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Sample records for coconut mite aceria

  1. Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: <5 % of the mites were able to pass the bifurcation of the "Y". On the cross-shaped arenas, however, a large number of coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified.

  2. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent.

  3. Olfactory response of predatory mites to vegetative and reproductive parts of coconut palm infested by Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2011-10-01

    The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed.

  4. Toxicity of vegetable oils to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis and selectivity against the predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Natália N F C; Galvão, Andreia S; Amaral, Ester A; Santos, Auderes W O; Sena-Filho, José G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Teodoro, Adenir V

    2017-05-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae), is a major tropical pest of coconut. Here, we assessed the chemical profiles and the potential use of babassu, degummed soybean, and coconut oils to control A. guerreronis as well as their side-effects on the predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a key natural enemy of the coconut mite. Babassu and coconut oils had similar fatty acids chemical profiles. All vegetable oils showed toxicity to A. guerreronis; degummed soybean oil exhibited the highest toxicity (LC50 = 0.15 µL/cm(2)). Although all oils were less toxic to N. baraki, their potential to attract/repel this predatory mite differed. Whereas N. baraki females were unresponsive to coconut oil at both concentrations (i.e., LC50 and LC99 estimated for A. guerreronis), irrespective of exposure period (i.e., 1 or 24 h), the babassu oil repelled the predator, independent of exposure period, when applied at its LC99 (1.48 µL/cm(2)). Intriguingly, this oil also exhibited attractiveness to N. baraki 24 h after exposure when applied at its LC50 (0.26 µL/cm(2)). A similar attractiveness pattern was recorded 24 h after N. baraki was exposed to degummed soybean oil at both concentrations tested (LC50 = 0.15 µL/cm(2); LC99 = 1.39 µL/cm(2)). However, N. baraki was repelled by degummed soybean oil at its LC50 after 1 h of exposure. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that all the vegetable oils used here had higher toxicity to the coconut mite and considerable selectivity to the predator N. baraki, indicating they are promising tools that can potentially be included in management programs to control A. guerreronis in commercial coconut plantations.

  5. The invasive coconut mite Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae): origin and invasion sources inferred from mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (ITS) sequences.

    PubMed

    Navia, D; de Moraes, G J; Roderick, G; Navajas, M

    2005-12-01

    Over the past 30 years the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer has emerged as one of the most important pests of coconut and has recently spread to most coconut production areas worldwide. The mite has not been recorded in the Indo-Pacific region, the area of origin of coconut, suggesting that it has infested coconut only recently. To investigate the geographical origin, ancestral host associations, and colonization history of the mite, DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear region were obtained from samples of 29 populations from the Americas, Africa and the Indo-ocean region. Mitochondrial DNA 16S ribosomal sequences were most diverse in Brazil, which contained six of a total of seven haplotypes. A single haplotype was shared by non-American mites. Patterns of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) variation were similar, again with the highest nucleotide diversity found in Brazil. These results suggest an American origin of the mite and lend evidence to a previous hypothesis that the original host of the mite is a non-coconut palm. In contrast to the diversity in the Americas, all samples from Africa and Asia were identical or very similar, consistent with the hypothesis that the mite invaded these regions recently from a common source. Although the invasion routes of this mite are still only partially reconstructed, the study rules out coconut as the ancestral host of A. guerreronis, thus prompting a reassessment of efforts using quarantine and biological control to check the spread of the pest.

  6. Plant structural changes due to herbivory: Do changes in Aceria-infested coconut fruits allow predatory mites to move under the perianth?

    PubMed Central

    Aratchige, Nayanie S.; Lesna, Izabela

    2007-01-01

    Being minute in size, eriophyoid mites can reach places that are small enough to be inaccessible to their predators. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, is a typical example; it finds partial refuge under the perianth of the coconut fruit. However, some predators can move under the perianth of the coconut fruits and attack the coconut mite. In Sri Lanka, the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki, is the most common predatory mite found in association with the coconut mite. The cross-diameter of this predatory mite is c. 3 times larger than that of the coconut mite. Nevertheless, taking this predator’s flat body and elongated idiosoma into account, it is—relative to many other phytoseiid mites—better able to reach the narrow space under the perianth of infested coconut fruits. On uninfested coconut fruits, however, they are hardly ever observed under the perianth. Prompted by earlier work on the accessibility of tulip bulbs to another eriophyoid mite and its predators, we hypothesized that the structure of the coconut fruit perianth is changed in response to damage by eriophyoid mites and as a result predatory mites are better able to enter under the perianth of infested coconut fruits. This was tested in an experiment where we measured the gap between the rim of the perianth and the coconut fruit surface in three cultivars (‘Sri Lanka Tall’, ‘Sri Lanka Dwarf Green’ and ‘Sri Lanka Dwarf Green × Sri Lanka Tall’ hybrid) that are cultivated extensively in Sri Lanka. It was found that the perianth-fruit gap in uninfested coconut fruits was significantly different between cultivars: the cultivar ‘Sri Lanka Dwarf Green’ with its smaller and more elongated coconut fruits had a larger perianth-fruit gap. In the uninfested coconut fruits this gap was large enough for the coconut mite to creep under the perianth, yet too small for its predator N. baraki. However, when the coconut fruits were infested by coconut mites, the perianth-rim-fruit gap was not

  7. Intraguild predation and cannibalism between the predatory mites Neoseiulus neobaraki and N. paspalivorus, natural enemies of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Negloh, Koffi; Hanna, Rachid; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Neoseiulus neobaraki and N. paspalivorus are amongst the most common phytoseiid predators of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, found in the spatial niche beneath coconut fruit bracts. Both predators may occur on the same coconut palms in Benin and Tanzania and are therefore likely to interact with each other. Here, we assessed cannibalism and intraguild predation (IGP) of the two predators in the absence and presence of their primary prey A. guerreronis. In the absence of the shared extraguild prey, A. guerreronis, N. neobaraki killed 19 larvae of N. paspalivorus per day and produced 0.36 eggs/female/day, while the latter species killed only 7 larvae of the former and produced 0.35 eggs/female/day. Presence of A. guerreronis only slightly decreased IGP by N. neobaraki but strongly decreased IGP by N. paspalivorus, which consumed 4-7 times less IG prey than N. neobaraki. Resulting predator offspring to IG prey ratios were, however, 4-5 times higher in N. paspalivorus than N. neobaraki. Overall, provision of A. guerreronis increased oviposition in both species. In the cannibalism tests, in the absence of A. guerreronis, N. neobaraki and N. paspalivorus consumed 1.8 and 1.2 conspecific larvae and produced almost no eggs. In the presence of abundant herbivorous prey, cannibalism dramatically decreased but oviposition increased in both N. neobaraki and N. paspalivorus. In summary, we conclude that (1) N. neobaraki is a much stronger intraguild predator than N. paspalivorus, (2) cannibalism is very limited in both species, and (3) both IGP and cannibalism are reduced in the presence of the common herbivorous prey with the exception of IGP by N. neobaraki, which remained at high levels despite presence of herbivorous prey. We discuss the implications of cannibalism and IGP on the population dynamics of A. guerreronis and the predators in view of their geographic and within-palm distribution patterns.

  8. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  9. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) and dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious d...

  10. Exploration of the acarine fauna on coconut palm in Brazil with emphasis on Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Balagbo, L M; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J; Hanna, R; Schausberger, P

    2008-02-01

    Coconut is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the mites that infest coconut palms, Aceria guerreronis Keifer is economically the most important. We conducted surveys throughout the coconut growing areas of Brazil. Samples were taken from attached coconuts, leaflets, fallen coconuts and inflorescences of coconut palms in 112 localities aiming to determine the occurrence and the distribution of phytophagous mites, particularly A. guerreronis, and associated natural enemies. Aceria guerreronis was the most abundant phytophagous mite followed by Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum Lofego & Gondim Jr. and Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Tarsonemidae). Infestation by A. guerreronis was recorded in 87% of the visited localities. About 81% of all predatory mites belonged to the family Phytoseiidae, mainly represented by Neoseiulus paspalivorus De Leon, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot and Amblyseius largoensis Muma; 12% were Ascidae, mainly Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram, Proctolaelaps sp nov and Lasioseius subterraneus Chant. Neoseiulus paspalivorus and N. baraki were the most abundant predators on attached coconuts. Ascidae were predominant on fallen coconuts, while A. largoensis was predominant on leaflets; no mites were found on branches of inflorescences. Leaflets harboured higher mite diversity than the attached coconuts. Mite diversity was the highest in the state Pará and on palms surrounded by seasonal forests and Amazonian rain-forests. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, N. baraki and P. bickleyi were identified as the most promising predators of A. guerreronis. Analyses of the influence of climatic factors revealed that dry ambient conditions favour the establishment of A. guerreronis. Neoseiulus paspalivorus and N. baraki have differing climatic requirements; the former being more abundant in warm and dry areas, the latter prevailing in moderately tempered and humid areas. We discuss the significance of our findings for natural and biological

  11. [Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?].

    PubMed

    Melo, José W da S; Domingos, Cleiton A; Gondim, Manoel G C; Moraes, Gilberto J de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field.

  12. Identification of molecular markers associated with mite resistance in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Shalini, K V; Manjunatha, S; Lebrun, P; Berger, A; Baudouin, L; Pirany, N; Ranganath, R M; Prasad, D Theertha

    2007-01-01

    Coconut mite (Aceria guerreronis 'Keifer') has become a major threat to Indian coconut (Coçcos nucifera L.) cultivators and the processing industry. Chemical and biological control measures have proved to be costly, ineffective, and ecologically undesirable. Planting mite-resistant coconut cultivars is the most effective method of preventing yield loss and should form a major component of any integrated pest management stratagem. Coconut genotypes, and mite-resistant and -susceptible accessions were collected from different parts of South India. Thirty-two simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 7 RAPD primers were used for molecular analyses. In single-marker analysis, 9 SSR and 4 RAPD markers associated with mite resistance were identified. In stepwise multiple regression analysis of SSRs, a combination of 6 markers showed 100% association with mite infestation. Stepwise multiple regression analysis for RAPD data revealed that a combination of 3 markers accounted for 83.86% of mite resistance in the selected materials. Combined stepwise multiple regression analysis of RAPD and SSR data showed that a combination of 5 markers explained 100% of the association with mite resistance in coconut. Markers associated with mite resistance are important in coconut breeding programs and will facilitate the selection of mite-resistant plants at an early stage as well as mother plants for breeding programs.

  13. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  14. Influence of fruit age of the Brazilian Green Dwarf coconut on the relationship between Aceria guerreronis population density and percentage of fruit damage.

    PubMed

    Sousa, André Silva Guimarães; Argolo, Poliane Sá; Gondim, Manoel Guedes Correa; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2017-08-22

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), is one of the main coconut pests in the American, African and parts of the Asian continents, reaching densities of several thousand mites per fruit. Diagrammatic scales have been developed to standardize the estimation of the population densities of A. guerreronis according to the estimated percentage of damage, but these have not taken into account the possible effect of fruit age, although previous studies have already reported the variation in mite numbers with fruit age. The objective of this study was to re-construct the relation between damage and mite density at different fruit ages collected in an urban coconut plantation containing the green dwarf variety ranging from the beginning to nearly the end of the infestation, as regularly seen under field conditions in northeast Brazil, in order to improve future estimates with diagrammatic scales. The percentage of damage was estimated with two diagrammatic scales on a total of 470 fruits from 1 to 5 months old, from a field at Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, determining the respective number of mites on each fruit. The results suggested that in estimates with diagrammatic scales: (1) fruit age has a major effect on the estimation of A. guerreronis densities, (2) fruits of different ages should be analyzed separately, and (3) regular evaluation of infestation levels should be done preferably on fruits of about 3-4 months old, which show the highest densities.

  15. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-02-04

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided.

  16. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  17. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    PubMed

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José Wagner S; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Gontijo, Lessando M; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Gondim, Manoel Guedes C

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae). The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  18. Bioinsecticide-Predator Interactions: Azadirachtin Behavioral and Reproductive Impairment of the Coconut Mite Predator Neoseiulus baraki

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Debora B.; Melo, José Wagner S.; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P.; Gontijo, Lessando M.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Gondim, Manoel Guedes C.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae). The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents. PMID:25679393

  19. Survival and behavioural response to acaricides of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    PubMed

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Guedes, Raul N C; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Pallini, Angelo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-07-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is a major pest of coconut palm in the world. The control of this pest species is done through acaricide applications at short time intervals. However, the predators of this pest may also be affected by acaricides. Among the predators of A. guerreronis, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) has potential for biological control. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of acaricides on the survival and behavior of N. baraki. The survivorship of N. baraki was recorded in surface-impregnated arenas. Choice and no-choice behavioral bioassays were carried out using a video tracking system to assess the walking behavior of the predator under acaricide exposure. Although all acaricides negatively affected the survival of N. baraki, chlorfenapyr and azadirachtin caused lower effect than the other acaricides. No significant differences in walking behavior were observed under exposure to fenpyroximate, chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos on fully-contaminated arenas. Azadirachtin and chlorpyrifos caused repellence. Irritability was observed for all acaricides, except for abamectin. Chlorfenapyr was the most suitable product for managing the coconut mite because of its low effect on survival and behavior of N. baraki.

  20. Biology and control of Eriophyid mites with a case study of Aceria sp. on New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens)

    Treesearch

    Tessa R. Grasswitz

    2012-01-01

    The biology, recognition, and impact of eriophyid mites (with emphasis on species associated with trees and shrubs) are briefly reviewed. A case study of a leaf-curling eriophyid mite (Aceria sp.) attacking New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens) is used to illustrate the complexities of developing control strategies for eriophyids in native plant...

  1. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  2. Spatial and host-associated variation in prevalence and population density of wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) cryptic genotypes in agricultural landscapes.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host preference and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant sp...

  3. Thermal niches of two invasive genotypes of the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella (Acari: Eriophyidae): congruence between physiological and geographical distribution data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wheat curl mite (WCM; Aceria tosichella) is a major pest of cereals worldwide. It is also a complex of well-defined genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, which has not been accounted for in applied contexts. The aims of the study were to model the thermal niches of the two most p...

  4. Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

  5. Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included.

  6. Thermal Niches of Two Invasive Genotypes of the Wheat Curl Mite Aceria tosichella: Congruence between Physiological and Geographical Distribution Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide. It is also a complex of well-defined genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, which has not been accounted for in applied contexts. The aims of the study were to model the thermal niches of the two most pestiferous WCM lineages, designated MT-1 and MT-8, and to assess the extent to which temperature determines the distribution of these lineages. WCM population dynamics were modeled based on thermal niche data from March to November on the area of Poland (>311,000 km2). The most suitable regions for population development were predicted and compared to empirical field abundance data. Congruence between modeled parameters and field data for mite presence were observed for both WCM lineages although congruence between modeled thermal suitability and mite field abundance was observed only for MT-8. Thermal niche data for MT-1 and MT-8 provide biological insights and aid monitoring and management of WCM and the plant viruses it vectors. The presented models accurately estimate distributions of WCM and can be incorporated into management strategies for both current and predicted climate scenarios. PMID:27123590

  7. Population genetics of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) in Australia: implications for the management of wheat pathogens.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Umina, P A; Weeks, A R; Hoffmann, A A

    2012-04-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a polyphagous eriophyoid mite and the primary vector of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and five other viral pathogens in cereals. Previous research using molecular markers and a series of laboratory experiments found A. tosichella in Australia to consist of two genetically distinct lineages, which have broad overlapping distributions and differ in their ability to transmit WSMV under controlled conditions. This pattern of transmission also appears to be apparent in the field, whereby a strong association between WSMV detection and a single WCM lineage has been detected. In this study, we conduct a population genetic analysis and provide information on the genetic structure of the Australian viruliferous WCM lineage. We assessed genetic differentiation of 16 WCM populations using nine microsatellite markers. Strong evidence for extensive gene flow and low genetic structuring throughout the Australian wheatbelt was evident, with an exception for Western Australian and far north Queensland populations that appear to be genetically isolated. The data also indicate genetic patterns consistent with an arrhenotokous parthenogenetic mode of reproduction. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the management of WCM and associated cereal pathogens in Australia and overseas.

  8. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site.

  9. Residual bioassay to assess the toxicity of Acaricides against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2012-08-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.

  10. Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Acariformes: Eriophyidae), on agriculturally important plants and implications for its taxonomic status.

    PubMed

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Rector, Brian G; Lommen, Suzanne; Kuczyński, Lechosław; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2017-08-30

    Dry bulb mite (DBM), Aceria tulipae, is an economically important mite with a worldwide distribution and a broad host range. As a generalist, it is the most important eriophyoid mite attacking bulbous plants such as garlic, onion and tulip. To date, DBM has been recorded on host plants belonging to the families Liliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Melanthiaceae and Asparagaceae. However, a precise understanding of DBM host range is lacking as it is largely based on casual records of mites on plants, some of which may include accidental hosts. Moreover, the possible existence of cryptic species has not been considered. In this study the hypothesis that DBM may be a complex of distinct genetic lineages or cryptic species was tested by comparing the common barcode sequence marker mtDNA COI of specimens from several populations originating from the Netherlands and Poland. The population growth rate of DBM on seven agriculturally important plant species and on various parts of the garlic plant was also experimentally assessed in the laboratory. The results did not support the first hypothesis, and indicated that DBM populations originating from Poland and the Netherlands shared essentially the same genome. In addition, they indicated that DBM reached the highest population growth rate on leek and also displayed high growth rates on garlic, chive and red onion, whereas white onion and wheat were not colonized by the mites. Answering the question of whether DBM is a single polyphagous species rather than a complex of cryptic lineages is of particular importance since the misidentification of pests may lead to ineffective control strategies. Moreover, improved knowledge of DBM host range is essential for assessing risk to crops.

  11. Spatial and Host-Related Variation in Prevalence and Population Density of Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria tosichella) Cryptic Genotypes in Agricultural Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Skoracka, Anna; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Rector, Brian G; Szydło, Wiktoria; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2017-01-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host associations and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant species and landscape spatial variation influence WCM presence and population density across the entire area of Poland (>311,000 km2). Three important findings arose from the results of the study. (1) The majority of WCM lineages analyzed exhibited variation in patterns of prevalence and/or population density on both spatial and host-associated scales. (2) Areas of occurrence and local abundance were delineated for specific WCM lineages and it was determined that the most pestiferous lineages are much less widespread than was expected, suggesting relatively recent introductions into Poland and the potential for further spread. (3) The 16 WCM lineages under study assorted within four discrete host assemblages, within which similar host preferences and host infestation patterns were detected. Of these four groups, one consists of lineages associated with cereals. In addition to improving basic ecological knowledge of a widespread arthropod herbivore, the results of this research identify high-risk areas for the presence of the most pestiferous WCM lineages in the study area (viz. the entirety of Poland). They also provide insight into the evolution of pest species of domesticated crops and facilitate testing of fundamental hypotheses about the ecological factors that shape this pest community.

  12. Spatial and Host-Related Variation in Prevalence and Population Density of Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria tosichella) Cryptic Genotypes in Agricultural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Mariusz; Rector, Brian G.; Szydło, Wiktoria

    2017-01-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host associations and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant species and landscape spatial variation influence WCM presence and population density across the entire area of Poland (>311,000 km2). Three important findings arose from the results of the study. (1) The majority of WCM lineages analyzed exhibited variation in patterns of prevalence and/or population density on both spatial and host-associated scales. (2) Areas of occurrence and local abundance were delineated for specific WCM lineages and it was determined that the most pestiferous lineages are much less widespread than was expected, suggesting relatively recent introductions into Poland and the potential for further spread. (3) The 16 WCM lineages under study assorted within four discrete host assemblages, within which similar host preferences and host infestation patterns were detected. Of these four groups, one consists of lineages associated with cereals. In addition to improving basic ecological knowledge of a widespread arthropod herbivore, the results of this research identify high-risk areas for the presence of the most pestiferous WCM lineages in the study area (viz. the entirety of Poland). They also provide insight into the evolution of pest species of domesticated crops and facilitate testing of fundamental hypotheses about the ecological factors that shape this pest community. PMID:28099506

  13. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  14. A new Aceria species (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Spain on Pycnocomon rutifolium (Dipsacaceae) and supplementary descriptions of Aceria eucricotes and A. kuko from Lycium spp. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ripka, Géza; Sánchez, Iňigo

    2017-03-19

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria pycnocomi sp. nov., associated with Pycnocomon rutifolium (Dipsacaceae), is described and illustrated from Spain. Morphological differences distinguishing this new species from similar Aceria species are discussed. The female, male and nymph of Aceria eucricotes (Nalepa, 1892) and Aceria kuko (Kishida, 1927) are redescribed and illustrated from Spain and Hungary, respectively; both were collected from Lycium spp. (Solanaceae). Morphological differences distinguishing these two species are discussed.

  15. New records for Aceria anthocopes (Acari: Eriophyidae) occurring on Canada thistle in Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-two Canada thistle infestations in eastern Colorado and Wyoming and western Nebraska were surveyed in 2004 for the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.). Mites were abundant at 41% of the sites, present in lesser numbers at 53% of the sites, and no mites were found at 6% of the sites. In 2...

  16. Additional information regarding host specificity of Aceria salsolae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The petition submitted to USDA-APHIS Technical Advisory Group on Dec. 16, 2004 (No. 04-06) indicated that the eriophyid mite, Aceria salsolae, will infest all the weedy Salsola species (Russian thistle; tumbleweeds) in the Salsola kali section (S. tragus, S. collina, S. paulsenii, S. australis (=typ...

  17. Spatial distributions of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on coconut and their implications for development of efficient sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Roda, A; Nachman, G; Hosein, F; Rodrigues, J C V; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica), an invasive pest of coconut, entered the Western hemisphere in 2004, then rapidly spread through the Caribbean and into Florida, USA. Developing effective sampling methods may aid in the timely detection of the pest in a new area. Studies were conducted to provide and compare intra tree spatial distribution of red palm mite populations on coconut in two different geographical areas, Trinidad and Puerto Rico, recently invaded by the mite. The middle stratum of a palm hosted significantly more mites than fronds from the upper or lower canopy and fronds from the lower stratum, on average, had significantly fewer mites than the two other strata. The mite populations did not vary within a frond. Mite densities on the top section of the pinna had significantly lower mite densities than the two other sections, which were not significantly different from each other. In order to improve future sampling plans for the red palm mite, the data was used to estimate the variance components associated with the various levels of the hierarchical sampling design. Additionally, presence-absence data were used to investigate the probability of no mites being present in a pinna section randomly chosen from a frond inhabited by mites at a certain density. Our results show that the most precise density estimate at the plantation level is to sample one pinna section per tree from as many trees as possible.

  18. Wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella s.l.) cryptic biotypes with divergent host ranges: Implications for using Eriophyidae for biological control of invasive grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host-specificity is the most important criterion for biological control agents (BCAs) and is particularly important for BCAs of invasive grasses that are close relatives of grass crop species. Plant-feeding mites in the family Eriophyidae are often highly host-specific. A study was conducted on th...

  19. Interaction of Aceria mangiferae with Fusarium mangiferae, the causal agent of mango malformation disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study examines the role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying Fusarium mangiferae’s conidia, vectoring them into the penetration sites and assisting fungal penetration and dissemination. Conidia that were exposed to a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-marked isolate of F. mangifer...

  20. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given.

  1. Field assessment of host plant specificity and potential effectiveness of a prospective biological control agent, Aceria salsolae, of Russian thistle, Salsola tragus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eriophyid mite, Aceria salsolae attacks several species of invasive alien tumbleweeds, including Salsola tragus, S. collina, S. paulsenii and S. australis, in North America. Previous laboratory experiments to determine host specificity of the mite indicated that it could sometimes persist and m...

  2. Laboratory and field experimental evaluation of host plant specificity of Aceria solstitialis, a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) is an invasive annual weed in the western USA that is native to the Mediterranean Region and is a target for classical biological control. Aceria solstitialis is an eriophyid mite that has been found exclusively in association with yellow starthistle in I...

  3. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  4. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  5. The presence of eriophyid mites on native and weed Cirsium species in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aceria anthocoptes is an eriophyid mite that is known to feed on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). While this mite species has been considered to be host specific, a detailed evaluation of its host range has yet to be determined. To assess the risks associated with using this mite as a biological ...

  6. The Scotch Broom gall mite: Accidental introduction to classical biological control agent?

    Treesearch

    J. Andreas; T. Wax; E. Coombs; J. Gaskin; G. Markin; S. Sing

    2013-01-01

    The gall mite, Aceria genistae (Nal.) Castagnoli s.l., an accidentally introduced natural enemy of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link), was first discovered in the Portland OR and Tacoma WA region in 2005. It has since been reported from southern British Columbia to southern Oregon. Observationally, the mite appears to reduce Scotch broom seed production and at...

  7. Curative and Preventive Control of Aceria aloinis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio, L E; Bethke, J A; Dahlke, B; Vander Mey, B; Corkidi, L

    2014-12-01

    The aloe mite, Aceria aloinis Keifer, causes physiological and morphological alterations in species of Aloe L. We conducted three trials to evaluate the potential of various miticides for curative and preventive control of damage caused by A. aloinis. In the first trial, the efficacy of nine miticides against aloe mite damage was assessed without the removal of infected tissue in Aloe reitziiae Reynolds. Although significant reductions in the number of mites and eggs were found due to the treatments, miticide application did not reduce the amount of plant area damaged or damage severity. Once the plants are infected, the irreversible damage by aloe mite progresses. The second trial analyzed the effects of seven miticides on aloe mite damage on Aloe 'Goliath' plants in which the damaged tissue was removed. Reduced damage severity and mite number was observed in all treated plants. To determine if aloe mite damage could be prevented, the effects of six miticides with and without surfactant were tested on uninfected plants of Aloe spinosissima A. Berger in a third trial. Except for chlorfenapyr and fenazaquin, all treatments reduced plant damaged area, damage severity, and the number of mites 60 wk following three miticide applications. The severity index in the second and third trials suggested that all treated plants would be marketable. Our study demonstrated that there were miticides that were effective by contact (carbaryl), translaminar (spiromesifen), and systemic (spirotetramat) action, which can be used to cure and to prevent aloe mite plant damage alone or in combination with cultural practices. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus co-infection of wheat on transmission rates by wheat curl mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer). Previous work has shown that different mite genotypes transmit TriMV at different rates. The objective of this research was to determine if mite genotypes differ...

  9. Coconut Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and as a solution for treating dehydration related ... that it is any more effective than other beverages for this use. ... use coconut water to replace fluids after exercise. Coconut water seems ...

  10. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat eczema and a skin condition called psoriasis. Coconut oil is also used in hair products ... not affect weight or body mass index (BMI). Psoriasis. Applying coconut oil to the skin before treatment ...

  11. New records of eriophyoid mites from Iran (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) and a description of a new Brevulacus Manson species.

    PubMed

    Soika, Grażyna; Gol, Ali; Honarmand, Arash; Wozińska, Anna; Sadeghi, Hussein

    2017-01-09

    Four species of eriophyoid mites are recorded from Iran, of which three represent new records and the other is a new species. These species are: Brevulacus salicinus n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae), found on Salix sp. (Salicaceae); Aceria wallichianae Keifer, 1975 from Ulmus minor (Ulmaceae); Aceria granulata Carmona, 1972 from Verbascum spp. (Scrophulariaceae) and Tegnacus unicornutus Pye, 2012 from Carpinus betulus (Betulaceae). Each of these species are illustrated and provided with data regarding their distribution and host plants.

  12. Wheat curl mite, a global pest of cereals, is a complex of biotypes with divergent host ranges and variable pest potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) is a global pest of wheat and other cereals, causing losses by direct damage as well as transmission of plant pathogens such as wheat streak mosaic virus. This mite has long been considered to be a single, highly polyphagous species, capable of co...

  13. Laboratory and field experimental evaluation of host plant specificity of Aceria solstitialis, a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, Atanaska; Harizanova, Vili; de Lillo, Enrico; Cristofaro, Massimo; Smith, Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae) is an invasive annual weed in the western USA that is native to the Mediterranean Region and is a target for classical biological control. Aceria solstitialis is an eriophyid mite that has been found exclusively in association with Ce. solstitialis in Italy, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria. The mite feeds on leaf tissue and damages bolting plants, causing stunting, witch's broom and incomplete flower development. Field experiments and laboratory no-choice and two-way choice experiments were conducted to assess host plant specificity of the mite in Bulgaria. Mites showed the highest degree of host specificity in the field and lowest in the no-choice experiments. In the field, highest densities of mites occurred on Ce. solstitialis and Ce. cyanus (bachelor's button), and either no mites or trace numbers occurred on the other test plants: Ce. diffusa (diffuse knapweed), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) and Cynara scolymus (artichoke). In no-choice experiments, mites persisted for 60 days on Ce. diffusa, Ce. cyanus, Ce. solstitialis, Ca. tinctorius and Cy. scolymus, whereas in two-way choice experiments mites persisted on 25% of Cy. scolymus plants for 60 days and did not persist on Ca. tinctorius beyond 40 days. The eight other species of plants that were tested in the laboratory were less suitable for the mite. These results suggest that although A. solstitialis can persist on some nontarget plants for as long as 60 days in the laboratory, it appears to be much more specific under natural conditions, and warrants further evaluation as a prospective biological control agent.

  14. Wheat curl mite resistance: interactions of mite feeding with wheat streak mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Murugan, M; Sotelo Cardona, P; Duraimurugan, P; Whitfield, A E; Schneweis, D; Starkey, S; Smith, C M

    2011-08-01

    The majority of plant viruses are dependent on arthropod vectors for spread between plants. Wheat streak mosaic virus (family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus, WSMV) is transmitted by the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, and this virus and vector cause extensive yield losses in most major wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing regions of the world. Many cultivars in use are susceptible to this vector-virus complex, and yield losses of 10-99% have been documented. wheat curl mite resistance genes have been identified in goat grass, Aegilops tauschii (Coss) Schmal., and transferred to hexaploid wheat, but very few varieties contain effectively wheat curl mite resistance, due to virulent wheat curl mite populations. However, wheat curl mite resistance remains an effective strategy to reduce losses due to WSMV. The goal of our project was to identify the most effective, reproducible, and rapid method for assessing wheat curl mite resistance. We also wanted to determine whether mite resistance is affected by WSMV infection, because the pathogen and pest commonly occur together. Single and group wheat curl mite infestations produced similar amounts of leaf rolling and folding on wheat curl mite-susceptible wheat varieties that were independent of initial wheat curl mite infestation. This finding will allow accurate, efficient, large-scale screening of wheat germplasm for wheat curl mite resistance by infesting plants with sections of wheat leaf tissue containing mixed stages of wheat curl mite. The wheat curl mite-resistant breeding line 'OK05312' displayed antibiosis (reduced wheat curl mite population development). The effect of WSMV infection on wheat curl mite reproduction was genotype-dependent. Mite populations increased on infected wheat curl mite- and WSMV-susceptible plants compared with uninfected plants, but WSMV infection had no significant effect on wheat curl mite populations on resistant plants. OK05312 is a strong source of wheat curl mite

  15. Identification of the Wheat Curl Mite as the Vector of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus found infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) and the bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. ) could transmit TriMV. Using diffe...

  16. Global spread of wheat curl mite by the most polyphagous and pestiferous lineages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella, is an important pest of wheat and other cereal crops that transmits wheat streak mosaic virus and several other plant viruses. WCM has long been considered a single polyphagous species, but recent studies in Poland revealed a complex of genetically disti...

  17. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  18. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  19. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed.

  20. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  1. Substitution of conserved cysteine residues in Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro abolishes virus transmission by the wheat curl mite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substitutions in the amino-terminal region of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) HC-Pro were evaluated for effects on transmission by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). Alanine substitution at cysteine residues 16, 46 and 49 abolished vector transmission. Although alanine substitution a...

  2. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-12-22

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae).

