and oral administration. However, at 24 and 48 h, all neonicotinoids were able to reduce locomotor activity, depending on their concentrations and the way they were applied. Interestingly, it was found that thiamethoxam was converted to clothianidin 1 h after application, but the amount of clothianidin did not rise proportionately to thiamethoxam, especially after oral administration. The data suggest that the effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is due in part to clothianidin action because (1) thiamethoxam levels remained persistent 48 h after application and (2) the amount of clothianidin in cockroach tissues was consistent with the toxicity of thiamethoxam. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cohn, Richard D.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Jaramillo, Renee; Reid, Laura H.; Zeldin, Darryl C.
We characterized the prevalence of cockroach allergen exposure in a nationally representative sample of U.S. homes and assessed risk factors for elevated concentrations. Design We used data from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing, a population-based cross-sectional survey. Participants Participants were residents of 831 U.S. homes in the survey. Evaluations/Measurements We analyzed allergen, questionnaire, and observational data of 831 U.S. homes. Results Cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) concentrations exceed 2.0 U/g, a level associated with allergic sensitization, in 11% of U.S. living room floors and 13% of kitchen floors. Concentrations exceed 8.0 U/g, a level associated with asthma morbidity, in 3% of living room floors and 10% of kitchen floors. Elevated concentrations were observed in high-rise apartments, urban settings, pre-1940 constructions, and households with incomes < $20,000. Odds of having concentrations > 8.0 U/g were greatest when roach problems were reported or observed and increased with the number of cockroaches observed and with indications of recent cockroach activity. Conclusions Household cockroach allergen exposure is characterized in a nationally representative context. The allergen is prevalent in many settings, at levels that may contribute to allergic sensitization and asthma morbidity. Relevance to Clinical or Professional Practice Likelihood of exposure can be assessed by consideration of demographic and household determinants. PMID:16581539
Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Scherer, Clay W; Bennett, Gary W
Horizontal transfer of indoxacarb in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was examined under laboratory conditions. Results show that a single bait-fed adult cockroach (i.e., the donor) transferred indoxacarb to numerous primary recipients (secondary mortality),which then became secondary donors. These recipients subsequently became donors to other cockroaches and caused significant mortality in other members of the aggregation, resulting in tertiary kill. Indoxacarb was effectively transferred among adult cockroaches and resulted in significant secondary mortality. When adult males served as donors and vectored the insecticide to adult males, the donor:recipient ratio affected the mortality of the recipients and the rate of secondary mortality increased with increasing the ratio of donors to recipients. Furthermore, secondary mortality in the untreated cockroaches was significantly affected by the freshness of excretions from the donors, the presence of alternative food, and the duration of contact between the donors and the recipients. Ingested indoxacarb was most effectively translocated when the recipients interacted with freshly symptomatic donors in the absence of alternative food. The transfer of indoxacarb continued beyond secondary mortality and resulted in significant tertiary mortality. Excretions from a single bait-fed adult killed 38/50 (76%) nymphs within 72 h. The dead nymphs then vectored indoxacarb to 20 adult males and killed 16/20 (81%) recipients within 72 h. Behavioral mechanisms involved in the horizontal transfer of indoxacarb may include: contact with excretions, necrophagy, emetophagy, and ingestion of other excretions that originate from the donors.
Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby
The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait.
Appel, Arthur G
Experimental indoxacarb powder and gel baits were evaluated in the laboratory, and a gel bait was evaluated in subsequent field studies against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In continuous exposure tests, LT50 values were 1.90 and 1.10 d for 0.25 and 1% indoxacarb powder baits, respectively. However, 0.25% indoxacarb gel bait had an LT50 value of 0.68 d, similar to a 0.05% abamectin gel bait formulated with the same bait base. There was no difference in toxicity between fresh and 7-d-old gel bait deposits. A pyrethroid-resistant strain of German cockroaches was significantly resistant to both abamectin and indoxacarb gel baits. Gel bait contained approximately 40% water, desiccated rapidly at 25-28 degrees C and 30-45% RH, but did not rehydrate when held at 56.7% RH for 3 d. Powder indoxacarb baits contained <1% water and did not desiccate or gain water. Indoxacarb gel bait (0.25%) was relatively nonrepellent (approximately 30%) and had positive maximum performance index values (approximately 100) in Ebeling choice box experiments. In field experiments in cockroach-infested kitchens, the 0.25% indoxacarb gel bait significantly reduced visual counts of German cockroaches approximately 74% at 3 d and >95% at 14 d. Indoxacarb baits are toxic, relatively nonrepellent, and can significantly reduce German cockroach populations.
Liu, N; Pridgeon, J W; Wang, H; Liu, Z; Zhang, L
Full-length mariner elements were isolated and sequenced from house flies (Musca domestica) and German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). The amino acid sequence of the house fly mariner element (accession number: AF373028) showed 99.5% identity with Mos1 and peach elements, whereas the German cockroach mariner element (accession number: AF355143) showed 98.8% and 99.8% identity, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the mariner elements in house flies and German cockroaches differed from the active Mos1 mariner element by seven and 15 nucleotides, respectively. Four essential nucleotide substitutions at positions 64, 154, 305, and 1203, which have been proposed to contribute to the loss of activity of the inactive elements, were detected in the German cockroach mariner element. In contrast, although the mariner element in house flies contained substitutions at positions 64, 154, and 305, it retained T at position 1203, identical to active mariner elements. Mariner is present in approximately eight copies in the German cockroach genome.
Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic
When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.
Durier, V; Rivault, C
Female German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and nymphs (stages 1, 3 and 6) were used to test the attractiveness and the feeding stimulation of several commercial gel formulations of insecticide food baits in laboratory binary choice tests. The four toxic gel baits tested were: 'Avert' (0.05% abamectin=avermectin B1), 'Drax' (33.3% boric acid), 'Goliath' (0.05% fipronil) and 'Maxforce' (2.15% hydramethylnon). The attractiveness of a bait was estimated by the number of cockroaches that chose it first, and by their tendency to change to it secondarily. Feeding stimulation was estimated by the mean duration of feeding bouts and total duration of food intake. Variability of these factors was assessed in relation to age of cockroaches and to age of baits. With a few exceptions, cockroach age did not affect performance in any of these tests. Attractiveness to B. germanica ranked 'Goliath' gel higher than 'Avert', 'Drax' and 'Maxforce' gels, whether or not the active ingredient fipronil was present in 'Goliath' gel. Feeding stimulation ranked 'Avert' and 'Maxforce' gels higher than 'Goliath' gel, and 'Drax' gel was inferior. With ageing up to 3 months, the feeding stimulation power of 'Goliath' and 'Maxforce' gels increased, whereas that of 'Avert' fluctuated. Assuming that all types of bait effectively kill cockroaches once ingested, these results illustrate the importance of behavioural observations on bait efficiency and show that ranking of these different food baits varies in relation to the parameter analysed.
Jensen, Kim; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food. After 6 months we found significantly higher frequency of WT individuals in populations restricted to the 20% glucose food, and after 12 months all dietary treatments contained significantly more WT individuals than expected. In accompanying experiments, we found lower survival and longer development time of GA nymphs restricted to glucose-containing food. We furthermore found evidence for assortative mating of females with males from their own genotype, with significant differences within WT cockroaches. Our study shows experimental evidence that within heterogeneous populations, WT German cockroaches will over time prevail in abundance over GA individuals, even when glucose is not a dietary component. PMID:28406167
Suiter, D R; Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S
The effects of feeding several ages of adult and nymphal German cockroaches a laboratory rat chow diet containing 0.10% allopurinol were investigated. All cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet suffered increased mortality. The range of LT50 values (the time required to kill 50% of an experimental cohort) for four ages of nymphs (1-8, 16-23, 21-28, and 28-35 d old following hatch) continuously fed the allopurinol diet was 1.36 wk (4.72-6.08 wk). Regardless of sex, young adult (1-7 d old following eclosion) cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet died significantly sooner than older adults (28-35 d old following eclosion); males died significantly sooner than females. All females fed the allopurinol diet as nymphs aborted their oothecae. Although an initial ootheca were hatched from cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet as adults, all subsequent oothecae were aborted. Untreated females mated with allopurinol-fed males experienced successful reproduction, but allopurinol-fed females mated with either allopurinol- or control diet-fed males failed to reproduce. Evidence suggests that cockroaches suffer increased mortality and reproductive failure from increased levels of hypoxanthine and xanthine.
Menasria, Taha; Moussa, Fatima; El-Hamza, Souad; Tine, Samir; Megri, Rochdi; Chenchouni, Haroun
Background Cockroaches are among the most common pests in public dwellings and health facilities. Their presence can raise safety concerns, especially as they maybe carriers of pathogenic organisms. Methods This study was carried out to isolate and identify the bacterial flora from German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). Cockroaches collected by hand catches from two public hospital environments in Tebessa city (northeast Algeria) were screened for microbial load from their external surfaces and alimentary tract using standard bacterial protocols. Results A total of 174 bacterial isolates were isolated from 39 German cockroach specimens. The most common and abundant bacterial species belonged to the Pseudomonas group (23.5%) and Serratia (13.2%). Pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated, as well as opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella species and food spoilage bacteria such as Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were isolated from both external surface and digestive tract of the insect. Generalized linear models (GLM) were performed to analyze the variation of abundances and occurrences of bacterial isolates harboured by B. germanica. The GLMs revealed that the main factors affecting variation of bacterial diversity and abundance were sex and hospital (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that German cockroach acts as reservoir and potential vector of some bacterial pathogens. PMID:24766338
Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji
Introduction: American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. Goal: The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. Methods: The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Results: Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary. PMID:27047261
Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji
American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary.
Weisel-Eichler, A; Libersat, F
The venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces long-lasting hypokinesia in the cockroach prey. Previous work indicates that the venom acts in the subesophageal ganglion to indirectly affect modulation of thoracic circuits for locomotion. However, the target of the venom in the subesophageal ganglion, and the mechanism by which the venom achieves its effects are as yet unknown. While the stung cockroaches appear generally lethargic, not all behaviors were affected, indicating that the venom targets specific motor systems and not behavior in general. Stung cockroaches were observed "freezing" in abnormal positions. Reserpine, which depletes monoamines, mimics the behavioral effects of the venom. We treated cockroaches with antagonists to dopamine and octopamine receptors, and found that the dopamine system is required for normal escape response. Dopamine injection induces prolonged grooming in normal cockroaches, but not in stung, suggesting that the venom is affecting dopamine receptors, or targets downstream of these receptors, in the subesophageal ganglion. This dopamine blocking effect fades slowly over the course of several weeks, similar to the time course of recovery from hypokinesia. The similarity in the time courses suggests that the mechanism underlying the hypokinesia may be the block of the dopamine receptors.
Jensen, Kim; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food. After 6 months we found significantly higher frequency of WT individuals in populations restricted to the 20% glucose food, and after 12 months all dietary treatments contained significantly more WT individuals than expected. In accompanying experiments, we found lower survival and longer development time of GA nymphs restricted to glucose-containing food. We furthermore found evidence for assortative mating of females with males from their own genotype, with significant differences within WT cockroaches. Our study shows experimental evidence that within heterogeneous populations, WT German cockroaches will over time prevail in abundance over GA individuals, even when glucose is not a dietary component.
Umunnabuike, A C; Irokanulo, E A
A total of 690 adult cockroaches (Periplaneta americana (L.), the American cockroach, and Blatta orientalis (L.), the oriental cockroach) were captured alive within domestic kitchens and near poultry houses in Vom. Using selective media, their external surfaces and internal (gut) contents, after adequate decontamination of the external surfaces, were culturally examined for the presence of campylobacters. 4 isolates of Campylobacter subsp jejuni were made (0.5%); 3 from the gut contents and 1 from the external surface. Nocardia asteroides was isolated from the gut contents of a batch of ten cockroaches. The low isolation rate notwithstanding, our results suggest that cockroaches may be a potential vector of campylobacters from other sources to human food. The somewhat fortuitous isolation of Nocardia asteroides and its significance are discussed.
Korolev, N; Katan, T; Elad, Y
ABSTRACT Botrytis cinerea marked strains combining traits of fungicide resistance or sensitivity (carbendazim, iprodione) with resistance to selenate were created and assessed for use in studying the dispersal of B. cinerea and its survival inside plant tissue under greenhouse conditions. Marked strains differed in their ability to cause lesions and to disperse in the greenhouse. A strain that was the most aggressive in infecting plants was also the most successful in spreading across the greenhouse. Following 7 to 14 days of exposure to marked inoculum, about 90% of plants showed quiescent B. cinerea infection with no significant difference between hosts or seasons. However, in a warm season, most of the plants were infected with wild-type B. cinerea, whereas most of the winter-recovered B. cinerea strains were of the marked phenotype, showing the importance of local inoculum from within the glasshouse in winter. The air of the greenhouse contained the same population of marked B. cinerea in warm and in cold periods, whereas the total population was significantly higher in summer. In the warm season, mycelium of B. cinerea inside plant debris lost viability within 3 to 4 months, whereas it stayed viable for 4 months in the winter (December to March) and started to lose viability in April.
Zheng, Chuanlin; Choquer, Mathias; Zhang, Bing; Ge, Hui; Hu, Songnian; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu
The ascomycetes Botrytis cinerea is one of the most studied necrotrophic phytopathogens and one of the main fungal parasites of grapevine. As a defense mechanism, grapevine produces a phytoalexin compound, resveratrol, which inhibits germination of the fungal conidium before it can penetrate the plant barriers and lead to host cell necrotrophy. To elucidate the effect of resveratrol on transcriptional regulation in B. cinerea germlings, two LongSAGE (long serial analysis of gene expression) libraries were generated in vitro for gene-expression profiling: 41 428 tags and among them, 15 665 unitags were obtained from resveratrol-treated B. cinerea germlings and 41 358 tags, among them, 16 362 unitags were obtained from non-treated B. cinerea germlings. In-silico analysis showed that about half of these unitags match known genes in the complete B. cinerea genome sequence. Comparison of unitag frequencies between libraries highlighted 110 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in the presence of resveratrol: 53 and 57 genes were significantly down- and upregulated, respectively. Manual curation of their putative functional categories showed that primary metabolism of germinating conidia appears to be markedly affected under resveratrol treatment, along with changes in other putative metabolic pathways, such as resveratrol detoxification and virulence-effector secretion, in B. cinerea germlings. We propose a hypothetical model of cross talk between B. cinerea germinating conidia and resveratrol-producing grapevine at the very early steps of infection.
Li, Yonghua; Shao, Xingfeng; Xu, Jiayu; Wei, Yingying; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities and possible mechanisms of tea tree oil (TTO) against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo. The results show that TTO exhibits dose-dependent antifungal activity against both pathogens, but P. expansum is less sensitive than B. cinerea to TTO not only in the in vitro test but also in artificially inoculated cherry fruits. TTO vapor treatment reduced the decay caused by these pathogens in inoculated cherry fruits, but the effect on P. expansum was less than that on B. cinerea. While the total lipid and ergosterol contents of the cell membrane are greater in P. expansum than in B. cinerea, TTO treatment lowers the total lipid content in the membranes of both species by well over 50%, and ergosterol content is reduced to a greater extent in B. cinerea than in P. expansum. In both pathogens, TTO alters mycelial morphology and cellular ultrastructure. Oxygen consumption measurements show that TTO inhibits respiratory metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway in both pathogens, though more severely in B. cinerea than in P. expansum. The relatively decreased sensitivity of P. expansum to TTO may be due to the fact that TTO causes less disruption of the cell membrane in this organism, and higher inhibition the respiratory metabolism to the extent observed in B. cinerea.