  3. Host-plant variety and not climate determines the establishment and performance of Aceria lantanae (Eriophyidae), a biological control agent of Lantana camara in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mukwevho, Ludzula; Simelane, David; Olckers, Terence

    2017-02-28

    The flower-galling mite Aceria lantanae (Cook) (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) was released for the biological control of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in South Africa in 2007, but has displayed variable and patchy establishment throughout the weed's range. Surveys were undertaken in 2013-2014, both seasonally and during the mite's peak infestation periods, to determine the influence of climatic factors on its performance. Although there were seasonal differences in the percentages of mite-infested inflorescences, these did not differ significantly between altitudinal zones. There were also no significant relationships between the percentages of mite-infested inflorescences and either of annual rainfall, temperature or relative humidity. A field inoculation trial revealed significant differences between 10 common South African L. camara varieties in their susceptibility to A. lantanae. Only three varieties displayed appreciable susceptibility (50-61% of inflorescences infested), whereas six displayed only slight to moderate susceptibility (8-21%) and one displayed a lack of susceptibility (no infestation). These data support the contention that differential varietal susceptibility and not climate is responsible for the variable performance of A. lantanae on L. camara in South Africa. Complementing the current biotype of A. lantanae, originally sourced from Florida (USA), with other biotypes from different L. camara genotypes in Central and South America could increase the mite's impact on the weed.

  4. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  5. Coconut Allergy Revisited.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-09-29

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  6. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  7. Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are normal inhabitants of human hair follicles. D folliculorum is found predominantly in the follicular infundibulum of facial skin and is typically present in small groups. D brevis, the smaller of the two species, predominates on the trunk, typically as solitarily mites within the sebaceous glands and ducts. In a wide variety of animals, Demodex mites are recognized as a cause of mange. The role of Demodex mites as agents of human disease has been more controversial, but evidence favors their involvement in acneiform eruptions, folliculitis, and a range of eruptions in immunosuppressed patients.

  8. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) of Rosales trees in Iran: two new species and three new records.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2014-09-11

    This paper describes two new species of Eriophyoidea associated with trees belonging to the order Rosales in the south-western portion of East Azerbaijan province, Iran, collected during a survey in 2011: Aceria lobolinguae n. sp. on Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) and Rhinophytoptus nemalobos n. sp. on Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae). Additionally, Phyllocoptes abaenus Keifer on Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae), Aculus fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart) on Prunus amygdalus Stokes and Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), and Aceria mori (Keifer) on Morus alba L. (Moraceae) were collected and are new records for the mite fauna of Iran. New locality records and host plant data are provided for Eriophyes similis (Nalepa), Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) and Calepitrimerus baileyi (Keifer) which are eriophyoid species previously known from Iran. 

  9. [Occurrence of Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) in coconut fruits (Cocos nucifera L.) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Reinaldo I; Cao, Josefina; Navia, Denise; González, Caridad; Cueto, Jorge R; Torres, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the eriophyid mite, Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann, was confirmed in association with equatorial necrotic bands on the coconut fruit epidermis, in different growth areas in the Provinces of La Habana, Granma y Guantánamo, Cuba, from February 2003 to March 2004.

  10. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

    PubMed

    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  11. Mite allergy and mite exposure in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David

    2011-01-01

    In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area.

  12. MITE display.

    PubMed

    Casa, Alexandra M; Nagel, Alexander; Wessler, Susan R

    2004-01-01

    Genome size differences among crop plants are largely due to unequal accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs). Over the past decade, many families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) have been identified and characterized in a variety of organisms including animals and plants. MITEs are characterized by short terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) (10-15 bp), small size (approx 100 to 500 bp), high-copy-number (approx 1000 to 15,000 per haploid genome), and a preference for insertion into 2-bp to 3-bp targets that are rich in A and T residues. In this chapter, we present a modified transposon display procedure based on the maize MITE family Heartbreaker (Hbr). This technique is similar to AFLP in which AFLP adaptors are ligated to compatible ends of digested genomic DNA. Subsets of Hbr-containing fragments are then amplified using one AFLP primer and another primer complementary to an internal sequence of the Hbr element. Like AFLP, the Hbr display method permits the simultaneous analysis of numerous DNA fragments. Given the plethora of available marker systems, the major advantage of Hbr markers, and perhaps most MITE-based markers, is a preference for insertion in or near transcriptionally active genomic regions. This feature may be especially valuable in the large genomes of agriculturally important plants like maize, wheat, and barley where gene-rich islands are thought to exist in a sea of retrotransposons. Having a class of markers that are enriched in genic regions, coupled with the ease of isolating MITE markers, could expedite chromosome walks and map-based cloning protocols in these organisms.

  13. Field garden experiments to assess the host specificity of Aceria solstitialis (Acari: Eriophyoidea), potential biocontrol agent for Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is an annual noxious weed that currently infests millions of acres of rangelands, non-cultivated and natural areas in the Western USA. It displaces native plant communities reducing plant diversity and forage production for livestock and wildlife. Aceria s...

  14. Screening of plantain hybrids for resistance to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and use of a systemic acaricide to control the mite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen clones of plantain were screened for resistance to red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst. The plantain clones were established in 5kg pots with ten replicates. Mite infestation was carried out by introducing highly infested potted coconut palms between the plantain pots (1:10). Control ...

  15. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  16. Microbiological quality of desiccated coconut.

    PubMed Central

    Kinderlerer, J. L.; Clark, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A microbial survey of Sri Lankan desiccated coconut has been made on material purchased in supermarkets in Sheffield or on material obtained directly from the processing company. The total viable count (TVC) was reduced by spoilage and pasteurization from 10(4)/g to 10(3)/g. Most samples contained low levels of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus suggesting that this commodity had been handled during production. One focus of contamination with Aspergillus flavus was found for each 8.34 g of desiccated coconut (mean contamination). The number of bacteria and moulds in spoiled coconut was significantly lower than that in coconut obtained from the processor or purchased from retail outlets. It is suggested that the accumulation of free fatty acids, aliphatic methyl ketones and secondary alcohols produced during fungal spoilage has had a bactericidal and fungicidal effect. The use of microbial specifications for foods is questioned in situations where there is evidence of microbial spoilage having taken place. PMID:3081627

  17. Mites and allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases triggered by mite allergens include allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Since the early discovery of the allergenic role of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in the mid 1960s, numerous species have been described as the source of allergens capable of sensitizing and inducing allergic symptoms in sensitized and genetically predisposed individuals. The main sources of allergens in house dust worldwide are the fecal pellets of the mite species D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and the storage mites Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyropahgus putrescentiae. Group 1 and 2 allergens are major house dust mite allergens. The main allergens in storage mites include fatty acid-binding proteins, tropomyosin and paramyosin homologues, apolipophorin-like proteins, α-tubulins and others, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens. Cross-reactivity is an important and common immunological feature among mites. Currently, purified native or recombinant allergens, epitope mapping, proteomic approaches and T cell proliferation techniques are being used to assess cross-reactivity. Mites contain potent enzymes capable of degrading a wide range of substrates. Most mite allergens are enzymes. Advances in genomics and molecular biology will improve our ability to understand the genetics of specific IgE responses to mites. Mite allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are the only two allergen-specific ways to treat mite-induced respiratory and cutaneous diseases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A database for coconut crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2005-01-01

    Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. Availability http://www.bioinfcpcri.org PMID:17597858

  19. Influence of Life Diet on the Biology and Demographic Parameters of Agistemus olivi Romeih, a Specific Predator of Eriophyid Pest Mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae and Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Momen, Faten Mamdouh

    2012-05-01

    The influence of various life diets on the biology and demographic parameters of the predatory mite, Agistemus olivi Romeih, was studied under laboratory conditions. A. olivi successfully developed and reproduced on all of the tested eriophyid mites. Feeding on Aceria mangiferae Sayed enhanced the development of A. olivi, resulted in the shortest mean generation time and was the most commensurate food for the ovipostion of the predator, as exhibited by the highest fecundity and net reproductive rate. Preying on Aculops lycopersici (Massee) gave the lowest fecundity and net reproductive rate; therefore, this prey was the least suitable for the oviposition of A. olivi. Preying on Aculus fockeui (Nalepa et Trouessart) and A. mangiferae produced higher intrinsic rates of increase and finite rates of increase for the predator in comparison to A. lycopersici, which showed the lowest value. These differences in response to various eriophyid pests should be considered for the production of healthy cultures of A. olivi.

  20. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  1. Design and manufacture a coconut milk squeezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayan Surata, I.; Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Budyanto, D.; Yulianto, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    The process of cooking oil production generally is started by grating the ripe coconut meat, then pressing the grated meat to obtain coconut milk, and finally heating the coconut milk to obtain the cooking oil. Pressing mechanism to obtain coconut milk is a very important step and decisive in the process of producing cooking oil. The amount of milk produced depends on the pressure applied at the time of pressing grated coconut. The higher the pressure, the more milk is obtained. Some commercial mechanical pressing tools that available in the market are not efficient due to the working steps too much and take long time per cycle of work. The aims of this study was to design and manufacture a power screw squeezer for the collection of coconut milk. Power screw produces a compressive force in the cylinder to push and press the grated coconut until the end of the cylinder while the coconut milk and coconut dregs flow out simultaneously. Screw press was designed using straight shaft configuration with square profile. Performance test was done to investigate the actual capacity and yield of milk produced. The results showed that squeezer of grated coconut worked well with capacity an average of 13,63 kg/h and coconut milk yield of 58%.

  2. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  3. The accumulation of dust mite allergens on mattresses made of different kinds of materials.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Chirdjirapong, Varakorn; Pootong, Visanu; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Pacharn, Punchama; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Mahakittikun, Vanna; Vichyanond, Pakit

    2010-01-01

    Different mattress materials may affect the accumulation of allergens. To compare the amount of group 1 dust mite allergens (Der p1 + Der f1) on mattresses made of different kinds of materials before and after use. Sixty new mattresses made of kapok, synthetic fiber, coconut fiber and sponge-like polyurethane, were placed in the house officers' dormitory at Siriraj hospital, Thailand. The dust samples were collected before (0), 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the mattresses were used. Group 1 dust mite allergens were analyzed using two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA. Der f1 made up 86.7 % of group 1 allergens found in the matress dust. After the 2nd month, only the mean level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was under 2 microg/g dust (sensitized level). At the 6th month, the mean levels were 13.1 in coconut, 21.7 in kapok and 17.3 microg/g dust in synthetic fiber, all of which were more than 10 microg/g dust (symptomatic level). At the 9th month, the level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was increased to 11.2 microg/g. At 12th month the level in coconut fiber, sponge-like polyurethane synthetic fiber and kapok mattresses were 20.2, 22.4, 28.9 and 32.2 microg/g dust respectively. The accumulation rate in kapok and synthetic mattresses was significantly higher than coconut and sponge-like polyurethane mattresses. The mean level of group 1 mite allergens exceeded 10 microg/g dust after the 6th month of use in coconut fiber, kapok and synthetic fiber and at the 9th month in sponge-like polyurethane mattress.

  4. Association of tree nut and coconut sensitizations.

    PubMed

    Polk, Brooke I; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Nanda, Maya; Barnes, Charles; Dinakar, Chitra

    2016-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera), despite being a drupe, was added to the US Food and Drug Administration list of tree nuts in 2006, causing potential confusion regarding the prevalence of coconut allergy among tree nut allergic patients. To determine whether sensitization to tree nuts is associated with increased odds of coconut sensitization. A single-center retrospective analysis of serum specific IgE levels to coconut, tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pistachio, and walnut), and controls (milk and peanut) was performed using deidentified data from January 2000 to August 2012. Spearman correlation (ρ) between coconut and each tree nut was determined, followed by hierarchical clustering. Sensitization was defined as a nut specific IgE level of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between coconut and tree nut sensitization were tested by logistic regression. Of 298 coconut IgE values, 90 (30%) were considered positive results, with a mean (SD) of 1.70 (8.28) kU/L. Macadamia had the strongest correlation (ρ = 0.77), whereas most other tree nuts had significant (P < .05) but low correlation (ρ < 0.5) with coconut. The adjusted odds ratio between coconut and macadamia was 7.39 (95% confidence interval, 2.60-21.02; P < .001) and 5.32 (95% confidence interval, 2.18-12.95; P < .001) between coconut and almond, with other nuts not being statistically significant. Our findings suggest that although sensitization to most tree nuts appears to correlate with coconut, this is largely explained by sensitization to almond and macadamia. This finding has not previously been reported in the literature. Further study correlating these results with clinical symptoms is planned. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... mite allergy symptoms caused by inflammation of nasal passages include: Sneezing Runny nose Itchy, red or watery ... system produces an inflammatory response in your nasal passages or lungs. Prolonged or regular exposure to the ...

  6. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dust mite allergy. What causes the allergic reaction Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to ... nurse observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions after 15 minutes. If you're allergic to ...

  7. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  8. Scabies mite, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a photomicrograph of the scabies mite. This animal burrows in the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. Scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to scratching and damage ...

  9. Scabies mite, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a photomicrograph of the scabies mite. They burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to scratching and damage ...

  10. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  11. Carcases and mites.

    PubMed

    Braig, Henk R; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Mites are involved in the decomposition of animal carcases and human corpses at every stage. From initial decay at the fresh stage until dry decomposition at the skeletal stage, a huge diversity of Acari, including members of the Mesostigmata, Prostigmata, Astigmata, Endeostigmata, Oribatida and Ixodida, are an integral part of the constantly changing food webs on, in and beneath the carrion. During the desiccation stage in wave 6 of Mégnin's system, mites can become the dominant fauna on the decomposing body. Under conditions unfavourable for the colonisation of insects, such as concealment, low temperature or mummification, mites might become the most important or even the only arthropods on a dead body. Some mite species will be represented by a few specimens, whereas others might build up in numbers to several million individuals. Astigmata are most prominent in numbers and Mesostigmata in diversity. More than 100 mite species and over 60 mite families were collected from animal carcases, and around 75 species and over 20 families from human corpses.

  12. Production of coconut protein powder from coconut wet processing waste and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Raghavendra, S N; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2012-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been gaining popularity in recent times. During its production, byproducts such as coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are obtained which are underutilized or thrown away to the environment at present. This study deals with utilization of these byproducts to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder. When coconut milk was subjected to centrifugation, three phases, namely, fat phase (coconut cream), aqueous phase (coconut skim milk), and solid phase (insoluble protein) were obtained. The coconut skim milk and insoluble protein were mixed and homogenized before spray drying to obtain a dehydrated protein powder. The proximate analysis of the powder showed high protein content (33 % w/w) and low fat content (3 % w/w). Protein solubility was studied as a function of pH and ionic content of solvent. Functional properties such as water hydration capacity, fat absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, wettability, and dispersibility of coconut protein powder were evaluated along with morphological characterization, polyphenol content, and color analysis. Coconut protein powder has shown to have good emulsifying properties and hence has potential to find applications in emulsified foods. Sensory analysis showed high overall quality of the product, indicating that coconut protein powder could be a useful food ingredient.

  13. Remote sensing to detect the movement of wheat curl mites through the spatial spread of virus symptoms, and identification of thrips as predators of wheat curl mites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilwell, Abby R.

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits three viruses to winter wheat: wheat streak mosaic virus, High Plains virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. This virus complex causes yellowing of the foliage and stunting of plants. WCMs disperse by wind, and an increased understanding of mite movement and subsequent virus spread is necessary in determining the risk of serious virus infections in winter wheat. These risk parameters will help growers make better decisions regarding WCM management. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capabilities of remote sensing to identify virus infected plants and to establish the potential of using remote sensing to track virus spread and consequently, mite movement. Although the WCM is small and very hard to track, the viruses it vectors produce symptoms that can be detected with remote sensing. Field plots of simulated volunteer wheat were established between 2006 and 2009, infested with WCMs, and spread mites and virus into adjacent winter wheat. The virus gradients created by WCM movement allowed for the measurement of mite movement potential with both proximal and aerial remote sensing instruments. The ability to detect WCM-vectored viruses with remote sensing was investigated by comparing vegetation indices calculated from proximal remote sensing data to ground truth data obtained in the field. Of the ten vegetation indices tested, the red edge position (REP) index had the best relationship with ground truth data. The spatial spread of virus from WCM source plots was modeled with cokriging. Virus symptoms predicted by cokriging occurred in an oval pattern displaced to the southeast. Data from the spatial spread in small plots of this study were used to estimate the potential sphere of influence for volunteer wheat fields. The impact of thrips on WCM populations was investigated by a series of greenhouse, field, and observational studies. WCM populations in winter wheat increased more slowly when

  14. Mite allergy and exposure to storage mites and house dust mites in farmers.

    PubMed

    Iversen, M; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T; Dahl, R

    1990-03-01

    Sensitization to house dust mites, storage mites and other common inhalation allergens was studied in 144 farmers using SPT and RAST. The study population was selected from a random sample of 808 farmers and consisted of 47 persons who had declared themselves to suffer from asthma, 63 persons who had reported respiratory symptoms, and 34 healthy persons without respiratory symptoms. The most prevalent RAST was towards storage mites and was found in 17% of farmers who suffered from asthma and was estimated to occur in 5% of the random sample of farmers. A positive RAST to house dust mites was found in 17% of farmers who reported to suffer from asthma. Sensitization to pollens, animal dander and grain species was rare. A positive RAST to moulds was not found. There was a strong association between a positive RAST to house dust mites and a positive RAST to storage mites (odds ratio 21.0). A positive RAST to storage mites was significantly associated with living in a dwelling in the past which was recalled as damp (odds ratio 4.9). A high number of house dust mites was found in nearly all dwellings (median count 148 mites/0.1 g dust) and a high number of storage mites was found in some dwellings. This study suggests that in humid and temperate regions of Europe, allergy to storage mites in farmers is not caused exclusively by occupational exposure but damp housing conditions and indoor exposure to storage mites may also be important.

  15. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  16. The Sedimentary Consequence of Coastal Coconut Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2016-02-01

    Changes to vegetative community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may significantly alter soil development patterns in the coastal zone. Because of their unique shape Atoll Islands exist in their entirety within the coastal zone, and the soils that develop on these islands are closely tied to nearshore biological communities, freshwater lens regulation and sedimentary processes. Cocos nucifera, the common coconut, is a particularly important production crop on Atoll Island throughout the world, though it is yet unclear how the production of coconuts is altering the soil distribution on these islands. To better understand how coconuts might alter the soil distribution on the islands, we collected soil and sediment data from the small tropical atoll of Nikumaroro in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary findings on the distribution of coconut altered soils in the coastal zone.

  17. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailaku, SI; Syakir, M.; Mulyawanti, I.; Syah, ANA

    2017-06-01

    Coconut shell liquid smoke is produced from the pyrolysis and condensation of smoke from the burning process of coconut shell. It is known to have considerably high content of polyphenol. Beside acting as antioxidant, polyphenol is also a good antimicrobial. This research was conducted in order to study the antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke. Coconut shell liquid smoke used in this study was produced from three different processing stages, which obtained three different grades of liquid smoke (grade 1, 2 and 3). Each sample of coconut shell liquid smoke was extracted using ethyl alcohol and petroleum ether. The extract was then analyzed for its antimicrobial activity against S. aereus, E. coli and C. albicans using well diffusion method. Total phenol and microbial microscopic structure of the liquid smoke were also examined. The results showed that there was influence of coconut shell liquid smoke on the inhibition of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albican growth. This fact was marked by the forming of clear area surrounding the well on the dish agar media. The highest percentage of inhibition showed by the extract of grade 3 coconut shell liquid smoke. This may be explained by the highest total phenol content in grade 3 liquid smoke. Microscopic examination showed that there was a breakage of microbial cell walls caused by the antimicrobial property of the liquid smoke. It was concluded that coconut shell liquid smoke was beneficial as antimicrobial agent, and while all grades of liquid smoke contains polyphenol, the content was influenced by the processing stage and thus influenced its level of microbial growth inhibition.

  19. Experimental study on the strength parameter of Quarry Dust mixed Coconut Shell Concrete adding Coconut Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matangulu Shrestha, Victor; Anandh, S.; Sindhu Nachiar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture constitute of cement as the main ingredient with a different mix of fine and coarse aggregate. The massive use of conventional concrete has a shortfall in its key ingredients, natural sand and coarse aggregate, due to increased industrialisation and globalisation. To overcome the shortage of material, an alternate material with similar mechanical properties and composition has to be studied, as replacement of conventional concrete. Coconut shell concrete is a prime option as replacement of key ingredients of conventional concrete as coconut is produced in massive quantity in south East Asia. Coconut shell concrete is lightweight concrete and different research is still ongoing concerning about its mix design and composition in the construction industry. Concrete is weak in tension as compared to compression, hence the fibre is used to refrain the crack in the concrete. Coconut fibre is one of many fibres which can be used in concrete. The main aim of this project is to analyse the use of natural by-products in the construction industry, make light weight concrete and eco-friendly construction. This project concerns with the comparison of the mechanical properties of coconut shell concrete and conventional concrete, replacing fine aggregate with quarry dust using coconut fibre. M25 grade of concrete was adopted and testing of concrete was done at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days. In this concrete mix, sand was replaced completely in volumetric measurement by quarry dust. The result was analysed and compared with addition of coconut fibre at varying percentage of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. From the test conducted, coconut shell concrete with quarry dust has the maximum value at 4% of coconut fibre while conventional concrete showed the maximum value at 2% of coconut fibre.

  20. Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Nneli, R O; Woyike, O A

    2008-07-01

    A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

  1. Incorporation of coconut shell based nanoparticles in kenaf/coconut fibres reinforced vinyl ester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Abdul Khalil H. P.; Masri, M.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Fazita, M. R. N.; Azniwati, A. A.; Sri Aprilia, N. A.; Rosamah, E.; Dungani, Rudi

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a successful attempt has been made on enhancing the properties of hybrid kenaf/coconut fibers reinforced vinyl ester composites by incorporating nanofillers obtained from coconut shell. Coconut shells were grinded followed by 30 h of high energy ball milling for the production of nanoparticles. Particle size analyzer demonstrated that the size of 90% of obtained nanoparticles ranged between 15-140 nm. Furthermore, it was observed that the incorporation of coconut shell nanofillers into hybrid composite increased water absorption capacity. Moreover, tensile, flexural, and impact strength increased with the filler loading up to 3 wt.% and thereafter decrease was observed at higher filler concentration. However, elongation at break decreased and thermal stability increased in nanoparticles concentration dependent manner. Morphological analysis of composite with 3% of filler loading showed minimum voids and fiber pull outs and this indicated that the stress was successfully absorbed by the fiber.

  2. Coconut (Cocos nucifera l.) pollen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Karun, A; Sjini, K K; Niral, V; Amarnth, C H; Remya, P; Rajesh, M K; Samsudeen, K; Jerard, B A; Engelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    Coconut genetic resources are threatened by pests and pathogens, natural hazards and human activities. Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of recalcitrant seed species such as coconut. The objective of this work was to test the effect of cryopreservation and of cryostorage duration on coconut pollen germination and fertility. Pollen of two coconut varieties (West Coast Tall WWCTW and Chowghat Orange Dwarf CODC) was collected in March-May over three successive years, desiccated to 7.5 % moisture content (FW) and cryopreserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Germination and pollen tube length (PTL) of desiccated and cryopreserved pollen were not significantly different for both WCT and COD over the three harvest months of the three consecutive years of study. Pollen germination ranged from 24 to 32 % in desiccated pollen whereas it was between 26 and 29 % in cryopreserved COD pollen. In the case of WCT, germination ranged from 30 to 31 % in desiccated pollen, while it was between 28 and 32 % in cryopreserved pollen. PTL of cryopreserved pollen ranged between 224-390 nm and 226-396 mm for COD and WCT, respectively. Germination of COD pollen varied between 29.0 and 44.1 % after 4 years and 1.0/1.5 years cryostorage, respectively. Germination of WCT pollen did not change significantly between 0 and 6 years cryostorage, being comprised between 32 (24 h) and 40 % (1.5 years). Germination and vigour of cryopreserved pollen were generally higher compared to that of pollen dried in oven and non-cryopreserved. Normal seed set was observed in COD and WCT palms using pollen cryostored for 6 months and 4 years. Cryopreserved pollen of five Tall and five Dwarf accessions displayed 24-31 % and 25-49 % germination, respectively. These results show that it is now possible to establish pollen cryobanks to contribute to coconut germplasm long-term conservation.

  3. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  4. Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.

    PubMed

    Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

    2013-07-01

    Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas.

  5. Mite control with low temperature washing-II. Elimination of living mites on clothing.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, E R; Fischer, A; Liebenberg, B; Kniest, F M

    1998-01-01

    Allergens produced by mites are one of the principal causes of allergic disease. House dust mites can be found in significant numbers living in textile garments, and therefore development of optimal washing conditions for delicate textiles represents an important aim for domestic mite control. Investigation of methods to eliminate house dust mites from clothing under low temperature washing conditions. Domestic house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae were cultured on garments under favourable conditions. The breeding success was monitored in terms of population and distribution using the free-mite Mobility Test. The mite containing garments were washed at low temperature with different commercial detergents in the presence or absence of a mite control additive containing 0.03% benzyl benzoate, and the numbers of mites surviving the washing process were assessed using the Heat Escape Method. The successful culture of mites in textile garments led to mite numbers of a total of at least 9000 to 10000 mites in 10 garments (Mobility Test). After washing in a domestic washing machine with detergents alone approximately 6000 remaining mites were detected in 10 garment halfs (Heat Escape Method). In contrast, mite control by the application of the same detergents together with an additive achieved a reduction to almost 50 mites. This is an additional reduction in mite numbers of 99.2%. It is possible to achieve mite control in delicate garments by washing at low temperature in the presence of a mite control additive providing a final concentration of 0.03% benzyl benzoate.

  6. Pancake Syndrome (Oral Mite Anaphylaxis)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator. PMID:23283016

  7. Within-season dynamics of red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and phytoseiid predators on two host palm species in south-west India.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B; Rahman, P M; Murphy, S T; Sudheendrakumar, V V

    2012-08-01

    Field surveys were conducted monthly between December 2008 and July 2009 in Kerala, south-west India to compare the population dynamics of the red palm mite Raoiella indica (RPM) on two host plants Areca catechu and Cocos nucifera during one non-monsoon season when, in general, RPM populations increase. The aim was to examine the effects of host plant, host plant locality and the impact of climatic factors on RPM and related phytoseiid predators. There were significantly higher RPM densities on areca in peak season (May/June) compared to coconut; although significantly more coconut sites were infested with RPM than areca. Although no one climatic factor was significantly related to RPM numbers, interactions were found between temperature, humidity and rainfall and the partitioning of host plant locality showed that where conditions were warmer and drier, RPM densities were significantly higher. Specifically on coconut, there was a significant relation between RPM densities and the combined interaction between site temperature, site humidity and phytoseiid densities. There was a marked difference in the density of phytoseiids collected between areca and coconut palms, with significantly more on the latter, in several months. Amblyseius largoensis was the most commonly collected phytoseiid in association with RPM, although Amblyseius tamatavensis species group and Amblyseius largoensis species group were collected in association with RPM also. There was also evidence of a weak numerical response of the combined phytoseiid complex in relation to RPM density the previous month on coconut but this was not observed on areca.

  8. Wheat Genotypes With Combined Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, Wheat Mosaic Virus, and Triticum Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Po; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Khalaf, Luaay Kahtan; Zhang, Guorong; Fritz, Allan K; Whitfield, Anna E; Smith, C Michael

    2017-01-13

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%. Acaricides are ineffective against WCM, and delayed planting of winter wheat is not feasible. Five wheat breeding lines containing Cmc4, a WCM resistance gene from Aegilops tauschii, and Wsm2, a WSMV resistance gene from wheat germplasm CO960293-2 were selected from the breeding process and assessed for phenotypic reaction to WCM feeding, population increase, and the degree of WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection. Experiments determined that all five lines are resistant to WCM biotype 1 feeding and population increase, and that two breeding lines contain resistance to WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection as well. These WCM-, WSMV-, HPWMoV-, and TriMV-resistant genotypes can be used improve management of wheat yield losses from WCM-virus complexes.

  9. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Eyres, Michael F.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26946252

  11. Simulating coconut growth, development and yield with the InfoCrop-coconut model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Naresh; Bai, K V Kasturi; Rajagopal, V; Aggarwal, P K

    2008-07-01

    Simulation modeling of perennial crops has immense potential for generating information for plantation managers. We report the development of the InfoCrop-coconut model and its application to coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) growing in diverse tropical and subtropical environments. The model is based on the generic crop model InfoCrop that simulates various annual crops in tropical and subtropical regions. The InfoCrop-coconut model was calibrated and validated with data compiled from published studies comprising many physiological, agronomical and nutritional experiments conducted between 1978 and 2005 in diverse geographic locations throughout India. The treatments included various water and nutrient regimes and varieties of coconut. Time to first flowering varied between 4 and 6 years, leaf production varied from 8 to 15 leaves year(-1) and nut yield ranged from 3000 to 27,000 nuts ha(-1) year(-1). The genetic coefficients used for calibration and validation were generated from field experiments conducted during 1995-2005. Model efficiency and validation performance were analyzed statistically. Simulated trends in phenological development, total dry mass and its partitioning, and nut yield agreed closely with observed values, although a 15% error was observed in a few cases. Considering that field measurements have an experimental error of 10-15% and wide variation existed within treatments, the model adequately simulated the effects of management practices and agro-climatic conditions over short periods. For a range of agro-climatic zones, simulated potential yields varied from 26 to 30 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) and potential annual dry mass production varied from 52 to 62 Mg ha(-1), depending on environment. We conclude that InfoCrop-coconut can be used to increase the efficiency of agronomic experiments designed to aid coconut crop management.

  12. Do mite avoidance measures affect mite and cat airborne allergens?

    PubMed

    Carswell, F; Oliver, J; Weeks, J

    1999-02-01

    Effective mite allergen avoidance measures are presumed to reduce airborne allergens yet the quantity in the air is rarely measured. To monitor airborne allergen during a placebo-controlled mite allergen avoidance study. Bedrooms of 56 atopic asthmatic children were randomly allocated to hot washing and encasing covers + acaricide (active regime) or placebo treatment. Dust was collected from the mattress, bedding and carpets; airborne allergen was measured using Casella samplers and dust settling in open Petri dishes. Der p 1, Der p 2 and Fel d 1 were measured. After 24 weeks of mite allergen avoidance the Casella air-samplers collected Der p 1 less frequently in active than placebo-treated bedrooms (0 vs. 29%, P<0.05) and Petri dishes in the active group collected less than baseline (0.2 vs. 0.6 ng/day P<0.05). Homes without cats had less cat allergen than cat-owning homes and when actively treated for 24 weeks showed a greater reduction (P = 0.03) in mattress cat allergen than the placebo group. Encasing covers and hot washing of bed linen reduced mite aeroallergen (and mattress cat allergen in the absence of cats). This could mean dual benefits to a patient sensitive to both mite and cat.

  13. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ectoparasitic mites (Acarina: Podapolipidae) and ectoparasitic fungi (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) occur on ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) throughout the world (Riddick et al., 2009). This study documents the interaction of a coccinellid-specific mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (McDaniel &...

  14. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  15. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  16. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  17. Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.

    PubMed

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management.

  18. House dust mites in Williamsburg, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, M T; Fashing, N J

    1990-04-01

    House dust allergy is a common medical ailment. It has been well established that mites of the genus Dermatophagoides (house dust mites) are an important source of allergens and that mite counts greater than 300 per gram of dust are associated with symptoms of asthma. A survey of 22 houses in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the month of August revealed that all had mite populations exceeding this number. This may explain in part the high incidence of allergy in the Williamsburg area.

  19. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  20. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester...

  1. [Bee mite: Varroa jacobsoni qudemans].

    PubMed

    Ozer, N; Boşgelmez, A

    1983-07-01

    Varroatosis caused by varroa jacobsoni on honeybee, Apis mellifera L., is currently one of the worlds major bee keeping problems. The mite parasites the adult honey bee, as well as its developmental stages, by sucking the insects's haemolymph. Up to date, many chemicals were used against this mite but still there is no chemical which has 100% effect and at the same time bees and their brood demonstrate a good tolerance. The investigations on biology and therapy on Varroa are still going on in many countries.

  2. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  3. High Varroa mite abundance influences chemical profiles of worker bees and mite-host preferences.

    PubMed

    Cervo, R; Bruschini, C; Cappa, F; Meconcelli, S; Pieraccini, G; Pradella, D; Turillazzi, S

    2014-09-01

    Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers.

  4. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

  5. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  6. Ecological Requirements of Chigger Mites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-10

    concentrations ranging from 0.07% to 2.8% of Palmolive dishwashing liquid and Tween - 80 were tested to identify the precipitation time of chigger mites, optimum...that Palmolive dishwashing detergent was superior to Tween - 80 at each concentration tested (Chi-square test, Alpha = 0.05). Addition of more than 5 ml

  7. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  8. Forecasting coconut production in the Philippines with ARIMA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Cristina Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The study aimed to depict the situation of the coconut industry in the Philippines for the future years applying Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method. Data on coconut production, one of the major industrial crops of the country, for the period of 1990 to 2012 were analyzed using time-series methods. Autocorrelation (ACF) and partial autocorrelation functions (PACF) were calculated for the data. Appropriate Box-Jenkins autoregressive moving average model was fitted. Validity of the model was tested using standard statistical techniques. The forecasting power of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was used to forecast coconut production for the eight leading years.

  9. Allergenicity of the mite Hemisarcoptes cooremani.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Houck, M A

    1999-12-01

    A researcher experienced allergic symptoms while working with the astigmatid mite Hemisarcoptes cooremani cultured on scale insects. This mite is a predator of scale insects that often parasitize many perennial vascular plants in orchards, gardens, and ornamental nurseries worldwide; therefore, orchard and ornamental nursery workers and gardeners may be exposed to this mite. We investigated the possible allergenicity of H. cooremani and the cross-reactivity between it and other allergy-causing astigmatid mites. Serum from a subject who experienced allergic symptoms while working with H. cooremani was analyzed for IgE and IgG to proteins in an extract of this mite and of other astigmatid mites known to cause allergic reactions. The serum was used to probe proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE or precipitated by CIE using rabbit antiserum. In addition, the subject's serum was used to directly precipitate proteins in extracts of H. cooremani and other mite species. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of proteins in an H. cooremani extract showed the reference serum contained IgE directed at 16-kD and 19-kD proteins. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis reaction showed that the subject's serum contained antibody that precipitated a protein in an H. cooremani extract and that IgE bound to this protein. The proteins in an extract of H. cooremani did not precipitate when reacted with rabbit antisera against the dust mites D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and E. maynei, or the storage mites B. tropicalis, L. destructor, and T. putrescentiae. This indicated there was no cross-reactivity between H. cooremani and these mites. These results indicated that an extract of the mite H. cooremani contained at least two prominent IgE binding proteins that were not present in the other astigmatid mites. Thus, H. cooremani is the source of unique allergenic proteins and allergy to this mite may develop in orchard and ornamental nursery workers and gardeners.

  10. Things Go Better with Coconuts--Program Strategies in Micronesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rody, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    Politics, economics and cultural traditions are considered factors in projects to increase consumption of indigenous foods. Special emphasis is given to breastfeeding infants and drinking coconut milk instead of soft drinks. (Author/BB)

  11. Things Go Better with Coconuts--Program Strategies in Micronesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rody, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    Politics, economics and cultural traditions are considered factors in projects to increase consumption of indigenous foods. Special emphasis is given to breastfeeding infants and drinking coconut milk instead of soft drinks. (Author/BB)

  12. Multiscale structure and damage tolerance of coconut shells.

    PubMed

    Gludovatz, B; Walsh, F; Zimmermann, E A; Naleway, S E; Ritchie, R O; Kruzic, J J

    2017-05-17

    We investigated the endocarp of the fruit of Cocos nucifera (i.e., the inner coconut shell), examining the structure across multiple length scales through advanced characterization techniques and in situ testing of mechanical properties. Like many biological materials, the coconut shell possesses a hierarchical structure with distinct features at different length scales that depend on orientation and age. Aged coconut was found to have a significantly stronger (ultimate tensile strength, UTS = 48.5MPa), stiffer (Young's modulus, E = 1.92GPa), and tougher (fracture resistance (R-curve) peak of KJ = 3.2MPa m(1/2)) endocarp than the younger fruit for loading in the latitudinal orientation. While the mechanical properties of coconut shell were observed to improve with age, they also become more anisotropic: the young coconut shell had the same strength (17MPa) and modulus (0.64GPa) values and similar R-curves for both longitudinal and latitudinal loading configurations, whereas the old coconut had 82% higher strength for loading in the latitudinal orientation, and >50% higher crack growth toughness for cracking on the latitudinal plane. Structural aspects affecting the mechanical properties across multiple length scales with aging were identified as improved load transfer to the cellulose crystalline nanostructure (identified by synchrotron x-ray diffraction) and sclerification of the endocarp, the latter of which included closing of the cell lumens and lignification of the cell walls. The structural changes gave a denser and mechanically superior micro and nanostructure to the old coconut shell. Additionally, the development of anisotropy was attributed to the formation of an anisotropic open channel structure throughout the shell of the old coconut that affected both crack initiation during uniaxial tensile tests and the toughening mechanisms of crack trapping and deflection during crack propagation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coconut oil affects lipoprotein composition and structure of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Hortal, J H; García-Fuentes, E; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    1996-04-01

    Supplementation of 10 or 20% coconut oil in the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in neonatal chicks. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration significantly increased after the addition of 20% coconut oil for 2 weeks. These results show that newborn chicks are more sensitive to saturated fatty acids from coconut oil than adult animals. The effects of this saturated fat on lipoprotein composition were studied for the first 1-2 weeks of neonatal chick life. Coconut oil supplementation in the diet (20%) for 2 weeks increased cholesterol concentration in all the lipoprotein fractions, while 10% coconut oil only increased cholesterol in low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins, an increase that was significant after 1 week of treatment. Similar results were obtained for triacylglycerol concentration after 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in phospholipid and total protein levels were less profound. Coconut oil decreased low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fluidity, measured as total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Changes in esterified cholesterol/phospholipid and triacylglycerol/phospholipid ratios suggest that coconut oil affects the distribution of lipid components in the core of very-low-density particles. Likewise, the esterified cholesterol/triacylglycerol ratio was clearly increased in the low-density, and especially in the very-low-density, fraction after the first week of coconut oil feeding. Our results show that neonatal chick provides a suitable model in which to study the role of very-low-density lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the rapid response to saturated fatty acids with 12-14 carbons.

  14. In vitro efficacy of ByeMite and Mite-Stop on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The present in vitro study shows the efficacy of two antimite products (ByeMite = phoxim, Mite-Stop = neem seed extract) against all developing stages of the important red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (obtained at two farms in France and Germany). While permanent contact with the active compound led to an efficacy of 100% in the case of Mite-Stop on mites in both farms, there was only a 96.2% killing effect of ByeMite on the mites of the French farm. Even short contacts of only 4 s killed 100% of mites in the case of Mite-Stop at the French farm and only 84.5% in the German farm. ByeMite, on the other hand, killed only 27.8% (Germany) and 30% (France) when mites got the chance to escape from the treated grounds to untreated ones. When using only the half doses of both products, Mite-Stop(R) still reached, after permanent contact, 100% activity on the German farm and 98.2% in France, while ByeMite killed 93.8% (Germany) and 90.6% (France). Short contact to half doses of course reduced the activity of both products (Mite-Stop = 59.3% in France, 22.1% in Germany; ByeMite = 28.8% in France, 18.8% in Germany). With respect to the fumigant activity of the products, the strains of D. gallinae reacted differently. While Mite-Stop(R) showed a clear fumigant activity in the case of the German mites, this product did not affect the French mites by air distribution, neither did ByeMite in both cases. Therefore, mites have to come in contact with both products. Against Mite-Stop, there was apparently no resistance and low doses have high efficacy after even short contacts, which regularly occur in a treated stable, where mites have the chance to leave treated places to untreated hidden spots.

  15. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C

    2016-05-01

    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents.

  16. An antifungal peptide from the coconut.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2005-12-01

    A chromatographic procedure consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast performance liquid chromatography on Supedex 75 was utilized to isolate a 10 kDa antifungal peptide from coconut flesh. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. It displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Physalospora piricola. The IC50 values of its inhibitory activities on mycelial growth in M. arachidicola and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity were respectively 1.2 and 52.5 microM.

  17. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  18. [Control strategies against Varroa mites].

    PubMed

    Lodesani, M

    2004-06-01

    In many cases, the easiest way to control a pest or a pathogen is to resort to chemical treatments. In the short period this option is often the most convenient economically and usually does not require refined knowledge of the biology of the pest. Many efforts have been directed to develop chemical treatments against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman. Nowadays, product based on organic acids, essential oils, pyrethroids, organophosphate, and formamidine are available. Resistance is serious problem in the chemotherapy of parasites and pathogens of the honeybee. High-level resistance to several active substances (the pyrethroids acrinathrin, flumethrin, fluvalinate; the organophosphate coumaphos; the formamidine amitraz) was detected with laboratory assays in different varroa populations and caused failure of the control in the field. At the end of the '80s, products based on pyrethroids, very effective against the mite, but without any appreciable side effect on bees, became available. Resistance to fluvalinate in Italy and later in other countries caused serious damage to beekeeping; early detection was crucial to reduce losses. The problem of developing suitable treatments was difficult in the case of the varroa mite because most substances active against V. destructor have unacceptable side effects on bees. The idea that the mite could be controlled indefinitely with these strategies began to gain ground.

  19. Bee Mite ID: Bee-associated mite genera of the world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bee Mite ID contains an interactive key, fact sheets, an image gallery, and abundant supporting information. The interactive key allows you to choose characters to obtain a list of mite genera possibly matching your specimen. Consult fact sheets to find images and information for a particular mite g...

  20. Ectoparasitic mites and their Drosophila hosts.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leanos, Alejandra; Loustalot-Laclette, Mariana Ramirez; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-01-02

    Only two parasite interactions are known for Drosophila to date: Allantonematid nematodes associated with mycophagous Drosophilids and the ectoparasitic mite Macrocheles subbadius with the Sonoran Desert endemic Drosophila nigrospiracula. Unlike the nematode-Drosophila association, breadth of mite parasitism on Drosophila species is unknown. As M. subbadius is a generalist, parasitism of additional Drosophilids is expected. We determined the extent and distribution of mite parasitism in nature Drosophilids collected in Mexico and southern California. Thirteen additional species of Drosophilids were infested. Interestingly, 10 belong to the repleta species group of the subgenus Drosophila, despite the fact that the majority of flies collected were of the subgenus Sophophora. In all cases but 2, the associated mites were M. subbadius. Drosophila hexastigma was found to have not only M. subbadius, but another Mesostigmatid mite, Paragarmania bakeri, as well. One D. hydei was also found to have a mite from genus Lasioseius attached. In both choice and no-choice experiments, mites were more attracted to repleta group species than to Sophophoran. The extent of mite parasitism clearly is much broader than previously reported and suggests a host bias mediated either by mite preference and/or some mechanism of resistance in particular Drosophilid lineages.

  1. Ectoparasitic mites and their Drosophila hosts

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leanos, Alejandra; Loustalot-Laclette, Mariana Ramirez; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Only two parasite interactions are known for Drosophila to date: Allantonematid nematodes associated with mycophagous Drosophilids and the ectoparasitic mite Macrocheles subbadius with the Sonoran Desert endemic Drosophila nigrospiracula. Unlike the nematode-Drosophila association, breadth of mite parasitism on Drosophila species is unknown. As M. subbadius is a generalist, parasitism of additional Drosophilids is expected. We determined the extent and distribution of mite parasitism in nature Drosophilids collected in Mexico and southern California. Thirteen additional species of Drosophilids were infested. Interestingly, 10 belong to the repleta species group of the subgenus Drosophila, despite the fact that the majority of flies collected were of the subgenus Sophophora. In all cases but 2, the associated mites were M. subbadius. Drosophila hexastigma was found to have not only M. subbadius, but another Mesostigmatid mite, Paragarmania bakeri, as well. One D. hydei was also found to have a mite from genus Lasioseius attached. In both choice and no-choice experiments, mites were more attracted to repleta group species than to Sophophoran. The extent of mite parasitism clearly is much broader than previously reported and suggests a host bias mediated either by mite preference and/or some mechanism of resistance in particular Drosophilid lineages. PMID:27540774

  2. Mites and the implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrícia; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2014-01-01

    The infestation by mites of stored products is of great economic importance and public health, with consequences to human health. To describe the mite species associated to food and stored products that cause implications to human health as well as to analyze the loss of quality and nutritional composition of infested food. Literature review in LILACS-BIREME, SciELO and MEDLINE databases for publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish with the descriptors "mites", "foods", "storage mites", "store product mites", "dust mites", "quality control", "quality foods", "chemical composition", "chemistry", "allergens" and "health". There were identified 80 articles, but only 55 were related to the objectives of the study. Sixteen references were mentioned in the articles that were found after checked for relevance. The activity of the mites causes loss of sanitary quality, weight and nutritional composition of the infested products, with great economic loss in the grain industry. Inhalation, ingestion or contact of mites, byproducts of metabolism and feces may sensitize susceptible individuals and cause asthma, allergic rhinitis, contact dermatitis, enteritis and lead to anaphylaxis. The monitoring of temperature and humidity is essential for the control of mites, as well as better conservation and hygiene of the units of grain storage. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Mite exposure in a Spanish Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J A; Huertas, A J; Iraola, V; Pinto, H; Martínez, R; Ramírez, M; Martos, M D; Carnés, J

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the domestic mite fauna and allergen levels is important for a correct diagnosis and treatment of mite allergy. Our objectives were to describe the domestic mite fauna in the region of Murcia, Spain, to quantify mite allergens in dust samples obtained from mattresses of this area and to assess the influence of geographical, climatic and dwelling factors. Dust samples were collected in a transversal descriptive study from mattresses of 51 patients who went to the Allergology Service, and from mattress of 81 neighbours or family members of these patients. A questionnaire about home environment was filled in and obtained by all participants. Mite identification was done by light microscopy and allergen determinations (Der p 1 and Der f 1) by monoclonal antibodies. Sixteen mite species were identified in the 132 dust samples collected. The most frequent species were Dermatophagoides farinae (36% of the samples), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (32%) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (5.3%). There were significant differences among climatic regions. The coastal sector had greater mite abundance, being D. pteronyssinus more frequent and abundant than D. farinae. In inland areas D. farinae was the predominant mite species. Allergen levels correlated with the concentration of Dermatophagoides, with higher levels detected in coastal regions. Average annual temperature was the main outdoor factor that correlated with higher mite concentrations. Indoor main predictor of higher levels of mites was the presence of obvious signs of humidity in the home. This study demonstrates the existence of a mite fauna dominated by D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae with a strong influence of climatic factors and residential characteristics. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrate from by-product of coconut processing.

    PubMed

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2018-02-15

    Coconut cake, a by-product from milk and oil extractions, contains a high amount of protein. Protein extraction from coconut milk cake and coconut oil cake was investigated. The supernatant and precipitate protein powders from both coconut milk and oil cakes were compared based on their physicochemical and functional properties. Glutelin was the predominant protein fraction in both coconut cakes. Protein powders from milk cake presented higher water and oil absorption capacities than those from oil cake. Both protein powders from oil cake exhibited better foaming capacity and a better emulsifying activity index than those from milk cake. Coconut proteins were mostly solubilized in strong acidic and alkaline solutions. Minimum solubility was observed at pH 4, confirming the isoelectric point of coconut protein. Therefore, the coconut residues after extractions might be a potential alternative renewable plant protein source to use asa food ingredient to enhance food nutrition and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global Status of Honey Bee Mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parasitic bee mites have become a major problem to both beekeepers and honey bees. This chapter updates the latest information we have on the three mite species, Acarapis (tracheal), Varroa and Tropilaelaps that are currently a threat to honey bees. It also updates the current information on the ...

  6. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660...

  7. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660...

  8. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660...

  9. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  11. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a processing...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600 Section 178.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a processing...

  15. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  16. 46 CFR 148.04-21 - Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). 148.04-21 Section 148.04-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... § 148.04-21 Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). (a) Coconut meal pellets; (1) Must...

  17. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a processing...

  20. In vitro culture of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Florent; Malaurie, Bernard; N'Nan, Oulo

    2011-01-01

    Coconut is a very important crop for millions of people in tropical countries. With coconut, in vitro culture protocols have been developed with two main objectives, viz. the large scale production of particular types of coconuts and the international exchange and conservation of coconut germplasm. The methods described in this chapter have been developed in the framework of collaborative activities between research institutes in Côte d'Ivoire and France. Two coconut embryo in vitro collecting protocols have been established, one consisting of storing the disinfected embryos in a KCl solution until they are brought back to the laboratory, where they are re-disinfected and inoculated in vitro under sterile conditions, and the other including in vitro inoculation of the embryos in the field. For international germplasm exchange, zygotic embryos inoculated in vitro in plastic test tubes or endosperm cylinders containing embryos in plastic bags are used. For in vitro culture, embryos are inoculated on semi-solid medium supplemented with sucrose and activated charcoal and placed in the dark, and then transferred to light conditions with the same (solid or liquid) medium once the first true leaf is visible and the root system has started developing.

  1. Growth strain in coconut palm trees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan S; Chen, Shin S; Lin, Tsan P; Chen, Yuh S

    2002-03-01

    Until recently, growth stress studies have been made only on coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. Growth stress of trees is thought to be initiated in newly formed secondary xylem cells. This stress can accumulate for years and is distributed inside the trunk. Major characteristics of the trunk of monocotyledonous trees include numerous vascular bundles scattered inside the ground tissue and the lack of secondary growth for enlarging the diameter of the trunk. We used the strain gauge method to measure the released growth strain of the monocotyledonous woody palm, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and to investigate the surface growth strain of the trunk and central cylinder at different trunk heights. The internal strains of both vertical and leaning trunks were measured and compared with those of coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. We found that tensile stress existed longitudinally on the surface of vertically growing trunks, whereas compression stress was found at the bending position of leaning trunks. Compression stress was found in the outer part of the central cylinder, whereas tensile stress is generally found in the outer part of the trunk in coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. The distribution of strain in the palm trunk is similar to that of compression wood of the leaning trunk of a conifer. Specific gravity was greater in the outer part of the trunk than in the inner part of the trunk. This difference may be related to the distribution of growth stress.

  2. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail.

  3. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laclapidae) detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parasitic mites affect pollinator helath and the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is the most serious single threat to honey bees. Another group of mites with similar life histories to varroa mites, Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) species, have become a damaging pest of Europe...

  4. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations

    Treesearch

    R. W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on...

  5. Effects of Coconut Materials on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis and Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Park, C. G.; Lim, D. H.; Kwon, E. G.; Ki, K. S.; Kim, S. B.; Moon, Y. H.; Shin, N. H.; Lee, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of coconut materials on ruminal methanogenesis and fermentation characteristics, in particular their effectiveness for mitigating ruminal methanogenesis. Fistulated Holstein cows were used as the donor of rumen fluid. Coconut materials were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid-buffer mixture and timothy substrate for 24 h incubation. Total gas production, gas profiles, total volatile fatty acids (tVFAs) and the ruminal methanogens diversity were measured. Although gas profiles in added coconut oil and coconut powder were not significantly different, in vitro ruminal methane production was decreased with the level of reduction between 15% and 19% as compared to control, respectively. Coconut oil and coconut powder also inhibited gas production. The tVFAs concentration was increased by coconut materials, but was not affected significantly as compared to control. Acetate concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05), while propionate was significantly higher (p<0.05) by addition of the coconut materials than that of the control. The acetate:propionate ratio was significantly lowered with addition of coconut oil and coconut powder (p<0.05). The methanogens and ciliate-associated methanogens in all added coconut materials were shown to decrease as compared with control. This study showed that ciliate-associated methanogens diversity was reduced by more than 50% in both coconut oil and coconut powder treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that coconut powder is a potential agent for decreasing in vitro ruminal methane production and as effective as coconut oil. PMID:25358365

  6. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  7. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhaimin, Sudiono, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose has been done. The aim of this research was to study of the effect of time and temperature to the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The various temperature of the hydrolysis process were 30 °C, 48 °C, 72 °C and 95 °C and the various time of the hydrolysis process were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 minutes. A quantitative analysis was done by measured the concentration of the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The result showed that the rate constant from the various temperature were 3.10-4 minute-1; 8.10-4 minutees-1; 84.10-4 minute-1, and 205.10-4 minute-1, and the energy activation was 7,69. 103 kJ/mol.

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of hemicellulose component of coconut fiber.

    PubMed

    Sindhurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    1998-08-01

    The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) isolated from coconut kernel was digested with cellulase and hemicellulase and the residual fiber rich in hemicellulose (without cellulose) and cellulose (with out hemicellulose) were fed to rats and compared with a fiber free group. The results indicate that hemicellulose rich fiber showed decreased concentration of total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol, while cellulose rich fiber showed no significant alteration. There was increased HMG CoA reductase activity and increased incorporation of labeled acetate into free cholesterol. Rats fed hemicellulose rich coconut fiber produced lower concentration of triglycerides and phospholipids and lower release of lipoproteins into circulation. There was increased concentration of hepatic bile acids and increased excretion of faecal sterols and bile acids. These results indicate that the hemicellulose component of coconut fiber was responsible for the observed hypolipidemic effect.

  9. Double lethal coconut crab (Birgus latro L.) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Maillaud, C; Lefebvre, S; Sebat, C; Barguil, Y; Cabalion, P; Cheze, M; Hnawia, E; Nour, M; Durand, F

    2010-01-01

    We report a double lethal coconut crab Birgus latro L. poisoning in New Caledonia. Both patients died after showing gastro-intestinal symptoms, major bradycardia with marked low blood pressure, and finally asystolia. Both had significative hyperkaliemia, suggesting a digitaline-like substance intoxication. Traditional knowledge in the Loyalty Islands relates coconut crab toxicity to the consumption of the Cerbera manghas fruit by the crustacean. Elsewhere previous descriptions of human poisoning with the kernel of fruits of trees belonging to the genus Cerbera, known to contain cardiotoxic cardenolides, appear to be very similar to our cases. Cardenolides assays were performed on patient's serum samples, fruit kernel and on the crustacean guts, which lead us to suppose these two fatal cases were the result of a neriifolin intoxication, this toxin having been transmitted through the coconut crab.

  10. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  11. Allergy to house dust mites and asthma.

    PubMed

    Milián, Evelyn; Díaz, Ana María

    2004-03-01

    House dust mites have been shown to be important sources of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and numerous scientific studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma is increasing. The most common dust mite species around the world include Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Euroglyphus maynei (Em) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Over the past three decades, many important allergens from these species have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. The biological function of several house dust mite allergens has been elucidated, with many of them showing enzymatic activity. However, Bt allergens remain the least studied, even though this mite is very common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Puerto Rico. Therefore, it is very important to include Bt in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for house dust mite induced allergy and asthma, particularly in areas where Bt exposure and sensitization is high. Recombinant DNA technology, as well as other molecular biology and immunological techniques, have played a fundamental role in advances towards a better understanding of the biology of house dust mites and their role in allergic diseases. This kind of study also contributes to the understanding of the complex immunologic mechanisms involved in allergic reactions. The development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depends on the continuity of research of house dust mite allergens. The objectives of this review are to describe the most important aspects of house dust mite allergy and to acquaint the scientific community with the latest findings pertaining to house dust mite allergens, particularly those derived from Bt.

  12. An improved method of isolating salmonellae from contaminated desiccated coconut

    PubMed Central

    Iveson, J. B.; Kovacs, N.; Laurie, Wm.

    1964-01-01

    A report is given on results obtained in the examination of desiccated coconut from Ceylon and the Philippines using two or three media in parallel, the aim being to investigate the efficacy of the enrichment medium introduced by Rappaport, Konforti, and Navon (1956). Although the claims of Rappaport et al. related only to examination of faeces the Rappaport enrichment medium has been found to give higher recovery rates of salmonella from desiccated coconut than the selenite and tetrathionate media. The differences are so striking as to justify an expansion of this work. PMID:14100009

  13. Changes in the lipid fraction of king mackerel pan fried in coconut oil and cooked in coconut milk.

    PubMed

    Lira, Giselda Macena; Cabral, Caterine Cristine Vasconcelos Quintiliano; de Oliveira, Ítalo Bruno Araújo; Figueirêdo, Bruno Chacon; Simon, Sarah Janaína Gurgel Bechtinger; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-11-01

    The influence of cooking on the nutritional value of king mackerel when cooked in coconut milk or pan fried in coconut oil was verified from the alterations in the fatty acid content; formation of cholesterol oxides and the nutritional quality indices of the lipids. Cooking in coconut milk caused an 11.6% reduction in the protein content and 28.3% reduction in the ash content. The lipid content increased after cooking (253%) and frying (198%) causing an increase in the caloric value. The total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids of the cooked king mackerel increased 462% and 248%, respectively, whereas these increases were 418% and 130%, respectively, for the fried king mackerel. There were reductions of 21% and 38% in the total EPA+DHA of the pan fried and cooked samples, respectively, as compared to the fresh king mackerel. The heat treatment did not cause alterations in cholesterol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ? Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida—potentially Opiloacarus—in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites.

  15. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations on MiteStop-treated poultry red mites.

    PubMed

    Locher, Nina; Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies of the neem seed product MiteStop showed that it has a good acaricidal effect against all developmental stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In vitro tests proved an efficacy at direct contact, as well as by fumigant toxicity. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations showed no clear, morphologically visible signs of an effect caused by fumigant toxicity. Direct contact with the neem product, however, seemed to be of great impact. Chicken mites turned dark brown or even black after being treated with the neem product. SEM analysis showed damages along the body surface of the mites.

  16. New and little known feather mites (Acari)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) were analyzed with low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), including the description of three new species: Plicatalloptes atrichogynus sp. nov. (Analgoidea: Alloptidae) from the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (Pelecanifo...

  17. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  18. Mite predators of the southern pine beetle

    Treesearch

    John c. Moser

    1975-01-01

    Of 51 mites found with brood of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis zimmermann, and tested in the laboratory, four are primary candidates for use as natural control agents in reducing field infestations: Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring, Proctolaelaps dendroctoni Lindquist & Hunter, ...

  19. Physiological responses of dwarf coconut seedlings irrigated with saline water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of salt-tolerant plants is an important alternative to cope with the problem of salinity in semi-arid regions. The dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) has emerged as a salt-tolerant crop once established. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that may contribute to t...

  20. In Search of an Audience: "Kid Creole and the Coconuts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    The hybrid music of the group "Kid Creole and the Coconuts" shows traces of every popular music style that has aroused New York City during the past 40 years--big band swing, Latin dance music, calypso, reggae, disco, funk, soul, rock, and movie pop. The fictitious characters the members of the band assume on stage, together with their…

  1. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  2. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  3. Coconut matting bezoar identified by a combined analytical approach.

    PubMed Central

    Levison, D A; Crocker, P R; Boxall, T A; Randall, K J

    1986-01-01

    A rare type of bezoar composed of coconut matting was found in the stomach of a caucasian man. The exact identity of the fibres was established by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, and microscopic infrared spectroscopy. This report illustrates the importance of these techniques for identifying the nature of foreign material. Images PMID:3950038

  4. In Search of an Audience: "Kid Creole and the Coconuts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    The hybrid music of the group "Kid Creole and the Coconuts" shows traces of every popular music style that has aroused New York City during the past 40 years--big band swing, Latin dance music, calypso, reggae, disco, funk, soul, rock, and movie pop. The fictitious characters the members of the band assume on stage, together with their…

  5. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  6. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  7. Coconut shells as filling material for anaerobic filters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luana Mattos de Oliveira; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Coraucci Filho, Bruno; Tonetti, Adriano Luiz

    2013-01-01

    In rural areas of developing countries, there is a lack of sanitation services and the installation of such infrastructure is hampered by the high investment costs for initial implementation and by the limited availability of qualified personnel. An alternative to traditional sanitation services include an anaerobic filter, but the high cost of appropriate filling material can be an obstacle to its wide-spread implementation. To decrease this construction cost, the objective of this work was to study the use of coconut shells as filling material for anaerobic filters. Anaerobic filters were built and filled with the studied material and operated with up flow and hydraulic retention time of 9 hours. The reactors provided a removal of 79 ± 16% in BOD terms, indicating that the coconut shell filling had efficiency consistent with the literature data. In addition, the husks were found to retain their tensile strength following use in the reactors. Coconut husks have more empty bed volume than other low cost materials, such as crushed stone, nearing properties of traditional materials. The results of this study indicate that coconut husks may prove to be a low cost alternative to traditional fillers for anaerobic treatment in rural communities.

  8. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  9. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  10. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  11. Hyperparasitism of mosquitoes by water mite larvae.

    PubMed

    Werblow, Antje; Martin, Peter; Dörge, Dorian D; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Hyperparasitism of ectoparasitic water mite larvae on mosquitoes is still a neglected relationship and was investigated only in a few studies. We analysed 2313 female mosquitoes from six different sampling localities with regard to their degree of parasitism with water mite larvae. In total, we found 38 mosquito individuals parasitized by 93 water mite larvae, ranging from 1 to 12 larvae per mosquito. Water mite larvae detected are members of the two species Parathyas cf. barbigera (n = 92) and Arrenurus cf. globator (n = 1). Out of the analysed mosquitoes, individuals out of the species Aedes vexans, Anopheles claviger, Ochlerotatus communis, the Ochlerotatus cantans/annulipes group, Ochlerotatus cataphylla and Ochlerotatus sticticus were tested to be parasitized by water mite larvae. The highest prevalence was found within the species Oc. cataphylla (28.6 %) and Oc. cantans/annulipes (21.7 %). No water mite larvae were found, e.g. on individuals of Aedes cinereus, Coquillettidia richiardii, the Culex pipiens/torrentium group, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus dorsalis or Ochlerotatus punctor. All of the attachment sites were located between the neck and abdomen with the ventral thorax site being the most frequent one.

  12. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  13. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  15. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  16. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed. PMID:26732998

  17. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-06

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed.

  18. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  19. They say coconut oil can aid weight loss, but can it really?

    PubMed

    Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    There has in recent years, been much media speculation and consumer interest in the beneficial satiating properties of consuming coconut oil and its potential to aid weight loss. However, the media has primarily cited studies using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. The current perspective looks at the research that is available on coconut oil. It examines if and how MCT-related research can be applied to coconut oil and if there is potential for coconut oil to aid weight loss. The current report indicates a lack of consistent evidence on the topic of coconut oil, satiety and weight loss. Given both the publicity and the increased consumption of coconut oil further research, particularly long-term clinical trials, in this area are warranted.

  20. Mite-Proof Bedding May Help Curb Asthma Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Curb Asthma Attacks: Study Kids whose mattresses and pillows were encased had less severe flare-ups, researchers ... asthma and dust mite allergy. Their mattresses and pillows were encased with mite-proof or placebo covers. ...

  1. FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163882.html FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies Odactra is a year-round treatment for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new treatment for dust mite allergies has won approval from the U.S. Food ...

  2. Effect of torrefaction process on the coconut shell energy content for solid fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irawan, Anton; Latifah Upe, S.; Meity Dwi I., P.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia was one of largest coconut producers in the world with an average coconut production of 3 million tons per year and an estimated coconut shell waste were produced 360 thousand tons per year. Certainly, Coconut shell produced in large numbers require initial processing to be saved in the long term with stabilized quality. Quality of coconut shell can be maintained by changing the characteristics of the properties of coconut shell from easily absorbed water (hydrophilic) to difficult absorbed water (hydrophobia) as well as reduce the smoke of burning through torrefaction. Torrefaction technology carried out the biomass at a temperature of 200-300°C. The goal of this research was to observe the effect of operating conditions of torrefaction and the size of a coconut shell to the quality of coconut shell as a solid fuel which had high quality and low environmental impact. The variables in this study was the size of coconut shell (1.5 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm), temperature (250°C, 300°C and 350°C) and torrefaction holding time (15, 30, and 45 minutes). Fresh coconut shell will be analyzed using proximate, ultimate analysis, and calorific value to know the initial condition. Torrefaction product will also be analyzed by proximate analysis and heating value. The highest calorific value was obtained on the size of coconut shell medium (3 cm) with operating conditions at a temperature of 350°C and torrefaction holding time 30 minutes at 7635 kcal /kg with the increasing percentage in calorific value 40.76%, fixed carbon 82.73%, and the volatile matter content 10.88%. But that condition of the torrefaction product has produced the low mass yield around 31%. The optimum conditions were at temperature 250°C, torrefaction holding time 30 minutes, and coconut shell size 1.5 cm.

  3. Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light).