Pratheeshkumar, P; Kuttan, Girija
The radioprotective effect of Vernonia cinerea extract was studied in balb/c mice. Whole-body irradiation of γ-rays (6 Gy) given to animals reduced the white blood cell count, bone marrow cellularity and α-esterase positive cells in control animals, which were elevated by the administration of V. cinerea extract (20 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.], intraperitoneally [i.p.]). The elevated levels of serum enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate transferases (GPT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) after irradiation were also reduced with V. cineria extract administration. V. cinerea treatment also significantly enhanced the animal's antioxidant status by enhancing the activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in irradiated animals. Histopathological analysis of liver and small intestine also suggests that V. cinerea could reduce the tissue damages induced by radiation. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) elevated after irradiation, which were significantly reduced by V. cinerea extract administration. On the other hand, the extract stimulated the production of other cytokines such as granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in animals exposed to radiation. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from bone marrow of control animals showed heavy DNA damage, but a reduced DNA damage was seen in animals treated with V. cinerea extract. Administration of V. cinerea did not compromise the anti-neoplastic efficiency of radiation. In fact, there was a synergistic action of radiation and V. cinerea in reducing the solid tumours in mice. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea given i.p. showed a significant radioprotective activity without compromising the radiotherapeutic efficacy of radiation, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during
Shahraki, Gholam H; Hafidzi, M N; Khadri, M S; Rafinejad, J; Ibrahim, Y B
This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method.
Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali
Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and order Blattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene (mt-DNA COII) characteristics. Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecular analysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae). With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species. Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented. PMID:26623428
Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali
Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and order Blattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran. An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene (mt-DNA COII) characteristics. Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecular analysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae). With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species. Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented.
Long-term effects of hybridization and introgression are influenced by performance of hybrids in habitats of parental species. The treefrogs Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa, which typically breed in permanent and temporary habitats, respectively, have occasionally hybridized throughout the Southeastern United States. To predict in which of the parental habitats effects of hybridization might be strongest, I performed experiments to evaluate predation on tadpoles of H. cinerea, H. gratiosa, and F1 hybrids with predators typical of the breeding habitats of the parental species. Hybrid tadpoles had lower survival with sunfish than odonate naiad (dragonfly) predators and tended to increase hiding behavior in response to sunfish predation. Tadpoles of H. gratiosa also had higher survival with odonates than sunfish, but H. cinerea had similar survival with both predator types. These results suggest that hybrids are most likely to survive and return to breed in temporary habitats used by H. gratiosa. Thus, hybridization and introgression might be more likely to have adverse effects on populations of H. gratiosa than H. cinerea. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.
Zhao, Bin; Si, He Long; Sun, Zhi Ying; Xu, Zheng; Chen, Zhan; Zhang, Jin lin; Xing, Ji Hong; Dong, Jin Gao
Background: Botrytis cinerea, a haploid Euascomycete fungus that infects numerous crops, has been used as a model system for studying molecular phytopathology. Botrytis cinerea adopts various modes of infection, which are mediated by a number of pathogenicity and virulence-related genes. Many of these genes have not been reported previously. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate development and pathogenicity-related genes between a novel nonpathogenic mutant and the Wild Type (WT) in B. cinerea. Materials and Methods: Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling can reveal novel genes that may be involved in development and pathogenicity of plant pathogen. A large volume of B. cinerea tag-seq was generated to identify differential expressed genes by the Illumina DGE tag proﬁling technology. Results: A total of 4,182,944 and 4,182,021 clean tags were obtained from the WT and a nonpathogenic mutant stain (BCt89), respectively, and 10,410 differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 84 genes were expressed in the WT only while 34 genes were expressed in the mutant only. A total of 664 differentially expressed genes were involved in 91 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways, including signaling and metabolic pathways. Conclusions: Expression levels of 1,426 genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant compared to WT. Furthermore, 301 genes were down-regulated with False Discovery Rates (FDR) of < 0.001 and absolute value of log2 Ratio of ≥ 1. PMID:26034553
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to quiescent Botrytis cinerea infections of grape berries identified some specific limitations. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two tissue-grinding methods, two gra...
Amanda M. Parks; Michael A. Jenkins; Keith E. Woeste; Michael E. Ostry
To mitigate the loss of native tree species threatened by non-native pathogens, managers need to better understand the conservation status of remaining populations and the conditions that favor successful regeneration. Populations of Juglans cinerea L. (butternut), a wide-ranging riparian species, have been devastated by butternut canker, a disease...
Of 683 Botrytis cinerea isolates collected from a fungicide-trial vineyard, 31 were classified as putatively resistant to fenhexamid (EC50 =0.1 ug/ml). For the resistant isolates that survived and sporulated in culture, colony expansion and conidial germination frequency was significantly reduced re...
Fenhexamid is a fungicide used to control Botrytis cinerea on grapes worldwide. Resistance appears to be of a quantitative rather than qualitative nature, with minimum EC50 values that define a resistant phenotype proposed as exceeding 0.1 mg/L by some workers and 0.4 mg/L by others. However, little...
Rowe, Heather C.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.
The genetic architecture of plant defense against microbial pathogens may be influenced by pathogen lifestyle. While plant interactions with biotrophic pathogens are frequently controlled by the action of large-effect resistance genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that plant defense against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Few studies of quantitative resistance to necrotrophic pathogens have used large plant mapping populations to dissect the genetic structure of resistance. Using a large structured mapping population of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified quantitative trait loci influencing plant response to B. cinerea, measured as expansion of necrotic lesions on leaves and accumulation of the antimicrobial compound camalexin. Testing multiple B. cinerea isolates, we identified 23 separate QTL in this population, ranging in isolate-specificity from being identified with a single isolate to controlling resistance against all isolates tested. We identified a set of QTL controlling accumulation of camalexin in response to pathogen infection that largely colocalized with lesion QTL. The identified resistance QTL appear to function in epistatic networks involving three or more loci. Detection of multilocus connections suggests that natural variation in specific signaling or response networks may control A. thaliana–B. cinerea interaction in this population. PMID:18845849
Juglans cinerea (butternut) is a deciduous tree native to the United States and Canada with oblong shaped nuts with an oily texture and a pleasant flavour. The species is threatened by a canker disease caused by the introduced fungus (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) which already eradicated...
Raspberries are a delicate, high value crop with an extremely short shelf life exacerbated by postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. European red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is the most widely grown. Yellow (R. idaeus L.), black (R. occidentalis L.) and purple raspberries (R. ×neglectus ...
Peng Zhao; Keith E. Woeste
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a temperate deciduous hardwood native to the eastern USA and southern Canada valued for its nuts and wood. Butternut's survival is threatened by butternut canker, a disease caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignentijuglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz. Field...
Wörmann, Mirka E.; Horien, Corey L.; Johnson, Errin; Liu, Guangyu; Aho, Ellen; Tang, Christoph M.
In pathogenic Neisseria species the type IV pili (Tfp) are of primary importance in host–pathogen interactions. Tfp mediate initial bacterial attachment to cell surfaces and formation of microcolonies via pilus–pilus interactions. Based on genome analysis, many non-pathogenic Neisseria species are predicted to express Tfp, but aside from studies on Neisseria elongata, relatively little is known about the formation and function of pili in these organisms. Here, we have analysed pilin expression and the role of Tfp in Neisseria cinerea. This non-pathogenic species shares a close taxonomic relationship to the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and also colonizes the human oropharyngeal cavity. Through analysis of non-pathogenic Neisseria genomes we identified two genes with homology to pilE, which encodes the major pilin of N. meningitidis. We show which of the two genes is required for Tfp expression in N. cinerea and that Tfp in this species are required for DNA competence, similar to other Neisseria. However, in contrast to the meningococcus, deletion of the pilin gene did not impact the association of N. cinerea to human epithelial cells, demonstrating that N. cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by Tfp-independent mechanisms. PMID:26813911
Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...
Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin
Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including KacY, KacH, Kac***R, KacF, FKac and Kac***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557
Paula M. Pijut; Melanie Moore
Juglans cinerea L. (butternut) is a hardwood species valued for its wood and edible nuts. Information on the vegetative propagation of this species is currently unavailable. Our objective was to determine the conditions necessary for successful stem-cutting propagation of butternut. In 1999 and 2000, 10 trees (each year) were randomly selected from a...
A study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the occurrence of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations in California’s northern strawberry growing region; specifically in Watsonville and Salinas. In mid-May, 59 samples consisting of a single diseased fruit or plant part with gray mold s...
Qin, Guozheng; Zong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qiling; Hua, Donglai; Tian, Shiping
Boron, an essential plant micronutrient, was effective in the form of potassium tetraborate for control of postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on table grapes stored at room temperature or at 0 degrees C. The inhibition of fruit decay was closely correlated with boron concentrations and partially influenced by pH value of the solution. Boron strongly inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelial spread of B. cinerea in the culture medium. Application of boron at 1% caused the appearance of abnormal spores (disrupted) in some cases. By using propidium iodide fluorescent staining, loss of membrane integrity in B. cinerea was observed after boron treatment. Furthermore, boron led to the leakage of cellular constituents (soluble proteins and carbohydrates) from hyphae of B. cinerea. These data suggest that the mechanisms by which boron decreased gray mold decay of table grapes may be directly related to the disruption effect of boron on cell membrane of the fungal pathogen that resulted in the breakdown of the cell membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.
Amy Ross-Davis; Zhonglian Huang; James McKenna; Michael Ostry; Keith Woeste
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a native, cold-tolerant, hard-mast species formerly valued for its nuts and wood, which is now endangered. The most immediate threat to butternut restoration is the spread of butternut canker disease, caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka &...
Antal, Zsuzsanna; Rascle, Christine; Cimerman, Agnès; Viaud, Muriel; Billon-Grand, Geneviève; Choquer, Mathias; Bruel, Christophe
Filamentous growth and the capacity at producing conidia are two critical aspects of most fungal life cycles, including that of many plant or animal pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a homeobox transcription factor encoding gene that plays a role in these two particular aspects of the development of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion of the BcHOX8 gene in both the B. cinerea B05-10 and T4 strains causes similar phenotypes, among which a curved, arabesque-like, hyphal growth on hydrophobic surfaces; the mutants were hence named Arabesque. Expression of the BcHOX8 gene is higher in conidia and infection cushions than in developing appressorium or mycelium. In the Arabesque mutants, colony growth rate is reduced and abnormal infection cushions are produced. Asexual reproduction is also affected with abnormal conidiophore being formed, strongly reduced conidia production and dramatic changes in conidial morphology. Finally, the mutation affects the fungus ability to efficiently colonize different host plants. Analysis of the B. cinerea genome shows that BcHOX8 is one member of a nine putative homeobox genes family. Available gene expression data suggest that these genes are functional and sequence comparisons indicate that two of them would be specific to B. cinerea and its close relative Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PMID:23133556
Rowe, Heather C.; Walley, Justin W.; Corwin, Jason; Chan, Eva K.-F.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.
Despite the described central role of jasmonate signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens, the existence of intraspecific variation in pathogen capacity to activate or evade plant jasmonate-mediated defenses is rarely considered. Experimental infection of jasmonate-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Arabidopsis thaliana with diverse isolates of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea revealed pathogen variation for virulence inhibition by jasmonate-mediated plant defenses and induction of plant defense metabolites. Comparison of the transcriptional effects of infection by two distinct B. cinerea isolates showed only minor differences in transcriptional responses of wild-type plants, but notable isolate-specific transcript differences in jasmonate-insensitive plants. These transcriptional differences suggest B. cinerea activation of plant defenses that require plant jasmonate signaling for activity in response to only one of the two B. cinerea isolates tested. Thus, similar infection phenotypes observed in wild-type plants result from different signaling interactions with the plant that are likely integrated by jasmonate signaling. PMID:20419157
Dulermo, Thierry; Rascle, Christine; Billon-Grand, Geneviève; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard; Cotton, Pascale
In order to redefine the mannitol pathway in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea, we used a targeted deletion strategy of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, BcMTDH (B. cinerea mannitol dehydrogenase) and BcMPD (B. cinerea mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase). Mobilization of mannitol and quantification of Bcmpd and Bcmtdh gene transcripts during development and osmotic stress confirmed a role for mannitol as a temporary and disposable carbon storage compound. In order to study metabolic fluxes, we followed conversion of labelled hexoses in wild-type and DeltaBcmpd and DeltaBcmtdh mutant strains by in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Our results revealed that glucose and fructose were metabolized via the BcMPD and BcMTDH pathways respectively. The existence of a novel mannitol phosphorylation pathway was also suggested by the NMR investigations. This last finding definitively challenged the existence of the originally postulated mannitol cycle in favour of two simultaneously expressed pathways. Finally, physiological and biochemical studies conducted on double deletion mutants (DeltaBcmpdDeltaBcmtdh) showed that mannitol was still produced despite a complete alteration of both mannitol biosynthesis pathways. This strongly suggests that one or several additional undescribed pathways could participate in mannitol metabolism in B. cinerea.
Sonibare, Mubo A; Aremu, Oluwafunmilola T; Okorie, Patricia N
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less is used in folk medicine as a remedy for various diseases. The present study reports antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of solvent fractions of Vernonia cinerea. The antioxidant properties of solvent fractions of V. cinerea were evaluated by determining radicals scavenging activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents measured with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) test, the aluminum chloride and the Folin-ciocalteau methods, respectively. Antimicrobial activities were tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each active extract were determined. The ethyl acetate fraction having the IC50 value of 6.50 µg/mL demonstrated comparable DPPH radical-scavenging activity with standard antioxidants, gallic acid and quercetin included in the study. All fractions displayed moderate antimicrobial potential against the tested pathogens with the zone of inhibition that ranged from 9.0 to 13.5 mm. The MIC (1.56 mg/mL) and MBC (3.13 mg/mL) indicated highest susceptibility of Candida albicans in all fractions. The results of this study showed that the solvent fractions of V. cinerea possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, hence justifying the folkloric use of the plant for the treatment of various ailments in traditional medicine.
Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida
BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701
Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...
Taegtmeyer, M.; Saxena, R.; Corkill, J. E.; Anijeet, H.; Parry, C. M.
Bacterial peritonitis is a well-recognized complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in patients with end-stage renal failure. We present a case of peritonitis due to an unusual pathogen, Neisseria cinerea, unresponsive to the standard intraperitoneal (i.p.) vancomycin and gentamicin, which responded rapidly to oral ciprofloxacin. PMID:16891538
Taegtmeyer, M; Saxena, R; Corkill, J E; Anijeet, H; Parry, C M
Bacterial peritonitis is a well-recognized complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in patients with end-stage renal failure. We present a case of peritonitis due to an unusual pathogen, Neisseria cinerea, unresponsive to the standard intraperitoneal (i.p.) vancomycin and gentamicin, which responded rapidly to oral ciprofloxacin.
Wörmann, Mirka E; Horien, Corey L; Johnson, Errin; Liu, Guangyu; Aho, Ellen; Tang, Christoph M; Exley, Rachel M
In pathogenic Neisseria species the type IV pili (Tfp) are of primary importance in host-pathogen interactions. Tfp mediate initial bacterial attachment to cell surfaces and formation of microcolonies via pilus-pilus interactions. Based on genome analysis, many non-pathogenic Neisseria species are predicted to express Tfp, but aside from studies on Neisseria elongata, relatively little is known about the formation and function of pili in these organisms. Here, we have analysed pilin expression and the role of Tfp in Neisseria cinerea. This non-pathogenic species shares a close taxonomic relationship to the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and also colonizes the human oropharyngeal cavity. Through analysis of non-pathogenic Neisseria genomes we identified two genes with homology to pilE, which encodes the major pilin of N. meningitidis. We show which of the two genes is required for Tfp expression in N. cinerea and that Tfp in this species are required for DNA competence, similar to other Neisseria. However, in contrast to the meningococcus, deletion of the pilin gene did not impact the association of N. cinerea to human epithelial cells, demonstrating that N. cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by Tfp-independent mechanisms.
Stacy Clark; Sunshine Brosi; Scott Schlarbaum; Henri Grissino-Mayer
Butternut (Juglans cinerea) has been an important component of eastern hardwood forests in North America since the last ice-age, but an exotic fungal pathogen (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) has been devastating the species throughout its native range since the late 1960s. Restoration strategies have not been widely adopted in the southern part of the species...