  4. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  5. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nafar, Firoozeh; Mearow, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

  6. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  7. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  8. Strength Analysis of Coconut Fiber Stabilized Earth for Farm Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enokela, O. S.; P. O, Alada

    2012-07-01

    Investigation of the strength characteristic of soil from alluvial deposit of River Benue in makurdi stabilized with coconut fiber as a stabilizer was carried as local building material for farm structure. Processed coconut fibers were mixed with the soil at four different mix ratios of 1% fiber, 2% fiber, 3% fiber and 4% fiber by percentage weight with 0% fiber as control. Compaction test and compressive strength were carried out on the various stabilizing ratio. From the compaction test, the correlation between the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content is a second order polynomial with a coefficient of 63% obtained at1.91kg/m3and 20.0% respectively while the compressive strength test shows an optimum failure load of 8.62N/mm2 at 2%fibre:100% soil mix ratio at 2.16 maximum dry density.

  9. Integration of textile fabric and coconut shell in particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, M. I.; Bahari, S. A.; Islam, M. M.; Epaarachchi, J. A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, cotton fabric and coconut shell were integrated in particleboard to reduce the use of wood. Particleboards containing mixed rubberwood and coconut shell with an equal weight ratio have been integrated with various layers of cotton fabric. These materials were bonded by urea formaldehyde with a content level of 12% by weight. Flexural and water absorption tests were conducted to analyze its mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Results of flexural test showed an increment at least double strength values in fabricated materials as compared to control sample. The existence of fabric in the particleboard system also improved the dimensional stability of the produced material. Enhancement of at least 39% of water absorption could help the dimensional stability of the produced material. Overall, these new particleboards showed better results with the incorporation of cotton fabric layers and this study provided better understanding on mechanical and physical properties of the fabricated particleboard.

  10. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  11. Key Mites Commonly Associated With the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    D.N. Kinn

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of preparing mites for microscopic examination and contains a simple key to the 15 species of mites commonly associated with the southern pine bark beetle. Research workers wanting to identify these mites and others curious about them, but untrained in acarology, should find little difficulty in making identifications.

  12. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  13. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-12-01

    Cryopreservation of coconut can be used as a strategy to back up the establishment of living collections which are expensive to maintain and are under constant threat from biotic and abiotic factors. Unfortunately, cryopreservation protocols still need to be developed that are capable of producing a sizeable number of field-grown plants. Therefore, we report on the development of an improved cryopreservation protocol which can be used on a wide range of coconut cultivars. The cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and their recovery to soil-growing plants was achieved through the application of four optimised steps viz.: (i) rapid dehydration; (ii) rapid cooling; (iii) rapid warming and recovery in vitro and (iv) acclimatization and soil-supported growth. The thermal properties of water within the embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to ensure that the freezable component was kept to a minimum. The feasibility of the protocol was assessed using the Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) cultivar in Australia and then tested on a range of cultivars which were freshly harvested and studied in Indonesia. The most efficient protocol was one based on an 8-h rapid dehydration step followed by rapid cooling step. Best recovery percentages were obtained when a rapid warming step and an optimised in vitro culture step were used. Following this protocol, 20% (when cryopreserved 12 days after harvesting) and 40% (when cryopreserved at the time of harvest) of all MYD embryos cryopreserved could be returned to normal seedlings growing in soil. DSC showed that this protocol induced a drop in embryo fresh weight to 19% and significantly reduced the amount of water remaining that could produce ice crystals (0.1%). Of the 20 cultivars tested, 16 were found to produce between 10% and 40% normal seedlings while four cultivars generated between 0% and 10% normal seedlings after cryopreservation. This new protocol is applicable to a wide range of coconut

  14. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Arivalagan; Bhardwaj, Rakesh; Padmanabhan, Sugatha; Suneja, Poonam; Hebbar, K B; Kanade, Santosh R

    2018-01-01

    Study was conducted to determine the biochemical constituents in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium, a spongy tissue formed during coconut germination. Results indicated that 100g of dried coconut haustorium contained 1.05±0.2% ash, 44.2±4.6% soluble sugar, 24.5±3.2% starch, 5.50±0.3% protein, 1.99±0.9% fat, 5.72±0.4% soluble dietary fibre, 20.3±1.9% insoluble dietary fibre, and 146±14.3mg phenolics. Mineral profiling showed that it contained 145±8.6, 104±9.6, 33.9±8.2, 30.9±1.9, 9.45±2.1, 0.292±0.1, 2.53±0.2 and 1.20±0.1mg of K, Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, respectively. Antioxidant activity assay indicated that 100g haustorium was equivalent to 1918±173, 170±20.4, 72.8±14.7 and 860±116mg of Trolox as measured by CUPRAC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Amino acid score indicated that methionine+cysteine (57.6%), phenylalanine+tyrosine (32.6%), leucine (45.7%) and isoleucine (68%) are found less in haustorium. Further studies needed in developing nutritionally balanced formulations using coconut haustorium, which will be useful for lactose intolerant children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of metallic effluents using coconut shell coke.

    PubMed

    Feroz, S; King, P; Prasad, V S R K

    2005-04-01

    The effect of various parameters on the removal of metal ions (Zinc and Cadmium) by adsorption using coconut shell coke is investigated. The time of contact, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage, volume of the adsorbate solution, size of the adsorbent particle and the effect of the presence of another metal at various concentrations are the parameters studied. The adsorption isotherms so obtained in this study followed the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms showing a marginal average deviation.

  16. The Application of Coconut Fiber as Dissipative Silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madlan, M. A.; Ghazali, M. I.; Zaman, I.; Kasron, M. Z.; Ying, T. C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat ventilation air conditioning system (HVAC) is one of the ducting systems that broadly applied in the building. There are HVAC silencers in the market, however the sound absorptive material commonly used is mineral wool. In this research study, a sound absorptive material made of coconut fiber was tested to identify its performance as a potential replacement of green material for ducting silencer. The experiment was carried out in a testing apparatus that follows the BS EN ISO 11691:2009 standard. Different configurations of sound absorptive material and contents of coconut fiber were investigated in the study. The trend of insertion loss at 1/3 octave frequency was identified where at frequency below 3000Hz, the insertion loss of dissipative silencer is observed high at certain frequency with a very narrow range. At 3000Hz, the insertion loss of 4dB to 6dB is constant until 4000Hz and drops until 5000Hz before it increases again steadily up to 13dB at 10000Hz. A similar trend was observed for different configuration of sound absorptive material. Despite the configuration different, the outcome shows that the insertion loss is increasing with higher content of coconut fiber.

  17. Batch adsorption of phenol onto physiochemical-activated coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Mohd Din, Azam T; Hameed, B H; Ahmad, Abdul L

    2009-01-30

    The liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto coconut shell-based activated carbon, CS850A was investigated for its equilibrium studies and kinetic modeling. Coconut shell was converted into high quality activated carbon through physiochemical activation at 850 degrees C under the influence of CO(2) flow. Beforehand, the coconut shell was carbonized at 700 degrees C and the resulted char was impregnated with KOH at 1:1 weight ratio. In order to evaluate the performance of CS850A, a series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted with initial phenol concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mg l(-1), adsorbent loading of 0.2g and the adsorption process was maintained at 30+/-1 degrees C. The adsorption isotherms were in conformation to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Chemical reaction was found to be a rate-controlling parameter to this phenol-CS850A batch adsorption system due to strong agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorption capacity for CS850A was found to be 205.8 mg g(-1).

  18. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  19. Smoke emissions in an ecologically sound dryer for coconut

    SciTech Connect

    Lozada, E.P.; Timmins, W.H.; Metcalfe, E.

    1997-12-31

    There are about a million smoke kilns in the world that are being used to dry coconuts produced from over 7,000,000 hectares. Smoke emissions from these kilns are known to contain large quantities of greenhouse and acid rain gases. To minimize the generation of these gases, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. A possible alternative is a direct-fired, free convection dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Multicrop Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the multicrop dryer consists of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner burns coconut shell, corn cob and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency, thus, minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra (dried coconut kernel) is practically smoke-free with low levels of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s). Tests have also shown that the gas emissions from the dryer, when compared to that of the traditional smoke kiln, have lower concentrations of CO{sub 2} (1% vs 6%), of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm) and SO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm).

  20. Transesterification of coconut oil for FAME production using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriadi, Eko; Marlinda, Lenny; Prajitno, Danawati Hari; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    To overcome energy crisis, the vegetable oils-derived biofuel can be chosen as an alternative to petroleum-based diesel. The transesterification of coconut oil in methanol with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst using ultrasound-assisted to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as one of type biofuel was studied. The reaction occurred in batch reactor at a 9 : 1 molar ratio of methanol to coconut oil. The following reaction conditions were used in the catalytic test : concentration of catalyst to oil of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, the reaction time of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 s, and the frequency ultrasonication of 20 and 40 KHz. At first, the preparation of K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was done and followed by transesterification process. After reaction, the phase separation and purification from impurities were done. Finally, FAME was analized based on this parameters, i.e., yield, density, viscosity, and flash point. FAME yield of 93.76% was obtained at the frequency ultrasonication of 40 kHz with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst concentration to oil of 2.5 wt.% for 150 s. It's the best conditions for FAME production by transesterification of coconut oil using ultrasound-assisted.

  1. Anaerobic treatment of coconut husk liquor for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Leitão, R C; Araújo, A M; Freitas-Neto, M A; Rosa, M F; Santaella, S T

    2009-01-01

    The market for coconut water causes environmental problems as it is one of the major agro-industrial solid wastes in some developing countries. With the aim of reusing the coconut husk, Embrapa developed a system for processing this raw material. During the dewatering stage Coconut Husk Liquor (CHL) is generated with chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 60 to 70 g/L due to high concentrations of sugars and tannins. The present study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of CHL through Anaerobic Toxicity Assay and the operation of a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that CHL can be treated through a UASB reactor operating with an OLR that reaches up to 10 kg/m3.d and that is maintained stable during the whole operation. With this operational condition, the removal efficiency was higher than 80% for COD and approximately 78% for total tannins, and biogas production was 20 m3 of biogas or 130 KWh per m3 of CHL. Seventy-five percent of the biogas composition was methane and toxicity tests demonstrated that CHL was not toxic to the methanogenic consortia. Conversely, increasing the concentration of CHL leads to increased methanogenic activity.

  2. [Mites allergy in children from Tula region].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, Zh M; Pron'kina, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Berzhets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of allergy to mites in children living in Tula region have been revealed. It was shown that mites from Pyroglyphidae (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae), Cheyletidae and Glycyphagidae (G. destructor, G. domesticus) families play important role in development of atopic allergy in children from this region. Efficacy of plant-origin acaricide "Milbiol" as part of prophylactic measures was evaluated. Its use in children with mild and intermediate asthma led to decrease of number of wheezing episodes, improvement of respiratory function, lessening of clinical signs of allergic rhinitis, decrease or discontinuation of usage of vasoconstrictive preparations.

  3. Identification of a 7S globulin as a novel coconut allergen.

    PubMed

    Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, M Dolores Alonso Díaz; Tolón, Rosa M; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2007-06-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a monocotyledonous plant of the Arecaceae family. Allergy to coconut is infrequent, with only 5 cases reported so far in the medical literature. To identify coconut allergens in 2 patients allergic to this food. We describe 2 patients allergic to coconut: an adult pollen-allergic patient monosensitized to coconut who presented with severe oropharyngeal symptoms and a child with a previous allergy to walnut, not allergic to pollen, who developed anaphylaxis on coconut ingestion. Both patients had positive skin prick test results and serum specific IgE (CAP) to coconut. IgE sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting was performed to identify the allergens involved, and a strong IgE binding band detected in both patients was further analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS). Stability to pepsin digestion of the coconut extract and its cross-reactivity with tree nuts were studied. An immunoblot showed an almost identical profile of IgE binding proteins in the coconut extract in both patients who reacted strongly to a band of approximately 29 kDa. The peptide analysis by MALDI-TOF MS of this band obtained the sequence GHGKREDPEKR. The protein with the highest correlation with this peptide was found to be a 7S globulin from Elaeis guineensis, another oil palm species also belonging to the Arecaceae family. The 29-kDa band was digested by pepsin in less than 1 minute. Cross-reactivity among coconut, walnut, and hazelnut was demonstrated by CAP inhibition in patient 2. We have identified a 7S storage protein as a novel coconut allergen.

  4. Evaluation of storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food.

    PubMed

    Brazis, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Sellés, Alex; Dethioux, Fabienne; Biourge, Vincent; Puigdemont, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Storage mites may be considered important allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis. High sensitization rates to Tyrophagus, Acarus, and Lepidoglyphus species have been reported in atopic dogs, and dry pet food has been suggested as a potential source of storage mite exposure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate commercial dry dog food for contamination with storage mites, and how storage time and conditions could influence the risk of contamination. Ten different premium commercial dry dog foods formulated for skin disorders were selected. Food bags were opened and stored for 6 weeks under two different environmental conditions. At different time points, samples from each bag were collected and analysed by microscopy, guanine test, storage mite-specific traps, and a modified flotation technique. On opening, two storage mites identified as Acarus siro were isolated from one of the 10 bags by flotation technique, indicating that storage mites can be present in packaged dry dog food bags. After 5 weeks of storage under environmental conditions optimal for mite growth (23.2 +/- 2.1 degrees C and 71 +/- 5.6% of relative humidity), mites were detected by microscopic observation in nine of the 10 diets. When mites were identified by the flotation technique, Tyrophagus spp. were found to be the most common contaminating species. These results show that dry dog food can be a suitable substrate for storage mite reproduction, and that environmental and storage conditions may influence food contamination and mite development.

  5. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  6. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force, Cluster...

  7. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  9. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  10. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil,...

  11. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  12. Dust mite-proof pillow cover (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of washing bedding once a week in hot water, and dusting with a wet cloth once a week. Carpets can be a significant source of dust mites and should be vacuumed weekly with a vacuum cleaner containing a HEPA filter. Wooden and leather ...

  13. Tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) - serious ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2009-08-01

    In Germany there is limited information available about the distribution of the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in rodents. A few case reports show that this hematophagous mite species may also cause dermatitis in man. Having close body contact to small rodents is an important question for patients with pruritic dermatoses. The definitive diagnosis of this ectoparasitosis requires the detection of the parasite, which is more likely to be found in the environment of its host (in the cages, in the litter or in corners or cracks of the living area) than on the hosts' skin itself. A case of infestation with tropical rat mites in a family is reported here. Three mice that had been removed from the home two months before were the reservoir. The mites were detected in a room where the cage with the mice had been placed months ago. Treatment requires the eradication of the parasites on its hosts (by a veterinarian) and in the environment (by an exterminator) with adequate acaricides such as permethrin.

  14. Effect of pH and ionic strength on the physicochemical properties of coconut milk emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tangsuphoom, N; Coupland, J N

    2008-08-01

    Coconut milk (16% to 17% fat, 1.8% to 2% protein) was extracted from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) endosperm and diluted in buffer to produce natural oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil). The effect of pH (3 to 7) and NaCl (0 to 200 mM) on the properties and stability, namely, mean particle size, zeta-potential, viscosity, microstructure, and creaming stability, of the natural coconut milk emulsions was investigated. At pH values close to the isoelectric point (IEP) of the coconut proteins (pH 3.5 to 4) and in the absence of NaCl, coconut milk flocculated, but did not coalesce. Flocculation corresponded to low surface charges and was accompanied by an increase in emulsion viscosity. Adding up to 200 mM NaCl to those flocculated emulsions did not change the apparent degree of flocculation. Coconut milk emulsion at pH 6 was negatively charged and not flocculated. Upon addition of salt, the zeta-potential decreased from -16 to -6 mV (at 200 mM NaCl) but this was not sufficient to induce flocculation in coconut milk emulsions. At low pH (< IEP), the positively charged droplets of coconut milk emulsions only flocculated when the NaCI concentration exceeded 50 mM, as the zeta-potential approached zero.

  15. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  16. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  17. Crystal structure of cocosin, a potential food allergen from coconut (Cocos nucifera) (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RATIONALE: Coconut allergy cases have been reported, but only one coconut allergen has been identified. The 11S seed storage proteins belong to one of a few protein families that contain known food allergens in many food of plant sources. Cocosin, the 11S protein from cocosin remains to be character...

  18. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  19. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the old world tropics.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Bee F; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  20. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. Key Results The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478–1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. Conclusions This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research. PMID:24227445

  1. Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Old World Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Bee F.; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and “niu vai” fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent. PMID:21731660

  2. Frictional and heat resistance characteristics of coconut husk particle filled automotive brake pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Chik, Mohd Syahrizul; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Som Said, Che Mohamad; Misnon, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the friction and heat resistance characteristics of automotive brake pad composed with different sizes and percentages of coconut husk particle. The materials used were phenolic resin (phenol formaldehyde) as binder, copper, graphite and brass as friction producer/modifiers, magnesium oxide as abrasive material, steel and barium sulfate as reinforcement while coconut husk particle as filler. To obtain particle, the coconut husk was ground and dried to 3% moisture content. Then the coconut husk particle was screened using 80 mesh (to obtain coarse dust) and 100 mesh (to obtain fine dust). Different percentages of particle, such as 10 and 30% were used in the mixture of brake pad materials. Then the mixture was hot-pressed to produce brake pad. Chase machine was used to determine the friction coefficient in friction resistance testing, while thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) machine was used to determine the heat decomposition values in heat resistance testing. Results showed that brake pad with 100 mesh and 10% composition of coconut husk particle showed the highest friction coefficient. For heat resistance, brake pad with 100 mesh and 30% composition of coconut husk dust showed the highest decomposition temperature, due to the high percentage of coconut husk particle in the composition, thus increased the thermal stability. As a comparison, brake pad composed with coconut husk particle showed better heat resistance results than commercial brake pad.

  3. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  4. An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut.

    PubMed

    Athauda, L K; Wickremasinghe, A R; Kumarendran, B; Kasturiratne, A

    2015-09-01

    An ecological correlation study was conducted to determine the association between consumption of coconut products and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in Sri Lanka. Data on coconut consumption patterns from 1961 to 2006 were abstracted from the FAO database, and mortality data from reports of the Department of Census and Statistics, and UN databases. Correlational and regression analyses were carried out. There was no increase in the per capita consumption of coconut products from 1961 to 2006 (range 54.1-76.2kg/ capita/year). The CVD death rates and the proportionate mortality rate due to CVD increased from 1961 to 2006. CVD death rates were significantly associated with per capita GDP, percentage of urban population, and elderly dependency ratio but not consumption of coconut products after adjusting for the other variables (R2=0.94). The results do not provide evidence at the population level that consumption of coconut products increases mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Chemical and functional properties of fibre concentrates obtained from by-products of coconut kernel.

    PubMed

    Yalegama, L L W C; Nedra Karunaratne, D; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Jayasekara, Chitrangani

    2013-11-01

    The coconut kernel residues obtained after extraction of coconut milk (MR) and virgin coconut oil (VOR) were analysed for their potential as dietary fibres. VOR was defatted and treated chemically using three solvent systems to isolate coconut cell wall polysaccharides (CCWP). Nutritional composition of VOR, MR and CCWPs indicated that crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicelluloses contents were higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. MR contained a notably higher content of fat than VOR and CCWPs. The oil holding capacity, water holding capacity and swelling capacity were also higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. All the isolates and MR and VOR had high metal binding capacities. The CCWPs when compared with commercially available fibre isolates, indicated improved dietary fibre properties. These results show that chemical treatment of coconut kernel by-products can enhance the performance of dietary fibre to yield a better product.

  6. Biomechanics of Climbing Coconut Trees and its Implications in Ankle Foot Morphology- A Video Sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    George, Bincy M.; Kumar, Arunachalam; Rao, Muddanna S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies regarding foot changes and health of professional coconut tree climbers of south India are reported. Medical emergencies are very common, especially due to accidental fall from coconut trees, while on job. Objective of the present study is to analyze the altered biomechanics of lower limb joints used by the coconut tree climbers. Method: Videographs of tree climbing each from a total of 30 male volunteers, all between 30-55 years, engaged in coconut tree climbing profession were collected. Results: The data revealed the coconut tree climbers are using abnormal rages of foot and lower limb joint motions. Conclusion: This study establishes an occupationally induced form of altered biomechanics, which leads to professional health hazards. PMID:23814711

  7. [Evaluation of Hyalospila ptychis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) damage in coconut palm].

    PubMed

    Moura, José I L; Sgrillo, Kátia R P A; Cazorla, Irene M; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the losses provoked by the moth Hyalospila ptychis (Dyar) on green-dwarf coconut trees at Una, State of Bahia, Brazil. Inflorescences of 100 trees were inspected monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, in a 15 ha orchard. The number of coconuts per inflorescence, fruits damaged by H. ptychis, and fruit losses due to other causes, were recorded. The number of nuts per inflorescence followed a seasonal variation. The average losses caused by the pest were around 2% of the coconuts and the proportion of losses due to other causes was 59,4%. The number of coconuts lost for other causes and attacked by H. ptychis followed the seasonal variation of the number of fruits per inflorescence. The percent of coconuts attacked by H. ptychis was significantly and positively correlated with monthly average temperature.

  8. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p < 0.05). SHR + coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p < 0.05). SHR + saline group showed higher superoxide levels when compared with WKY + saline (774 ± 31 vs. 634 ± 19 arbitrary units (AU), respectively; p < 0.05). SHR + trained + coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p < 0.05). In aorta, coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p < 0.05). Oral supplementation with coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  9. P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

  10. Coconut as a Medium for the Experimental Production of Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Arseculeratne, S. N.; De Silva, L. M.; Wijesundera, S.; Bandunatha, C. H. S. R.

    1969-01-01

    Fresh, grated coconut has been found to be an excellent medium for aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. Under optimal conditions, yields of 8 mg of total aflatoxin per g of substrate were obtained. Continuous agitation of the growth medium under moist conditions at 24 C produced highest yields. Aflatoxin was assayed both biologically and chromatographically. The aflatoxin content of cultures varied biphasically with the duration of incubation. It is suggested that this pattern could result from the sequential operation of factors promoting aflatoxin formation on the one hand and a detoxifying mechanism on the other. Images PMID:5803632

  11. Possible conduction mechanisms in coconut-shell activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, W. M.; Badri, M.; Mansor, H.

    1990-02-01

    This work reports on the result of electrical conductivity measurements carried out on coconut-shell activated carbon. The results suggest that the charge carriers moved by variable-range hopping below 200 K, by hopping among localized energy states between 200 K and 385 K, and by percolation through energy states close to the mobility edge above 385 K. In the latter two conduction processes, significant additional frequency-dependent contributions to the conductivity were observed and are tentatively attributed to polarization of unremovable lignin and/or ionic impurities. These explanations are based on the present trends of the electrical transport theory for amorphous semiconductors.

  12. Virgin coconut oil and its potential cardioprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    Emphasis on diet to improve the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile has been the focus of many studies. Recently, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been growing in popularity due to its potential CV benefits. The chemical properties and the manufacturing process of VCO make this oil healthier than its copra-derived counterpart. This review highlights the mechanism through which saturated fatty acids contribute to CV disease (CVD), how oils and fats contribute to the risk of CVD, and the existing views on VCO and how its cardioprotective effects may make this a possible dietary intervention in isolation or in combination with exercise to help reduce the burden of CVDs.

  13. Extraction of light filth from coconut: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J

    1978-07-01

    The official method for filth in coconut, 44.029, frequently produces filter papers with excessive plant debris and low hair recoveries. To overcome these deficiencies, 3 changes in the method were made: (1) the defatting step was modified to use sodium lauryl sulfate in combination with borax for better defatting; (2) 40% isopropanol was substituted for 60% ethanol as the aqueous phase for cleaner papers; and (3) mineral oil was substituted for n-heptane to improve hair recoveries. These changes resulted in higher, more reproducible recoveries of rodent hairs and insect fragments and cleaner filter papers. The method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.029.

  14. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  15. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  16. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses.

  17. Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; Burgess, Stewart T G; Reynolds, Simone L; Mahmood, Wajahat; Fischer, Katja

    2013-02-01

    Among arthropod pests, mites are responsible for considerable damage to crops, humans and other animals. However, detailed physiological data on these organisms remain sparse, mainly because of their small size but possibly also because of their extreme diversity. Focusing on intestinal proteases, we draw together information from three distinct mite species that all feed on skin but have separately adapted to a free-living, a strictly ecto-parasitic and a parasitic lifestyle. A wide range of studies involving immunohistology, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry of mite gut proteases suggests that these creatures have diverged considerably as house dust mites, sheep scab mites and scabies mites. Each species has evolved a particular variation of a presumably ancestral repertoire of digestive enzymes that have become specifically adapted to their individual environmental requirements.

  18. Parasitic mites of honey bees: life history, implications, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sammataro, D; Gerson, U; Needham, G

    2000-01-01

    The hive of the honey bee is a suitable habitat for diverse mites (Acari), including nonparasitic, omnivorous, and pollen-feeding species, and parasites. The biology and damage of the three main pest species Acarapis woodi, Varroa jacobsoni, and Tropilaelaps clareae is reviewed, along with detection and control methods. The hypothesis that Acarapis woodi is a recently evolved species is rejected. Mite-associated bee pathologies (mostly viral) also cause increasing losses to apiaries. Future studies on bee mites are beset by three main problems: (a) The recent discovery of several new honey bee species and new bee-parasitizing mite species (along with the probability that several species are masquerading under the name Varroa jacobsoni) may bring about new bee-mite associations and increase damage to beekeeping; (b) methods for studying bee pathologies caused by viruses are still largely lacking; (c) few bee- and consumer-friendly methods for controlling bee mites in large apiaries are available.

  19. The Jean Gutierrez spider mite collection

    PubMed Central

    Migeon, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The family Tetranychidae (spider mites) currently comprises 1,275 species and represents one of the most important agricultural pest families among the Acari with approximately one hundred pest species, ten of which considered major pests. The dataset presented in this document includes all the identified spider mites composing the Jean Gutierrez Collection hosted at the CBGP (Montferrier-sur-Lez, France), gathered from 1963 to 1999 during his career at the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD). It consists of 5,262 specimens corresponding to 1,564 occurrences (combination species/host plant/date/location) of 175 species. Most specimens were collected in Madagascar and other islands of the Western Indian Ocean, New Caledonia and other islands of the South Pacific and Papuasia. The dataset constitutes today the most important one available on Tetranychidae worldwide. PMID:25878529

  20. Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J; Pekár, S; Nesvorná, M; Sustr, V

    2010-12-01

    The thermal preferences in a grain mass and respiration at various temperatures in mites (Acari: Acarididae) of medical and economical importance [Acarus siro (L. 1758), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes 1961, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank 1871), and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)] were studied under laboratory conditions. Based on the distribution of mites in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grain along a thermal gradient from 10 to 40 degrees C, L. destructor, D. farinae, and A. siro were classified as eurythermic and T. putrescentiae as stenothermic. The lowest preferred temperature was found for D. farinae (28 degrees C), followed by A. siro (28.5 degrees C), L. destructor (29.5 degrees C), and T. putrescentiae (31.5 degrees C). The relationship between the respiration rate and the temperature was similar for all four mite species. The highest respiration was found in the range from 31 to 33 degrees C. This is approximately 2 degrees C higher than the preferred temperature of these species. The lower temperature threshold of respiration ranged from 1 to 5 degrees C and the upper threshold ranged from 45 to 48 degrees C. Acclimatization of A. siro to temperature regimes of 5, 15, and 35 degrees C resulted in thermal preferences between 9 and 12 degrees C, 9 and 20 degrees C, and 28 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The respiration rate of acclimatized specimens increased with the temperature, reaching a maximum at 29.0 degrees C for mites acclimatized at 5 and 15 degrees C and a maximum at 33.7 degrees C for those acclimatized at 30 degrees C.

  1. Annotated checklist of Georgian oribatid mites.

    PubMed

    Murvanidze, Maka; Mumladze, Levan

    2016-03-14

    A new updated checklist of Georgian oribatid mites is based on the critical review of existing literature data and new findings. The list includes 534 oribatid species of which 21 species are new for the country recorded from more than 390 locations. For each species information of the global and regional distribution is presented with notes on ecological characteristics. As far as necessary we provide remarks on taxonomic issues to overcome the ambiguities and inconsistencies existing in literature.

  2. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CESP) from mature coconut endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Leelamma M; Usha, Rajamma; Roy, Samir; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2009-01-01

    Background In plants, proteases execute an important role in the overall process of protein turnover during seed development, germination and senescence. The limited knowledge on the proteolytic machinery that operates during seed development in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) prompted us to search for proteases in the coconut endosperm. Findings We have identified and purified a coconut endosperm protease (CESP) to apparent homogeneity. CESP is a single polypeptide enzyme of approximate molecular mass of 68 kDa and possesses pH optimum of 8.5 for the hydrolysis of BAPNA. Studies relating to substrate specificity and pattern of inhibition by various protease inhibitors indicated that CESP is a serine protease with cleavage specificity to peptide bonds after arginine. Purified CESP was often autolysed to two polypeptides of 41.6 kDa (CESP1) and 26.7 kDa (CESP2) and is confirmed by immunochemistry. We have shown the expression of CESP in all varieties of coconut and in all stages of coconut endosperm development with maximum amount in fully matured coconut. Conclusion Since the involvement of proteases in the processing of pre-proteins and maintenance of intracellular protein levels in seeds are well known, we suspect this CESP might play an important role in the coconut endosperm development. However this need to be confirmed using further studies. PMID:19426537

  3. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    PubMed

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P < .001), between groups 4 and 2 (P = .03), and between groups 5 and 2 (P = .01). The spleen scintigraphy results did not differ among the groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in the mature coconut water group (P < .007). Solutions containing coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation.

    PubMed

    César, Jorge Miguel Schettino; Petroianu, Andy; Vasconcelos, Leonardo de Souza; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Soares, Cristina Duarte Vianna; de Oliveira, Amanda Lima

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvested the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exam. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p <0.001), 4 and 2 (p = 0.03) and 5 and 2 (p = 0.01). The splenic scintigraphy was not different between groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in mature coconut water (p <0.007). the coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  5. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans. counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans. count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans.

  6. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    PubMed

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  7. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences.

  8. A comprehensive kinetics study of coconut shell waste pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imtiaz; Bahaitham, Haitham; Naebulharam, Raed

    2017-03-18

    Model-free and model-fitting methods were compared for pyrolytic conversion of the coconut shell waste. The apparent activation energy, estimated from differential and integral iso-conversional methods, increased with the progression of pyrolytic conversion. The reaction model, f(α)=(1-α)(4)·[-ln(1-α)](0.53), indicate that order-based nucleation and growth mechanisms control the solid-state pyrolysis of the coconut shell waste. The active pyrolysis zone was consisted of overlapping multi-component degradation peaks. Average activation energy of the pseudo-components estimated from the Kissinger's method were 21.9kJ.mol(-1), 106.4kJ.mol(-1) and 108.6kJ.mol(-1) for the dehydration, the degradation of pseudo-cellulose and pseudo-hemicellulose, respectively. Pseudo-lignin decomposed over a wide range of temperature with a slower conversion rate as compared to pseudo-hemicellulose and pseudo-cellulose. Average activation energy range of pseudo-lignin was estimated from the combination of model-free and model-fitting methods as 79.1-226.5kJ.mol(-1).

  9. Protein Phosphorylation during Coconut Zygotic Embryo Development1

    PubMed Central

    Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Oropeza, Carlos; Hernández-Sotomayor, S.M. Teresa

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species. PMID:9733545

  10. Voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete containing coconut shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Hannani Madzaili, Amirah; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Yaacob, Haryati; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Asphalt durability is often linked to the thickness of the asphalt coating on the aggregate particles. In order to have adequate film thickness in asphaltic concrete, there must be sufficient space between the aggregate particles in the compacted pavement. This void space is referred to as voids in total mix (VTM), voids with filled bitumen (VFB), and voids in mineral aggregate (VMA). Hence, this study investigates the performance of coconut shell (CS) as coarse aggregate replacement on voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete. Four CS were used as coarse aggregates replacement in asphalt mixture namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (by weight volume). The voids properties of asphalt mixture were determined based on Marshall Mix design test. Test results show that VTM and VMA values were decrease with the increasing bitumen content where VFB was increase with increasing bitumen content. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of coconut shell in asphalt mixture was found to increases the voids value up to a peak level and then decreases with further additions of CS.

  11. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by coconut fatty acids diethanolamide.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suuronen, Katri

    2014-03-01

    Coconut fatty acids diethanolamide [cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA)] is a surface-active derivative of coconut oil that is used in industrial, household and cosmetic products. Cocamide DEA contact allergy has been reported relatively seldom. To describe cocamide DEA-positive patients in an occupational dermatology clinic. We retrieved allergic reactions to cocamide DEA from test files, and studied the occupation, exposure, concomitant allergic reactions and diagnoses of the positive patients. Of the 2572 patients tested, 25 (1%) had an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA. Nineteen patients were occupational cases, and 11 worked in the metal industry. Hand cleansers constituted the main source of sensitization (n = 17). Other sources included two dishwashing liquids, one barrier cream, and one metalworking fluid. Three patients reacted to monoethanolamine and 2 to diethanolamine. Diethanolamine is an impurity of cocamide DEA, and can be found in cocamide DEA-containing products and in commercial patch test substances, which may explain some concomitant reactions. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively common in patients with occupational hand dermatitis, and mainly derives from hand cleansers. However, exposure to detergents, metalworking fluids and barrier creams must also be taken into account. Concomitant reactions to ethanolamines are possible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future.

  13. Proximity to encroaching coconut palm limits native forest water use and persistence on a Pacific atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Cormier, Nicole; Young, Hillary S.; Hathaway, Stacie A.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for fresh water between native and introduced plants is one important challenge facing native forests as rainfall variability increases. Competition can be especially acute for vegetation on Pacific atolls, which depend upon consistent rainfall to replenish shallow groundwater stores. Patterns of sap flow, water use, and diameter growth of Pisonia grandis trees were investigated on Sand Islet, Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, during a period of low rainfall. Sap flow in the outer sapwood was reduced by 53% for P. grandis trees growing within coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) stands (n = 9) versus away from coconut palm (n = 9). This suggested that water uptake was being limited by coconut palm. Radial patterns of sap flow into the sapwood of P. grandis also differed between stands with and without coconut palm, such that individual tree water use for P. grandis ranged from 14 to 67 L day−1, averaging 47·8 L day−1 without coconut palm and 23·6 L day−1 with coconut palm. Diameter growth of P. grandis was measured from nine islets. In contrast to sap flow, competition with coconut palm increased diameter growth by 89%, equating to an individual tree basal area increment of 5·4 versus 10·3 mm2 day−1. Greater diameter growth countered by lower rates of water use by P. grandis trees growing in competition with coconut palm suggests that stem swell may be associated with water storage when positioned in the understory of coconut palm, and may facilitate survival when water becomes limiting until too much shading overwhelms P. grandis. 

  14. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory symptoms in arable farmworkers: role of storage mites.

    PubMed Central

    Blainey, A D; Topping, M D; Ollier, S; Davies, R J

    1988-01-01

    Storage mites (acarid mites) are related to the house dust mite but are usually found in agricultural environments. They have been shown to cause allergic symptoms in Scottish farmworkers exposed to stored hay, but whether farmworkers who grow and store grain are also at risk is unknown. One hundred and one farmworkers on 22 Essex farms with grain storage facilities (88% of the available workforce) participated in a survey of respiratory symptoms, with skin tests and determination of serum levels of IgE specific for mite species, including storage mites. Of the 101 workers, 21 reported attacks of cough, wheeze, or breathlessness after exposure to stored grain and 15 reported nasal symptoms after grain exposure. Storage mite specific IgE was found in 59% of farmworkers with work related respiratory symptoms, in 60% with work related nasal symptoms, and in only 9% of symptomless farmworkers. Work related respiratory and nasal symptoms were also significantly associated with atopy, and with positive skin test responses and serum IgE specific for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Storage mites were found in grain samples from 16 farms in which grain was sampled, whereas D pteronyssinus was not found in any. The close association between serum storage mite specific IgE and occupational respiratory symptoms suggests that storage mites may be responsible for respiratory symptoms in these Essex farmworkers exposed to grain. PMID:3194876

  16. Mites associated with stored grain commodities in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Zannou, Ignace D; Adebo, Habib O; Zannou, Elisabeth; Hell, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris were collected in May and September 2011. More than 56 species belonging to 24 mite families were recorded in the four products. These mite species included predators, parasites, fungivorous, phytophagous and other groups whose feeding habits are not well known. The family Cheyletidae was the most prevalent and the most diverse predatory mite family encountered, in which Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most abundant species. Several families of mite pests and mites responsible for allergies (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Pyroglyphidae, Pyemotidae and Saproglyphidae) were also detected. The three most dominant and frequent species were C. malaccensis, Suidasia nesbitti (Hughes) and Suidasia sp. Statistical analysis showed that densities of these three mite species were higher in Parakou than in Glazoue and Dantokpa, on one hand, and higher in debris than in grains, on the other hand. The densities of S. nesbitti and Suidasia sp. decreased significantly during the dry season, whereas C. malaccensis remained stable throughout the two samplings. Of all grains, sorghum was the least infested with mites. This study shows that in Benin mites are present in stored agricultural products to which they cause serious damage, and may cause various allergies to people.

  17. Effect of a change to mite-free bedding on children with mite-sensitive asthma: a controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, M L; Neale, E; Dean, B V; Verrier-Jones, E R

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one children with mite-sensitive asthma took part in a crossover randomised controlled trial of mite-free bedding. Each child was issued with a new sleeping bag and pillow for a month, and twice-daily peak flow readings were compared with those obtained during a month in the child's ordinary bedding. Seventeen of the children had higher mean peak flow readings during the period in the mite-free bedding (p < 0.01). The overall improvement was only modest, however, and some mites had appeared in most of the bedding by the end of the trial. New bedding may be helpful to patients with mite-sensitive asthma, but methods are needed to prevent colonisation by mites. PMID:7001668

  18. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (<60) foods investigated were: macaroons (GI 45.7 (sem 3.0)) and carrot cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (P<0.05). The test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (P<0.05). On the other hand, granola bar and cinnamon bread with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (P<0.05). A very strong negative correlation (r -0.85, n 11, P<0.005) was observed between the GI and dietary fibre content of the test foods supplemented with coconut flour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  19. The Flexible Carbon Activated Electrodes made from Coconut Shell Waste for Supercapacitor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Mustika, W. S.; Agustino; Fajarini; Hidayu, N.; Taslim, R.

    2017-03-01

    The flexible carbon activated electrode supercapacitor application has successfully prepared from coconut shell based carbon materials that produced by local farmers. The Increasing physical and electrochemical properties of coconut shell carbon has been done by chemical activation using KOH and microwave radiation assisted. A Flexible carbon activated electrodes was produced by by spraying method. Physical and electrochemical properties were tested are the specific surface area and specific capacitance. Extensive surface and optimum capacitance were obtained from a flexible carbon electrodes made from coconut shell based carbon is 194.429 m2/g and 10.55 F/g, respectively.

  20. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    PubMed

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  1. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kristian Funding; Demoly, Pascal; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Rehm, Dorte

    2017-03-08

    Treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis exacerbation day (from 11% (placebo) to 5% (SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet)) and an increased probability of having a mild allergic rhinitis day (from 16% (placebo) to 34% (SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet)). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  3. The effect of different anti-solvent and coconut shell content on properties of coconut shell regenerated cellulose biocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahary, Farah Norain; Husseinsyah, Salmah; Mostapha@Zakaria, Marliza

    2016-07-01

    In this study, coconut shell (CS) regenerated cellulose (RC) biocomposite films was prepared using dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride (DMAc/LiCl) solvent system. The effect of anti-solvents such as water and methanol for regeneration of cellulose and coconut shell content on properties of CS-RC biocomposite films was investigated. The used of water as anti-solvent for cellulose regeneration was found to have higher tensile properties compared to regenerated cellulose using methanol. Besides, the X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also revealed that RC using water as anti-solvent have higher crystallinity index (CrI) than CS-RC biocomposite film using methanol. The tensile strength and modulus elasticity of CS-RC biocomposite films increased up to 3 wt% CS and decreased with further addition of CS. The elongation at break of CS-RC biocomposite films decreased with the increment of CS. The CrI of CS-RC bioocmposite films up to 3 wt% and decreased with at higher content of CS.

  4. Mite not make it home: tracheal mites reduce the safety margin for oxygen delivery of flying honeybees.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J F; Camazine, S; Marden, J H; Kirkton, S D; Rozo, A; Yang, X

    2001-02-01

    Many physiological systems appear to have safety margins, with excess capacity relative to normal functional needs, but the significance of such excess capacity remains controversial. In this study, we investigate the effects of parasitic tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi) on the safety margin for oxygen delivery and flight performance of honeybees. Tracheal mites did not affect the flight metabolic rate of honeybees in normoxic (21% oxygen) or hyperoxic (40% oxygen) air, but did reduce their metabolic rate relative to uninfected bees when flying in hypoxic air (5 or 10% oxygen), demonstrating that mites reduced the safety margin for tracheal oxygen delivery. The negative effects of mites on flight metabolic rate in hypoxic atmospheres were graded with the number of mites per trachea. For example, in 10% oxygen atmospheres, flight metabolic rate was reduced by 20% by moderate mite infection and by 40% by severe mite infection. Thus, the safety margin for oxygen delivery in honeybees allows them to retain normal flight metabolic rate and behavior despite tracheal mite infection under most conditions. However, the reduction in tracheal gas-exchange capacity may constrain activities requiring the highest metabolic rates, such as flying in cool weather. In support of this hypothesis, bees that were unable to return to the hive during late-winter flights showed significantly higher levels of mite infection than bees that returned safely.

  5. Evaluation of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, for spider mite control on greenhouse sweet pepper under hot arid field conditions.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, P; Palevsky, E

    2008-06-01

    The efficacy of Neoseiulus californicus (a generalist predatory mite) for the biological control of Tetranychus urticae, was compared to release of Phytoseiulus persimilis (a specialist predatory mite) and an acaricide treatment in sweet pepper plants grown in greenhouse tunnels in a hot and arid climate. To ensure uniform pest populations, spider mites were spread on pepper plants in two seasons; a natural infestation occurred in one season. Predators were released prophylactically and curatively in separate tunnels when plants were artificially infested with spider mites, and at low and moderate spider mite populations when infestations occurred naturally. Although spider mite populations did not establish well the first year, fewer spider mites were recovered with release of N. californicus than with all other treatments. In the second year, spider mites established and the prophylactic release of N. californicus compared favorably with the acaricide-treated plants. In the course of monitoring arthropod populations, we observed a significant reduction in western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) populations in tunnels treated with N. californicus as compared with non-treated control tunnels. Our field trials validate results obtained from potted-plant experiments and confirm that N. californicus is a superior spider mite predator at high temperatures and low humidities.

  6. Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Panel Influenced by Treated and Untreated Coconut Fiber Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin

    This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.

  7. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers.

  8. Dynamics of house dust mite transfer in modern clothing fabrics.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Burke, Daniel; Gormally, Michael; Byrne, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is largely presumed as being the mechanism by which house dust mites are distributed among locations in homes, yet little research to date has investigated the capacity with which various clothing fabric types serve as vectors for their accumulation and dispersal. Although previous research has indicated that car seats provide a habitat for mite populations, dynamics involved in the transfer of mites to clothing via car seat material is still unknown. To investigate the dynamics involved in the transfer of house dust mites from car seat material to modern clothing fabrics. A total of 480 samples of car seat material were seeded with mites and subjected to contact with plain woven cotton, denim, and fleece. Contact forces equivalent to the mass of a typical adult and child were administered for different durations of contact. Mean transfer efficiencies of mites from car seat material to receiving clothing fabrics ranged from 7.2% to 19.1%. Fabric type, mite condition (live or dead), and the force applied all revealed a significant effect (P < .001 for each variable) on the transfer efficiency of house dust mites from seeded material to receiving fabrics, whereas duration of contact revealed no effect (P = .20). In particular, mean numbers of mites transferred to fleece (compared with denim and plain woven cotton) were greater for each treatment. These findings indicate that clothing type can have important implications for the colonization of other biotopes by house dust mites, with potential for affecting an individuals' personal exposure to dust mite allergens. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  10. Use of array of conducting polymers for differentiation of coconut oil products.

    PubMed

    Rañola, Rey Alfred G; Santiago, Karen S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2016-01-01

    An array of chemiresistors based on conducting polymers was assembled for the differentiation of coconut oil products. The chemiresistor sensors were fabricated through the potentiostatic electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANi), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P-3MTp) on the gap separating two planar gold electrodes set on a Teflon substrate. The change in electrical resistance of the sensors was measured and observed after exposing the array to the headspace of oil samples. The sensor response was found rapid, reversible and reproducible. Different signals were obtained for each coconut oil sample and pattern recognition techniques were employed for the analysis of the data. The developed system was able to distinguish virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached & deodorised coconut oil (RBDCO), flavoured VCO, homemade VCO, and rancid VCO.

  11. A Survey on Robotic Coconut Tree Climbers – Existing Methods and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Sakthiprasad, K. M.; Sreekanth, M. M.; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela

    2017-08-01

    As the coconut palm growers are struggling with the acute shortage of human coconut tree climbers to climb and harvest the coconuts, many are working towards possible alternatives to help them handle this situation. In this study paper we analyse the problems associated with the shortage of human coconut tree climbers in -depth. We also present details of various existing mechanical models available in the market and have not yet solved this issue. Along with this we discuss how robotics and automation could be a possible solution for this entire problem. In this context we discuss about the features of such robotic system and also give suggestions on various unmanned robotic models that can be designed and implemented.

  12. Partial Purification of a Legume Nodulation Factor Present in Coconut Water 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, A. G.; Alexander, M.

    1967-01-01

    The nodulation of adventitious roots growing from segments of bean hypocotyl tissue was used as a bioassay for the material present in coconut water which stimulated nodulation. The active material in coconut water is acidic, but it was not possible to extract it from an acid solution with organic solvents. A purification of approximately 70-fold (on a dry wt basis) was obtained using activated charcoal, but at least 10 different compounds were present in the active fractions. A purified fraction of coconut water, which is stimulatory to the growth of carrot root explants, was active in the nodulation assay at a concentration of 2 μg/ml. This represents a 4000-fold purification of the diffusible fraction of coconut water. The charcoal fractionation procedure can be applied to the active material present in extracts of bean leaves. PMID:16656538

  13. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  14. First Report on the Whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the Coconut Palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm. PMID:22958126

  15. Complete Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genome of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.). There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available. PMID:24023703

  16. Crystal Structure of Cocosin, A Potential Food Allergen from Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Cao, Min-Jie; Fu, Tong-Jen; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2017-08-30

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important palm tree. Coconut fruit is widely consumed. The most abundant storage protein in coconut fruit is cocosin (a likely food allergen), which belongs to the 11S globulin family. Cocosin was crystallized near a century ago, but its structure remains unknown. By optimizing crystallization conditions and cryoprotectant solutions, we were able to obtain cocosin crystals that diffracted to 1.85 Å. The cocosin gene was cloned from genomic DNA isolated from dry coconut tissue. The protein sequence deduced from the predicted cocosin coding sequence was used to guide model building and structure refinement. The structure of cocosin was determined for the first time, and it revealed a typical 11S globulin feature of a double layer doughnut-shaped hexamer.

  17. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.). There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available.

  18. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  19. Influence of fasting status on the effects of coconut oil on chick plasma and lipoprotein composition.

    PubMed

    García-Fuentes, E; Gil-Villarino, A; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    2003-06-01

    For a better understanding of the hyperlipidemic function of saturated fat, we have studied the effects of diet supplementation with 10-20% coconut oil on the chick plasma and lipoprotein composition under postprandial and starvation conditions. A significant hypercholesterolemia was found in chicks fed the standard diet after 12 h of food deprivation. In these conditions, LDL-cholesterol also increased, whereas triglyceride levels were reduced in HDL, VLDL and chylomicron fractions. Coconut oil induced a significant hypercholesterolemia under both conditions, also increasing the plasma triglyceride content under postprandial conditions, but not after starvation. Coconut oil feeding increased all the chemical components of HDL, especially under postprandial conditions, but did not affect the HDL-triglycerides under food-deprivation conditions. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in LDL increased after coconut oil supplementation to the diet. Differences were more pronounced under postprandial conditions. Changes in VLDL and chylomicron composition were less evident.

  20. Changes in plasma lipid composition induced by coconut oil. Effects of dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    García-Fuentes, E; Gil-Villarino, A; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    2002-03-01

    The comparative effects of 10-20% coconut oil feeding on fatty acid composition of the main lipid classes of chick plasma have been studied with and without simultaneous treatment with dipyridamole in order to clarify the hypolipidemic role of this drug. Coconut oil drastically increased the percentages of lauric and myristic acids in free fatty acid and triacylglycerol fractions, whereas these changes were less pronounced in phospholipids and cholesterol esters. The percentage of arachidonic acid was higher in plasma phospholipids than in the other fractions and was significantly decreased by coconut oil feeding. Linoleic acid, the main fatty acid of cholesterol esters, was drastically increased by coconut oil feeding. Changes induced by the simultaneous administration of dipyridamole were more pronounced in the phospholipids and cholesterol esters than in the other fractions. The fall observed in linoleic acid levels after dipyridamole treatment may be of interest for a lower production of its derived eicosanoids, especially in plasma phospholipids and cholesterol esters.

  1. Shell use: an adaptation for emigration from the sea by the coconut crab.

    PubMed

    Reese, E S

    1968-07-26

    The coconut crab. Birgus latro (L.) emigrates from the sea during the postlarval glaucothoe stage. Glaucothoes show ancestral hermit crab behavior of living in empty gastropod shells which protect them during this vulnerable time.

  2. Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites grown in dog food cultures and the effect mould growth has on mite survival and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Michael S; Wrenn, William J

    2010-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, could survive and thrive on dog food and if mould growth was important to their survival. All of the chambers (n = 42) were started with 10 female mites and evaluated every other day for mite survival and for the spontaneous development of mould. Ten chambers tested the effect of low moisture on mite survival. Eight chambers were used as positive and negative controls (n = 4 each); positive control mites were fed Fleischmann's((R)) yeast and negative controls had no food source. Three dog foods were evaluated in the same manner. Four chambers had food but mould development was limited by replacing the food kernel every 48 h and four chambers were allowed to grow mould. Mites grown in chambers without moisture died from desiccation within 5 days. The termination point was day 34 when all mites in the negative control group (moisture but no food) died. Although T. putrescentiae survived and grew on all three commercial dog foods, there was no statistically significant difference in mites counts among the dog foods (P < 0.10). Mite counts in the 'no' mould and mould groups ranged from 8 to 11 and 144 to 245, respectively, and differences were significant (P < 0.0001). This study found that T. putrescentiae is a fungivorous storage mite that can grow and flourish on dog food. The study demonstrated that the presence of mould positively influences mite viability, while low relative humidity can result in detrimental consequences for T. putrescentiae.

  3. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  4. Ecology, life history and management of tropilaelaps mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parasitic mites are the major threat of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera. For much of the world, Varroa destructor single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilae...

  5. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  6. Prenatal Chemosensory Learning by the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus californicus

    PubMed Central

    Peralta Quesada, Paulo C.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal or embryonic learning, behavioral change following experience made prior to birth, may have significant consequences for postnatal foraging behavior in a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and molluscs. However, prenatal learning has not been previously shown in arthropods such as insects, spiders and mites. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined prenatal chemosensory learning in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus. We exposed these predators in the embryonic stage to two flavors (vanillin or anisaldehyde) or no flavor (neutral) by feeding their mothers on spider mite prey enriched with these flavors or not enriched with any flavor (neutral). After the predators reached the protonymphal stage, we assessed their prey choice through residence and feeding preferences in experiments, in which they were offered spider mites matching the maternal diet (neutral, vanillin or anisaldehyde spider mites) and non-matching spider mites. Predator protonymphs preferentially resided in the vicinity of spider mites matching the maternal diet irrespective of the type of maternal diet and choice situation. Across treatments, the protonymphs preferentially fed on spider mites matching the maternal diet. Prey and predator sizes did not differ among neutral, vanillin and anisaldehyde treatments, excluding the hypothesis that size-assortative predation influenced the outcome of the experiments. Conclusions/Significance Our study reports the first example of prenatal learning in arthropods. PMID:23300897

  7. Mite and Booklouse Fauna From Vacuumed Dust Samples From Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao

    2014-01-01

    A significant-source of allergens come from house dust that contain particles derived from arthropods, molds, and pet dander. This study evaluated mite and booklouse fauna from vacuumed dust samples in Beijing China (a temperate zone). Our survey was carried out in Beijing in the homes of mite allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department. In total, 38 homes were selected for the collection of dust samples by vacuuming, from December 2008 to January 2010. The flotation method was used to isolate mites from house dust. Permanent slides were prepared for mite specimens and mites were identified and counted under a microscope. In total, 1,798 separate mite and insect specimens were found in 345 dust samples taken from 38 homes. A total of 95 individual Dermatophagoides (D) siboney were detected in 35 dust samples from 19 homes (representing 5.3% of all mite and insect species found in house dust); in addition, this mite was found to co-exist with D. farinae (Hughes, 1961) in 33 dust samples. Our results demonstrated the presence D. siboney that co-existed with D. farinae in house dust in Beijing China (a temperate zone). PMID:24843802

  8. A sampling procedure for quantifying mites in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Storck, Lindolfo; Fiorin, Rubens Alex; Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carus

    2012-06-01

    To control phytophagous mites on soybean crops in an economically viable way, it is necessary to quantify the occurrence of the mites on the leaflets. Estimating the number of mites cm(-2) on leaflets is more difficult because of their irregular distribution on the leaflet surface. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the count-area/leaflet and the number of soybean leaflets to quantify the mites. One hundred infested plants were randomly collected. One leaflet was removed from each plant and divided into 32 sections (1.0 cm(2) per section), arranged in four columns and eight rows, to count the mites (adults, nymphs and eggs). The ideal count-area size per leaflet (Xo) was estimated by the maximum curvature of the coefficient of variation method for each of the 100 leaflets. For a count-area of Xo size, we obtained the number of mites cm(-2) per leaflet and, using the bootstrap resampling method, we estimated the point and interval averages as well as the sample size for a pre-established error. We suggest that the determination of the evaluated area size on each soybean leaflet (20 cm(2) in this case) and the bootstrap resampling estimate of the appropriate number of leaflets (12 in this case) for a bootstrap confidence interval of four mites (adults + nymphs) cm(-2) is sufficient to standardize the sampling-procedures for quantifying mites on soybean leaflets.

  9. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  10. Molecular and biochemical properties of storage mites (except Blomia species).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Iraola, Victor; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the allergological importance of different mite species not belonging to the family Pyroglyphidae has been demonstrated. These mites, commonly named storage mites, include Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Suidasia medanensis and Thyreophagus entomophagus. Several allergens from these species have been purified, sequenced and cloned. Many of these allergens have shown sequence homology and a biological function similar to those previously described in Blomia tropicalis and the Dermatophagoides spp. The main allergens described in storage mites include fatty acid binding proteins, tropomysin and paramyosin homologues, apoliphorine like proteins, alfa-tubulines and other, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens, which definitive biological function has not been described yet. Besides the purification and characterization of allergens, the allergenicity of other species such as Acarus farris, Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis, Blomia kulagini and B. tjibodas, Cheyletus eruditus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Gohieria fusca, Thyreophagus entomophagus and Tyrophagus longior has been investigated. Research has also been conducted to identify allergens in parasitic mites, such as Psoroptes ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Varroa jacobsoni, Diplaegidia columbae and Hemisarcoptes cooremani. The allergenicity of mites present in agricultural environments has been investigated. Crossreactivity studies have also been performed to elucidate to what extent all these mites share common, or species specific epitopes. Herein we present a comprehensive review of the allergenicity of mite species which have been implicated in human respiratory and/or dermatological diseases.

  11. Ecology, Life History, and Management of Tropilaelaps Mites.

    PubMed

    de Guzman, Lilia I; Williams, Geoffrey R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-03-15

    Parasitic mites are the major threat to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L. For much of the world, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilaelaps. The life history of these two parasitic mites is very similar, and both have the same food requirements (i.e., hemolymph of developing brood). Hence, parasitism by Tropilaelaps spp., especially Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Tropilaelaps clareae, also results in death of immature brood or wing deformities in infested adult bees. The possible introduction of Tropilaelaps mites outside their current range heightens existing dilemmas brought by Varroa mites. In this review, we provide historic, as well as current information on the taxonomic status, life history, distribution and host range, diagnosis, and control of Tropilaelaps mites. Because the biology of Tropilaelaps mites is not well known, we also suggest areas of research that demand immediate attention. Any biological information about Tropilaelaps mites will provide useful information for the development of control measures against them.

  12. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.001). In comparison to control, percent inhibition by young coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  13. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  14. Tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions for the improvement of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Bandupriya, H D Dharshani; López-Villalobos, Arturo; Sisunandar, S; Foale, Mike; Adkins, Steve W

    2015-11-01

    The present review discusses not only advances in coconut tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions but also future research directions toward the resilience of this important palm crop. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is commonly known as the 'tree of life'. Every component of the palm can be used to produce items of value and many can be converted into industrial products. Coconut cultivation faces a number of acute problems that reduce its productivity and competitiveness. These problems include various biotic and abiotic challenges as well as an unstable market for its traditional oil-based products. Around 10 million small-holder farmers cultivate coconut palms worldwide on c. 12 million hectares of land, and many more people own a few coconut palms that contribute to their livelihoods. Inefficiency in the production of seedlings for replanting remains an issue; however, tissue culture and other biotechnological interventions are expected to provide pragmatic solutions. Over the past 60 years, much research has been directed towards developing and improving protocols for (i) embryo culture; (ii) clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis; (iii) homozygote production via anther culture; (iv) germplasm conservation via cryopreservation; and (v) genetic transformation. Recently other advances have revealed possible new ways to improve these protocols. Although effective embryo culture and cryopreservation are now possible, the limited frequency of conversion of somatic embryos to ex vitro seedlings still prevents the large-scale clonal propagation of coconut. This review illustrates how our knowledge of tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions in coconut has so far developed. Further improvement of protocols and their application to a wider range of germplasm will continue to open up new horizons for the collection, conservation, breeding and productivity of coconut.

  15. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  16. Coconut Atrium: Transmural Calcification of the Entire Left Atrium

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Carlos Del; Weinstein, Paul; Kunnelis, Constantine; DiStefano, Peter; Ebers, Gloria M.

    2000-01-01

    Massive calcification of the left atrium usually spares the interatrial septum, which provides a cleavage plane for surgical access to the mitral valve. Endoatriectomy with mitral valve replacement is the currently accepted corrective procedure because it affords maximum exposure while decreasing the risk of embolization and intraoperative hemorrhage. We describe a case in which the entire left atrium, including the septum, was thickly calcified and resembled a coconut shell. This condition prevented surgical correction of severe mitral stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case of left atrial calcification yet reported in the literature. Although it is not possible to establish preoperatively that the atrium is completely calcified and impossible to incise, when predisposing factors and evidence of complete transmural calcification are present, the surgeon should be aware of this possibility and should weigh carefully the decision to operate. PMID:10830629

  17. Enzymatic esterification of starch using recovered coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Akhila; Prasad, V S; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-11-15

    Modification of maize and cassava starches was done using recovered coconut oil and microbial lipase. Microwave esterification was advantageous as it gave a DS 1.55 and 1.1 for maize starch and cassava starch, respectively. Solution state esterification of cassava starch for 36 h at 60 degrees C gave a DS of 0.08 and semi-solid state esterification gave a DS of 0.43. TGA and DSC studies showed that the higher DS attributed to the thermostability, since onset of decomposition is at a higher temperature (492 degrees C) than the unmodified (330 degrees C) and was stable above 600 degrees C. alpha-Amylase digestibility and viscosity reduced for modified starch.

  18. Coconut water assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elumalai, Erusan Kuppan; Kayalvizhi, Karuppsamy; Silvan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the coconut water (C. nucifera) as the reducing agent. The formation of Ag-NPs was characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized Ag-NPs were predominately polydispersed. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticle in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparicles was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Conclusion: The approach of green synthesis appears to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:25400406

  19. [Bronchial asthma due to storage mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Kroidl, R F; Schwichtenberg, U; Frank, E

    2007-08-01

    In a multicenter study (7 participating centres) 132 patients with bronchial asthma (grade II or III) and sensitization to storage mites (SM) and/or house dust mites (HSM) were screened and asked to undergo further allergological evaluation. 90 patients agreed. In addition to routine skin prick tests and RAST, quantitative skin prick tests (QSPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT) were also performed with the suspected mite allergens. The results were correlated with aspects of the domestic and working environments. Furthermore we questioned whether the outcome of BPT could be predicted from the results of the routine skin tests/RAST and QSPT respectively. Out of a total of 145 BPTs there were 79 positive results with SM and/or HSM. Three patients were mono-allergic to SM. The correlation with the domestic environment was unremarkable. Correlation with occupational factors revealed a strong predominance of farmers (42 of 90) and suggested the same for professions involved in work in dust-laden environments like bakers (5 of 90) and workers in wood- and paper industry (7 of 90). This also means, that SM-allergy occurs in persons not occupationally exposed to dust. A prediction as to the allergological relevance of SM-allergen was not possible from viewing the routine skin prick test however positive RAST data showed a significant correlation with positive BPT to SM Lepidoglyphus. Similarly it was possible to draw an inference from QSPT as to the relevant allergy. With a positive QSPT to the SM Lepidoglyphus destructor a positive result with a BPT was highly probable. Due to small numbers it is not possible to make a similar statement for the other SM species (Acarus and Tyrophagus).

  20. Coconut Atrium in Long-Standing Rheumatic Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Takahisa; Idei, Yuka; Otsui, Kazunori; Iwata, Sachiyo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Domoto, Koji; Takei, Asumi; Inamoto, Shinya; Inoue, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Rheumatic valvular heart disease Symptoms: Breathlessness and leg edema Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Medical treatment for heart failure Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Complete calcification of the left atrium (LA) is called “coconut atrium”, which decreases the compliance of LA, leading to the elevation of LA pressure that is transmitted to the right-side of the heart. The pathogenesis of LA calcification in patients with rheumatic heart disease is unknown; however, possible mechanisms include chronic strain force in the atrial wall and inflammation. We report here a patient with long-standing rheumatic valvular heart disease with coconut atrium. Case Report: A 76-year-old man presented with breathlessness and leg edema due to right-sided heart failure. He was diagnosed with rheumatic fever at 8 years of age. Mitral commissurotomy and the mitral and aortic valve replacement were previously performed to treat mitral and aortic valvular stenosis. The profile view of the chest X-ray indicated a diffuse calcified outline of the LA wall. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hyper-tension and dilatation of both atria. Moreover, computed tomography showed nearly circumferential calcification of the LA wall. Despite intense medical treatment, he succumbed to heart failure. An autopsy demonstrated that the LA was markedly dilated, its wall was calcified, and its appearance was similar to the surface of an atherosclerotic aorta. Microscopic examination revealed intensive calcification in the endocardium. Minimal accumulation of inflammatory cells was noted. Although slight fibrosis was observed, the cardiac musculature was preserved. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies the histological changes of LA calcification associated with long-standing rheumatic valvular heart disease. PMID:25819539

  1. Mites (Acari) as a factor in greenhouse management.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Uri; Weintraub, Phyllis G

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the economically important pest mites (Acari) of greenhouses, aspects of their biology, and the acarine predators that attack them as well as various insect pests. Greenhouse factors affect pest mites as well as their natural enemy populations and their interactions. Conversely, pest mites affect greenhouse management in terms of the chemical and biological methods required to control their populations. Structure affects heating, cooling, and light, which can be manipulated with suitable screens. Crops often select for pests and their mite enemies. Both groups may be affected in greenhouses by adding pollen and by a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere. These factors impact pest mite populations, the damage they cause, and the methods used to control them. The possibility of incipient evolution occurring in greenhouses, along with the benefits and consequences for pest control, is discussed. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  2. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  3. A Preliminary Study On Chemical And Physical Properties Of Coconut Shell Powder As A Filler In Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazani Leman, Alif; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Coconut Shell Powder were obtained from coconut shell that had been discarded and grinded until it become in a form of powder. This study were conducted to determine the chemical and physical properties of coconut shell powder to be used as a filler inside concrete. In order to do that, an experimental setup of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Particle Size Distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Density, and Specific Gravity were conducted. The coconut shell powder consist mostly carbon (C) and potassium oxide (K2O). The presents of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is crucial in order to be mix with concrete. The size of the coconut shell is ranging from 600μm and below. From all the testing, it is show that the coconut shell powder can be use in mixing with concrete as a filler.