Clynen, Elke; Ciudad, Laura; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship behaviour is regulated by the fruitless gene. In D. melanogaster, fruitless encodes a set of putative transcription factors that are sex-specifically spliced. Male-specific variants are necessary and sufficient to elicit male courtship behaviour. Fruitless sequences have been reported in other insect species, but there are no data available on their functional role. In the present work, we cloned and sequenced fruitless in males of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and we studied its expression in male brain and testes. B. germanica fruitless encodes a 350-amino acid protein with BTB and Zinc finger domains typical of fruitless sequences. Upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of fruitless in B. germanica, males no longer exhibit courtship behaviour, thus implying that fruitless is necessary for male sexual behaviour in our cockroach model. This suggests that the role of fruitless as master regulator of male sexual behaviour has been conserved along insect evolution, at least from cockroaches to flies.
Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L; Schauer, Christine; Brune, Andreas
The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success.
He, S; Zhang, Z; Zhang, H; Wei, J; Yang, L; Yang, H; Sun, W; Zeng, X; Yang, P
Cockroaches have been identified as one of the major indoor allergens inducing perennial rhinitis and asthma. Per a 1s are a group of the major allergens from American cockroach. Although Per a 1s are major allergens from American cockroach, factors contributing to the allergenicity of Per a 1s are still poorly defined. To investigate the effects of Per a 1s on the expression of PARs and the release of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells. Per a 1.0101 and Per a 1.0104 were cloned from American cockroach and then expressed in Eschericia coli. The purified allergens were used to stimulate P815 mast cells, and the expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in culture media were detected with ELISA. Sera from 80 and 77.3% of cockroach allergy patients reacted to recombinant Per a (rPer a) 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104, confirming they are major allergens. Both rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 had no enzymatic activity, but rPer a 1.0101 upregulated the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2, and rPer a 1.0104 enhanced the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-4 proteins. Both recombinant allergens were able to increase the release of IL-4 and IL-13 from P815 mast cells. This is the first study aiming to investigate functions of group 1 allergens of American cockroach. rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 have the capacity to upregulate the expression of PARs and to enhance Th2 cytokine production in mast cells.
Chamavit, Pennapa; Sahaisook, Panupong; Niamnuy, Nunthawadee
We undertook a study of the mechanical transmission of parasitic organisms in cockroaches in the Samutprakarn province of Thailand. In this study, 920 cockroaches were obtained from 18 open-air shopping markets in 5 districts and 1 subdistrict of this province. All cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in their natural habitat. Direct wet smear and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the external surface or cuticle of the cockroaches. The results show that 498 (54.1 %) of the cockroaches harbored parasitic organisms. Of these, 56.1 % were protozoa and the remaining 43.9 % were helminthes (pathogenic helminthes- 1.4 %, non-pathogenic helminthes- 42.5 %). Of the pathogenic helminthes, the species included Strongyloides stercoralis (6 instances of the free-living adult male, 0.8 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2 decorticated eggs, 0.3 %), Trichuris trichiura (2, 0.3 %), and Taenia spp. (1 egg, 0.1 %). The protozoa types that were identified included Cyclospora spp. (10 oocysts, 1.3 %), Endolimax nana (10 cysts, 1.3 %), B. hominis (9 instances of the vacuolated form, 1.2 %), Isospora belli (75 oocysts, 9.6 %), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (36 cysts, 4.6 %), Cryptosporidium spp. (220 oocysts, 28.1 %), Chilomastix mesnilli (2 cysts, 0.3 %), Entamoeba coli (31 cysts, 4.0 %), Balantidium coli (45 trophozoites, 5.8 %), and Iodamoeba butschlii (1 cyst, 0.1 %). These results show that cockroaches isolated from these markets are carriers of several parasitic organisms that cause commonly found symptoms of illness such as diarrhea or bowel disorder. PMID:27857676
Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L.; Schauer, Christine
The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success. PMID:26637604
Benito, Ernesto P.; Couloux, Arnaud; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Dyer, Paul S.; Fillinger, Sabine; Fournier, Elisabeth; Gout, Lilian; Hahn, Matthias; Kohn, Linda; Lapalu, Nicolas; Plummer, Kim M.; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Quévillon, Emmanuel; Sharon, Amir; Simon, Adeline; ten Have, Arjen; Tudzynski, Bettina; Tudzynski, Paul; Wincker, Patrick; Andrew, Marion; Anthouard, Véronique; Beffa, Rolland; Benoit, Isabelle; Bouzid, Ourdia; Brault, Baptiste; Chen, Zehua; Choquer, Mathias; Collémare, Jérome; Cotton, Pascale; Danchin, Etienne G.; Da Silva, Corinne; Gautier, Angélique; Giraud, Corinne; Giraud, Tatiana; Gonzalez, Celedonio; Grossetete, Sandrine; Güldener, Ulrich; Henrissat, Bernard; Howlett, Barbara J.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Kretschmer, Matthias; Lappartient, Anne; Leroch, Michaela; Levis, Caroline; Mauceli, Evan; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Oeser, Birgitt; Pearson, Matthew; Poulain, Julie; Poussereau, Nathalie; Quesneville, Hadi; Rascle, Christine; Schumacher, Julia; Ségurens, Béatrice; Sexton, Adrienne; Silva, Evelyn; Sirven, Catherine; Soanes, Darren M.; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Templeton, Matt; Yandava, Chandri; Yarden, Oded; Zeng, Qiandong; Rollins, Jeffrey A.; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Dickman, Marty
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi notable for their wide host ranges and environmental persistence. These attributes have made these species models for understanding the complexity of necrotrophic, broad host-range pathogenicity. Despite their similarities, the two species differ in mating behaviour and the ability to produce asexual spores. We have sequenced the genomes of one strain of S. sclerotiorum and two strains of B. cinerea. The comparative analysis of these genomes relative to one another and to other sequenced fungal genomes is provided here. Their 38–39 Mb genomes include 11,860–14,270 predicted genes, which share 83% amino acid identity on average between the two species. We have mapped the S. sclerotiorum assembly to 16 chromosomes and found large-scale co-linearity with the B. cinerea genomes. Seven percent of the S. sclerotiorum genome comprises transposable elements compared to <1% of B. cinerea. The arsenal of genes associated with necrotrophic processes is similar between the species, including genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and oxalic acid production. Analysis of secondary metabolism gene clusters revealed an expansion in number and diversity of B. cinerea–specific secondary metabolites relative to S. sclerotiorum. The potential diversity in secondary metabolism might be involved in adaptation to specific ecological niches. Comparative genome analysis revealed the basis of differing sexual mating compatibility systems between S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. The organization of the mating-type loci differs, and their structures provide evidence for the evolution of heterothallism from homothallism. These data shed light on the evolutionary and mechanistic bases of the genetically complex traits of necrotrophic pathogenicity and sexual mating. This resource should facilitate the functional studies designed to better understand what makes these fungi such
Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A; Soltis, Nicole E; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J; Kliebenstein, Daniel J
How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from four independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e., polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative fusion assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative incompatibility loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape) that had been independently propagated over 10 years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen's broad host range.
Salla, Tamiris D; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R
Elicitation of E. grandis plants with Streptomyces PM9 reduced the gray-mold disease, through increasing the levels of enzymes directly related to the induction of plant defense responses, and accumulation of specific phenolic compounds. Members of Eucalyptus are economically important woody species, especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of this genus are susceptible to pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Biological control of plant diseases using rhizobacteria is one alternative to reduce the use of pesticides and pathogen attack. This study evaluated the metabolic and phenotypic responses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus plants treated with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenged with the pathogenic fungus B. cinerea. Metabolic responses were evaluated by assessing the activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The incidence and progression of the fungal disease in PM9-treated plants and challenged with B. cinerea were evaluated. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenge with B. cinerea led to changes in the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds in the plants at different time points. Alterations in enzymes of PM9-treated plants were related to early defense responses in E. grandis. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were on average more abundant, although caffeic acid, benzoic acid and catechin were induced at specific time points during the culture period. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 significantly delayed the establishment of gray mold in E. grandis plants. These results demonstrate the action of Streptomyces sp. PM9 in inducing plant responses against B. cinerea, making this organism a potential candidate for biological control in Eucalyptus.
Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A.; Soltis, Nicole E.; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.
How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from four independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e., polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative fusion assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative incompatibility loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape) that had been independently propagated over 10 years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen's broad host range. PMID:26441923
Shao, X; Cheng, S; Wang, H; Yu, D; Mungai, C
Tea tree oil (TTO) has been confirmed in previous study as a potential natural antifungal agent to control Botrytis cinerea and grey mould in fresh fruit. However, the mechanism of its action has not been clearly revealed, and some hypotheses mainly depended on the results obtained from the bacterial test. For the antifungal mechanism, the effect of TTO on the mycelium morphology and ultrastructure, cell wall and membrane, and membrane fatty acid composition of B. cinerea was investigated in vitro experiments. Tea tree oil in vapour or contact phase exhibited higher activity against the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Observations using scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope revealed that the mycelial morphology and ultrastructure alternations caused by TTO are the markedly shriveled or flatted empty hyphae, with thick cell walls, ruptured plasmalemma and cytoplasmic coagulation or leakage. Furthermore, TTO caused significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 4-h treatment and markedly higher absorbance at 260 nm and electric conductivity in the external hyphae of fungi after 16-h treatment. Moreover, decreased unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of the fungal membrane was also observed after TTO treatment. The methodology used in this study confirmed that the cell wall destroyed firstly in the presence of TTO, and then the membrane fatty acid composition changed, which resulted in the increasing of membrane permeability and releasing of cellular material. The above findings may be the main reason for TTO's antifungal ability to B. cinerea. Understanding the mechanism of TTO antifungal action to B. cinerea is helpful for its commercial application on the preservation of fresh fruit and vegetables. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip
Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. PMID:25609786
Karimifar, Nooshin; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Gerhard
Stale beer and peanut butter are effective baits for the German cockroach (GCRs), Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). In still-air arena olfactometer experiments it was previously shown that headspace volatile extracts of peanut butter and solvent extract of beer attract male GCRs. The objective of this study was to identify the semiochemicals that mediate attraction of GCRs to these sources. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of these attractive extracts, or fractions thereof, and of synthetic standards revealed many candidate semiochemicals. Elaborate olfactometer experiments determined that 1-hexanol from peanut butter, and ethanol and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) from beer, are the key semiochemicals of these food sources. 1-Hexanol is a well-known headspace volatile of decomposing lipids, ethanol conveys food fermentation, and DDMP with a caramel-type flavor has been found in several types of food. By responding to these rather general food-derived compounds, the omnivorous GCRs appear to exploit semiochemicals that indicate the presence of various food components, such as lipids and carbohydrates. Synthetic equivalents of these semiochemicals may be formulated as baits or be added to, and thus enhance the attractiveness of, natural food sources as trap or insecticidal baits.
Hughes, Valerie S; Page, Kristen
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, secreted as pro-MMP-9, is cleaved by serine proteases at the N-terminus to generate active MMP-9. Pro-MMP-9 has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma. Because many inhaled aeroallergens contain active proteases, the authors sought to determine whether German cockroach (GC) fecal remnants (frass) and house dust mite (HDM) were able to cleave pro-MMP-9. Treatment of recombinant human (rh) pro-MMP-9 with GC frass resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cleavage. This was abrogated by pretreating frass with an inhibitor of serine, but not cysteine protease activity. GC frass also induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9 from primary human neutrophils dependent on the active serine proteases in GC frass. HDM was less potent at cleaving pro-MMP-9. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a naturally occurring protease inhibitor, attenuated GC frass-induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9. A1AT partially inactivated the serine protease activity in GC frass, while GC frass cleaved A1AT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that GC frass-derived serine proteases could regulate the activity of MMP-9 and that A1AT may play an important role in modulating GC frass activity in vivo. These data suggest a mechanism by which inhalation of GC frass could regulate airway remodeling through the activation of pro-MMP-9.
Maestro, José L; Pascual, Núria; Treiblmayr, Karl; Lozano, Jesús; Bellés, Xavier
Levels of juvenile hormone III (JH), FGLamide allatostatin peptides (ASTs), ASTs precursor (preproAST) mRNA and methyl farnesoate epoxidase (CYP15A1) mRNA were measured in embryos of the cockroach Blattella germanica. JH starts to rise just after dorsal closure, reaches maximal levels between 60% and 80% of embryogenesis, and decrease subsequently to undetectable levels. ASTs show low levels during the first two thirds of embryogenesis, increase thereafter and maintain high levels until hatching. PreproAST mRNA shows quite high levels during the two days following oviposition, thus behaving as a maternal transcript, the levels then become very low until mid embryogenesis, and increase afterwards, peaking towards the end of embryo development. CYP15A1 transcripts were detected around 25% embryogenesis and the levels tended to increase through embryogenesis, although differences amongst the days studied were not statistically significant. The opposite patterns of JH and AST towards the end of embryo development, along with the detection of AST immunoreactivity in corpora allata from late embryos, suggest that JH decline is caused by the increase of AST. Moreover, the uncorrelated patterns of JH concentration and CYP15A1 mRNA levels suggest that CYP15A1 expression does not modulate JH production.
Ikeda, Suguru; Toh, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Jun-ya; Okada, Jiro
The responses of mechanoreceptor neurons in the antennal chordotonal organ have been examined in cockroaches by intracellular recording methods. The chordotonal organ was mechanically stimulated by sinusoidal movement of the flagellum. Stimulus frequencies were varied between 0.5 and 150 Hz. Receptor neurons responded with spike discharges to mechanical stimulation, and were classed into two groups from plots of their average spike frequencies against stimulus frequency. Neurons in one group responded to stimulation over a wide frequency range (from 0.5 to 150 Hz), whereas those in a second group were tuned to higher frequency stimuli. The peak stimulus frequency at which receptor neurons showed maximum responses differed from cell to cell. Some had a peak response at a stimulus frequency given in the present study (from 0.5 to 150 Hz), whereas others were assumed to have peak responses beyond the highest stimulus frequency examined. The timing for the initiation of spikes or of a burst of spikes plotted against each stimulus cycle revealed that spike generation was phase-locked in most cells. Some cells showed phase-independent discharges to stimulation at lower frequency, but increasing stimulus frequencies spike initiation began to assemble at a given phase of the stimulus cycle. The response patterns observed are discussed in relation to the primary process of mechanoreception of the chordotonal organ.
Burgstaller, Maria; Tichy, Harald
The ON and OFF olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antenna of the American cockroach respond to the same changes in the concentration of the odor of lemon oil, but in the opposite direction. The same jump in concentration raises impulse frequency in the ON and lowers it in the OFF ORN and, conversely, the same concentration drop raises impulse frequency in the OFF and lowers it in the ON ORN. When the new concentration level is maintained, it becomes a background concentration and affects the responses of the ON and OFF ORNs to superimposed changes. Raising the background concentration decreases both the ON-ORN's response to concentration jumps and the OFF-ORN's response to concentration drops. In addition, the slopes of the functions approximating the relationship of impulse frequency to concentration changes become flatter for both types of ORNs as the background concentration rises. The progressively compressed scaling optimizes the detection of concentration changes in the low concentration range. The loss of information caused by the lower differential sensitivity in the high concentration range is partially compensated by the higher discharge rates of the OFF ORNs. The functional asymmetry of the ON and OFF ORNs, which reflects nonlinearity in the detection of changes in the concentration of the lemon oil odor, improves information transfer for decrements in the high concentration range.
Okada, Jiro; Morimoto, Yusuke; Toh, Yoshihiro
The antennal motor system is activated by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, and its output patterns were examined both in restrained intact animals and in isolated CNS preparations. The three-dimensional antennal movements induced by the hemocoelic drug injection were analyzed in in vivo preparations. Pilocarpine effectively induced prolonged rhythmic movements of both antennae. The antennae tended to describe a spatially patterned trajectory, forming loops or the symbol of infinity (infinity). Such spatial regularity is comparable to that during spontaneous tethered-walking. Rhythmic bursting activities of the antennal motor nerves in in vitro preparations were also elicited by bath application of pilocarpine. Cross-correlation analyses of the bursting spike activities revealed significant couplings among certain motor units, implying the spatial regularity of the antennal trajectory. The pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of antennal motor nerves was effectively suppressed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. These results indicate that the activation of the antennal motor system is mediated by muscarinic receptors.
Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Duke, Elizabeth R; Neff, David; Quinn, Roger; Flannigan, Clay
Sensory signals of contact and engagement with the substrate are important in the control and adaptation of posture and locomotion. We characterized responses of campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces as cuticular strains, in the tarsi (feet) of cockroaches using neurophysiological techniques and digital imaging. A campaniform sensillum on the fourth tarsal segment was readily identified by its large action potential in nerve recordings. The receptor discharged to contractions of the retractor unguis muscle, which engages the pretarsus (claws and arolium) with the substrate. We mimicked the effects of muscle contractions by applying displacements to the retractor apodeme (tendon). Sensillum firing did not occur to unopposed movements, but followed engagement of the claws with an object. Vector analysis of forces suggested that resisted muscle contractions produce counterforces that axially compress the tarsal segments. Close joint packing of tarsal segments was clearly observed following claw engagement. Physiological experiments showed that the sensillum responded vigorously to axial forces applied directly to the distal tarsus. Discharges of tarsal campaniform sensilla could effectively signal active substrate engagement when the pretarsal claws and arolium are used to grip the substrate in climbing, traversing irregular terrains or walking on inverted surfaces.
Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Roth, Steffen; Derst, Christian; Nässel, Dick R
Tachykinins and tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) play major roles in signaling in the nervous system and intestine of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we have identified cDNAs encoding precursors of multiple TKRPs from the cockroaches Leucophaea maderae and Periplaneta americana. All nine LemTKRPs that had been chemically isolated in earlier experiments could be identified on the precursor of L. maderae. Four previously unidentified LemTKRPs were found in addition on the precursor. The P. americana cDNA displayed an open reading frame very similar to that of L. maderae with 13 different TKRPs. MALDI-TOF mass spectra from tissues of both species confirms the presence of all the TKRPs encoded on the precursor plus two additional peptides that are cleavage products of the N-terminally extended TKRPs. A tissue-specific distribution of TKRPs was observed in earlier experiments at isolation from brain and midgut of L. maderae. Our data do not suggest a differential gene expression but a different efficacy in processing of LemTKRP-2 and Lem/PeaTKRP-3 in the brain and intestine, respectively. This results in a gut-specific accumulation of these extended peptides, whereas in the brain their cleavage products, LemTKRP-1 and LemTKRP-3(11-19), are most abundant. Mass spectrometric analysis demonstrated the occurrence of the different TKRPs in single glomeruli of the tritocerebrum and in cells of the optical lobe.
George, J F; Howcroft, T K; Karp, R D
Previous reports have failed to demonstrate integumentary allograft rejection in insects. We realized however, that these studies may not have fully appreciated the structure of the insect exoskeleton. Since the subcuticlar epidermal layer constitutes the only living tissue associated with insect integument, its destruction would indicate that the animal recognized and responded to the foreign tissue. Thus, we investigated allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by observing the fate of the epidermal portion of the integument. Each animal in a pair received a 3 X 4-mm integumentary allograft from its partner, as well as a 3 X 4-mm control autograft. The transplants were then examined histologically for signs of epidermal destruction at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10-70 days (in 10-day increments) posttransplantation. The results indicated that significant rejection of the allografts began by day 3, with peak reactivity occurring by day 7 when 92% of the grafts were scored as rejected. At later periods (greater than 20 days), the graft sites showed signs of repopulation by host epidermal cells. The allograft reaction was found to lag behind the xenograft reaction, which showed peak activity after only 1 day posttransplantation. Even so, allograft rejection in this insect occurred quite rapidly (as compared with some other invertebrates), and would appear to be due to a cytotoxic reaction against the epidermal layer.
Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Kostygov, Alexei; Havlová, Jolana; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Ševčíková, Tereza; Lukeš, Julius; Ševčík, Jan; Votýpka, Jan
In this study, we surveyed six species of cockroaches, two synanthropic (i.e. ecologically associated with humans) and four wild, for intestinal trypanosomatid infections. Only the wild cockroach species were found to be infected, with flagellates of the genus Herpetomonas. Two distinct genotypes were documented, one of which was described as a new species, Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n. We also propose a revision of the genus Herpetomonas and creation of a new subfamily, Phytomonadinae, to include Herpetomonas, Phytomonas, and a newly described genus Lafontella n. gen. (type species Lafontella mariadeanei comb. n.), which can be distinguished from others by morphological and molecular traits.
Berzhets, B M; Petrova, N S; Barashkina, O F; Efremenko, I I; Dotsenko, E A; Prishchepa, I M
The results of the development of manufacturing technology for the preparation of allergen from the bodies of cockroaches and the physico-chemical characteristics of this allergen are presented. The complex allergological examination of patients with atopic bronchial asthma revealed that 69.3% of such patients were sensitized to house dust, and in 68.4% of them IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens were detected. Patients with atopic bronchial asthma, not sensitized to house dust, were found to have sensitization to Blatella germanica in 12.2% of cases.
Charlton, R E; Webster, F X; Zhang, A; Schal, C; Liang, D; Sreng, I; Roelofs, W L
Female brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa, emit a sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance. This pheromone was isolated and identified as 5-(2,4-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (which we refer to as supellapyrone), and its structure was confirmed by synthesis. A racemic blend of the synthetic compound elicited behavioral and electrophysiological responses comparable to the natural pheromone across a range of doses. This compound is not only a very different type of cockroach pheromone but also makes up an additional class of natural products--namely, 3,5-dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrones. PMID:11607437
Charlton, R E; Webster, F X; Zhang, A; Schal, C; Liang, D; Sreng, I; Roelofs, W L
Female brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa, emit a sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance. This pheromone was isolated and identified as 5-(2,4-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (which we refer to as supellapyrone), and its structure was confirmed by synthesis. A racemic blend of the synthetic compound elicited behavioral and electrophysiological responses comparable to the natural pheromone across a range of doses. This compound is not only a very different type of cockroach pheromone but also makes up an additional class of natural products--namely, 3,5-dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrones.
Hristov, Georgi H; Chobanov, Dragan P
An annotated checklist of the Bulgarian species of cockroaches is prepared based on a full published scientific record and own unpublished data. According to the current state of knowledge the Bulgarian cockroach fauna includes 17 species and subspecies. One synonymization is established-Phyllodromica marginata erythronota Br. v. W., syn. n. = Ph. marginata. Two species (Capraiellus tamaninii and Supella longipalpa) are recorded for the first time for this country and other three (Ectobius punctatissimus, Phyllodromica subaptera and Phyllodromica pallida) are eliminated from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. The list is complemented with maps and full locality data and a dichotomic identification key for the studied taxa is presented.
Alexander, J B; Newton, J; Crowe, G A
Results are presented of a survey carried out by Rentokil Ltd on the distribution of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. and the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. in the United Kingdom. The known ranges of both species are increased considerably by the findings of the survey, with several new vice-county records for Scotland (including the Western Isles), England and Wales. The frequency at which Blatta orientalis was observed in outdoor habitats may indicate that this species sometimes spreads to new areas without human assistance.
Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W
This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of a building-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo. The buildings were divided into two groups: bait treatment and IPM. Apartments in the bait alone group were treated with Maxforce FC Select (0.01% fipronil) during the first 12 wk and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel (2.15% hydramethylnon) from 16 wk when necessary. For the IPM group, cockroaches were flushed and vacuumed at the beginning of the study; sticky traps were placed in all apartments to monitor and reduce cockroach numbers; educational materials were delivered to the residents; and Maxforce FC Select and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel were applied to kill cockroaches. Two seminars were presented to the manger, and Community Service Program staff of the Gary Housing Authority to help gain tenant cooperation in the program. Effects of the treatments were monitored using sticky traps (six per apartment) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 29 wk after treatment. More treatments were applied during each monitoring visit when necessary. Those apartments with high levels of infestations (> or =12 cockroaches in six traps) before treatment were used to compare the IPM and bait only treatments. IPM resulted in significantly greater trap catch reduction than the bait treatment. The IPM (n=12) and bait only treatment (n=11) resulted in 100.0 and 94.6%, respectively, reduction in trap catch after 16 wk. At 29 wk, only one apartment in the IPM group had a high level (>12 cockroaches) of cockroach infestation. In contrast, five apartments in the bait treatment group had high level infestations at 29 wk based on overnight trapping counts; thus, IPM is a more sustainable method of population reduction. Sanitation levels in the IPM group significantly improved at 29 wk (n=11) compared with that at the beginning of
Klowden, M J; Vitale, A J; Trumble, M J; Wesson, C R; Trumble, W R
A semi-isolated cockroach heart preparation was used to rapidly determine the activity of cobra cardiotoxin, monitored as a direct response on heart rate. This preparation produced a dose-response curve in the presence of active cardiotoxin and demonstrated that cardiotoxin retained its biological activity after boiling, although cardiotoxin activity was destroyed by heating in the presence of dithiothreitol. Experiments that cross-linked radiolabeled cardiotoxin to solubilized cockroach heart membranes suggested that cardiotoxin bound specifically to a 59,000 mol. wt membrane protein in this tissue.
Rinberg, D; Davidowitz, H
Experiments on the cercal wind-sensing system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, showed that the firing rate of the interneurons coding wind information depends on the bandwidth of random noise wind stimuli. The firing rate was shown to increase with decreases in the stimulus bandwidth, and be independent of changes in the total power of the stimulus with constant spectral composition. A detailed analysis of ethologically relevant stimulus parameters is presented. A phenomenological model of these relationships and their relevance to wind-mediated cockroach behavior is proposed.
Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette
Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.
Matsui, Takaaki; Matsumoto, Tomohisa; Ichihara, Naoyuki; Sakai, Tsubasa; Satake, Honoo; Watari, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Makio
It has been shown that in orthopteran insects each of the optic lobes (OLs) contains a circadian pacemaker controlling locomotor activity and that the pars intercerebralis (PI) modifies the activity level. However, the present study showed Period protein-like immunoreactivity (PER-ir) in the PI and dorsolateral protocerebrum (DL) as well as in the OLs in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which raised the possibility that the PI or DL could be a clock element. Therefore, we removed the PI or DL surgically and observed the effects on locomotor rhythms and feeding behavior. In constant darkness (DD), cockroaches with an ablated PI (PIX-DD) showed arrhythmicity in locomotion and a massive increase in food consumption that led to increased body length and weight, while PIX cockroaches reared under LD 12:12 (PIX-LD) and the sham-treated cockroaches in DD (CNT-DD) showed rhythmicity and no increase in food consumption. Statistical analysis showed that arrhythmicity was not accompanied by hyperactivity, suggesting that the PI is involved in the regulation of locomotor activity and feeding in DD. The activities of alpha-amylase and proteases were found to be markedly elevated in the midgut of PIX-DD cockroaches but not in PIX-LD cockroaches. Taken together, these results indicate that the PI modulates locomotor rhythms and feeding behavior of cockroaches in a light-dependent manner. The PI and the OL may regulate circadian rhythms and feeding via distinct pathways.
Gielen, S; Aerts, R; Seels, B
Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is an important disease that causes world-wide extensive damage to a wide range of economically important crops. When it is necessary to determine the spore concentration of Botrytis cinerea in a certain area, it is important to develop a method that can capture the spores of Botrytis cinerea and that can identify them. For the identification and enumeration of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea in the environment the easiest method available for the moment is the use of a selective medium. Several selective media for the isolation of Botrytis spp. have been developed by other research groups. All these media contain fungicides that are usually non-toxic towards Botrytis species and tannic acid, which is oxidized to produce a brown pigment that visualises the growth of Botrytis cinerea on the selective media. It seemed that different isolates of Botrytis cinerea that are found in nature have different sensitivities towards the different fungicide concentrations that are used in the selective media. Making the "optimal" selective media for Botrytis cinerea, we have to take in consideration that so many as possible Botrytis cinerea isolates must be able to germinate and grow on this selective medium and that the contamination of other micro-organisms on the selective medium must be minimized. Before the final composition of our selective medium for Botrytis cinerea, different combinations of fungicide concentrations were tried out of the following three fungicides: Rubigan, maneb and PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene). All these selective media with different fungicides concentrations were tested out for spore germination and mycelium growth of Botrytis cinerea. Because it was obvious that the percentage Botrytis cinerea that germinated on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) was higher than on the selective medium a few experiments were executed in which the percentage of spore germination on PDA was compared with the percentage of spore
Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan
A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach.
Wu, Hsin-Hue; Lee, How-Jing; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Berec, Ludek
The German cockroach Blattella germanica is obviously one of the most spread household pests in the world, and is now virtually impossible to sustain outside human constructions. The double-striped cockroach B. bisignata, on the other hand, is limited to Southeast Asia and mostly living in the open space, yet is able to establish in cockroach-free households, too. In this article, we develop a stage-structured population model of these two species to explore (i) whether their circadian clocks impact their long-term population dynamics, (ii) which of these species is a superior competitor, and (iii) how stringent potential pest control strategies have to be to significantly impact established populations of the German cockroach. The results of the model are as follows. Firstly, phase shifts in the light-to-dark cycle did not affect cockroach population dynamics unless males and females were out of phase and their mate finding abilities rather limited. In addition, for the hypothesized circadian clock genotypes, the shorter is the inactivity period relative to the activity one or the less arrhythmic is the population, the more viable the population is and the quicker it grows to large numbers. Secondly, the German cockroach was the superior competitor: it was able to invade and drive out established populations of the double-striped cockroach and prevent any invasion of the latter. Finally, only a significant and simultaneous reduction in a number of most sensitive German cockroach parameters resulted in species extirpation. Only carefully designed and data-based models of German (and double-striped) cockroach population dynamics can be helpful in our quest to win the fight over this unwelcome but very sturdy species.
Sharififard, Mona; Mossadegh, Mohammad Saeed; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood
Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. under laboratory and field conditions. Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml−1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs using different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer. Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough pathogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in-water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sunflower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses. Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising alternative for cockroach control. PMID:27308292
Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Choudhary, Varsha; Singh, Rajiv; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sharma, Mahender; Narula, Kusum; Agrawal, Pooja
Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the spray insecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which can be selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies but very few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (0.01%) and imidacloprid (2.15%) gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin) and propoxur (2%) aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field. Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and houses by visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houses having high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments and houses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control). Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroid aerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil and imidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave better indications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followed for post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks. Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestation in the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction and propoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started declining after 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gel baits for control of cockroaches.
Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Pancer, Katarzyna W; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Mikulak, Ewa; Laudy, Agnieszka; Podsiadło, Barbara; Rabczenko, Daniel
The aim of our study was to determine what a hazard for patients creates the presence of cockroaches in hospital environment. The probable hospital infections cases in 9 hospitals in Warsaw were found in database of the Country Hospital Morbidity Register for the year 2004 and correlation between such factors as: drug resistance of bacteria isolated from external part of cockroach's bodies, their ability to biofilm building, adherence, resistance to disinfectants, resistance of cockroaches to insecticides, infestation level vs. infections of several body systems was examined. The microbiological hazard of cockroaches in hospital environment has been proven by our findings that some of bacterial strains carried on the body of cockroaches belonged to well known species responsible for hospital infections everywhere The strains resistant to several antibiotics used in hospital and the strains able to form virulence factors were found. Some correlation was found between resistance of cockroaches for biocides and higher infestation of the hospital environment. Cockroaches infected in hospital environment might be the active carrier of bacterial strains as well as indicator of the bacterial presence on the surfaces in the hospital building not enough treated with disinfectants. On the base of our findings we may suppose that in hospital infections the role of infected cockroaches are less important than the other factors but should be not completely neglected. Surveillance and control of hospital infections should be more completed, connected not only with continuous monitoring of resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics but also to disinfectants used in hospital as well as evaluation of infestation of the hospital environment and resistance of cockroaches to biocides.
Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Perzanowski, M S
Considering that high school students spend a large proportion of their waking hours in the school environment, this could be an important location for exposure to indoor allergens. We have investigated the levels of mouse and cockroach allergens in the settled dust and air from 11 schools in a major northeastern US city. Settled dust samples were vacuumed from 87 classrooms, three times throughout the school year. Two separate air samples (flow = 2.5 lpm) were collected by 53 students over a 5-day period from both their school and their home. Mouse allergen (MUP) in the dust varied greatly between schools with geometric means ranging from 0.21 to 133 microg/g. Mouse allergen was detectable in 81% of the samples collected. Cockroach allergen (Bla g 2) ranged from below limit of detection (<0.003 microg/g) to 1.1 microg/g. Cockroach allergen was detected (>0.003 microg/g) in 71% of the dust samples. Bla g 2 was detected in 22% of airborne samples from the schools. By comparison, mouse allergen was only detected in 5%. These results indicate that the school may be an important location for exposure to allergens from mice and cockroaches and is an indoor environment that should be considered in an overall allergen intervention strategy. To date, cockroach and mouse allergen intervention strategies have been mainly focused on the home environment. Considering that children spend a significant amount of time in schools, some studies have assessed cockroach allergen levels in schools. This study provides a clearer picture of the distribution and variability of not only cockroach allergen, but also mouse allergen in the school environment. In addition, this study describes limitations of personal air sampling in a student population. Our results suggest that although cockroach and mouse allergens are commonly recovered in classroom dust samples of inner city schools, cockroach allergens are recovered in the personal air samples with a greater frequency relative to mouse
Malmierca, Mónica G; Izquierdo-Bueno, Inmaculada; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Barua, Javier; Lindo, Laura; Casquero, Pedro A; Collado, Isidro G; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago
Trichoderma arundinaceum (Ta37) and Botrytis cinerea (B05.10) produce the sesquiterpenoids harzianum A (HA) and botrydial (BOT), respectively. TaΔTri5, an HA non-producer mutant, produces high levels of the polyketide compounds aspinolides (Asp) B and C. We analyzed the role of HA and Asp in the B. cinerea-T. arundinaceum interaction, including changes in BOT production as well as transcriptomic changes of BcBOT genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, and also of genes associated with virulence and ergosterol biosynthesis. We found that exogenously added HA up-regulated the expression of the BcBOT and all the virulence genes analyzed when B. cinerea was grown alone. However, a decrease in the amount of BOT and a down-regulation of BcBOT gene expression was observed in the interaction zone of B05.10-Ta37 dual cultures, compared to TaΔTri5. Thus, the confrontation with T. arundinaceum results in an up-regulation of most of the B. cinerea genes involved in virulence yet the presence of T. arundinaceum secondary metabolites, HA and AspC, act separately and together to down-regulate the B. cinerea genes analyzed. The present work emphasizes the existence of a chemical cross-regulation between B. cinerea and T. arundinaceum and contributes to understanding how a biocontrol fungus and its prey interact with each other.
La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe
Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.
Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Di; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Zhong, Juan; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Shu, Dan; Tan, Hong
The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+)-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers) and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain. PMID:25955649
Witteman, A M; van den Oudenrijn, S; van Leeuwen, J; Akkerdaas, J; van der Zee, J S; Aalberse, R C
Approximately 30% of the house dust mite allergic patients in The Netherlands have IgE antibodies reactive with silverfish, cockroach and/or chironomid. In allergic patients without IgE antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus less than 5% have IgE antibodies reactive with these insects. By means of RAST inhibition studies it is shown that cross-reactivity exists between D. pteronyssinus and silverfish, cockroach or chironomid. This means that a positive RAST for silverfish, cockroach, chironomid or D. pteronyssinus cannot be taken as evidence for exposure.
Gäde, G.; Grandcolas, P.; Kellner, R.
Hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of the cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Therea petiveriana were structurally analysed to gather phylogenetic information independent from that provided by morphoanatomical data. Isolation of the peptides by liquid chromatography and structural elucidation by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry revealed an identical octapeptide for both species: pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2. This peptide, denoted Tem-HrTH, was previously found in tenebrionid beetles and in the cockroach Polyphaga aegyptiaca. Using this information for phylogenetic analysis yielded a peptide tree that supports the previous morphoanatomical data and thus places the woodroach Cryptocercus inside the cockroach subfamily Polyphaginae.
Le Guyader, A.; Rivault, C.; Chaperon, J.
A simultaneous study of cockroach (Supella supellectilium) distribution and of associated carried bacterial flora has been made in the main hospital in Rennes (France). Wild cockroaches carry a high number of bacterial species that can be related to the normal environmental flora and a contaminant flora acquired from particular environments. The diversity of carried bacterial species reveals a proximity factor between continguous floors of the building which leads us to suppose that cockroaches are able to forage from one floor to the other. PMID:2737255
Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna
Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.
Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC) are amazing insects that can be an integral part of an effective science learning and teaching environment. MHCs have a fascinating social structure. They make excellent pets, teach students how to properly care for animals, and their large size adds to their "wow" factor. These characteristics make them unique…
Busch, Phyllis S.
The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…
Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard
In insects, posttranslational modifications of neuropeptides are largely restricted to C- and N-terminal amino acids. The most common modifications, N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal α-amidation, may prevent a fast degradation of these messenger molecules. This is particularly important for peptide hormones. Other common posttranslational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation seem to be very rare in insect neuropeptides. To check this assumption, we used a computer algorithm to search an extensive data set of MALDI-TOF mass spectra from cockroach tissues for ion signal patterns indicating peptide phosphorylation. The results verify that phosphorylation is indeed very rare. However, a candidate was found and experimentally verified as phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin (GGGGpSGETSGMWFGPRL-NH2) in the cockroach Lamproblatta albipalpus (Blattidae, Lamproblattinae). Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site as Ser(5). Phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin was then also detected in most other cockroach lineages (e.g. Blaberidae, Polyphagidae) but not in closely related blattid species such as Periplaneta americana. This is remarkable since the sequence of CAPA pyrokinin is identical in Lamproblatta and Periplaneta. A consensus sequence of CAPA pyrokinins of cockroaches revealed a conserved motif that suggests phosphorylation by a Four-jointed/FAM20C related kinase.
Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo
The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.
A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n.), E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n.), Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.). The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches), followed by Blattulidae (13 %) and Umenocoleidae (4 %). 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.
Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community
Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1
1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico
The El Paso Children's He...
Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Feist, Patty L.
This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…
Edible insects, such as cockroaches and termites, are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have high nutritional value. Identification of cross-reactivity between commonly consumed food proteins and edible insects is important for food safety and to enable improvements ...
Pathak, S C; Kulshrestha, V
Inoculation of a spore suspension of Aspergillus flavus in the haemocoel of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) resulted in large-scale invasion of various internal organs as seen in tissue sections stained with a fungal stain. The organs affected were the alimentary canal, fat bodies, muscle fibres, malpighian tubules and the cerebral neurosecretory cells. No invasion of the trachea and tracheoles was noted.
Population growth and behavior of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) in experimentally established shipboard infestations. M. H. Ross, B. L...6. Secretion of dispersion-inducing substance by the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera: Blattellidae). C. Suto and N. Kumada...deprivation effects on reproduction in female Blattella germanica (L.) Ent. exp. appl. (In press). -6- Table 1. Comparative strength of responses to
Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Mukha, Dmitry V; Schal, Coby
Although a number of species live syanthropically with humans, few rely entirely on humans for their survival and distribution. Unlike other cosmopolitan human commensals, the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), an insect of both public and livestock health concern, is considered incapable of dispersal outside human dwellings. Patterns of genetic association are therefore constrained and may not be associated with distance. Analogies with other human-commensal species are therefore impossible to draw with any degree of accuracy. In the past 2 decades, B. germanica has become a prominent pest within the US swine production system. Swine production is mainly carried out through contracted producers, each associated with a management company. It has been hypothesized that cockroach populations will be genetically structured based on association to a specific management company. Here, we tested this hypothesis using microsatellite genotypes (8 polymorphic loci) from 626 individual cockroaches collected from 22 farms in southeastern North Carolina representing 3 management companies. Significant genetic differentiation was detected (F(ST) = 0.171), most of which was partitioned among the 22 farms rather than the 3 management groups. All pair-wise population comparisons yielded F(ST) values significantly greater than zero. Our results reveal that structure does not correspond to management company of origin, but instead it may be regional and influenced strongly by the unintentional movement of cockroaches by farm workers.
X,-Cyhalothrin resistance levels of 13 recently collected field strains of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), were determined by topical...resistance detection is discussed. 14. SUBJECT TERMS SERDP, Blattella germanica , diagnostic concentration, resistance detection, insecticide resistance, X...is discussed. KEY WORDS Blattella germanica , diagnostic concentration, resistance detection, insecticide re- sistance, A-cyhalothrin THE GERMAN
Gibson, Cara M; Hunter, Martha S
Bacterial endosymbionts of insects are increasingly being recognized as common, diverse, and integral to the biology of their hosts. Inherited fungal symbionts have been largely overlooked, however, even though insect guts appear to be a key habitat for an incredible array of fungal diversity. Like bacteria, fungal symbionts also likely play important roles in the ecology and evolution of their insect associates. The objective of this study was to lay the foundations for understanding the roles of the vertically transmitted fungal and bacterial associates of both the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, and its parasitic wasp, Comperia merceti. We used culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods and phylogenetic analyses in order to identify the symbionts. Two fungal associates of brownbanded cockroaches were found. To our knowledge, this is the first record of vertically transmitted fungal symbionts in the order Blattaria. The wasp was found to house a close relative of one of the cockroach fungi but no bacterial symbionts. Finally, the brownbanded cockroaches also harbored three lineages of bacterial symbionts: Blattabacterium and two lineages of Wolbachia, indicating the number of vertically transmitted symbionts in this insect may be as many as five.
The host specificity of Gregarina blattarum was evaluated among five species of domiciliary cockroaches: Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Periplaneta fuliginosa. Third- and fourth-instar nymphs were allowed to feed on crushed dog kibble contaminated with G. blattarum oocysts. Cockroaches were killed 8 days postinfection and examined for parasites. Gregarina blattarum infections were observed in all experimentally infected replications of B. germanica. No infection was observed in an experimentally infected replication of S. longipalpa, B. orientalis, P. americana, or P. fuliginosa, nor was an infection observed in a time zero or ending time control group. In vitro excystation assays using extracts of host gut homogenates demonstrate that G. blattarum sporozoites successfully excyst and begin the life cycle in all five cockroach species tested. No excystation was observed in neutral buffered saline controls. These data suggest that G. blattarum comprises a complex of cryptic species marked by narrow host utilization rather than a single species parasitizing a broad array of cockroach taxa.
Nalyanya, G; Liang, D; Kopanic, R J; Schal, C
Several insecticide bait formulations were evaluated for their attractiveness to cockroaches in olfactometer assays in the laboratory and in trapping experiments in the field. Included in the assays were bait stations, gels, pastes, and a powder that contained one of the following active ingredients: abamectin, boric acid, chlorpyrifos, or hydramethylnon. There were significant differences among the baits in their attractiveness to the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In trapping experiments, Avert powder (abamectin), Maxforce station and gel, and Siege gel (all hydramethylnon) were consistently attractive to B. germanica adults and nymphs. Laboratory olfactometer assays with adult males confirmed these results and showed that nymphs were as responsive as males whereas females were less responsive. Our bioassays also demonstrate that attractiveness of bait can be dramatically affected by the age of the bait. One week of aging significantly reduced the attractiveness of Avert powder in both laboratory and field assays. Aging, however did not diminish the attractiveness of Maxforce gel, indicating that the formulation may be critical for retention of attractiveness of baits. Baits that were most attractive to the German cockroach were also the most attractive to nymphs and adults of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.).
Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri
This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.
Lee, Chi-Mei; Su, Ming-Tsan; Lee, How-Jing
Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide that is synthesized specifically and constantly in the circadian clock cells of many insects. The functions of PDF have not been fully determined, but it might serve as the output and coupling signal of circadian locomotor rhythms. In this experiment, we explore the functions of PDF in the German cockroach with RNA interference technique. Since the 2nd day after pdf double-strand RNA (dsRNA) injection, the amount of pdf mRNA decreased significantly, and this knockdown effect could persist at least 56 days. With immunostaining technique, the clock cells of pdf dsRNA-injected cockroaches could not be stained by anti-PDF antibody. In the behavioral study, pdf dsRNA injection caused rhythmic males to become arrhythmic in light-dark cycles or in constant darkness. In addition, due to the nocturnal nature of the German cockroaches, the locomotor activity increased after lights-off or entering subjective night. However, this activity peak gradually disappeared after pdf dsRNA injection. Based on these 2 lines of evidences, PDF serves as an output regulator of locomotor circadian rhythm in the German cockroach.
Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon
The allergenicities of tropomyosins from different organisms have been reported to vary. The cDNA encoding German cockroach tropomyosin (Bla g 7) was isolated, expressed, and characterized previously. In the present study, the amino acid sequence variations in German cockroach tropomyosin were analyzed in order to investigate its influence on allergenicity. We also undertook the identification of immunodominant peptides containing immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes which may facilitate the development of diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies based on the recombinant proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis with mouse anti-recombinant German cockroach tropomyosin serum was performed to investigate the isoforms at the protein level. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to examine the sequence diversity. Eleven different variants of the deduced amino acid sequences were identified by RT-PCR. German cockroach tropomyosin has only minor sequence variations that did not seem to affect its allergenicity significantly. These results support the molecular basis underlying the cross-reactivities of arthropod tropomyosins. Recombinant fragments were also generated by PCR, and IgE-binding epitopes were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera from seven patients revealed heterogeneous IgE-binding responses. This study demonstrates multiple IgE-binding epitope regions in a single molecule, suggesting that full-length tropomyosin should be used for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.
Devi, S. J.; Murray, C. J.
A total of 221 cockroaches (Blatta and Periplaneta spp.), collected in hospitals, houses, animal sheds, grocery stores and restaurants, in various parts of South Kanara District, a south-west coastal region of India, were studied bacteriologically for the presence of various salmonellas. Salmonellas were isolated from 4.1% of these cockroaches. Nine strains of salmonellas were recovered, belonging to five serotypes--Salmonella bovismorbificans, S. oslo, S. typhimurium, S. mbandaka and S. braenderup, the former two being the commonest serotypes. All salmonellas were resistant to one or other of 11 antibacterial drugs used in the susceptibility test. Isolation of salmonellas from cockroaches collected from the livestock premises and human dwellings suggested that they may act as significant reservoirs of salmonella in nature. Recovery of serotypes, phage types and R-types that were commonly isolated from humans and animals of this locality, suggested a transmission role for cockroaches. By harbouring potentially pathogenic, drug-resistant salmonellas, these wandering arthropods may pose dangerous infective hazards to humans and animals. PMID:1936157
Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Kawakami, Yasushi; Fukuyama, Masafumi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from 45 of 370 (12.2%) cockroaches captured in hospitals. By cockroach species, the bacterial strains were isolated from 39 of 181 (21.5%) Periplaneta fuliginosa and 6 of 183 (3.3%) Blattella germanica, showing a significant difference (p<0.01). Many P. aeruginosa-carrying cockroaches inhabited locker rooms (66.7%) and kitchens (17.8%). In terms of serotyping, many isolates were typed into groups A, G, and B. In drug sensitivity tests, strains showed the highest sensitivity to ciprofloxacin with an MIC90 of 0.25 microg/ml, followed by 2 microg/ml meropenem, and 4 microg/ml ceftazidime, gentamicin, and ofloxacin. In contrast, many strains were resistant to cefotaxime and minocycline, accounting for 86.7% of all resistant strains. However, there was no multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strain, and all strains were negative for the metallo-beta-lactamase gene (IMP-1 and VIM-2). These findings suggested that cockroach-derived P. aeruginosa may contaminate hospital environments, for which the control of disease-carrying insects in hospitals is important.
Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Anichkin, Alexandr E; Thinh, Nguyen Van
The genus Macrostylopyga gen. nov. and two species (M. grandis sp. nov. and M. bidupi sp. nov.) are described. A detailed morphological description with special attention to the male genitalic structures is provided. Some aspects of the evolution of wingless cockroaches are briefly discussed.
Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto
Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches.
Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC) are amazing insects that can be an integral part of an effective science learning and teaching environment. MHCs have a fascinating social structure. They make excellent pets, teach students how to properly care for animals, and their large size adds to their "wow" factor. These characteristics make them unique…
Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community
Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1
1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico
The El Paso Children's He...
Haspel, G; Libersat, F
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces behavioral changes in the cockroach prey by injecting venom into its central nervous system. In contrast to most other venomous predators, the wasp's sting does not induce paralysis. Rather, the two consecutive stings in the thoracic and head ganglia induce three stereotypic behavioral effects. The prey behavior is manipulated in a way beneficial to the wasp and its offspring by providing a living meal for its newborn larva. The first sting in the thorax causes a transient front leg paralysis lasting a few minutes. This paralysis prevents the cockroach from fighting with its front legs, thereby facilitating the second sting in the head. A postsynaptic block of central synaptic transmission mediates this leg paralysis. Following the head sting, dopamine identified in the venom induces 30 minutes of intense grooming that appears to prevent the cockroach from straying until the last and third behavioral effect of hypokinesia commences. In this lethargic state that lasts about three weeks, the cockroach does not respond to various stimuli nor does it initiates movement. However, other specific behaviors of the prey are unaffected. We propose that the venom represses the activity of head ganglia neurons thereby removing the descending excitatory drive to specific thoracic neurons.
Feist, Patty L.
This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…
Jung, Kyung Hwa; Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Perzanowski, Matthew; Liu, Xinhua; Maher, Christina; Gil, Eric; Torrone, David; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L
Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been associated with the development and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited evidence on whether these pollutants are associated with the development of cockroach sensitization, a strong risk factor for urban asthma. We hypothesized that repeatedly high PAH exposure during childhood would be associated with increased risk of new cockroach sensitization. As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study in New York, a spot urine sample was collected from children at age 5 years (2003-2008) and again at age 9-10 years (2008-2012; n=248) and analyzed for 10 PAH metabolites. Repeatedly high PAH (High-High) exposure was defined as measures above median for age 5 PAH metabolites at both time points. Child blood samples at age 5 and 9 years were analyzed for total, anti-cockroach, mouse, dust mite, cat and dog IgE. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with multivariable modified Poisson regression. Individual PAH metabolite levels, except for 1-naphthol (1-OH-NAP), increased by 10-60% from age 5 to age 9-10. The prevalence of cockroach sensitization increased from 17.6% (33/188) at age 5 to 33.0% (62/188) at 9 years (p=0.001). After controlling for potential covariates including cockroach sensitization at age 5 in regression analyses, positive associations were found between repeatedly high exposure (High-High) to 1-OH-NAP, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-PHEN), or 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and cockroach sensitization at age 9 (p-values<0.05). Compared to Low-Low exposure, the relative risk (RR) [95% CI] with repeatedly high exposure was 1.83 [1.06-3.17] for 1-OH-NAP, 1.54 [1.06-2.23] for 3-OH-PHEN, and 1.59 [1.04-2.43] for 1-OH-PYR. Repeatedly high levels of urinary PAH metabolites during childhood may increase likelihood of sensitization to cockroach allergen in urban inner-city children at
Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N
A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose
Ghadage, Vijay H.; Kulkarni, Gauri R.; Bhoraskar, Sudha V.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is a very sensitive tool which is capable of providing strong insight on structural and functional changes in lipids and proteins induced by laser radiation. In the present work cockroach nervous tissue and chitin from tibia region are irradiated with Nd: YAG laser (λ= 1064 nm, Power =150mW) via fiber optics (Numerical aperture=0.22, diameter = 8 μ). Nd: YAG laser exposure time is varied from 10 sec to 50 sec for nervous tissue and chitin. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red spectra) of cockroach nervous tissue and chitin are compared before and after laser irradiation. The FTIR spectrum of non irradiated cockroach nervous tissue shows clearly the peaks due to O-H (Carboxylic acid), C=O (Amide I), C=C (Aromatic), N=0 (Nitro), C-H (Alkenes), CH (Aromatics). FTIR Spectra of non irradiated cockroach chitin clearly shows O-H (Carboxylic acid), C=O (Carbonyl stretch), C=C (Aromatic), N=O (Nitro), C-O, (anhydrides), C-H (Alkenes stretch) group. FTIR spectra of laser radiated nervous tissue from cockroach tibia and chitin shows significant changes in transmittance for O-H, C=O, C=C, C-H, N=O, C-O and C-H groups. The percentage transmittance increases for O-H, C=C group for exposure time 10sec, 40sec and 50 sec for nervous tissue. The percentage transmittance increases for O-H, C=C group for exposure time 10sec, 20sec, 30sec and 40 sec for chitin. The study shows clearly that FTIR spectroscopy of nervous tissue can reveal the interactions between infrared laser light and nervous tissue.
Szczecinski, Nicholas S; Brown, Amy E; Bender, John A; Quinn, Roger D; Ritzmann, Roy E
A neuromechanical simulation of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis was developed to explore changes in locomotion when the animal transitions from walking straight to turning. The simulation was based upon the biological data taken from three sources. Neural circuitry was adapted from the extensive literature primarily obtained from the studies of neural connections within thoracic ganglia of stick insect and adapted to cockroach. The 3D joint kinematic data on straight, forward walking for cockroach were taken from a paper that describes these movements in all joints simultaneously as the cockroach walked on an oiled-plate tether (Bender et al. in PloS one 5(10):1-15, 2010b). Joint kinematics for turning were only available for some leg joints (Mu and Ritzmann in J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191(11):1037-54, 2005) and thus had to be obtained using the methods that were applied for straight walking by Bender et al. (PloS one 5(10):1-15, 2010b). Once walking, inside turning, and outside turning were characterized, phase and amplitude changes for each joint of each leg were quantified. Apparent reflex reversals and joint activity changes were used to modify sensory coupling pathways between the CPG at each joint of the simulation. Oiled-plate experiments in simulation produced tarsus trajectories in stance similar to those seen in the animal. Simulations including forces that would be experienced if the insect was walking freely (i.e., weight support and friction) again produced similar results. These data were not considered during the design of the simulation, suggesting that the simulation captures some key underlying the principles of walking, turning, and transitioning in the cockroach. In addition, since the nervous system was modeled with realistic neuron models, biologically plausible reflex reversals are simulated, motivating future neurobiological research.
Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J
Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces.
Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee
Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.
Ridgel, A L; Ritzmann, R E; Schaefer, P L
Aging is often associated with locomotor deficits. Behavior in aged Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches was analyzed during horizontal walking, climbing, righting and inclined walking. Adult animals showed a decrease in spontaneous locomotion with increasing age. Tarsal abnormalities, termed 'tarsus catch', were often present in aged individuals. In 'tarsus catch', the prothoracic leg catches on the mesothoracic leg during the swing phase. This deficit causes alterations of the gait, but animals are able to regain a tripod gait after the perturbation. The tibio-tarsal joint angle in individuals with 'tarsus catch' was significantly less than in intact animals. Structural defects were consistently associated with 'tarsus catch'. The tracheal tubes in the tarsus and around the tibio-tarsal joint were often discolored and the tarsal pads were hardened in aged cockroaches. All aged individuals were able to climb. However, prior to climbing, some animals with 'tarsus catch' failed to show postural changes that are normally seen in young animals. Aged individuals can right as rapidly as 1-week-old adults. However, animals with 'tarsus catch' take longer to right than aged intact individuals. Old cockroaches have difficulty climbing an incline of 45 degrees, and leg slipping is extensive. Slipping may be caused by tarsal degeneration, but animals that are unsuccessful in inclined walking often show uncoordinated gaits during the attempt. Escape behavior was examined in aged American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). They do not show normal escape. However, after decapitation, escape movements return, suggesting that degeneration in head ganglia may actually interfere with escape. These findings provide evidence for age-related changes both in the periphery and in the central nervous system of cockroaches and stress the importance of multi-level approaches to the study of locomotion.
Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee
Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663
Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Gada, Satyen M
Indoor allergen mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts are commonly used in allergy clinics for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but product-specific stabilities and mixing compatibilities in these complex patient formulas have not been determined. To assess the recoveries of cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach mix allergen activities in 5 component mixtures and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions stored for up to 12 months. Concentrated stock mixtures, 10-fold dilutions of these mixtures in human serum albumin-saline diluent, and analogous single-extract controls were analyzed for major allergen concentrations (cat Fel d 1, dog dander Can f 1) and multiallergen IgE-binding potencies (dog epithelia, D farinae, cockroach mix) after storage for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. The selected immunoassays were specific for individual target extracts in the 5-component mixtures and exhibited analytical sensitivities sufficient for evaluation of both the concentrated and diluted indoor allergen formulas. All control samples except diluted cockroach extract had near-complete stabilities during refrigerated storage. Mixtures that contained cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, and D farinae extracts exhibited favorable mixing compatibilities in 1:1 (vol/vol) concentrates (47.5% glycerin) and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions (4.75% glycerin), relative to corresponding control sample reactivities. Cockroach allergens in both 1:1 (vol/vol) and 1:10 (vol/vol) concentrations were stabilized significantly by mixing with the other 4 indoor allergen extracts. Extracts in mixtures that contained 5 common sources of indoor allergens possess favorable stabilities and mixing compatibilities and support the practice of combining these products in the same patient treatment formulations for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.
Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443
López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Gaspar-López, Arturo; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Segura-Méndez, Nora
Sensitization to mites and cockroach are a common cause of respiratory allergy, especially in children. There is little information about its cross-reactivity with shrimp, which is common in adult patients. To determine the frequency of sensitization to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cockroach species Periplaneta americana, in adult patients attending to a third level hospital and to determine the frequency of sensitization to shrimp in patients with positive skin test to house dust mite and/or cockroach, in patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of allergy to shrimp. A retrospective study was done in which results were reviewed of 672 patients clinical records, attending to the Allergy and Clinical Immunology department in a third level hospital, those patients with positive skin test results to Dermatophagoides and/or Periplaneta americana were investigated for sensitization to shrimp through Prick-to-Prick test. Data from 672 patients were obtained, 69.8% (469) males, with a mean age of 33.5 years. Dermatophagoides positivity was 72.2% (486/672), and its relationship with other invertebrates that also have tropomyosin was 5.6% (4.9% with cockroach and 0.74% with shrimp). In our population, house dust mite sensitization was similar to that reported in the international literature. There was low positivity to cockroach, probably due to geographical conditions. There is very little information about shrimp's cross-reactivity with Dermatophagoides, despite its clinical significance, which requires more specific studies such as measurement of specific IgE to tropomyosin.
Li, Yonghua; Shao, Xingfeng; Xu, Jiayu; Wei, Yingying; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei
In order to investigate the effects of tea tree oil (TTO) on mitochondrial morphology and function in Botrytis cinerea, mycelia were treated with TTO at different concentrations. TTO at 2ml/l severely damaged mitochondria, resulting in matrix loss and increased mitochondrial irregularity. Mitochondrial membrane permeability was increased by TTO, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and an increase in extracellular ATP content. Increasing concentrations of TTO decreased the activities of enzymes related to mitochondrial function and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, affecting malic dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, ATPase, citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, while sharply increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that mitochondrial damage, resulting in the disruption of the TCA cycle and accumulation of ROS, is involved in the mechanism of TTO antifungal activity against B. cinerea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cilindre, Clara; Jégou, Sandrine; Hovasse, Agnès; Schaeffer, Christine; Castro, Antonio J; Clément, Christophe; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Jeandet, Philippe; Marchal, Richard
The presence of the fungal pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, in the vineyard causes reductions in both quality and quantity of grapes and wine. Because proteins are involved in the foam stabilization of sparkling wines, we have undertaken, for the first time, a thorough proteomic analysis of two champagne base wines prepared with either healthy or botrytized Chardonnay grapes, using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with immunodetection and tandem mass spectrometry. Most of the identified proteins were from grape origin: invertase and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The disappearance of numerous grape proteins was observed in the botrytized wine, suggesting that they were probably degraded or even repressed or the result of a differential expression of grape proteins upon fungal infection. On the other hand, two pectinolytic enzymes secreted by B. cinerea were found in the botrytized wine.
Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Bailén, Gloria; Zapata, Pedro; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel
In this paper, the role of carvacrol vapour atmosphere on Botrytis cinerea inoculated in PDA or in grape berries was studied. Four concentrations inside packages were assayed (0.05, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 ml l(-1)). All concentrations inhibited totally the growth of B. cinerea in PDA, while in berries the reduction of decayed fruits was significantly greater as carvacrol concentration increased. In addition, the fungal growth (area and volume of infection) was also reduced and dependent on carvacrol concentration. Ethylene and respiration rate (berry physiological parameters) increased drastically in control inoculated-grapes, while these increases were lower as higher were the carvacrol applied doses. The data presented in this work suggest that carvacrol could be used as an innovative tool to control fungal decay during table grape storage, as alternative to the use of synthetic fungicides such as SO2.
Walker, Anne-Sophie; Micoud, Annie; Rémuson, Florent; Grosman, Jacques; Gredt, Michel; Leroux, Pierre
Resistance to fungicides is an evolutionary process resulting from the selection of advantageous genotypes in naturally diverse populations. Seven fungicide modes of action are authorised to control grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea on grapevine in France, and five of them have encountered specific resistance, with variable frequencies in populations and possible consequences for field fungicide efficacy. Moreover, multidrug resistance is caused by fungicide efflux and allows a weak resistance towards six unrelated modes of action. Here, a review is given of the fungicide resistance status of B. cinerea in France, particularly in the vineyards of Champagne, which are the most affected. Recently developed resistance and recent findings concerning the associated resistance mechanisms are focused upon in particular. Finally, antiresistance strategies are presented, and examples of managed resistance are discussed in a more general manner with the aim of extending this knowledge to other crops and countries undergoing similar resistance problems.
Liu, Chun-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yuan; Qin, Pei-Wen; Qi, Zhi-Qiu; Ji, Ming-Shan; Liu, Xing-Yu; Babu, P. Vijaya; Li, Xing-Hai; Cui, Zi-Ning
In order to discover new antifungal agrochemicals that could have highly active and novel motifs, thirty-six new 2-acylaminocycloalkylsulfonamides (IV) were synthesized. Their structures were characterized and confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. In vitro and in vivo activities against various Botrytis cinerea strains were evaluated. Bioassay results revealed that most of the title compounds exhibited excellent in vitro fungicidal activity, in which compound IV-26 showed the highest activity against sensitive, low-resistant, moderate-resistant and high-resistant strains of B. cinerea compared with the positive fungicide procymidone. Meanwhile in vivo fungicidal activity of compound IV-31 was better than the commercial fungicides procymidone and chesulfamide in greenhouse trial. The structure activity relationship (SAR) was also discussed and the results were of importance to the structural optimization and development of more potent sulfonamides antifungal agents. PMID:28176837
The Use of Double Translocation Heterozygotes To Control Populations of the German Cockroach and the Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics To Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.
Keil, C. B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ. Entomol. 10: 534-542. Ross, M. H...Cochran. 1981. The release of sterile males into natural populations of the German cockroach Blattella germanica . Ent. Exp. Appl. 30: 241-253. Bret, B. L...M. H. Ross, and G. I. Holtzmann. 1983. Influence of adult females on within-shelter distribution patterns of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera
Kamata, Kazuaki; Kiyota, Makiko; Naoe, Ayano; Nakatani, Satomi; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Yamori, Takao; Ishibashi, Masami
Two new bisindole alkaloids, named cinereapyrrole A (1) and B (2), were isolated from wild fruit bodies of Arcyria cinerea and three new bisindole alkaloids (3-5) were isolated from wild fruit bodies of Lycogala epidendrum. Seven known bisindoles (6-12) were concomitantly obtained from them. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectral data. Among these bisindole alkaloids, compound 12 showed cytotoxicity against cultured tumor cell lines.
Dörnte, Bastian; Kües, Ursula
Several transformation strains of Coprinopsis cinerea carry the defective tryptophan synthase allele trp1-1,1-6 which can be complemented by introduction of the trp1 (+) wild-type gene. Regularly in C. cinerea, single-trp1 (+)-vector transformations yield about half the numbers of clones than cotransformations with a non-trp1 (+)-plasmid done in parallel. The effect is also observed with the orthologous Schizophyllum commune trpB (+) gene shown here to function as a selection marker in C. cinerea. Parts of single-trp1 (+) - or single-trpB (+) -vector transformants are apparently lost. This paradoxical phenomenon relates to de-regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Adding tryptophan precursors to protoplast regeneration agar or feeding with other aromatic amino acids increases loss of single-trp1 (+)-vector transformants and also sets off loss of clones in cotransformation with a non-trp1 (+)-plasmid. Feedback control by tryptophan and cross-pathway control by tyrosine and phenylalanine are both active in the process. We deduce from the observations that more cotransformants than single-vector transformants are obtained by in average less disturbance of the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway. DNA in C. cinerea transformation usually integrates into the genome at multiple ectopic places. Integration events for a single vector per nucleus should statistically be 2-fold higher in single-vector transformations than in cotransformations in which the two different molecules compete for the same potential integration sites. Integration of more trp1 (+) copies into the genome might more likely lead to sudden tryptophan overproduction with subsequent rigid shut-down of the pathway. Blocking ectopic DNA integration in a Δku70 mutant abolished the effect of doubling clone numbers in cotransformations due to preferred single trp1 (+) integration by homologous recombination at its native genomic site.
Espinoza, Luis; Taborga, Lautaro; Díaz, Katy; Olea, Andrés F; Peña-Cortés, Hugo
Natural geranyl compounds are known to exhibit important biological activities. In this work a series of geranylphenols were synthesized to evaluate their effect on the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea. Geranyl derivatives were synthesized by direct geranylation reactions between the corresponding phenol derivatives and geraniol, using BF3.OEt2 as catalyst and AgNO3 as secondary catalyst. Previously reported molecules [geranylhydroquinone (2), geranylhydroquinone diacetate (6) and geranylphloroglucinol (9)], and new substances [(E)-4-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzene-1,2,3-triol (geranyl-pyrogallol, 7), (E)-4-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzene-1,2,3-triyl triacetate (8), (E)-2-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzene-1,3,5-triyl triacetate geranylphloroglucinol triacetate (10), 2,4-bis((E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzene-1,3,5-triyl triacetate (11), 2,6-bis((E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl acetate (12)], were obtained. All compounds were characterized by IR, HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The inhibitory effect of the synthesized compounds on the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea was tested in vitro. Excepting compound 11, all substances constrained the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea. The antifungal activity depends on the chemical structure of geranylphenol derivatives. Compounds 2 and 9 were the more effective substances showing inhibition degrees higher than those obtained with the commercial fungicide Captan, even at lower concentrations. Monosubstitution on the aromatic nucleus by a geranyl chain seems to be more effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth than a double substitution. These results suggest that the new derivatives of geranylphenols have the ability to block the mycelial development of the plant pathogen B. cinerea and that this capacity depends strongly on the structural features and lipophilicity of the compounds.
Byrne, Kenneth; Mitchell, Derek T
An investigation was carried out on the mycorrhizal colonisation, growth and nutrition of two members of the Ericaceae in close proximity to an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association. This was undertaken by separating mycorrhizal (EM) and non-mycorrhizal (NEM) Erica cinerea and Vaccinium macrocarpon from AM (inoculated by Glomus mosseae) and non-mycorrhizal (NAM) Plantago lanceolata using a 30 micro m nylon mesh in a sand culture/pot system. Ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation by Hymenoscyphus ericae on root systems of E. cinerea and V. macrocarpon was in the range 14-22% and 58-69%, respectively. The presence of AM P. lanceolata had no effect on the ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation of E. cinerea and V. macrocarpon. NEM E. cinerea showed reductions in shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentrations after exposure to AM P. lanceolata after incubations of 6 and 9 weeks but there were no differences in dry mass, length, and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of the root systems between the treatment combinations. Reductions were also found, after incubations of 6 and 9 weeks, in shoot dry mass, leaf area and shoot nitrogen concentrations of NEM V. macrocarpon in the presence of AM P. lanceolata but no changes occurred in the length and dry mass of the root systems. There were no differences in maximum photosynthesis in V. macrocarpon between treatment combinations but NEM V. macrocarpon in the presence of AM P. lanceolata had the lowest transpiration rates and stomatal conductance and the highest nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies compared with the other treatment combinations. These results are discussed in relation to the type of interaction found in these compatible and incompatible mycorrhizal associations.
Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H
The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.
Guinnee, Meghan A; Moore, Janice
The fitness of infected organisms can vary greatly depending on the temperature at which they find themselves. Understanding the role of temperature in the fitness of infected organisms can be crucial to population studies, epidemiological studies, and when screening for biological control agents. We measured the effect of parasitism on host survival and reproduction at 4 constant temperatures using the acanthocephalan parasite Moniliformis moniliformis and its intermediate host, the cockroach Supella longipalpa. Infection did not affect cockroach survival at any temperature. Infection had a negative impact on cockroach fecundity but only at higher temperatures (28 and 31 C) and only later in infection (>20 days postinfection). At lower temperatures, infected and uninfected cockroaches had similar fecundities throughout the duration of the experiment (120 days). This study, along with previous studies, suggests that researchers would do well to consider environmental variables when exploring the effects of parasitism.
Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V
Using cosmid vector, a gene library of German cockroach Blattella germanica was constructed. From this library, clones containing full-length copies of two subfamilies of R1 retroposons were selected. Retroposons R1 of German cockroach belonging to different subfamilies were shown to be different in domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region. For the first time, retroposons transmembrane domains were identified in the sequences of R1. It was demonstrated that two retroposon R1 subfamilies of German cockroach arose as a result of intragenomic divergence rather than via horizontal transfer of alien mobile element into cockroach genome. The differences in domain organization appeared not as a result of saltatory recombination processes, but as a consequence of gradual mutation accumulation, which led to either degeneration, or to domain formation.
Fisher, Nathan A; Ribot, Wilson J; Applefeld, Willard; DeShazer, David
Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was <10 colony-forming units (cfu) for all three species. In comparison, the LD50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates
Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was <10 colony-forming units (cfu) for all three species. In comparison, the LD50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B
César A Santos, Julio; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Dantas, Antônio F M; Barros, Severo S; Molyneux, Russell J; Medeiros, Rosane M T; da Silva, Durval M; de Oliveira, Odací F
A disease known as water belly (barriga d'água), characterized by chronic progressive ascites, affects sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The objectives of this investigation were to study the disease and to determine its cause. Only sheep grazing for long periods in pastures where Tephrosia cinerea represents 80% to 100% of the available forage are affected. Most animals die after a clinical manifestation period of some weeks or months, but others recover when they are withdrawn from the pastures or after the first rains. At necropsy, large amounts of liquid were found in the abdominal cavity, and the liver was hard, with an irregular surface. On histology examination, the main liver lesion was chronic periportal and subcapsular fibrosis with bridging. The disease was produced experimentally in 1 sheep by the administration of large amounts of T. cinerea for 232 days. Another sheep, recovered from the spontaneous disease, had clinical signs after the ingestion of large amounts of the plant for 40 days. Seeds and leaves of the plant were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids with negative results. It is concluded that the disease is caused by the ingestion of T. cinerea.
Rasul, S; Dubreuil-Maurizi, C; Lamotte, O; Koen, E; Poinssot, B; Alcaraz, G; Wendehenne, D; Jeandroz, S
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. In this study, we investigated the production and/or function of NO in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf discs and plants elicited by oligogalacturonides (OGs) and challenged with Botrytis cinerea. We provided evidence that OGs triggered a fast and long lasting NO production which was Ca(2+) dependent and involved nitrate reductase (NR). Accordingly, OGs triggered an increase of both NR activity and transcript accumulation. NO production was also sensitive to the mammalian NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Intriguingly, we showed that L-NAME affected NO production by interfering with NR activity, thus questioning the mechanisms of how this compound impairs NO synthesis in plants. We further demonstrated that NO modulates RBOHD-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and participates in the regulation of OG-responsive genes such as anionic peroxidase (PER4) and a β-1,3-glucanase. Mutant plants impaired in PER4 and β-1,3-glucanase, as well as Col-0 plants treated with the NO scavenger cPTIO, were more susceptible to B. cinerea. Taken together, our investigation deciphers part of the mechanisms linking NO production, NO-induced effects and basal resistance to B. cinerea.
Rupp, Sabrina; Weber, Roland W. S.; Rieger, Daniel; Detzel, Peter; Hahn, Matthias
Botrytis cinerea is a major plant pathogen, causing gray mold rot in a variety of cultures. Repeated fungicide applications are common but have resulted in the development of fungal populations with resistance to one or more fungicides. In this study, we have monitored fungicide resistance frequencies and the occurrence of multiple resistance in Botrytis isolates from raspberries, strawberries, grapes, stone fruits and ornamental flowers in Germany in 2010 to 2015. High frequencies of resistance to all classes of botryticides was common in all cultures, and isolates with multiple fungicide resistance represented a major part of the populations. A monitoring in a raspberry field over six seasons revealed a continuous increase in resistance frequencies and the emergence of multiresistant Botrytis strains. In a cherry orchard and a vineyard, evidence of the immigration of multiresistant strains from the outside was obtained. Inoculation experiments with fungicide-treated leaves in the laboratory and with strawberry plants cultivated in the greenhouse or outdoors revealed a nearly complete loss of fungicide efficacy against multiresistant strains. B. cinerea field strains carrying multiple resistance mutations against all classes of site-specific fungicides were found to show similar fitness as sensitive field strains under laboratory conditions, based on their vegetative growth, reproduction, stress resistance, virulence and competitiveness in mixed infection experiments. Our data indicate an alarming increase in the occurrence of multiresistance in B. cinerea populations from different cultures, which presents a major threat to the chemical control of gray mold. PMID:28096799
Olmedo, Gabriela M.; Cerioni, Luciana; González, María M.; Cabrerizo, Franco M.; Volentini, Sabrina I.; Rapisarda, Viviana A.
Phytopathogenic fungi responsible for post-harvest diseases on fruit and vegetables cause important economic losses. We have previously reported that harmol (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-ol) is active against the causal agents of green and gray molds Penicillium digitatum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Here, antifungal activity of harmol was characterized in terms of pH dependency and conidial targets; also photodynamic effects of UVA irradiation on the antimicrobial action were evaluated. Harmol was able to inhibit the growth of both post-harvest fungal disease agents only in acidic conditions (pH 5), when it was found in its protonated form. Conidia treated with harmol exhibited membrane integrity loss, cell wall disruption, and cytoplasm disorganization. All these deleterious effects were more evident for B. cinerea in comparison to P. digitatum. When conidial suspensions were irradiated with UVA in the presence of harmol, antimicrobial activity against both pathogens was enhanced, compared to non-irradiated conditions. B. cinerea exhibited a high intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when was incubated with harmol in irradiated and non-irradiated treatments. P. digitatum showed a significant increase in ROS accumulation only when treated with photoexcited harmol. The present work contributes to unravel the antifungal activity of harmol and its photoexcited counterpart against phytopathogenic conidia, focusing on ROS accumulation which could account for damage on different cellular targets. PMID:28326067
Olmedo, Gabriela M; Cerioni, Luciana; González, M Micaela; Cabrerizo, Franco M; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Volentini, Sabrina I
β-carbolines (βCs) are alkaloids widely distributed in nature that have demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Here, we tested in vitro six βCs against Penicillium digitatum and Botrytis cinerea, causal agents of postharvest diseases on fruit and vegetables. Full aromatic βCs (harmine, harmol, norharmane and harmane) exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on conidia germination at concentrations between 0.5 and 1 mM, while dihydro-βCs (harmalina and harmalol) only caused germination delay. Harmol showed the highest inhibitory effect on both fungal pathogens. After 24 h of exposure to 1 mM harmol, conidia revealed a severe cellular damage, exhibiting disorganized cytoplasm and thickened cell wall. Harmol antimicrobial effect was fungicidal on B. cinerea, while it was fungistatic on P. digitatum. Conidia membrane permeabilization was detected in treatments with harmol at sub-inhibitory and inhibitory concentrations, for both pathogens. In addition, residual infectivity of P. digitatum on lemons and B. cinerea on blueberries was significantly reduced after exposure to this alkaloid. It also inhibited mycelial growth, preventing sporulation at the highest concentration tested. These results indicate that harmol might be a promising candidate as a new antifungal molecule to control causal agents of fruit diseases.
Olmedo, Gabriela M; Cerioni, Luciana; González, María M; Cabrerizo, Franco M; Volentini, Sabrina I; Rapisarda, Viviana A
Phytopathogenic fungi responsible for post-harvest diseases on fruit and vegetables cause important economic losses. We have previously reported that harmol (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-7-ol) is active against the causal agents of green and gray molds Penicillium digitatum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Here, antifungal activity of harmol was characterized in terms of pH dependency and conidial targets; also photodynamic effects of UVA irradiation on the antimicrobial action were evaluated. Harmol was able to inhibit the growth of both post-harvest fungal disease agents only in acidic conditions (pH 5), when it was found in its protonated form. Conidia treated with harmol exhibited membrane integrity loss, cell wall disruption, and cytoplasm disorganization. All these deleterious effects were more evident for B. cinerea in comparison to P. digitatum. When conidial suspensions were irradiated with UVA in the presence of harmol, antimicrobial activity against both pathogens was enhanced, compared to non-irradiated conditions. B. cinerea exhibited a high intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when was incubated with harmol in irradiated and non-irradiated treatments. P. digitatum showed a significant increase in ROS accumulation only when treated with photoexcited harmol. The present work contributes to unravel the antifungal activity of harmol and its photoexcited counterpart against phytopathogenic conidia, focusing on ROS accumulation which could account for damage on different cellular targets.
Silvério, Sara C; Moreira, Sérgio; Milagres, Adriane M F; Macedo, Eugénia A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I
The production of laccase by immobilized mycelia of Peniophora cinerea and Trametes versicolor was studied. In an initial stage, experimental assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks using free and immobilized mycelium, and the performance of the fungal strains to produce the enzyme was compared. Both fungi adhered into the support material (a synthetic fiber), growing not only on the surface but also in the interspaces of the fibers. Immobilization of P. cinerea provided a 35-fold increase in laccase production when compared to the production obtained by using free mycelium. On the other hand, immobilization of T. versicolor caused a decrease in laccase activity. A comparison between the strains revealed that immobilized P. cinerea (3,500 U/L) surpassed the enzyme production by free T. versicolor (800 U/L). When the conditions that gave the best laccase production to each fungus were employed in a stirred tank bioreactor, very low laccase production was observed for both the cases, suggesting that shear stress and mycelia damage caused by the agitation impellers negatively affected the enzyme production.
González, Mario; Brito, Nélida; Frías, Marcos; González, Celedonio
Protein O-glycosylation is crucial in determining the structure and function of numerous secreted and membrane-bound proteins. In fungi, this process begins with the addition of a mannose residue by protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs) in the lumen side of the ER membrane. We have generated mutants of the three Botrytis cinerea pmt genes to study their role in the virulence of this wide-range plant pathogen. B. cinerea PMTs, especially PMT2, are critical for the stability of the cell wall and are necessary for sporulation and for the generation of the extracellular matrix. PMTs are also individually required for full virulence in a variety of hosts, with a special role in the penetration of intact plant leaves. The most significant case is that of grapevine leaves, whose penetration requires the three functional PMTs. Furthermore, PMT2 also contributes significantly to fungal adherence on grapevine and tobacco leaves. Analysis of extracellular and membrane proteins showed significant changes in the pattern of protein secretion and glycosylation by the pmt mutants, and allowed the identification of new protein substrates putatively glycosylated by specific PMTs. Since plants do no possess these enzymes, PMTs constitute a promising target in the development of novel control strategies against B. cinerea.
Rupp, Sabrina; Weber, Roland W S; Rieger, Daniel; Detzel, Peter; Hahn, Matthias
Botrytis cinerea is a major plant pathogen, causing gray mold rot in a variety of cultures. Repeated fungicide applications are common but have resulted in the development of fungal populations with resistance to one or more fungicides. In this study, we have monitored fungicide resistance frequencies and the occurrence of multiple resistance in Botrytis isolates from raspberries, strawberries, grapes, stone fruits and ornamental flowers in Germany in 2010 to 2015. High frequencies of resistance to all classes of botryticides was common in all cultures, and isolates with multiple fungicide resistance represented a major part of the populations. A monitoring in a raspberry field over six seasons revealed a continuous increase in resistance frequencies and the emergence of multiresistant Botrytis strains. In a cherry orchard and a vineyard, evidence of the immigration of multiresistant strains from the outside was obtained. Inoculation experiments with fungicide-treated leaves in the laboratory and with strawberry plants cultivated in the greenhouse or outdoors revealed a nearly complete loss of fungicide efficacy against multiresistant strains. B. cinerea field strains carrying multiple resistance mutations against all classes of site-specific fungicides were found to show similar fitness as sensitive field strains under laboratory conditions, based on their vegetative growth, reproduction, stress resistance, virulence and competitiveness in mixed infection experiments. Our data indicate an alarming increase in the occurrence of multiresistance in B. cinerea populations from different cultures, which presents a major threat to the chemical control of gray mold.
González, Mario; Brito, Nélida; Frías, Marcos; González, Celedonio
Protein O-glycosylation is crucial in determining the structure and function of numerous secreted and membrane-bound proteins. In fungi, this process begins with the addition of a mannose residue by protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs) in the lumen side of the ER membrane. We have generated mutants of the three Botrytis cinerea pmt genes to study their role in the virulence of this wide-range plant pathogen. B. cinerea PMTs, especially PMT2, are critical for the stability of the cell wall and are necessary for sporulation and for the generation of the extracellular matrix. PMTs are also individually required for full virulence in a variety of hosts, with a special role in the penetration of intact plant leaves. The most significant case is that of grapevine leaves, whose penetration requires the three functional PMTs. Furthermore, PMT2 also contributes significantly to fungal adherence on grapevine and tobacco leaves. Analysis of extracellular and membrane proteins showed significant changes in the pattern of protein secretion and glycosylation by the pmt mutants, and allowed the identification of new protein substrates putatively glycosylated by specific PMTs. Since plants do no possess these enzymes, PMTs constitute a promising target in the development of novel control strategies against B. cinerea. PMID:23762450
Lau, Quintin; Chow, Natalie; Gray, Rachael; Gongora, Jaime; Higgins, Damien P
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an important role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, being responsible for recognizing, binding, and presenting specific antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes. Here, we study the MHC class II DQB and DRB exon 2 genes of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), an endangered pinniped species that experiences high pup mortality. Following characterization of N. cinerea DQB and DRB by molecular cloning, and evaluation of diversity in pups across 2 colonies using variant screening (n = 47), 3 DQB alleles and 10 DRB variants (including 1 pseudogene allele) were identified. The higher diversity at DRB relative to DQB is consistent with other studies in marine mammals. Despite overall lower MHC class II allelic diversity relative to some other pinniped species, we observed similar levels of nucleotide diversity and selection in N. cinerea. In addition, we provide support for recent divergence of MHC class II alleles. The characterization of MHC class II diversity in the Australian sea lion establishes a baseline for further investigation of associations with disease, including endemic hookworm infection, and contributes to the conservation management of this species.
Davis, Joel; Yu, Daozhan; Evans, Wendy; Gokirmak, Tufan; Chetelat, Roger T; Stotz, Henrik U
Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the necrotrophic ascomycete and causal agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to this fungal pathogen is elevated in wild relatives of tomato, including Solanum lycopersicoides. An introgression line population (IL) containing chromosomal segments of S. lycopersicoides within the background of tomato cv. VF36 was used to screen the genome for foliar resistance and susceptibility to B. cinerea. Based on this screen, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, five for resistance and two for susceptibility. Four resistance QTL decreased infection frequency while the fifth reduced lesion diameter. One susceptibility QTL increased infection frequency whereas the other increased lesion diameter. Overlapping chromosomal segments provided strong evidence for partial resistance on chromosomes 1 and 9 and for elevated susceptibility on chromosome 11. Segregation analysis confirmed the major resistance QTL on the long arm of chromosome 1 and susceptibility on chromosome 11. Linkage of partial resistance to chromosome 9 could not be confirmed. The usefulness of these data for resistance breeding and for map-based cloning of foliar resistance to B. cinerea is discussed.
Ramírez, Vicente; Agorio, Astrid; Coego, Alberto; García-Andrade, Javier; Hernández, M. José; Balaguer, Begoña; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Zarra, Ignacio; Vera, Pablo
In this study, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor MYB46, previously described to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in the vascular tissue of the stem, is pivotal for mediating disease susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. We identified MYB46 by its ability to bind to a new cis-element located in the 5′ promoter region of the pathogen-induced Ep5C gene, which encodes a type III cell wall-bound peroxidase. We present genetic and molecular evidence indicating that MYB46 modulates the magnitude of Ep5C gene induction following pathogenic insults. Moreover, we demonstrate that different myb46 knockdown mutant plants exhibit increased disease resistance to B. cinerea, a phenotype that is accompanied by selective transcriptional reprogramming of a set of genes encoding cell wall proteins and enzymes, of which extracellular type III peroxidases are conspicuous. In essence, our results substantiate that defense-related signaling pathways and cell wall integrity are interconnected and that MYB46 likely functions as a disease susceptibility modulator to B. cinerea through the integration of cell wall remodeling and downstream activation of secondary lines of defense. PMID:21282403
De Cremer, Kaat; Mathys, Janick; Vos, Christine; Froenicke, Lutz; Michelmore, Richard W; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara
The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea establishes a necrotrophic interaction with its host plants, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa), causing it to wilt, collapse and eventually dry up and die, which results in serious economic losses. Global expression profiling using RNAseq and the newly sequenced lettuce genome identified a complex network of genes involved in the lettuce-B. cinerea interaction. The observed high number of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are implicated, generating a holistic picture. Most pronounced were the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway and terpenoid biosynthesis, whereas photosynthesis was globally down-regulated at 48 h post-inoculation. Large-scale comparison with data available on the interaction of B. cinerea with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana revealed both general and species-specific responses to infection with this pathogen. Surprisingly, expression analysis of selected genes could not detect significant systemic transcriptional alterations in lettuce leaves distant from the inoculation site. Additionally, we assessed the response of these lettuce genes to a biotrophic pathogen, Bremia lactucae, revealing that similar pathways are induced during compatible interactions of lettuce with necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neoaplectana Xenorhabdue nematoohilus • • !-•—••• — Blattella germanica 20. ABSTRACT (Conllnuo on rovorto »Ido II nocotoory »no* Identity by...the German cockroach Blattella germanica , under laboratory conditions. All developmental stages, including oothecae, were tested for susceptibility...the aggregation behavior of the German cockroach, ( Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera: Blattidae). The first is that aggregation serves to
Park, Moon Soo; Park, Pyoyun; Takeda, Makio
In insects, trophocytes (adipocytes) are major cells of a storage organ, the fat body, from which stored glycogen and lipids are mobilized under starvation. However, cockroaches have 2 additional types of cell in the fat body: mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, and urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles. These cells have not been investigated in terms of their roles under starvation conditions. To gain insight into the roles of trophocytes, mycetocytes and urocytes in cockroaches, structural changes were first investigated in the cells associated with starvation in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by light and electron microscopy. The area of lipid droplets in trophocytes, the endosymbiont population and mitotic activity in mycetocytes, and the area of urate vacuoles in urocytes were analyzed in association with survival rates of the starved cockroaches. After 2 weeks of starvation, trophocytes lost glycogen rosettes and their area of lipid droplets decreased, but almost all cockroaches survived this period. However, further starvation did not reduce the area, but the survival rates dropped rapidly and all cockroaches died in 7 weeks. Endosymbionts were not affected in terms of population size and mitotic activity, even if the cockroaches were dying. The area of urate vacuoles rapidly decreased in a week of starvation and did not recover upon further starvation. These results indicate that starved cockroaches mobilize glycogen and lipids stored in trophocytes to survive for 2 weeks and then die after the exhaustion of nutrients in these cells. Endosymbionts are not digested for the recycling of nutrients, but uric acid is reused under starvation.
Malmierca, Mónica G; Izquierdo-Bueno, Inmaculada; Mccormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Moraga, Javier; Gomes, Eriston V; Proctor, Robert H; Collado, Isidro G; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago
Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 (Ta37) and Botrytis cinerea produce the sesquiterpenes harzianum A (HA) and botrydial (BOT), respectively, and also the polyketides aspinolides and botcinins (Botcs), respectively. We analysed the role of BOT and Botcs in the Ta37-B. cinerea interaction, including the transcriptomic changes in the genes involved in HA (tri) and ergosterol biosynthesis, as well as changes in the level of HA and squalene-ergosterol. We found that, when confronted with B. cinerea, the tri biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in all dual cultures analysed, but at higher levels when Ta37 was confronted with the BOT non-producer mutant bcbot2Δ. The production of HA was also higher in the interaction area with this mutant. In Ta37-bcbot2Δ confrontation experiments, the expression of the hmgR gene, encoding the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, which is the first enzyme of the terpene biosynthetic pathway, was also up-regulated, resulting in an increase in squalene production compared with the confrontation with B. cinerea B05.10. Botcs had an up-regulatory effect on the tri biosynthetic genes, with BotcA having a stronger effect than BotcB. The results indicate that the interaction between Ta37 and B. cinerea exerts a stimulatory effect on the expression of the tri biosynthetic genes, which, in the interaction zone, can be attenuated by BOT produced by B. cinerea B05.10. The present work provides evidence for a metabolic dialogue between T. arundinaceum and B. cinerea that is mediated by sesquiterpenes and polyketides, and that affects the outcome of the interaction of these fungi with each other and their environment.
Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli via receptors/sensors into intracellular responses and play key roles in plant immunity against pathogen attack. However, the function of tomato MAPK kinases, SlMKKs, in resistance against Botrytis cinerea remains unclear yet. Results A total of five SlMKK genes with one new member, SlMKK5, were identified in tomato. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that expression of SlMKK2 and SlMKK4 was strongly induced by B. cinerea and by jasmonic acid and ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based knockdown of individual SlMKKs and disease assays identified that SlMKK2 and SlMKK4 but not other three SlMKKs (SlMKK1, SlMKK3 and SlMKK5) are involved in resistance against B. cinerea. Silencing of SlMKK2 or SlMKK4 resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea, increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and attenuated expression of defense genes after infection of B. cinerea in tomato plants. Furthermore, transient expression of constitutively active phosphomimicking forms SlMKK2DD and SlMKK4DD in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana plants led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and elevated expression of defense genes. Conclusions VIGS-based knockdown of SlMKK2 and SlMKK4 expression in tomato and gain-of-function transient expression of constitutively active phosphomimicking forms SlMKK2DD and SlMKK2DD in N. benthamiana demonstrate that both SlMKK2 and SlMKK4 function as positive regulators of defense response against B. cinerea. PMID:24930014
Bauer, Eugen; Lampert, Niclas; Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Brune, Andreas
While the gut microbiota of termites and its role in symbiotic digestion have been studied for decades, little is known about the bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of the distantly related wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae). Here, we show that physicochemical gut conditions and microbial fermentation products in the gut of Panesthia angustipennis resemble that of other cockroaches. Microsensor measurements confirmed that all gut compartments were anoxic at the center and had a slightly acidic to neutral pH and a negative redox potential. While acetate dominated in all compartments, lactate and hydrogen accumulated only in the crop. The high, hydrogen-limited rates of methane emission from living cockroaches were in agreement with the restriction of F420-fluorescent methanogens to the hindgut. The gut microbiota of both P. angustipennis and Salganea esakii differed strongly between compartments, with the highest density and diversity in the hindgut, but similarities between homologous compartments of both cockroaches indicated a specificity of the microbiota for their respective habitats. While some lineages were most closely related to the gut microbiota of omnivorous cockroaches and wood- or litter-feeding termites, others have been encountered also in vertebrates, reinforcing the hypothesis that strong environmental selection drives community structure in the cockroach gut.
Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw
Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.
Wu, H-Q; Liu, Z-G; Gao, B; Li, M; Ran, P-X; Xing, M
Cockroach-derived materials are known to be a major source of potent aeroallergens, causing allergic respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to determine the localization of the major allergen, Per a 3 (Cr-PI), within the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), which might reveal the relative importance of excreted materials and nonexcreted cockroach components as allergen sources. American cockroaches (P. americana) and their faecal pellets were embedded in paraffin, and serial sections were cut and collected on glass slides. After being stained with mouse polyclonal antiserum against Per a 3, the sections were incubated sequentially with biotin-labelled sheep antimouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) and a preformed fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-avidin complex. Finally, the sections were mounted and examined under a fluorescent microscope. Examination of Per a 3 immunoreactivity on the sections of the American cockroaches (P. americana) revealed that the midgut mucosa, gut contents and faecal pellets were all strongly labelled. Per a 3 immunoreactive products were not detected in any other internal organs of the American cockroaches. These results suggest that Per a 3 allergen might be synthesized in and secreted from the epithelia of the midgut mucosa and excreted from the body in the faecal pellets.
Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw
Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24649356
Gal, Ram; Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Libersat, Frederic
Unlike other venomous predators, the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa incapacitates its prey, the cockroach Periplaneta americana, to provide a fresh food supply for its offspring. We first established that the wasp larval development, from egg laying to pupation, lasts about 8 days during which the cockroach must remain alive but immobile. To this end, the wasp injects a cocktail of neurotoxins to manipulate the behavior of the cockroach. The cocktail is injected directly into the head ganglia using biosensors located on the stinger. The head sting induces first 30 min of intense grooming followed by hypokinesia during which the cockroach is unable to generate an escape response. In addition, stung cockroaches survive longer, lose less water, and consume less oxygen. Dopamine contained in the venom appears to be responsible for inducing grooming behavior. For the hypokinesia, our hypothesis is that the injected venom affects neurons located in the head ganglia, which send descending tonic input to bioaminergic neurons. These, in turn, control the thoracic premotor circuitry for locomotion. We show that the activity of identified octopaminergic neurons from the thoracic ganglia is altered in stung animals. The alteration in the octopaminergic neurons' activity could be one of the mechanisms by which the venom modulates the escape circuit in the cockroach's central nervous system and metabolism in the peripheral system.
Patel, Preeyam S; King, R Glenn; Kearney, John F
There is a higher incidence of allergic conditions among children living in industrialized countries than those in developing regions. One explanation for this is reduced neonatal exposure to microbes and the consequent lack of immune stimulation. Sensitivity to cockroach allergen is highly correlated with the development of severe asthma. In this study, we determined that an Ab to microbial α-1,3-glucan binds an Enterobacter species and cockroach allergen. Neonatal, but not adult, mice immunized with this α-1,3-glucan-bearing Enterobacter (MK7) are protected against cockroach allergy. Following exposure to cockroach allergen, α-1,3-glucan-specific IgA-secreting cells are present in the lungs of mice immunized with MK7 as neonates but not in the lungs of those immunized as adults. Mice that are unable to generate anti-α-1,3-glucan IgA Abs were immunized with MK7 as neonates and were no longer protected against cockroach allergy. Thus, neonatal, but not adult, exposure to α-1,3-glucan results in suppressed development of cockroach allergy via pulmonary α-1,3-glucan-specific IgA-secreting cells.