  4. Cationic amphiphiles with fatty acyl chain asymmetry of coconut oil deliver genes selectively to mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Voshavar; Srujan, Marepally; Prabhakar, Rairala; Reddy, Rakesh C; Sreedhar, Bojja; Rentam, Kiran K R; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2011-03-16

    Recent structure-activity studies have revealed a dramatic influence of hydrophobic chain asymmetry in enhancing gene delivery efficacies of synthetic cationic amphiphiles (Nantz, M. H. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2010, 7, 786-794; Koynova, R. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2009, 6, 951-958). The present findings demonstrate for the first time that such a transfection enhancing influence of asymmetric hydrocarbon chains observed in pure synthetic cationic amphiphiles also works for cationic amphiphiles designed with natural, asymmetric fatty acyl chains of a food-grade oil. Herein, we demonstrate that cationic amphiphiles designed with the natural fatty acyl chain asymmetry of food-grade coconut oil are less cytotoxic and deliver genes selectively to mouse lung. Despite lauroyl chains being the major fatty acyl chains of coconut oil, both the in vitro and In vivo gene transfer efficiencies of such cationic amphiphiles were found to be remarkably superior (>4-fold) to those of their pure dilauroyl analogue. Mechanistic studies involving the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) revealed higher biomembrane fusibility of the cationic liposomes of the coconut amphiphiles than that of the symmetric dilauroyl analogue. AFM study revealed pronounced fusogenic nonlamellar structures of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles. Findings in the FRET and cellular uptake study, taken together, support the notion that the higher cellular uptake resulting from the more fusogenic nature of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles 1 are likely to play a dominant role in making the coconut amphiphiles transfection competent.

  5. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    PubMed

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  6. Coconut fragrance and cardiovascular response to laboratory stress: results of pilot testing.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, Elizabeth Sibolboro; Arumugam, Uma; Chen, Sylvia Yue; Stein, Traci R; Oz, Mehmet; Buckle, Jane

    2010-01-01

    There is preliminary evidence that pleasant fragrances may alter response to stressors in different settings. This pilot study examined the effect of coconut fragrance on cardiovascular response to standard laboratory stressors. While inhaling coconut fragrance (n = 17) or air (n = 15), subjects performed a Stroop color-word task and a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), heart period variability (HPV) and blood pressure were measured during the 5-minute baseline, the task, and the recovery periods. The results indicated that subjects breathing coconut fragrance had higher HR and lower HPV than those who performed tasks while breathing air. HR response to mental arithmetic seemed to be blunted in the subjects breathing coconut; however, the lack of a difference in HPV seems to indicate that the blunting may be due to decreased sympathetic response, not decreased parasympathetic withdrawal under stress. Blood pressure recovery was slightly enhanced in subjects under coconut fragrance. Thus, the results of this pilot test suggest that coconut fragrance may alter cardiovascular activity both at rest and in response to stressors. Future experimentation should attempt to replicate and extend these findings in larger samples in clinical settings.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  8. Characterizing the Relationship Between Sesame, Coconut, and Nut Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stutius, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Rangsithienchai, Pitud; Bharmanee, Apinya; Scott, Jordan E.; Young, Michael C.; Dioun, Anahita; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Sesame and coconut are emerging food allergens in the US. We sought to examine whether children allergic to peanuts and tree nuts are at increased risk of having an allergy to sesame or coconut. We performed a retrospective chart review of children who underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to sesame and coconut and identified 191 children who underwent SPT to sesame and 40 to coconut. Sensitization to sesame was more likely in children with positive SPT to peanuts (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7–16.8], P<0.001) and tree nuts (OR = 10.5, 95% CI [4.0–27.7], P<0.001). Children with histories of both peanut and tree nut reaction were more likely to have a history of sesame reaction (OR = 10.2, 95% CI [2.7–38.7], P<0.001). Children with sensitization or allergy to peanuts or tree nuts were not more likely to be sensitized or allergic to coconut. In conclusion, children with peanut or tree nut sensitization were more likely to be sensitized to sesame but not coconut. Children with clinical histories of both peanut and tree nut allergy were more likely to be allergic to sesame. PMID:21073539

  9. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  10. Effect of Coconut Water Concentration on Survival of Bench-Dried Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haj Ali, Sanaa; Mhaidat, Nizar; Awawdeh, Lama; Naffa, Randa

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Coconut water is a biological and sterile liquid. It contains a variety of electrolytes, sugars and amino acids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of concentration and maturity of coconut water on its ability to preserve human PDL cell viability after exposure to dry time of up to 120 minutes using an in vitro cell culture model. Methods : PDL cells were obtained from sound permanent first molars which were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes dry periods then incubated with 100 and 50% young and mature coconut water for 45 minutes at room temperature (18-26°C). Untreated cells at 0 and 120 minutes, and cells incubated in DMEM served as controls. PDL cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by Tukey test, and the level of significance was 5% (p < 0.05). Results : 100% mature coconut water (MCW) was better than 50% dilutions obtained from mature or young coconuts. However, no significant benefit to the cells was noticed from the addition of the soaking step prior to 30 minutes dry time. Conclusion : Avulsed teeth which are left dry for > 30 minutes may be benefited from soaking in 100% mature coconut water; further studies on simulated avulsion in animal models are needed to verify the above results. PMID:27616852

  11. Coconut-based biosorbents for water treatment--a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-10-15

    Biosorption is an emerging technique for water treatment utilizing abundantly available biomaterials (especially agricultural wastes). Among several agricultural wastes studied as biosorbents for water treatment, coconut has been of great importance as various parts of this tree (e.g. coir, shell, etc.) have been extensively studied as biosorbents for the removal of diverse type of pollutants from water. Coconut-based agricultural wastes have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low-cost and significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of coconut-based biosorbents from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. Available abundantly, high biosorption capacity, cost-effectiveness and renewability are the important factors making these materials as economical alternatives for water treatment and waste remediation. This paper presents a state of the art review of coconut-based biosorbents used for water pollution control, highlighting and discussing key advancement on the preparation of novel adsorbents utilizing coconut wastes, its major challenges together with the future prospective. It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation.

  12. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p <0.001). The intraclass correlation was also excellent (0.893 and 0.775 in Dp and Df respectively). There was no significant difference in wheal and flare diameter between SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  13. Mechanisms and patient compliance of dust-mite avoidance regimens in dwellings of mite-allergic rhinitic patients.

    PubMed

    Kniest, F M; Wolfs, B J; Vos, H; Ducheine, B O; van Schayk-Bakker, M J; de Lange, P J; Vos, E M; van Bronswijk, J E

    1992-07-01

    We report on the mechanisms, the environmental changes and patient compliance with regard to conventional and new dust and mite avoidance measures to prevent allergic symptoms caused by mite allergens, taking into account both allergen contamination and the developmental success of pyroglyphid Acari. Twenty patients with persisting rhinitic complaints were selected and matched. Although the patients had performed some conventional dust and mite avoidance measures (patient compliance was 90%), the dwellings proved to be a stimulus for mite development. Moisture problems due to faulty construction and excessive moisture production were common. Since humidity conditions could not be changed at short notice, the 20 homes were subjected to the new variants of mite allergen avoidance based on intensive cleaning without (control) and with an acaricide incorporated (acaricidal cleaner [Acarosan]). After the carrying out of conventional avoidance measures, these patients still had allergic symptoms, and dust from only 23 to 52% of their textile objects was under the proposed guanine (mite faeces indicator) risk level. Only the acaricidal cleaner was able to decrease the allergenic mite load (and the burden of the patients) significantly in this 12 month period. With respect to mite-extermination, acaricidal cleaning was 88% better than intensive cleaning. Reduction of guanine was 38% better in the Acarosan treatment group. Clinical results have been reported elsewhere. A significant difference in favour of the acaricidal cleaning was seen in both subjective (as regards symptoms) and in objective data (total IgE). Another 50 patients were questioned.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-12-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is

  15. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  16. Variants of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid isolated from an African oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vadamalai, G; Hanold, D; Rezaian, M A; Randles, J W

    2006-07-01

    Variants of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid have been identified in a plantation oil palm growing in Malaysia. Three size classes are described, comprising 297, 293, and 270 nt. Compared with the 296-nt form of coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), all variants substituted C31 --> U in the pathogenicity domain and A175 --> C in the right-hand terminus. Other mutations and deletions accounted for the different sizes. These are the first sequences reported for variants of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid in a species other than coconut palm, and this is the first evidence that variants closely related to CCCVd occur outside the Philippines.

  17. Surveying mites (Acarina) Phoretic on the southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with sticky traps

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser

    1976-01-01

    Sticky traps caught large numbers of mites that adhere tightly or ride in protected places on attacking southern pine beetles and tetreived seom of the mites that are loosely attached. Of the 2539 beetles surveyed, only 39.6% carried mites. Seven species of phoretic mites were found; thw two most common, Tarsonemus krantzi and Trichouropoda...

  18. Strong indirect interactions of Tarsonemus mites (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) and Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Maria J. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Richard W. Hofstetter; John C. Moser; Kier D. Lepzig

    2003-01-01

    Phoretic mites of bark beetles are classic examples of commensal ectosymbionts. However, many such mites appear to have mutualisms with fungi that could themselves interact with beetles. We tested for indirect effects of phoretic mites on Dendroctonus frontalis, which auacks and kills pine trees in North America. Tarsonemus mites...

  19. Failure of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae and the predatory mite Neoseiulus idaeus to control a population of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Simon L; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Mumford, John D

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of a population of the phytophagous cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), and its natural enemies was undertaken in central Bahia, Brazil, in mid-1996. In spite of the presence of extremely high densities of the predatory phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma, the phytophagous mite population reached such high densities itself that there was total overexploitation of the cassava plants, leading to total leaf loss. Meanwhile, the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae Delalibera, Humber & Hajek did not affect the M. tanajoa population in its growth phase as there was no inoculum present, even though we predict from a simple regression model that there was the potential for epizootics at that time. Soon after the M. tanajoa population crashed due to defoliation, there could have been an epizootic but there were simply no mite hosts to infect. These data demonstrate the ineffectiveness of one natural enemy (the predator) in terms of prey population regulation and demonstrate the importance of timing in the possible effectiveness of the other (the pathogen). For the pathogen, this probably explains its sporadic effect on host populations as previously reported. We conclude that the fungus is likely to be most useful as an adjunct to biological control with predatory mites other than N. idaeus.

  20. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted.

  1. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  2. Global associations between birds and vane-dwelling feather mites.

    PubMed

    Doña, Jorge; Proctor, Heather; Mironov, Sergey; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Understanding host-symbiont networks is a major question in evolutionary ecology. Birds host a great diversity of endo- and ectosymbiotic organisms, with feather mites (Arachnida: Acariformes: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea) being among the most diverse of avian symbionts. A global approach to the ecology and evolution of bird-feather-mite associations has been hampered because of the absence of a centralized data repository. Here we present the most extensive data set of associations between feather mites and birds. Data include 12 036 records of 1887 feather mite species located on the flight feathers of 2234 bird species from 147 countries. Feather mites typically located inside quills, on the skin, or on downy body feathers are not included. Data were extracted from 493 published sources dating from 1882 to 2015. Data exploration shows that although most continents and bird families are represented, most bird species remain unexplored for feather mites. Nevertheless, this is the most comprehensive data set available for enabling global macroecological analyses of feather mites and their hosts, such as ecological network analyses. This metadata file outlines the structure of these data and provides primary references for all records used. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Does plant species co-occurrence influence soil mite diversity?

    PubMed

    St John, Mark G; Wall, Diana H; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie M

    2006-03-01

    Few studies have considered whether plant taxa can be used as predictors of belowground faunal diversity in natural ecosystems. We examined soil mite (Acari) diversity beneath six grass species at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas, USA. We tested the hypotheses that soil mite species richness, abundance, and taxonomic diversity are greater (1) beneath grasses in dicultures (different species) compared to monocultures (same species), (2) beneath grasses of higher resource quality (lower C:N) compared to lower resource quality, and (3) beneath heterogeneous mixes of grasses (C3 and C4 grasses growing together) compared to homogeneous mixes (C3 or C4 grasses) using natural occurrences of plant species as treatments. This study is the first to examine the interaction between above- and belowground diversity in a natural setting with species-level resolution of a hyper-diverse taxon. Our results indicate that grasses in diculture supported a more species and phylogenetically rich soil mite fauna than was observed for monocultures and that this relationship was significant at depth but not in the upper soil horizon. We noted that mite species richness was not linearly related to grass species richness, which suggests that simple extrapolations of soil faunal diversity based on plant species inventories may underestimate the richness of associated soil mite communities. The distribution of mite size classes in dicultures was considerably different than those for monocultures. There was no difference in soil mite richness between grass combinations of differing resource quality, or resource heterogeneity.

  4. Mite fauna of dust from passenger trains in Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    Colloff, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The mite fauna of dust from cloth-covered seats of four passenger trains and bedding from a British Rail linen store in Glasgow was investigated; 22 samples containing 4488 mg of dust from a total surface area of 5.5 m2 were taken. Sixteen samples were positive for mites and 33 specimens belonging to 10 species were found. The most common species were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart), Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), G. destructor (Schrank) and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman). The species composition bore considerable resemblance to that of house dust (although the density of mites was far lower) and the mites have probably been transported from homes via clothing and pets. Only five intact specimens, which may have been alive at the time of sampling, were found. The dust from trains consisted mostly of particles of soot. Very few skin scales, the food source of house dust mites, were detected. The small numbers of intact mites found and the absence of an identifiable food source make it unlikely that permanent populations of mites survive in upholstered seats on trains. PMID:3556435

  5. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-10-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms.

  6. The use of soil mites in ecotoxicology: a review.

    PubMed

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Owojori, Olugbenga John; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal; Römbke, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Mites, and especially soil-inhabiting ones, have been less studied than the other invertebrates used in bio-assays for the assessment of soil quality and the hazards of chemicals, although these organisms are included in the regulatory assessment scheme of pesticides. The recent advances in the development of test methods for soil mites groups have provided more information on their sensitivities towards chemicals, which needs to be presented for a more robust assessment of the current trends in soil mite ecotoxicology. Moreover, interestingly mite is the only taxa for which test methods were developed and standardized on predatory organisms. This review summarizes the different protocols for the assessment of chemicals using soil-inhabiting mites, including laboratory, semi-field and field studies. Among the data found in the literature, most of the chemicals assessed with mites were pesticides, while a few environmental samples were assessed with these organisms. Their sensitivities towards chemicals were then compared and discussed regarding other soil invertebrates. Finally, we conclude on the usefulness of soil mites in ecotoxicology, and provide future research trail in this area.

  7. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed.

  8. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test.

  9. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Manbae; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Wagner, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  10. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T. P.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty female children aged 8–12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2–3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans. counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans. count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion: Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans. PMID:27891311

  11. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  12. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil.

  13. The influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme ratio on preparation virgin coconut oil for candidate in-house reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Anjani, Rafika Debby; Purwanti, Napthalina Putri

    2017-03-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an excellent product which has result of oil processing business opportunities in the international market. Standardization of virgin coconut oil necessary to satisfy the requirements industry needs. This research is expected as procedure preparation of reference materials. Preparation of virgin coconut oil by Sacharomycescerevisiaeenzyme. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ratio of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can affect the yield of virgin coconut oil produced. The preparation of virgin coconut oil enzymatically using a variety of mass ratio of 0.001 to 0.006% is obtained yield average of 12.40%. The optimum separation of virgin coconut oil on the use of enzymes with a mass ratio of 0.002%. The average water content at a ratio of 0.002% is 0.04 % with a value of uncertainty is 0.005%. The average iodine number in virgin coconut oil produced is 2.4403 ± 0,1974 grams of iodine per 100 grams of oil and optimum iodine number is obtained from the manufacturing process virgin coconut oil with a ratio of 0.006% Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sacharomycescerevisiae with a ratio of 0.002% results virgin coconut oil with acid number 0.3068 ± 0.1098%. The peroxide value of virgin coconut oil between 0.0108 ± 0.009 to 0.0114 ± 0015milli-equivalent per kilograms. Organoleptic test results and test chemical parameters can be used as the test data that can be developed in prototype preparation of candidate in-house reference material in the testing standards of quality virgin coconut oil.

  14. Susceptibilities of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina: Macronyssidae), and chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M G; Axtell, R C

    1991-12-01

    The relative toxicities of ten acaricides to northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were determined simultaneously by holding the mites inside disposable glass Pasteur pipettes previously immersed in acetone solutions of various concentrations (w/v) of technical grade acaricides. The LC90s (parts per million) of the acaricides after 24 h exposure for the northern fowl mite and the chicken mite, respectively, were: bendiocarb (13.1, 0.18), tetrachlorvinphos (14.5, 4.07), carbaryl (15.0, 0.83), pirimiphos methyl (18.3, 2.03), permethrin (23.1, 8.46), lambda cyhalothrin (80.7, 11.4), dichlorvos (252.8, 3.75), malathion (238.4, 6.59), amitraz (6741, 9430) and fenvalerate (greater than 10,000, 60.2). After 48 h exposure there were only slight increases in mortalities of both species except for increased mortalities for the northern fowl mite with lambda cyhalothrin, amitraz and fenvalerate, and for the chicken mite with amitraz.

  15. Burst expansion, distribution and diversification of MITEs in the silkworm genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are widespread in plants and animals. Although silkworm (Bombyx mori) has a large amount of and a variety of transposable elements, the genome-wide information of the silkworm MITEs is unknown. Results We used structure-based and homology approaches to search for MITEs in the silkworm genome. We identified 17 MITE families with a total of 5785 members, accounting for ~0.4% of the genome. 7 of 17 MITE families are completely novel based on the nucleotide composition of target site duplication (TSD) and/or terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Silkworm MITEs were widely and nonrandom distributed in the genome. One family named BmMITE-2 might experience a recent burst expansion. Network and diversity analyses for each family revealed different diversification patterns of the silkworm MITEs, reflecting the signatures of genome-shocks that silkworm experienced. Most silkworm MITEs preferentially inserted into or near genes and BmMITE-11 that encodes a germline-restricted small RNA might silence its the closest genes in silkworm ovary through a small RNA pathway. Conclusions Silkworm harbors 17 MITE families. The silkworm MITEs preferred to reside in or near genes and one MITE might be involved in gene silence. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of MITEs in transcriptional regulation of genes and have general implications to understand interaction between MITEs and their host genome. PMID:20875122

  16. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (<10 %). Because of the great reproductive potential of daughter mites, their inclusion in assessments of grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  17. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-10-01

    To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions.

  18. Development of House Dust Mite Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Ai, Chunqing

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Here we describe the development of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing house dust mite (HDM) allergen as an oral vaccine. The major HDM allergen Der p2 is first codon optimized and synthesized to achieve the maximum expression level in L. lactis. After double digested by NcoI and XbaI, the derp2 fragment is ligated to the same double-digested pNZ8148 vector. The ligation is transformed to L. lactis NZ9000 and correct transformant is verified by sequencing. Western blot analysis is employed to confirm Derp2 expression in L. lactis after nisin induction.

  19. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:20689407

  20. Antigens and allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae mite

    PubMed Central

    Dandeu, J.-P.; Le Mao, J.; Lux, M.; Rabillon, J.; David, B.

    1982-01-01

    Ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE chromatography is an efficient way of purifying Ag 11, the main allergen in Dermatophagoïdes farinae mites, which has already been characterized by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis. At 60% of saturation in ammonium sulphate, a precipitate is formed which, dissolved and dialysed has been named fraction A 60. It is mainly composed of Ag 11. In the fraction DE obtained by DEAE chromatography of the ammonium sulphate fraction A 60, Ag 11 appears homogeneous on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Isoelectrofocusing results indicate an average isoelectric point near neutrality in agreement with the non-absorbtion of Ag 11 on the DEAE cellulose at a weak ionic strength (0.01, at pH 7.2). By sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration Ag 11 has a molecular weight of 28,000. Ag 11 appears as a single polypeptidic chain with numerous dithio-bonds implying a highly folded and resistant structure. Oligosaccharides could be present as constituting molecules as well as contaminating ones as was assumed for hexosamines. These results are discussed with reference to a similar study performed on the major allergen of Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus. The allergenic properties of Ag 11 as present in fraction DE were tested by RAST-based methods. Fraction DE is an inhibitor as good as Df 80d and when it is coated on paper discs it can bind specific IgE in sera from the majority of mite sensitive patients. The results suggest that Ag 11 is a major allergen from D. farinae. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7106841

  1. Development of Coconut Trunk Fiber Geopolymer Hybrid Composite for Structural Engineering Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, F.; Akifah, N.; Nurfadilla; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    A research on the influence of coconut fiber trunk on mechanical properties based on fly ash has been conducted. The aims of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of geopolymer composites by varrying the concentration of coconut trunk fiber. Geopolymer synthesized by alkali activated (NaOH+H2O+Na2O.3SiO2) and cured at the temperature 700C for one hour. Specimens were synthesized into 5 different mass of fiber 0 g, 0.25 g, 0.50 g, 0.75 g, and 1.00 g keeping fly ash constant. The highest compressive strength was 89.44 MPa for specimen added with 0.50 g of fiber. The highest flexural strength was 7.64 MPa for the same sample. The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the matrix of geopolymers and coconut fiber was conducted by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the specimen was examined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of coconut fiber trunk was analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found that coconut fiber was able to improve the mechanical and microstructure properties of geopolymers composites.

  2. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  3. Biology, propagation and utilization of elite coconut varieties (makapuno and aromatics).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Bandupriya, H D Dharshani; Foale, Mike; Adkins, Steve W

    2016-12-01

    Coconut farming is not only a vital agricultural industry for all tropical countries possessing humid coasts and lowlands, but is also a robust income provider for millions of smallholder farmers worldwide. However, due to its longevity, the security of production of this crop suffers significantly from episodes of natural disasters, including cyclone and tsunami, devastating pest and disease outbreaks, while also affected by price competition for the principal products, especially the oil. In order to reduce these pressures, high-value coconut varieties (makapuno and aromatics) have been introduced in some regions, on a limited scale, but with positive outcomes. Even though these two varieties produce fruit with delicious solid or flavoursome liquid endosperm, their distinct biochemical and cellular features unfortunately prevent their in situ germination. In fact, embryo rescue and culture have been developed historically to nurture the embryo under in vitro conditions, enabling effective propagation. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive review featuring these elite coconut varieties, this paper firstly introduces their food values and nutritional qualities, and then discusses the present knowledge of their biology and genetics. Further possibilities for coconut in general are also highlighted, through the use of advanced tissue culture techniques and efficient seedling management for sustainable production of these highly distinct and commercially attractive varieties of coconut.

  4. Comparison of coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk on PDL cell survival.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Baweja, Parvinder Singh; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Thomas, Toby; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2008-05-01

    Coconut water is biologically pure and sterile, with a rich presence of amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study was to use a collagenase-dispase assay to investigate the potential of a new storage medium, coconut water, in comparison with propolis, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Seventy freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 4 experimental groups and 2 control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 8-hour dry times, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 minutes and then immersed in 1 of the 4 media (coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk). The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase for 30 minutes. The number of viable PDL cells was counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that coconut water kept significantly more PDL cells viable compared with propolis, HBSS, or milk. Coconut water can be used as a superior transport medium for avulsed teeth.

  5. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  6. Development of an Electric Motor Powered Low Cost Coconut Deshelling Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Imdadul Hoque; Prasanna Kumar, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    An electric motor powered coconut deshelling machine was developed in line with the commercially available unit, but with slight modifications. The machine worked on the principle that the coconut shell can be caused to fail in shear and compressive forces. It consisted of a toothed wheel, a deshelling rod, an electric motor, and a compound chain drive. A bevelled 16 teeth sprocket with 18 mm pitch was used as the toothed wheel. Mild steel round bar of 18 mm diameter was used as the deshelling rod. The sharp edge tip of the deshelling rod was inserted below the shell to apply shear force on the shell, and the fruit was tilted toward the rotary toothed wheel to apply the compressive force on the shell. The speed of rotation of the toothed wheel was set at 34 ± 2 rpm. The output capacity of the machine was found to be 24 coconuts/h with 95 % of the total time effectively used for deshelling. The labour requirement was found to be 43 man-h/1000 nuts. About 13 % of the kernels got scraped and about 7 % got sliced during the operation. The developed coconut deshelling machine was recommended for the minimum annual use of 200 h or deshelling of 4700 coconuts per year. The cost of operation for 200 h of annual use was found to be about ` 47/h. The developed machine was found to be simple, easy to operate, energy efficient, safe and reduce drudgery involved in deshelling by conventional methods.

  7. The influence of powdered coconut water (ACP-318®) in in vitro maturation of canine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Silva, A E F; Cavalcante, L F; Rodrigues, B A; Rodrigues, J L

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of powdered coconut water (ACP-318(®)) diluted in high glucose (11.0 mM) TCM199 in the achievement of nuclear in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) (n = 632) were randomly allocated into three experimental groups named as group 1 (control group), group 2 (5% powdered coconut water) and group 3 (10% powdered coconut water). The percentage of meiotic resumption (MR) (GVBD to MII) was 39.1% (81/207), 50.2% (108/215) and 46.6% (98/210) for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively (p < 0.05). There were no differences in MR rates among groups 2 and 3. The medium with ACP-318(®) slightly enhanced the nuclear maturation of canine oocytes when a comparison was established with rates of maturation exhibited by oocytes in the experimental group 1 without ACP-318(®) (p < 0.05). The results suggest that oocytes' nuclear morphology integrity and meiosis achievement were positively influenced when exposed to high glucose TCM199 supplemented with 5% powdered coconut water. Further investigation must be performed for a better understanding of powdered coconut water influence in cellular events during IVM of dog oocytes.

  8. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Archana, B S; Singh, Asha; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 experiments at centre point. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple regression technique and the quadratic equations (R(2), 98.14-99.89 %) were found to fit well in describing the effect of variables on responses studied. An optimum condition for the coconut water beverage was obtained at 13.5°Brix blended with 2 % lemon juice. The mature coconut water beverage blended with lemon juice showed a shelf-life of 6 months in packed conditions at low (5 °C), ambient (25 ± 2 °C) and high (37 °C) temperatures on the basis of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  9. Post-harvest quality and shelf-life of tender coconut.

    PubMed

    Haseena, M; Kasturi Bai, K V; Padmanabhan, Sugatha

    2010-12-01

    Seven to 8 months old (maturity stage) coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) from local tall cultivar ('West Coast Tall') with husk and intact perianth were stored at room temperature (27 ± 2(°)C) and the minimally processed nuts (60% husk removed) were stored both at room temperature as well as refrigerated conditions (13 ± 2°C) to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical constituents of coconut water during storage. Observations on physiological loss in weight of the stored coconuts, volume and pH of coconut water, total sugars and amino acid, minerals (Na and K) and sensory tests were used to evaluate the quality. The observations were continued till the quality of the nut water deteriorated. It was observed that, to increase the shelf-life of the coconuts the nuts have to be harvested carefully with intact perianth and without any breakage of nuts. The quality of minimally processed nuts deteriorates earlier than non-dehusked nuts during storage.

  10. Multimodal approach to treatment for control of fur mites.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Danielle A; Scola, Jennifer; Rath, Ami; Warren, Henry B

    2006-07-01

    Ectoparasites pose numerous research, health, and management problems for researchers and institutions. Our facility management experience was complicated by recurrence of murine fur mite (Radfordia affinis) infestation after several rounds of single-mode fur mite treatment with dichlorvos in the cage bedding. Subsequently, we successfully eradicated the fur mites using a multidrug therapeutic protocol. Over an 8-wk treatment period, 2 applications of topical selamectin were administered in conjunction with amitraz- and fipronil-treated nestlets changed weekly. Mice tolerated the therapy well with no side effects noted, and to date there has been no recrudescence. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe combined use of these specific therapeutic agents to control fur mite infestation in laboratory mice.

  11. Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

    2011-06-01

    Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

  12. Microbiota of Demodex mites from rosacea patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Nathalia; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Proliferation of Demodex mites is associated with rosacea. Furthermore, Demodex-associated bacteria were suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. We decided to analyze Demodex microbiota. Mites were collected by standardized skin surface biopsies from patients with erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular rosacea or from control subjects. The microbiota from each mite was characterized by 16S rRNA clone library approach. The 16S rRNA clone library consisted of 367 clones obtained from 73 extracts originating from 5 samples per study group (ETR, PPR or healthy subjects). A total of 86 species were identified with 36 as Demodex-specific microbiota. In the papulopustular group, proportions of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased whereas proportion of Actinobacteria decreased. Here, we report preliminary results on the microbiota of Demodex mites based on a molecular approach showing an unexpected diversity. Differences according to the host status need to be confirmed but open new perspectives for diagnostic of rosacea.

  13. Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atyeo, W.T.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1979-01-01

    New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given.

  14. [Mites (Acarida) of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Poland].

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, W

    1991-01-01

    400 samples of natural winter debris collected from bee hives, 150 samples of stored honey and 100 samples of pollen collected by bees were examined; full of food and empty honey combs, brood and adult bees were also observed. 100% of samples of debris, 90% of pollen and almost 24% of honey samples contained mites; they were found also on honey combs and on died and living bees (brood, imagines). 33 mite species were found. Besides of parasite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. numerous mites belonging to Acaridae, Ameroseiidae, Tarsonemidae and Tydeidae were frequent. They are often accompanied by predatory mites from families Cheyletidae, Aceosejidae, Laelapidae, Bdellidae and Cunaxidae. 3 stated species--Acotyledon paradoxa Oud., Lasioacarus nidicolus Kadz. et Sev. and Thyreophagus odyneri Fain are new for Poland.

  15. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  16. Properties of Concrete partially replaced with Coconut Shell as Coarse aggregate and Steel fibres in addition to its Concrete volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy, P. R.; Janani, R.; Ilango, T.; Dharani, K.

    2017-03-01

    Cement is a binder material with various composition of Concrete but instantly it posses low tensile strength. The study deals with mechanical properties of that optimized fiber in comparison with conventional and coconut shell concrete. The accumulation of fibers arbitrarily dispersed in the composition increases the resistance to cracking, deflection and other serviceability conditions substantially. The steel fiber in extra is one of the revision in coconut shell concrete and the outcome of steel fiber in coconut shell concrete was to investigate and compare with the conventional concrete. For the given range of steel fibe from 0.5 to 2.0%, 12 beams and 36 cylindrical specimens were cast and tested to find the mechanical properties like flexural strength, split tensile, impact resistance and the modulus of elasticity of both conventional and coconut shell concrete has been studied and the test consequences are compared with the control concrete and coconut shell concrete for M25 Grade. It is fulfilled that, the steel fibers used in this venture has shown significant development in all the properties of conventional and coconut shell concrete while compared to controlled conventional and coconut shell concrete like, Flexural strength by 6.67 % for 1.0 % of steel fiber in conventional concrete and by 5.87 % for 1.5 % of steel fiber in coconut shell concrete.

  17. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  19. Solid state fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus with coconut water and sugar cane juice as renewable wastes.

    PubMed

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Techapun, Charin; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus confusus in liquid and solid state fermentation was carried out using coconut water and sugarcane juice as renewable wastes. High concentrations of EPS of 62 (sugarcane juice) and 18 g/l of coconut water were produced in solid state fermentation when nitrogen sources were reduced 5-fold from the original medium.

  20. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  1. Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been consumed worldwide for various health-related reasons and some of its benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Medium-chain fatty acids were found to be a potential antidepressant functional food; however, this effect had not been evaluated in VCO, which is rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistress and antioxidant effects of VCO in vivo, using mice with stress-induced injury. The antistress effect of VCO (administered per os, at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight) was evaluated using the forced swim test and chronic cold restraint stress models. VCO was able to reduce immobility time and restore oxidative stress in mice post-swim test. Furthermore, mice treated with VCO were found to exhibit higher levels of brain antioxidants, lower levels of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and reduced weight of the adrenal glands. Consequently, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and corticosterone levels were also lower in VCO-treated mice. These results suggest the potential value of VCO as an antistress functional oil.

  2. Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in vivo

    PubMed Central

    YEAP, SWEE KEONG; BEH, BOON KEE; ALI, NORLAILY MOHD; YUSOF, HAMIDAH MOHD; HO, WAN YONG; KOH, SOO PENG; ALITHEEN, NOORJAHAN BANU; LONG, KAMARIAH

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been consumed worldwide for various health-related reasons and some of its benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Medium-chain fatty acids were found to be a potential antidepressant functional food; however, this effect had not been evaluated in VCO, which is rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistress and antioxidant effects of VCO in vivo, using mice with stress-induced injury. The antistress effect of VCO (administered per os, at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight) was evaluated using the forced swim test and chronic cold restraint stress models. VCO was able to reduce immobility time and restore oxidative stress in mice post-swim test. Furthermore, mice treated with VCO were found to exhibit higher levels of brain antioxidants, lower levels of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and reduced weight of the adrenal glands. Consequently, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and corticosterone levels were also lower in VCO-treated mice. These results suggest the potential value of VCO as an antistress functional oil. PMID:25452773

  3. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    PubMed Central

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  4. Sensitization of Children to Storage Mites in Kutahya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Soyucen, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Specific IgE against Acarus siro, Glycphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor have been investigated by ELISA in sera of 92 children. Of them, 41 were found to be specific IgE positive (≥ 0.35 IU/ml) against at least one of house dust mite species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, by an immunoblot. In 65.9% of the dust mite-sensitized children, specific IgE against at least one of these mite species was found. Sensitization levels, including co-sensitization cases were found to be 35.7% against A. siro, 24.4% against T. putrescentiae, 31.7% against L. destructor, and 26.8% against G. domesticus. In non-sensitized children, dust mite sensitization level was found to be 25.5%. Breakdown of sensitization by individual species in this group was; against A. siro and T. putrescentiae at 7.8%, against L. destructor at 13.7%, and against G. domesticus at 9.8%. When all children were reckoned, 43.5% was found to be sensitized against at least one storage mite species, with sensitizations against A. siro at 18.5%, T. putrescentiae at 26.1%, L. destructor at 21.7%, and G. domesticus at 17.4%. In dust samples collected from the dwellings of children, distribution of species was found to be A. siro (17%), G. domesticus (23%), T. putrescentiae (29%), L. destructor (25%), and unidentified (6%). In Fisher's chi-square test on SPSS program, there was a relationship between dust mite sensitization and storage mite sensitization (P < 0.05), but no meaningful relationship was found on the basis of individual mite species. PMID:19967087

  5. [Incidence of hypersensitivity to mycotic and mite allergens].

    PubMed

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Mamlenkova, E A; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2009-07-01

    Scratch tests were used to study the rate of sensitization to house dust mite allergens, mold and yeast-like fungi among the patients of an allergological center. It was found that 12.69 of the patients showed hypersensitivity only to one allergen. Combined forms of sensitization to two allergens or more were detected in 87.31% of the patients. Sensitization to mycotic allergens is more frequently encountered (82.84%) than that to house dust mite allergens (67.16%).

  6. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Markey, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  7. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  8. Optimization of ultrasound extraction of phenolic compounds from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell powder by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sueli; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2008-01-01

    Coconut is a tropical fruit largely consumed in many countries. In some areas of the Brazilian coast, coconut shell represents more than 60% of the domestic waste volume. The coconut shell is composed mainly of lignin and cellulose, having a chemical composition very similar to wood and suitable for phenolic extraction. In this work, the use of ultrasound to extract phenolic compounds from coconut shell was evaluated. The effect of temperature, solution to solid ratio, pH and extraction time were evaluated through a 2(4) experimental planning. The extraction process was also optimized using surface response methodology. At the optimum operating condition (30 degrees C, solution to solid ratio of 50, 15 min of extraction and pH 6.5) the process yielded 22.44 mg of phenolic compounds per gram of coconut shell.

  9. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  10. Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy.

  11. PCR analysis for Wolbachia in human and canine Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Borgo, Sibylle N; Sattler, Elke C; Hogardt, Michael; Adler, Kristin; Plewig, Gerd

    2009-10-01

    In many skin diseases such as Demodex folliculitis, rosacea- or steroid-induced rosacea Demodex mites are present in abundance and are at least partially held responsible for causing these disorders. Although it is known that these diseases respond well to tetracyclines, it is unclear if this is due to the antiinflammatory effects of the antibiotics or to an antibacterial effect on so far unknown bacteria within the Demodex mites. As in filariasis, where the response to doxycycline can be explained by the presence of Wolbachia within the filarial nematodes, this study was performed to see whether Wolbachia also use Demodex mites as their hosts. Human and canine Demodex mite samples were taken by skin scrapings and tested by PCR for the presence of Wolbachia DNA. Wolbachia pipientis DNA was used as positive control. In none of the DNA extracts, Wolbachia were detected showing no evidence for the presence of these bacteria in Demodex mites. The response of Demodex aggravated or Demodex caused diseases to tetracyclines seems not to be due to the presence of Wolbachia in Demodex mites in contrast to the results seen in filariasis.

  12. Evolution of host range in the follicle mite Demodex kutzeri.

    PubMed

    Palopoli, Michael F; Tra, VAN; Matoin, Kassey; Mac, Phuong D

    2016-11-29

    The sequences of four mitochondrial genes were determined for Demodex mites isolated from two distantly related species within the family Cervidae, and identified morphologically as belonging to the species Demodex kutzeri. The sequences were used to test the hypothesis that Demodex are strictly host-specific, and hence cospeciate with their hosts: (1) The estimated divergence time between mites found on elk vs humans agreed closely with a previous estimate of the time that these host species last shared a common ancestor, suggesting cospeciation of mites and hosts, at least over long evolutionary timescales. (2) The extremely low levels of sequence divergence between the mites found on elk vs mule deer hosts indicated that these mites belong to the same species, which suggests that Demodex are able to move across host species boundaries over shorter timescales. Together, the results are consistent with the model that Demodex mites are not strict host-specialists, but instead lose the ability to move between host lineages gradually.

  13. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Reza; Azmi, B Z; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Zaidan, A W; Mahdi, M A

    2011-01-07

    Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10(-8), 1.6 × 10(-8), 2.4 × 10(-8), respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.

  15. NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics to evaluate different processing of coconut water.

    PubMed

    Sucupira, N R; Alves Filho, E G; Silva, L M A; de Brito, E S; Wurlitzer, N J; Sousa, P H M

    2017-02-01

    NMR and chemometrics was applied to understand the variations in chemical composition of coconut water under different processing. Six processing treatments were applied to coconut water and analyzed: two control (with and without sulphite), and four samples thermally processed at 110°C and 136°C (with and without sulphite). Samples processed at lower temperature and without sulphite presented pink color under storage. According to chemometrics, samples processed at higher temperature exhibited lower levels of glucose and malic acid. Samples with sulphite processed at 136°C presented lower amount of sucrose, suggesting the degradation of the carbohydrates after harshest thermal treatment. Samples with sulphite and processed at lower temperature showed higher concentration of ethanol. However, no significant changes were verified in coconut water composition as a whole. Sulphite addition and the temperature processing to 136°C were effective to prevent the pinking and to maintain the levels of main organic compounds.

  16. Optimization of fly ash as sand replacement materials (SRM) in cement composites containing coconut fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzri, N. I. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The need of utilizing industrial and agricultural wastes is very important to maintain sustainability. These wastes are often incorporated with cement composites to improve performances in term of physical and mechanical properties. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of cement composites containing coconut fiber as reinforcement and fly ash use as substitution of sand at different hardening days. Hardening periods of time (7, 14 and 28 days) were selected to study the properties of cement composites. Optimization result showed that 20 wt. % of fly ash (FA) is a suitable material for sand replacement (SRM). Meanwhile 14 days of hardening period gave highest compressive strength (70.12 MPa) from the cement composite containing 9 wt. % of coconut fiber and fly ash. This strength was comparable with the cement without coconut fiber (74.19 MPa) after 28 days of curing.

  17. [Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the preparation of a milk substitute].

    PubMed

    Chitarra, M I; Campos, M A

    1975-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera, L.) is an abundant product in Brazil. The authors studied the use of the protein fraction to prepare "milk-substitute" beverages. The analyses were made on albumen, copra and cake. Protein coconut extraction was tried with water; NaCl solutions in different concentrations; HCl and NaOH solutions in different concentrations; HCl and NaOH solutions at different pH values. The extracted proteins were analysed for aminoacid composition and chemical score. The best results of protein extraction were obtained with NaCl 1 M solution using the ratio 100:75 (coconut:solution). The extracted proteins were coagulated with trichloroacetic acid and separated with water and analysed for aminoacid composition and solubility.

  18. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, Reza; Azmi, B Z; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Zaidan, A W; Mahdi, M A

    2011-01-01

    Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10−8, 1.6 × 10−8, 2.4 × 10−8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method. PMID:21289983

  19. Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced from palm shell and coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Ali, Wan Shabuddin Wan

    2004-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to compare the pore development in palm-shell and coconut-shell-based activated carbons produced under identical experimental conditions. Carbonization and activation processes were carried out at 850 degrees C using a fluidized bed reactor. Within the range of burn-off studied, at any burn-off, the micropore and mesopore volumes created in palm-shell-based activated carbon were always higher than those of coconut-shell-based activated carbon. On macropore volume, for palm-shell-based activated carbon, the volume increased with increase in burn-off up to 30% and then decreased. However, for coconut-shell-based activated carbon, the change in macropore volume with burn-off was almost negligible but the absolute macropore volume decreased with burn-off.

  20. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  1. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    PubMed

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  2. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin Cs; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-10-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  3. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  4. Kinetic study of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated coconut coir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmawati, Akbarningrum; Agustriyanto, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Biomass waste utilization for biofuel production such as bioethanol, has become more prominent currently. Coconut coir is one of lignocellulosic food wastes, which is abundant in Indonesia. Bioethanol production from such materials consists of more than one step. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial steps to produce sugar which can then be fermented into bioethanol. In this research, ground coconut coir was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at 121°C. This pretreatment had increased the cellulose content and decreased the lignin content of coconut coir. The pretreated coconut coir was hydrolyzed using a mix of two commercial cellulase enzymes at pH of 4.8 and temperature of 50°C. The enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted at several initial coconut coir slurry concentrations (0.1-2 g/100 mL) and reaction times (2-72 hours). The reducing sugar concentration profiles had been produced and can be used to obtain reaction rates. The highest reducing sugar concentration obtained was 1,152.567 mg/L, which was produced at initial slurry concentration of 2 g/100 mL and 72 hours reaction time. In this paper, the reducing sugar concentrations were empirically modeled as a function of reaction time using power equations. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis reaction is adopted. The kinetic parameters of that model for sulfuric acid-pretreated coconut coir enzymatic hydrolysis had been obtained which are Vm of 3.587×104 mg/L.h, and KM of 130.6 mg/L.

  5. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin CS; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-01-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A–D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof. PMID:27818734

  6. Use of SSR markers to determine the anther-derived homozygous lines in coconut.

    PubMed

    Perera, P I P; Perera, L; Hocher, V; Verdeil, J-L; Yakandawala, D M D; Weerakoon, L K

    2008-11-01

    Anther culture was used to obtain dihaploid (DH) coconut plants and their ploidy level was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker analysis was conducted to identify the homozygous diploid individuals. Ploidy analysis showed that 50% of the tested plantlets were haploid and 50% were diploid. Polymorphic fragments of the mother palm and their segregation patterns in anther-derived plantlets were used to determine the origin of the diploid plantlets. Using a diagnostic SSR marker (CNZ43), all the diploid plantlets tested were identified as being derived from microspores (i.e. were homozygous) and were thus candidates for use in coconut breeding programs.

  7. Adsorption studies on wastewaters from cypermethrin manufacturing process using activated coconut shell carbon.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, K; Ravi Prasad, P; Sarma, P N

    2007-10-01

    Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid pesticide and is used in the control of a wide range of insects on crops like vegetables, cereals, maize etc. In the present study, the adsorption efficiency of coconut shell based activated carbon for the removal of color and organic matter from cypermethrin pesticide manufacturing industrial wastewater was investigated. Effect of carbon dosage, pH and contact time on the removal of COD was also studied. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out and the data was fitted in Freundlich and Langmuir models. The study proved that activated coconut shell carbon (acc) is an efficient adsorbent for treatment of cypermethrin industrial wastewaters under study.

  8. Drying characteristics and heat requirement of coconut endocarp determined by simultaneous thermal analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Duan, Kejun; Song, Fei; Chen, Weijun; Zhao, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Drying characteristics and heat requirement of coconut endocarp at 40, 50 and 60 °C were investigated by a simultaneous thermal analyzer (TG-DSC). Results showed that Page model was the suitable model to describe and estimate the drying characteristics of coconut endocarp with a relatively higher R 2 value and lower χ2 value. Effective moisture diffusivity ( D eff) ranged from 9.90 × 10-9 to 1.10 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energies were 4.70 kJ/mol and heat requirements ranged from 59.3 to 55.9 kJ/kg.

  9. Improved method of screening for aflatoxin with a coconut agar medium.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, N D; Iyer, S K; Diener, U L

    1987-01-01

    Nine isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were screened for aflatoxin production on a coconut extract agar medium. Aflatoxin-producing colonies were detected under long-wave UV light (365 nm) by blue fluorescence on the reverse side after 2 to 5 days of growth. Aflatoxin production was verified by chemical analysis. Several types of shredded coconut available in the United States were tested and found to be satisfactory. No additives were required. Various parameters affecting the test were investigated. PMID:3116928

  10. Characterization of Coconut Shell Liquid Volatile Matter (CS-LVM) by Using Gas Chomatroghaphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Ermawati; Rahmat; Arsyad, Jumiati; Riskayanti, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Generally, the coconut shell is only used for the fuel of furnace or is just burnt in which this will just create pollution. One way of solving this problem is by re-processing the coconut shell as raw materials for making liquid volatile matter (LVM) by pyrolysis method. Coconut shell is part of the coconut fruit at which having biological function to protect fruit core and is located on the inner side of the fiber with a thickness ranging from 3-6 mm. Coconut shell is classified as hardwood, mainly composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, with water content of approximately 6-9 %. Coconut shell is more suitable for pyrolysis process, since they contain less amount of ash, more amount of volatile matter and available with lower cost in rural areas during all the sessions of the year. This research was aimed at determining the influence of pyrolysis temperature towards the LVM volume of coconut shell. LVM was made of condensing the smoke of pyrolysis result from the coconut shell while the analysis of compound composition of LVMcoconut shell used Gas Chromatography. Based on the result of the research, it was known that the pyrolysis, at the temperatures of 400°C, 500°C, 600°C and 700°C can create LVM volume as many as 204.167 mL kg-1, 208,33 mL kg-1 and 216.67 mL kg-1. The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 400°C was made of ammonia (12. 41%), acetic acid (37.27%), phenol (31.66%), furfural (4.16%), and alcohol (5.01%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 500°C was made ofammonia (12.22%), hydrazine (5.61%), acetic acid (40.96%), phenol (32.82%), and alcohol (3.10%), furfural (5.30%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 600°C was made of ammonia (15.49%)), acetic acid (36,01%), phenol (32.85%)), alcohol (6.75%)), and furfural (4.62%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 700°C was made of ammonia (15,.), acetic acid (35.20%), phenol (22.60%), alcohol (5.07%), and furfural (4,90%). From this result, it can be seen that LVM has big advantages

  11. Cycling and floating performance of symmetric supercapacitor derived from coconut shell biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Khaleed, Abubakar A.; Ugbo, Faith U.; Oyeniran, Kabir O.; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Manyala, Ncholu

    2016-11-01

    This work present two-step synthesizes route to low-cost mesoporous carbon from coconut shell. The electrochemical characterization of the coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC) material as electrode for supercapacitor showed a specific capacitance of 186 F g-1, energy density of ˜11 Wh kg-1 and power density of 325 W kg-1 at a 0.5 A g-1 with an excellent stability after floating for 100 h and cycling for 10000 cycles in polymer gel electrolyte. The CSAC showed very good potential as a stable material for supercapacitors desirable for high power applications.

  12. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175

  13. Do Demodex mites play a role in pterygium development?

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Witold; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Młocicki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Numerous reports point to Demodex mites as the aetiology of certain eye and skin conditions, hence it is highly probable that infestation with these mites may also play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygium. Therefore here we present a hypothesis: whether the presence of Demodex mites in eyelash hair follicles significantly correlates with the presence of pterygia, which could point to a potential role of these mites in the development of such lesions. We present preliminary data for supporting this hypothesis. These results were collected from a group of 69 subjects, including 39 with pterygium. Subjects were studied for the presence of Demodex folliculorum and/or D. brevis within eyelash follicles. The sample was defined as positive if at least one parasite, larva or egg were present. Preliminary statistical analyses were performed, and indicated a significant relationship between Demodex mite infestation and the presence of pterygium (p<0.05). This suggests that demodicosis could be one of the factors causing pterygium and significantly contribute to its development. Subjects who had both pterygium and Demodex infestation formed a dominant group. The proportion of subjects with both pterygia and Demodex presence is high at 93.33%, while the proportion of subjects without pterygia who have mites is low at 20.51%. Aforementioned results support our working hypothesis that infestation with Demodex mites may result in pterygium development and therefore patients diagnosed with pterygium should be assessed for the presence of Demodex to verify our preliminary results. In the present paper, we discuss potential influence of Demodex on conjunctiva and propose a hypothetical pathological mechanism linking the development of pterygia with demodicosis.

  14. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  15. Mite species inhabiting commercial bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nests in Polish greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Rożej, Elżbieta; Witaliński, Wojciech; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Wantuch, Marta; Moroń, Dawid; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2012-03-01

    Nests of social insects are usually inhabited by various mite species that feed on pollen, other micro-arthropods or are parasitic. Well-known negative effects of worldwide economic importance are caused by mites parasitizing honeybee colonies. Lately, attention has focused on the endoparasitic mite Locustacarus buchneri that has been found in commercial bumblebees. However, little is known of other mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests. Transportation of commercial bumblebee colonies with unwanted residents may introduce foreign mite species to new localities. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and species composition of mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests and determined if the mites are foreign species for Poland and for Europe. The study was conducted on 37 commercial bumblebee nests from two companies (Dutch and Israeli), originating from two greenhouses in southern Poland, and on 20 commercial bumblebee colonies obtained directly from suppliers. The species composition and abundance of mites inhabiting commercial bumblebee nests were determined. Seven mite species from three families were found in nests after greenhouse exploitation. The predominant mite species was Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae) that was a 100-fold more numerous than representatives of the family Laelapidae (Hypoaspis marginepilosa, H. hyatti, H. bombicolens). Representatives of Parasitidae (Parasitellus fucorum, P. crinitus, P. ignotus) were least numerous. All identified mite species are common throughout Europe, foreign species were not found. Mites were not detected in nests obtained directly from suppliers. We conclude that probably bumblebee nests are invaded by local mite species during greenhouse exploitation.

  16. Do Phoretic Mites Influence the Reproductive Success of Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-12-01

    Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) can be an important pest of plantation trees in the Great Lakes region. Mites commonly occur in phoretic association with this beetle, but little is known about their effects on beetle population dynamics. We assessed the effects of phoretic mites on the reproductive success of I. grandicollis using complementary correlative and manipulative approaches. First, we allowed beetles to colonize Pinus resinosa (Ait) logs from sites across Wisconsin, reared them in a common environment, and related the species identities and abundances of mites with beetle production from each log. We found a positive relationship between I. grandicollis abundance and the presence of five mite species, Histiostoma spp., Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus (Berlese), Iponemus confusus (Lindquist), Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann, and Tarsonemus spp. While the abundance of individual mite species was positively correlated with beetle abundance, assessments of mite community structure did not explain beetle reproduction. Next, we introduced beetles that either had a natural complement of mites or whose mites were mechanically reduced into logs, and compared reproductive success between these beetles. We found no difference in colonization rates or beetle emergence between mite-present and mite-reduced treatments. Collectively, these results suggest a correlative, rather than causal, link between beetle reproductive success and mite incidence and abundances. These mites and beetles likely benefit from mutually suitable environments rather than exerting strong reciprocal impacts. Although mites may have some effects on I. grandicollis reproductive success, they likely play a minimal role compared to factors such as tree quality, beetle predation, and weather.

  17. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively.

  18. Foliar nectar enhances plant-mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Porturas, Laura D; Taylor, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant-mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58-80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant-mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Foliar nectar enhances plant–mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Porturas, Laura D.; Taylor, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant–mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. Methods To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. Key Results It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58–80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Conclusions Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant–mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. PMID:27343230

  20. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    PubMed

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy.

  1. Characterisation of the volatile profile of coconut water from five varieties using an optimised HS-SPME-GC analysis.

    PubMed

    Prades, Alexia; Assa, Rebecca Rachel Ablan; Dornier, Manuel; Pain, Jean-Pierre; Boulanger, Renaud

    2012-09-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water is a refreshing tropical drink whose international market has recently been growing. However, little is yet known about its physicochemical composition, particularly its aroma. This study set out to characterise the volatile profile of water from five coconut varieties. Aroma compounds were characterised by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) analysis. An experimental design was established to optimise SPME conditions, leading to an equilibration time of 10 min followed by an extraction time of 60 min at 50 °C. Accordingly, immature coconut water from WAT (West African Tall), PB121 (MYD × WAT Hybrid), MYD (Malayan Yellow Dwarf), EGD (Equatorial Guinea Green Dwarf) and THD (Thailand Aromatic Green Dwarf) palms was analysed and described. Ketones were mainly present in the Tall and Hybrid varieties, whereas aldehydes were most abundant in the Dwarf palms. Tall coconut water was characterised by a high lactone content. THD exhibited a high ethyl octanoate level. The cluster analysis of the volatile fraction from the five coconut cultivars was found to be related to their genetic classification. The volatile compounds of immature coconut water from five varieties were characterised for the first time. Volatile profile analysis could be a useful tool for the selection of Dwarf coconut varieties, which are mainly consumed as a beverage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vitro and in vivo effects of two coconut oils in comparison to monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Vijaya; Echard, Bobby; Perricone, Nicholas; Ingram, Cass; Enig, Mary; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Harry G

    2013-06-01

    Since monolaurin, a monoglyceride formed in the human body in small quantities, has proven effective both in vitro and in vivo against certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus, an important question arises whether consuming a substance high in lauric acid content, such as coconut oil could increase intrinsic monolaurin production to levels that would be successful in overcoming staphylococcal and other microbial invaders. Both a cup plate method and a microdilution broth culture system were employed to test bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the test agents in vitro. To test effectiveness in vivo, female C3H/he mice (10-12 per group) were orally administered sterile saline (regular control), vancomycin (positive control), aqueous monolaurin, or two varieties of coconut oil (refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil and virgin coconut oil) for 1 week before bacterial challenge and 30 days after. A final group received both monolaurin and vancomycin. In contrast to monolaurin, the coconut oils did not show bactericidal activity in vitro. In vivo, the groups receiving vancomycin, monolaurin, or the combination showed some protection--50-70% survival, whereas the protection from the coconut oils were virtually the same as control--0-16% survival. Although we did not find that the two coconut oils are helpful to overcome S. aureus infections, we corroborated earlier studies showing the ability of monolaurin to do such.

  3. Antibacterial Efficacy of Tender Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L) on Streptococcus mutans: An In-Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Rukmini, J N; Manasa, Sunkari; Rohini, Chenna; Sireesha, Lavanya Putchla; Ritu, Sachan; Umashankar, G K

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial property of coconut, the presence of lauric acid, and the ability to extract antimicrobial peptides Cn-AMP (1, 2, and 3) from tender coconut water has drawn attention on its effectiveness in normal consumption. An in-vitro experimental study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tender coconut water in its natural state on Streptococcus mutans. Fresh tender coconut water and pasteurized tender coconut water were taken as test samples, dimethyl formamide was used as the negative control, and 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. Pure strain of S. mutans (MTCC 890) was used for determining the antibacterial effects. The test samples along with the controls were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test procedure and the zone of inhibition was examined. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to check for any significant differences in the antibacterial efficacy between the samples. There was no zone of inhibition with the tender coconut water, fresh and pasteurised, and negative control (dimethyl formamide). Zone of inhibition was seen in positive control (0.2% Chlorhexidine). No antimicrobial activity was demonstrated with tender coconut water in its normal state (in vitro).

  4. Antibacterial Efficacy of Tender Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L) on Streptococcus mutans: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rukmini, J. N.; Manasa, Sunkari; Rohini, Chenna; Sireesha, Lavanya Putchla; Ritu, Sachan; Umashankar, G. K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The antibacterial property of coconut, the presence of lauric acid, and the ability to extract antimicrobial peptides Cn-AMP (1, 2, and 3) from tender coconut water has drawn attention on its effectiveness in normal consumption. An in-vitro experimental study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tender coconut water in its natural state on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Fresh tender coconut water and pasteurized tender coconut water were taken as test samples, dimethyl formamide was used as the negative control, and 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. Pure strain of S. mutans (MTCC 890) was used for determining the antibacterial effects. The test samples along with the controls were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test procedure and the zone of inhibition was examined. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to check for any significant differences in the antibacterial efficacy between the samples. Result: There was no zone of inhibition with the tender coconut water, fresh and pasteurised, and negative control (dimethyl formamide). Zone of inhibition was seen in positive control (0.2% Chlorhexidine). Conclusion: No antimicrobial activity was demonstrated with tender coconut water in its normal state (in vitro). PMID:28462183

  5. The predatory mite Typhlodromalus aripo prefers green-mite induced plant odours from pubescent cassava varieties.

    PubMed

    Onzo, Alexis; Hanna, Rachid; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that plant-inhabiting predators use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate herbivores being their prey. Much less known, however, is the phenomenon that genotypes of the same host plant species vary in the attractiveness of these induced chemical signals, whereas they also differ in characteristics that affect the predator's foraging success, such as leaf pubescence. In a series of two-choice experiments (using a Y-tube olfactometer) we determined the preference of Typhlodromalus aripo for pubescent versus glabrous cassava cultivars infested with the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and also the preference for cultivars within each of the two groups. We found that when offered a choice between pubescent and glabrous cassava cultivars (either apex or leaves), T. aripo was significantly more attracted to pubescent cultivars. For each cultivar, M. tanajoa infested leaves and apices were equally attractive to T. aripo. There was however some variation in the response of T. aripo to M. tanajoa-infested plant parts within the group of pubescent cultivars, as well as within the group of glabrous cultivars. Our study confirms not only that T. aripo uses herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey in cassava fields, but it also shows that it can discriminate between glabrous and pubescent cultivars and prefers the latter. This knowledge can be useful in selecting cultivars that are attractive and suitable to T. aripo, which, in turn, may promote biological control of the cassava green mite.

  6. EPA-registered Pesticide Products Approved for Use Against Varroa Mites in Bee Hives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Varroa mites are parasites that feed on developing bees, leading to brood mortality and reduced lifespan of worker bees and transmit numerous honeybee viruses. Find pesticides that are approved for use against Varroa mites.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  8. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  9. Allergenic Dermatophagoides mites causing asthma among schoolchildren at Ain-Shams District, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammad K

    2011-04-01

    The present study was performed on house dust samples collected from ten homes of schoolchildren suffering from asthma at Ain-Shams district, over a period of two years (2008 & 2009). The data revealed that the total annual density of the two allergenic mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) & Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was 202 individual mites with 22 asthmatic children in the first year, and individual mites increased to 268 with 36 asthmatic children in the second year. The two house dust mites were more abundant in bedrooms than in living ones (292 & 187 mites, respectively). The prevalence of the house dust mites on the mattresses and furniture were higher in bedrooms and living rooms than on the floors (340 & 140 mite, respectively). Winter season recorded the highest prevalence for both mites in the first and second year (87 & 110, respectively). Summer represented the lowest values (19 & 25, respectively).

  10. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; De Geest, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01) higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001) was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001) higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001) higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05) in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:28718833

  11. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01) higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001) was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001) higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001) higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05) in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  12. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators.

  13. [Allergy to house dust mites: allergy independent symptoms dominate].

    PubMed

    Herwig, L M; Helbling, A; Pichler, W J; Pichler, C E

    2004-02-18

    A sensitisation to allergens has not always a clinical relevance. Therefore, the history has an uppermost importance for defining the relevance of a sensitisation. In contrast to the history in seasonal rhino-conjunctivitis, which causes typical complains in a restricted time period patients with house dust mite allergy seem to have less defined complaints. To define the most relevant symptoms of this frequent allergy, we evaluated 35 patients with clearly defined house dust mite allergy by a questionnaire and evaluated the same questionnaire also in a control group of 18 patients without sensitisation or asthma. The symptoms described in the patient group confirm that symptoms of house dust mite allergy are frequently not related to a direct allergen exposure. Some patients complained about itchy red eyes in the morning, but the majority of symptoms occurred independent from allergen exposure. These are blocked nose as well as exercise induced asthma. These symptoms are present all year around and are not only restricted to mite exposed areas. They are probably related to the underling eosinophilic inflammation. Thus exercise induced asthma and blocked nose are symptoms, which may indicate a mite allergy, particular in younger patients.

  14. Ocular symptoms reported by patients infested with Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Sędzikowska, Aleksandra; Osęka, Maciej; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively. 64% infected patients complained of one or more ophthalmological symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included itching (28%), redness of eyelids (21%), and watery eyes (15%). Positive correlation was found between itching, redness, pain, purulence or eyelash loss and the presence of Demodex. The mentioned symptoms increase the probability of Demodex infestation in a statistically significant manner (p<0.005). A correlation between the age and gender and the number of Demodex was revealed by the study. The threshold average number of seven Demodex mites per eight collected eyelashes with which the risk of the occurrence of an ocular symptom increases significantly was defined. In patients with a low number of Demodex mites, symptoms may be absent. The risk of the occurrence of ocular symptom in patients with demodicosis increases with the increase in the average number of Demodex mites.

  15. Sensitization to domestic mites in a cold temperate region.

    PubMed

    Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L; Pershagen, G; Korsgaard, J; Johansen, N

    1993-07-01

    Factors favoring sensitization to house dust mites (HDM) were studied in a cold, temperate climate in northern Sweden. Sixty-five children previously found to react positively to a skin prick test (SPT) to HDM were included. The SPT to HDM was repeated, and serum IgE antibodies to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were determined. HDM, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus, or storage mites occurred in mattress dust samples from 23 of the 65 homes, and in 10 homes more than 100 HDM/g of mattress dust were found. Mites were more prevalent in mattress dust from the basement and ground levels than from the upper floors. Sensitization to HDM was strongly with the presence of domestic mites in mattress and floor dust. Previous longer stays in southern Sweden or Europe were also associated with present sensitization to HDM, and this was independent of occurrence of mites in the residence. The results indicate that HDM growth and potential for sensitization in cold, temperate regions is highly dependent on the microhabitat, and that sensitization to HDM should be possible to prevent in such climatic regions.

  16. Checklist of the Quill mites (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) of the World.

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Chrzanowski, Mateusz; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2015-06-09

    Mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea) are ectoparasites inhabiting the quills of various feather types in many groups of birds. Until now, 334 valid species and 60 genera of quill mites have been described and recorded from 482 bird species (95 families and 24 orders). Currently, the family is divided into 2 subfamilies: Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 with 260 species grouped in 49 genera, and Picobinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 with 74 species grouped in 11 genera. Mites of the subfamily Syringophilinae inhabit quills of primaries, secondaries, tertials, rectrices and wing coverts and just occasionally the body feathers; representatives of the subfamily Picobinae live predominantly inside the body feathers. The rapid increase of the knowledge on biodiversity and systematics of quill mites started in end of the 1990s; numerous new descriptions appeared since that time and taxonomic rearrangements make an urgent need to summarize all previous data. We present a complete checklist of the family Syringophilidae of the world including the following data: a species name, author(s), references, a number of first page of description, figure numbers in descriptions, depository of type and non-type materials, host spectrum and geographical distribution. The checklist is additionally provided with the table including bird hosts and associated quill mite species.

  17. The ''Coconut Tree'' Model of Careers: The Case of French Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Yochanan; Bournois, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This research note sets out to explain the main features of the French university academic career--the ''coconut tree,'' as it is colloquially known, setting it firmly within a social and cultural context; outlining the logic and functions of career stages, explaining its rituals and conventions, its rewards and pitfalls. These are narrated by two…

  18. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  19. Field incidence on Brontispa longissima (Gestro), an invasive pest of coconut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairul, Anuar W. A. Wan; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The Coconut Leaf Beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one the most serious pests of coconut palms. This study was aimed to investigate the field incidence of Brontispa longissima infestation at Department of Agricultural, Parit Botak, Batu Pahat, Johor. B. longissima were collected from infested coconut and other palms and reared in the laboratory at MARDI, Serdang under ambient condition. The field incidence on the common varieties of coconut especially matag, pandan, tagnanan and other palms, oil palm were assessed. There was a significant difference in the mean percentage of leaf damage among palm varieties in the field (P<0.05). The pandan variety had the highest (40.93±0.91) mean of percentage leaf damage compared to matag (38.92±0.90), tagnanan (33.64±0.86) and oil palm (0±0.00). There was a significant (P<0.05) interactions between varieties and month on percentage of leaf damage in the field. The damaged incidence was highest in March and that the damage on pandan leaf was significantly (72.55±2.05) higher on matag (70.03±2.16), tagnanan (55.68±2.96) and oil palm (0±0.00).

  20. Fibre optic sensor for the detection of adulterant traces in coconut oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeba, M.; Rajesh, M.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2005-11-01

    The design and development of a fibre optic evanescent wave refractometer for the detection of trace amounts of paraffin oil and palm oil in coconut oil is presented. This sensor is based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre. At the sensing region, the cladding and a small portion of the core are removed and the fibre nicely polished. The sensing region is fabricated in such a manner that it sits perfectly within a bent mould. This bending of the sensing region enhances its sensitivity. The oil mixture of different mix ratios is introduced into the sensing region and we observed a sharp decrease in the output intensity. The observed variation in the intensity is found to be linear and the detection limit is 2% (by volume) paraffin oil/palm oil in coconut oil. The resolution of this refractometric sensor is of the order of 10-3. Since coconut oil is consumed in large volumes as edible oil in south India, this fibre optic sensor finds great relevance for the detection of adulterants such as paraffin oil or palm oil which are readily miscible in coconut oil. The advantage of this type of sensor is that it is inexpensive and easy to set up. Another attraction of the side-polished fibre is that only a very small amount of analyte is needed and its response time is only 7 s.

  1. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660 Section 573.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF...

  2. The ''Coconut Tree'' Model of Careers: The Case of French Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Yochanan; Bournois, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This research note sets out to explain the main features of the French university academic career--the ''coconut tree,'' as it is colloquially known, setting it firmly within a social and cultural context; outlining the logic and functions of career stages, explaining its rituals and conventions, its rewards and pitfalls. These are narrated by two…

  3. CoCoNUT: an efficient system for the comparison and analysis of genomes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. This area of research is driven by the large number of sequenced genomes and heavily relies on efficient algorithms and software to perform pairwise and multiple genome comparisons. Results Most of the software tools available are tailored for one specific task. In contrast, we have developed a novel system CoCoNUT (Computational Comparative geNomics Utility Toolkit) that allows solving several different tasks in a unified framework: (1) finding regions of high similarity among multiple genomic sequences and aligning them, (2) comparing two draft or multi-chromosomal genomes, (3) locating large segmental duplications in large genomic sequences, and (4) mapping cDNA/EST to genomic sequences. Conclusion CoCoNUT is competitive with other software tools w.r.t. the quality of the results. The use of state of the art algorithms and data structures allows CoCoNUT to solve comparative genomics tasks more efficiently than previous tools. With the improved user interface (including an interactive visualization component), CoCoNUT provides a unified, versatile, and easy-to-use software tool for large scale studies in comparative genomics. PMID:19014477

  4. Effect of Coconut, Sisal and Jute Fibers on the Properties of Starch/Gluten/Glycerol Matrix

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coconut, sisal and jute fibers were added as reinforcement materials in a biodegradable polymer matrix comprised of starch/gluten/glycerol. The content of fibers used in the composites varied from 5% to 30% by weight of the total polymers (starch and gluten). Materials were processed in a Haake torq...

  5. Investigation of acoustic sensors to detect coconut rhinoceros beetle in Guam

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, was accidentally introduced into Guam last year and now threatens the Island’s forests and tourist industry. These large insects can be detected easily with acoustic sensors, and procedures are being developed to incorporate acoustic technology int...

  6. Utilization of porous carbons derived from coconut shell and wood in natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The porous carbons derived from cellulose are renewable and environmentally friendly. Coconut shell and wood derived porous carbons were characterized with elemental analysis, ash content, x-ray diffraction, infrared absorbance, particle size, surface area, and pore volume. The results were compared...

  7. Effect of coconut, sisal and jute fibers on the properties of starch/gluten/glycerol matrix

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, coconut, sisal and jute fibers were used as reinforcement for a biodegradable polymer matrix of gluten/starch/glycerol. The content of fibers used in the composites varied from 5% to 30% by weight of total of polymers (starch and gluten). The matrix and composites were processed in a ...

  8. LABORATORY SCALE EVALUATION OF HYDRA-TONE GRAFF-OFF™ COCONUT OIL BASED DEGREASER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical and economic assessment evaluated the effectiveness of a biodegradable, coconut oil-based degreaser called Graff-Off™. In immersion (cold) cleaning and rinse tests, Graff-Off™ was compared to a conventional chlorinated solvent 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) and to an ...

  9. LABORATORY SCALE EVALUATION OF HYDRA-TONE GRAFF-OFF™ COCONUT OIL BASED DEGREASER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical and economic assessment evaluated the effectiveness of a biodegradable, coconut oil-based degreaser called Graff-Off™. In immersion (cold) cleaning and rinse tests, Graff-Off™ was compared to a conventional chlorinated solvent 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) and to an ...

  10. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L.; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4−2, B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3−-N, and NH4+-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4−2 by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3− and N-NH4+ by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda’s alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2−2 (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3− (94,7%) and N-NH4+ (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L−1, was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  11. Comparing the efficacy of coconut oil and xylene as a clearing agent in the histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sermadi, Wajid; Prabhu, Sudeendra; Acharya, Swetha; Javali, Sb

    2014-09-01

    The commonly used clearing agent, xylene is supposed to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. As previous research studies have shown the effectiveness of different vegetable oils as clearants, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of coconut oil. Two equal halves of 60 soft tissue specimens were processed simultaneously in xylene and coconut oil as clearing agents. The Xylene-treated specimens (XY-S) and Coconut oil-treated specimens (CO-S) were checked for gross and histological features and comparison was done between the two groups. Significant shrinkage was noted in XY-S compared to that in CO-S. No difference was found in either of the sections when checked for cellular details and staining quality. Morphometrically, there was significant reduction in the mean cell area in XY-S compared to that in CO-S. Coconut oil may be substituted for the highly hazardous xylene as a clearing agent without compromising the quality of histological details.

  12. Immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B by adsorption to green coconut fiber.

    PubMed

    Brígida, Ana I S; Pinheiro, Alvaro D T; Ferreira, Andrea L O; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2008-03-01

    An agroindustrial residue, green coconut fiber, was evaluated as support for immobilization of Candida antarctica type B (CALB) lipase by physical adsorption. The influence of several parameters, such as contact time, amount of enzyme offered to immobilization, and pH of lipase solution was analyzed to select a suitable immobilization protocol. Kinetic constants of soluble and immobilized lipases were assayed. Thermal and operational stability of the immobilized enzyme, obtained after 2 h of contact between coconut fiber and enzyme solution, containing 40 U/ml in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7, were determined. CALB immobilization by adsorption on coconut fiber promoted an increase in thermal stability at 50 and 60 degrees C, as half-lives (t (1/2)) of the immobilized enzyme were, respectively, 2- and 92-fold higher than the ones for soluble enzyme. Furthermore, operational stabilities of methyl butyrate hydrolysis and butyl butyrate synthesis were evaluated. After the third cycle of methyl butyrate hydrolysis, it retained less than 50% of the initial activity, while Novozyme 435 retained more than 70% after the tenth cycle. However, in the synthesis of butyl butyrate, CALB immobilized on coconut fiber showed a good operational stability when compared to Novozyme 435, retaining 80% of its initial activity after the sixth cycle of reaction.

  13. Comparing the efficacy of coconut oil and xylene as a clearing agent in the histopathology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Sermadi, Wajid; Prabhu, Sudeendra; Acharya, Swetha; Javali, SB

    2014-01-01

    Background: The commonly used clearing agent, xylene is supposed to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. As previous research studies have shown the effectiveness of different vegetable oils as clearants, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of coconut oil. Materials and Methods: Two equal halves of 60 soft tissue specimens were processed simultaneously in xylene and coconut oil as clearing agents. The Xylene-treated specimens (XY-S) and Coconut oil–treated specimens (CO-S) were checked for gross and histological features and comparison was done between the two groups. Results: Significant shrinkage was noted in XY-S compared to that in CO-S. No difference was found in either of the sections when checked for cellular details and staining quality. Morphometrically, there was significant reduction in the mean cell area in XY-S compared to that in CO-S. Conclusion: Coconut oil may be substituted for the highly hazardous xylene as a clearing agent without compromising the quality of histological details. PMID:25364179

  14. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  15. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid in sanitizing green coconuts.

    PubMed

    Walter, E H M; Nascimento, M S; Kuaye, A Y

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of sanitizing green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) through the treatment applied by juice industries using sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. The surface of the fruits was inoculated with a mixture of five Listeria monocytogenes strains. The treatments consisted in immersing the fruits for 2 min at room temperature in sodium hypochlorite solution containing 200 mg l(-1) residual chlorine at pH 6.5, and 80 mg l(-1) solution of peracetic acid or sterile water. Bacterial populations were quantified by culturing on trypticase soy agar supplemented with yeast extract and Oxford selective culture medium; however, recovery was higher on the nonselective medium. Immersion in water produced a reduction in the L. monocytogenes population of 1.7 log(10) CFU per fruit, while immersion in sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid solutions resulted in population reductions of 2.7 and 4.7 log(10) CFU per fruit respectively. The treatments studied are efficient to green coconuts. Sanitation of green coconut is one of the most important control measures to prevent the contamination of coconut water. This article provides information that shows the adequacy of sanitizing treatments applied by the juice industries.

  16. Bio-softening of mature coconut husk for facile coir recovery.

    PubMed

    Suganya, D S; Pradeep, S; Jayapriya, J; Subramanian, S

    2007-06-01

    Bio-softening of the mature coconut husk using Basidiomyceteous fungi was attempted to recover the soft and whiter fibers. The process was faster and more efficient in degrading lignin and toxic phenolics. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus eryngii and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora were found to degrade lignin efficiently without any appreciable loss of cellulose, yielding good quality fiber ideal for dyeing.

  17. Dipyridamole prevents the coconut oil-induced hypercholesterolemia. A study on lipid plasma and lipoprotein composition.

    PubMed

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gil-Villarino, Almudena; Zafra, Ma Flor; García-Peregrín, Eduardo

    2002-03-01

    For a better understanding of the hypolipidemic function of dipyridamole, we have studied the comparative effects of diet supplementation with 10% coconut oil with and without dipyridamole on the lipid plasma and lipoprotein composition in chicks. This study was performed under postprandial and food-deprivation (12h) conditions. Coconut oil induced a clear hypercholesterolemia under both feeding conditions. Simultaneous administration of dipyridamole maintained total and esterified cholesterol at levels similar to those observed in control animals sacrificed under postprandial conditions. Under these conditions, our results also show that dipyridamole significantly reduced cholesterol levels in all the chick plasma lipoproteins that were increased by coconut oil administration. Nevertheless, it should be emphasised that the levels of total cholesterol found in intermediate- and very-low-density lipoproteins were lower than in control. All chemical components of these fractions were significantly decreased by dipyridamole. The effects were not significant in chicks deprived of food. In conclusion, our results show that the hypercholesterolemia induced by coconut oil was prevented by dipyridamole. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on the antihypercholesterolemic effects of dipyridamole.

  18. Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B by Adsorption to Green Coconut Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brígida, Ana I. S.; Pinheiro, Álvaro D. T.; Ferreira, Andrea L. O.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    An agroindustrial residue, green coconut fiber, was evaluated as support for immobilization of Candida antarctica type B (CALB) lipase by physical adsorption. The influence of several parameters, such as contact time, amount of enzyme offered to immobilization, and pH of lipase solution was analyzed to select a suitable immobilization protocol. Kinetic constants of soluble and immobilized lipases were assayed. Thermal and operational stability of the immobilized enzyme, obtained after 2 h of contact between coconut fiber and enzyme solution, containing 40 U/ml in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7, were determined. CALB immobilization by adsorption on coconut fiber promoted an increase in thermal stability at 50 and 60 °C, as half-lives (t 1/2) of the immobilized enzyme were, respectively, 2- and 92-fold higher than the ones for soluble enzyme. Furthermore, operational stabilities of methyl butyrate hydrolysis and butyl butyrate synthesis were evaluated. After the third cycle of methyl butyrate hydrolysis, it retained less than 50% of the initial activity, while Novozyme 435 retained more than 70% after the tenth cycle. However, in the synthesis of butyl butyrate, CALB immobilized on coconut fiber showed a good operational stability when compared to Novozyme 435, retaining 80% of its initial activity after the sixth cycle of reaction.

  19. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4 (-2), B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3 (-)-N, and NH4 (+)-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4 (-2) by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3 (-) and N-NH4 (+) by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda's alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2 (-2) (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3 (-) (94,7%) and N-NH4 (+) (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L(-1), was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation.

  20. Coconut Model for Learning First Steps of Craniotomy Techniques and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Drummond-Braga, Bernardo; Peleja, Sebastião Berquó; Macedo, Guaracy; Drummond, Carlos Roberto S A; Costa, Pollyana H V; Garcia-Zapata, Marco T; Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi

    2016-12-01

    Neurosurgery simulation has gained attention recently due to changes in the medical system. First-year neurosurgical residents in low-income countries usually perform their first craniotomy on a real subject. Development of high-fidelity, cheap, and largely available simulators is a challenge in residency training. An original model for the first steps of craniotomy with cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance practice using a coconut is described. The coconut is a drupe from Cocos nucifera L. (coconut tree). The green coconut has 4 layers, and some similarity can be seen between these layers and the human skull. The materials used in the simulation are the same as those used in the operating room. The coconut is placed on the head holder support with the face up. The burr holes are made until endocarp is reached. The mesocarp is dissected, and the conductor is passed from one hole to the other with the Gigli saw. The hook handle for the wire saw is positioned, and the mesocarp and endocarp are cut. After sawing the 4 margins, mesocarp is detached from endocarp. Four burr holes are made from endocarp to endosperm. Careful dissection of the endosperm is done, avoiding liquid albumen leak. The Gigli saw is passed through the trephine holes. Hooks are placed, and the endocarp is cut. After cutting the 4 margins, it is dissected from the endosperm and removed. The main goal of the procedure is to remove the endocarp without fluid leakage. The coconut model for learning the first steps of craniotomy and cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance has some limitations. It is more realistic while trying to remove the endocarp without damage to the endosperm. It is also cheap and can be widely used in low-income countries. However, the coconut does not have anatomic landmarks. The mesocarp makes the model less realistic because it has fibers that make the procedure more difficult and different from a real craniotomy. The model has a potential pedagogic neurosurgical application for

  1. Influence of coconut oil administration on some hematologic and metabolic parameters in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Nandakumaran, Moorkath; Angelaki, Elisaveth; Al-Azemi, Nasser; Al-Sarraf, Hameed; Al-Saleh, Eyad

    2011-10-01

    Data on the effect of coconut oil intake on various hematologic and metabolic parameters in pregnant women or animals are scanty. Hence we attempted to assess the effect of oral administration of graded doses of this edible oil during pregnancy, on various hematologic and metabolic parameters in rats. Groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were given oral doses of 1 ml, 2 ml, and 4 ml coconut oil twice per day, respectively. Control group of rats were given tap water. Oral feeding of oil was done continuously for a period of 20 days and at the end of the study period the animals were lightly anaesthetized with ether and sacrificed to collect blood samples for analysis. Various hematologic parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin (Hg), platelets, lymphocytes, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were analyzed by a hematology blood analyzer, while metabolic parameters such as cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and protein were analyzed by specific analytical kits. Activities of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total antioxidant activity (TAO) were assessed by specific analytical kits. Statistical analysis of data was performed using a SPSS data analytical package. Oral administration of coconut oil for 20 continuous days of pregnancy did not significantly alter any of the hematologic parameters studied, compared to control group even when the oil was administered at a relatively massive dose of 4 ml/day. Administration of coconut oil appeared to decrease WBC, Hg, platelet, and lymphocyte blood concentrations in treated rats, but the difference, however, was not statistically significant (ANOVA test; p > 0.05). However, platelet concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in rats receiving 1 ml/day of coconut oil compared to control group rats. Administration of coconut oil did not alter the concentrations of protein, cholesterol

  2. Dry Dog Food Integrity and Mite Strain Influence the Density-Dependent Growth of the Stored-Product Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida).

    PubMed

    Rybanska, Dagmar; Hubert, Jan; Markovic, Martin; Erban, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The infestation of foodstuffs by mites is connected to health risks and economic losses. The cosmopolitan stored-product mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging and predominant pest of dry dog food. In this study, the influences on mite population growth of 1) the different dry dog food kernels present in the package; 2) the integrity of the dry dog food kernel, whether intact or crushed; 3) the initial population density of 10 or 100 specimens; and 4) the four mite strains used were investigated under laboratory conditions. The population growth tests were performed for 28 d at 85% relative humidity and 25°C. The intrinsic growth rates of the mites were compared. The population growth was higher on the brown and green kernels than on the red and white kernels. The kernel integrity affected the population growth, and the integrity effect was highly influenced by the initial mite population density. The mites showed density-dependent growth in three of the four mite strains tested. The initial population density changed the population growth ranking among the mite strains, thereby indicating strain-specific density-dependent growth. The results of this study have important implications for predictive models of stored-product mite populations in dry dog food. One practical recommendation is that the growth of mites should be considered with regard to the mite strains and according to the strain-specific density dependent growth. Next, the integrity of the kernels should be maintained because disrupted or crushed kernels promote increases in mite populations.

  3. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic targ...

  4. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  5. Detection and Identification of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Major infestations of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, have been reported in almost all the Caribbean islands and Venezuela. Correct identification of the mite and host associations is essential for the management and biocontrol of this invasive mite pest. This paper provides information o...

  6. A method for rapidly marking adult varroa mites for use in brood inoculation experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We explored a method for marking varroa mites using correction fluid (PRESTO!TM Jumbo Correction Pen, Pentel Co., Ltd., Japan). Individual mites were placed on a piece of nylon mesh (165 mesh) to prevent the mites from moving during marking. A small piece of nylon fishing line (diameter = 0.30 mm)...

  7. Influence of spatio-temporal resource availability on mushroom mite diversity.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kimiko

    2013-11-01

    Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects).

  8. Are Demodex mites principal, conspirator, accomplice, witness or bystander in the cause of rosacea?

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    As the only permanent human ectoparasite, the role of human Demodex mites in health and diseases remains largely unclarified. In view of the ecological interaction between organisms of two different species, a type of commensalism between Demodex mites and humans (the former benefit, the latter unaffected) is most likely, while parasitism occurs temporarily and spatially in the diseased state (the former benefit, the latter harmed). As part of normal skin microbiota, the causal role of Demodex mites in the initiation of rosacea can neither fulfill the classical Henle-Koch's principal nor the advanced criteria proposed by Fredericks and Relman for molecular detection of non-cultivatable microorganisms. Epidemiological analysis using Hill's criteria fails to support the causative role of Demodex mites in rosacea regarding the strength of association, specificity and temporality of association, biological gradient and plausibility as well as clinical coherence, therapeutic experimentation and medical analogy. In application of Rothman's sufficient cause model to evaluate the contribution of Demodex mites to rosacea on a population basis, Demodex mites can be regarded as a non-necessary, non-sufficient causal factor for certain forms of rosacea. Further strategies to dissect the association between Demodex mites and rosacea may include studying the possible existence of more virulent forms of mites with a higher pathogenicity, the endosymbiotic bacteria in certain life periods of mites, the interactions between mites and human hosts or between mites and environment, and to set up ex vivo culture models for Demodex mites.

  9. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials suspended delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to...

  10. Whole-plant adjustments in coconut (Cocos nucifera) in response to sink-source imbalance.

    PubMed

    Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Roupsard, O; Jourdan, C; Dingkuhn, M

    2008-08-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial tropical monocotyledon that produces fruit continuously. The physiological function of the large amounts of sucrose stored in coconut stems is unknown. To test the hypothesis that reserve storage and mobilization enable the crop to adjust to variable sink-source relationships at the scale of the whole plant, we investigated the dynamics of dry matter production, yield and yield components, and concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in a coconut plantation on Vanuatu Island in the South Pacific. Two treatments were implemented continuously over 29 months (April 2002 to August 2004): 50% leaf pruning (to reduce the source) and 100% fruit and inflorescence pruning (to reduce the sink). The pruning treatments had little effect on carbohydrate reserves because they affected only petioles, not the main reserve pool in the stem. Both pruning treatments greatly reduced dry matter production of the reproductive compartment, but vegetative growth and development were negligibly affected by treatment and season. Leaf pruning increased radiation-use efficiency (RUE) initially, and fruit pruning greatly reduced RUE throughout the experiment. Changes in RUE were negatively correlated with leaflet soluble sugar concentration, indicating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. We conclude that vegetative development and growth of coconut show little phenotypic plasticity, assimilate demand for growth being largely independent of a fluctuating assimilate supply. The resulting sink-source imbalances were partly compensated for by transitory reserves and, more importantly, by variable RUE in the short term, and by adjustment of fruit load in the long term. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed, as well as modeling concepts that may be applied to coconut and similar tree crops.

  11. Use of coconut fiber as a low-cost thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kochhar, G.S.; Manohar, K.

    1997-11-01

    Cost is one of the major factors to be considered when choosing a thermal insulator. Design engineers continuously strive to provide the best at the lowest possible cost. In the tropics climate conditions are essentially hot and humid and a cause for daily discomfort. To some extent, air-conditioning of buildings has solved this problem. The major deterrent to air-conditioning is the exorbitant cost of imported thermal insulation materials. This has prompted a search for local, low-cost but effective thermal insulation for buildings. Coconut fiber is available at minimal cost from the copra industry in Trinidad, as it is a waste product from the coconut. The viability of using coconut fiber as building thermal insulation was explored by conducting thermal conductivity tests on 200 mm X 400 mm X 60 mm thick slab-like specimens. The test equipment used was a locally designed constant temperature hot box apparatus. This apparatus was designed to test slab-like specimens under steady-state conditions. The reliability if this experimental set up was checked using Gypsum Plaster. The thermal conductivity test results for coconut fiber over the density range 30 kg/m{sup 3} to 115 kg/m{sup 3} showed the characteristic hooked shape graph for fibrous material. For the 60 mm thick specimens at a mean temperature of 39 C, a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.058 W/mK occurred at an optimum density of 85 kg/m{sup 3}. The thermal conductivity of commonly used industrial insulators, namely loose-fill expanded vermiculite, cellular glass and blanket fiber glass, at a mean temperature of 38 C are 0.066 W/mK, 0.061 W/mK and 0.052 W/mK respectively. When compared, these results show that air dried coconut fiber has far reaching potential for use as an effective building thermal insulation.

  12. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    PubMed

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  13. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.

  14. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis — A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. PMID:25838632

  15. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  16. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  17. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  18. Possible induction of food allergy during mite immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Ree, R; Antonicelli, L; Akkerdaas, J H; Garritani, M S; Aalberse, R C; Bonifazi, F

    1996-02-01

    Sera of 17 patients receiving immunotherapy for house-dust mite allergy were tested for IgE antibodies against snail and shrimp. Serum samples were taken at the start of immunotherapy and 14-20 months later. While the average IgE response to mite, Der p 1, and Der p 2 did not alter significantly, the average response to snail showed a significant increase. This included two conversions from negative to strongly positive. These novel IgE antibodies against snail were shown to be cross-reactive with mite. Three patients had a positive RAST for shrimp. For one of them, a strong increase of IgE against shrimp (and snail) was observed. In 2/3 snail/shrimp-positive sera, IgE antibodies against the cross-reactive allergen tropomyosin from mite, snail, and shrimp were demonstrated. A clear IgE response to snail (> 10% binding in a snail RAST) was confirmed by a positive skin prick test (SPT) for 6/10 patients. The two patients with antitropomyosin IgE also had a positive SPT for shrimp, and demonstrated the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating shrimp. The observations in this study indicate that house-dust mite immunotherapy is accompanied by the induction of IgE against foods, including tropomyosin-reactive IgE. Food allergy (OAS) was observed in patients that had IgE antibodies against this cross-reactive allergen. In conclusion, induction of IgE during mite immunotherapy might occasionally cause allergy to foods of invertebrate animal origin.

  19. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  20. Measurement of airborne mite allergen exposure in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Sasaki, R; Hashimoto, M; Kobayashi, C; Yasueda, H

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the extent of personal exposure to airborne mite allergens, subjects were asked to carry a personal air sampler when in their houses. The level of Der 1 allergen trapped by the sampler was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. There were great variations in airborne Der 1 exposure in each subject. When used bedding was replaced with new allergen-free bedding, we detected a decrease in the allergen level. The use of new bedding seems to be an effective measure for reducing airborne mite allergen exposure.

  1. A review of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitising Kenyan birds.

    PubMed

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form. 

  2. Asynchronous development of honey bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2011-08-01

    A high proportion of nonreproductive (NR) Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). This study was conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host reinvasion of varroa mites on mite reproduction. We collected foundress mites from stages of brood (newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, and pink-eyed pupae) and phoretic mites from adult bees. We then inoculated these mites into cells containing newly sealed larvae. Successful reproduction (foundress laid both a mature male and female) was low (13%) but most common in mites coming from sealed larvae. Unsuccessful reproductive attempts (foundress failed to produce both a mature male and female) were most common in mites from sealed larvae (22%) and prepupae (61%). Lack of any progeny was most common for mites from white-eyed (83%) and pink-eyed pupae (92%). We also collected foundress mites from sealed larvae and transferred them to cells containing newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, or pink-eyed pupae. Successful reproduction only occurred in the transfers to sealed larvae (26%). Unsuccessful reproductive attempts were most common in transfers to newly sealed larvae (40%) and to prepupae (25%). Unsuccessful attempts involved the production of immature progeny (60%), the production of only mature daughters (26%) or the production of only a mature male (14%). Generally, lack of progeny was not associated with mites having a lack of stored sperm. Our results suggest that mites exposed to the removal of prepupae or older brood due to hygiene are unlikely to produce viable mites if they invade new hosts soon after brood removal. Asynchrony between the reproductive status of reinvading mites and the developmental stage of their reinvasion hosts may be a primary cause of NR mites in hygienic colonies. Even if reinvading mites use hosts having the proper age

  3. Development of a system for treatment of coconut industry wastewater using electrochemical processes followed by Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lúcio de Moura; Duarte, José Leandro da Silva; Pereira, Nathalia Marcelino; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A; Tonholo, Josealdo; Zanta, Carmen Lúcia de Paiva E Silva

    2014-01-01

    The coconut processing industry generates a significant amount of liquid waste. New technologies targeting the treatment of industrial effluents have emerged, including advanced oxidation processes, the Fenton reaction, and electrochemical processes, which produce strong oxidizing species to remove organic matter. In this study we combined the Fenton reaction and electrochemical process to treat wastewater generated by the coconut industry. We prepared a synthetic wastewater consisting of a mixture of coconut milk and water and assessed how the Fenton reagents' concentration, the cathode material, the current density, and the implementation of associated technologies affect its treatment. Electrochemical treatment followed by the Fenton reaction diminished turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 85 and 95%, respectively. The Fenton reaction followed by the electrochemical process reduced turbidity and COD by 93 and 85%, respectively. Therefore, a combination of the Fenton and electrochemical technologies can effectively treat the effluent from the coconut processing industry.

  4. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2013-01-01

    Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.

  5. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata

    1991-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  6. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.; Idris, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

  7. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, Julia J; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs"), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  8. Differential Water Mite Parasitism, Phenoloxidase Activity, and Resistance to Mites Are Unrelated across Pairs of Related Damselfly Species

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarek, Julia J.; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five “species pairs”), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species’ relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity. PMID:25658982

  9. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    PubMed

    Awua, Adolf K; Doe, Edna D; Agyare, Rebecca

    2011-10-27

    Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria

  10. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the

  11. No One Saw this Coming: Endoparasitic Mites Behind the Eyes of a Double-crested Cormorant.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kate L; Spicer, Greg S; OConnor, Barry M; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2017-02-06

    We found hundreds of mites behind the eyes of a Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae). The mites were Neottialges evansi (Acari: Hypoderatidae), representing the first report of this parasite in P. auritus from western North America. Deutonymphs of N. evansi are endoparasites, typically reported infecting fat deposits over the pectoral muscles, axillary areas, and vent of cormorants. Here, mites infected only orbital tissues, a new infection site for hypoderatid mites. We suggest a lack of reports of this infection site could be explained by limited scrutiny of orbits, and deutonymphs mites infecting orbits may be more common than expected.

  12. Olfactory responses of medically and economically important mites (Acari: Epidermoptidae and Acaridae) to volatile chemicals.

    PubMed

    Skelton, A C; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2007-03-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Epidermoptidae), the American house dust mite, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae), the mold mite, are medically and economically important but controlling them has proved difficult, and recolonization is commonplace. Their behavioral responses to different sources of volatile chemicals are still not fully elucidated. For the first time, the Y-tube olfactometer, which is an enclosed bioassay to resolve responses to test and control volatiles, has been successfully used with these mites. Mites were tested individually, and both T. putrescentiae and D. farinae responded to food volatiles. Y-tube olfactometers may be used to test for potential semiochemicals, thereby increasing knowledge of our behavior of astigmatic mites.

  13. Improvement of shrimp allergy after sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, G; Spadolini, I; Santucci, A; Cova, V; Conti, C; Corvetta, A; Passalacqua, G

    2011-10-01

    The appropriateness of house dust mite specific immunotherapy in patients allergic to shrimps still remains unclear We present a clinical case as an immunological model for the strong sensitization to tropomyosin with symptoms of anaphylaxis due to shrimps and coexisting asthma due to house dust mite. The improvement in respiratory symptoms for house dust mite and in the food challenge for shrimps during mite immunotherapy with a known and high dosage of tropomyosin suggests the hypothesis that efficacy of mite immunotherapy in food allergy to tropomyosin may be dose dependent.

  14. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species.

  15. Rickettsial pathogens in the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Macronyssidae) from Egyptian rats (Rattus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals.

  16. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  17. Effect of addition of coconut water (Cocos nucifera) to the freezing media on post-thaw viability of boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, María; Centurión-Castro, Fernando; Alfaro-Gamboa, Militza; Aké-López, Ricardo; Herrera-Camacho, José

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment were to evaluate the addition of coconut water in natura to the freezing media, compare the effect of deionized water vs filtered water of coconut over the post-thaw seminal characteristics, and evaluate the effect of the deionized water and in natura coconut water on the seminal characteristics of boar sperm at different post-thaw times. Thirty-four ejaculates were used divided in three aliquots which received one of the following treatments (T): T1, LEY (bidistilled water, lactose, and egg yolk) and LEYGO (LEY + glycerol and Orvus ET paste); T2, LEY(A) (coconut deionized water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(A); and T3, LEY(B) (in natura coconut water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(B). Samples of boar semen were frozen according to the Westendorf method, thawed at 38°C, and evaluated at three incubation times (0, 30, and 60 min). Seminal characteristics assessed were motility (Mot), acrosomal integrity (AInt), membrane integrity (MInt), and mitochondrial activity (MAct). T1 showed a higher percentage of viable sperm than T3 (Mot 36.5 vs 5.4 %, AInt 61.8 vs 41.2 %, MInt 50.4 vs 41.3 %, and MAct 56.9 vs 50.5 %). T2 kept a higher percentage of viable sperm at all incubation times. In natura coconut water showed a detrimental effect over the viability of the frozen-thawed boar semen. Deionized coconut water improved the boar semen viability post-thaw, outperforming results of in natura coconut water.

  18. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  19. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  20. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence.