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Sample records for code plagiarism detection

  1. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  2. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-01-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and…

  3. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermek, Dragutin; Novak, Matija

    2016-01-01

    In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student…

  4. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  5. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  6. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  7. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  8. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  9. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  10. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action.

  11. The Cat-and-Mouse Game of Plagiarism Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how colleges, frustrated by students who use the Internet to plagiarize, are going online to enable professors to fight back. Explains that plagiarism-detection software, available for several years, is increasing in use. (EV)

  12. The Toolbox for Local and Global Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Scherbinin, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Digital plagiarism is a problem for educators all over the world. There are many software tools on the market for uncovering digital plagiarism. Most of them can work only with text submissions. In this paper, we present a new architecture for a plagiarism detection tool that can work with many different kinds of digital submissions, from plain or…

  13. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  14. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  15. Online Plagiarism Detection Services--Saviour or Scourge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Although the exponential growth of the Internet has made it easier than ever to carry out plagiarism, it has also made it much easier to detect. This paper gives an overview of the many different methods of detecting web-based plagiarism which are currently available, assessing practical matters such as cost, functionality and performance.…

  16. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  17. Realigning the Focus of Plagiarism Detection Using "Plagiarismdetect.com"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabapathy, Elangkeeran A/L; Rahim, Rozlan Abd; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which "plagiarismdetect.com," an internet help/tool to detect plagiarism helps academicians tackle the ever-growing problem of plagiarism. Concerned with term papers, essays and most of the time with full-blown research reports, a tool like "plagiarismdetect.com" may…

  18. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  19. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  20. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  1. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services

    PubMed Central

    Garner, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service (etblast.org) which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644

  2. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services.

    PubMed

    Garner, H R

    2011-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers; however, there is at least 1 fee-based service (CrossRef) and 1 free service (etblast.org), which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors, and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided.

  3. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  4. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  5. Protecting Students' Intellectual Property in the Web Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Dyagilev, Vadim; Tskhay, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) play a central role in communications in online and distance education. In the digital era, with all the information now accessible at students' fingertips, plagiarism detection services (PDS) have become a must-have part of LMS. Such integration provides a seamless experience for users, allowing PDS to check…

  6. Judge Rules Plagiarism-Detection Tool Falls under "Fair Use"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Judge Claude M. Hilton, of the U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Virginia, in March found that scanning the student papers for the purpose of detecting plagiarism is a "highly transformative" use that falls under the fair-use provision of copyright law. He ruled that the company "makes no use of any work's particular expressive or creative…

  7. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  8. Using the Google Search Engine to Detect Word-for-Word Plagiarism in Master's Theses: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Mark; Holmberg, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore Google's potential for detecting occurrences of word-for-word (1) plagiarism in master's theses. The authors sought answers to these questions:1. Is Google an effective tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?2. Is Google an efficient tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?The first…

  9. An analysis of student privacy rights in the use of plagiarism detection systems.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students' rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when implementing such systems. Student work is personal information, not the property of the educator or institution. The student has the right to be fully informed about how plagiarism detection works, and the fact that their work will be permanently archived as a result. Furthermore, plagiarism detection should not be used if the permanent archiving of a student's work may expose him or her to future harm.

  10. Using an Electronic Text-Matching Tool (Turnitin) to Detect Plagiarism in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Robert; Rudzki, Romuald

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with reporting the experience and findings of staff using a commercially-available text-matching tool (Turnitin) to detect plagiarism in a university setting in New Zealand. The use of actual instances of plagiarism revealed through Turnitin in a teaching department is a departure from the more usual self-reporting…

  11. Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A Case Study in Detection and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine; DiBiase, David

    2006-01-01

    Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State's World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS) certificate program.…

  12. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  13. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  14. Plagiarism in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  15. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  16. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  17. Turnitoff: Identifying and Fixing a Hole in Current Plagiarism Detection Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, James

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, "plagiarism detection software" has become popular in universities and colleges, in an attempt to stem the tide of plagiarised student coursework. Such software attempts to detect any copied material and identify its source. The most popular such software is Turnitin, a commercial system used by thousands of institutions…

  18. To Cheat or Not to Cheat? A Trial of the JISC Plagiarism Detection Service with Biological Sciences Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badge, Joanne L.; Cann, Alan J.; Scott, Jon

    2007-01-01

    In the UK, there is great concern about the perceived increase in plagiarized work being submitted by students in higher educations. Although there is much debate, the reasons for the perceived change are not completely clear. Here we present the results of a 2-year trial of the JISC Plagiarism Detection Service (PDS) involving hundreds of…

  19. The problem of plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa S; Steneck, Nicholas H

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a form of research misconduct and a serious violation of the norms of science. It is the misrepresentation of another's ideas or words as one's own, without proper acknowledgement of the original source. Certain aspects of plagiarism make it less straightforward than this definition suggests. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. Federal Government has developed and refined its policies on misconduct, and Federal agencies, as well as research institutions, have established approaches to responding to allegations and instances of plagiarism. At present, efforts to avert plagiarism focus on plagiarism-detection software and instructional strategies.

  20. Turnitin[R]: The Student Perspective on Using Plagiarism Detection Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in plagiarism detection systems, such as the web-based Turnitin system. However, no study has so far tried to look at how students react towards those systems being used. This exploratory study examines the attitudes of students on a postgraduate module after using Turnitin as their standard way of…

  1. Student and Staff Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Plagiarism Detection Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Doug; Yeoh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine student and staff perceptions of the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software. A mixed methods approach was undertaken, using a research model adapted from the literature. Eight hours of interviews were conducted with six students and six teaching staff from Curtin Business School at Curtin…

  2. How to Act When Research Misconduct Is Not Detected by Software but Revealed by the Author of the Plagiarized Article.

    PubMed

    Baydik, Olga D; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2016-10-01

    The detection of plagiarism in scholarly articles is a complex process. It requires not just quantitative analysis with the similarity recording by anti-plagiarism software but also assessment of the readers' opinion, pointing to the theft of ideas, methodologies, and graphics. In this article we describe a blatant case of plagiarism by Chinese authors, who copied a Russian article from a non-indexed and not widely visible Russian journal, and published their own report in English in an open-access journal indexed by Scopus and Web of Science and archived in PubMed Central. The details of copying in the translated English article were presented by the Russian author to the chief editor of the index journal, consultants from Scopus, anti-plagiarism experts, and the administrator of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The correspondents from Scopus and COPE pointed to the decisive role of the editors' of the English journal who may consider further actions if plagiarism is confirmed. After all, the chief editor of the English journal retracted the article on grounds of plagiarism and published a retraction note, although no details of the complexity of the case were reported. The case points to the need for combining anti-plagiarism efforts and actively seeking opinion of non-native English-speaking authors and readers who may spot intellectual theft which is not always detected by software.

  3. Plagiarism: understanding and management.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Paul

    2007-08-01

    An epidemic of plagiarism is sweeping the world. A study carried out in the US suggested that 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once (Ashworth et al 1997). Alternative evidence from an American education and software company, Plagiarism.org, reported that 36% of undergraduates plagiarise written material and that 90% of students believe that cheaters are never caught or disciplined (Plagiarism.org 2005). Closer to home, research carried out in the UK by Clare (1996) suggested that 50% of students copy work and invent data. More recently the Plagiarism Advisory Service, based at Northumbria University, reported that 25% of students plagiarise, while lecturers only detect plagiarism 3% of the time (Plagiarism Advisory Service 2006).

  4. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  5. Changing Attitudes in Learning and Assessment: Cast-Off "Plagiarism Detection" and Cast-On Self-Service Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Esyin; Ding, Seong Lin; Rowell, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Considering the change of attitudes of plagiarism detection to assessment for learning, it is necessary to explore the effect of the paradigm shift for Turnitin, from "plagiarism detection" to self-service learning aid. Two research questions are explored in the present study: (1) How Turnitin augments self-service skills of students and…

  6. A Model for Determining Student Plagiarism: Electronic Detection and Academic Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretag, Tracey; Mahmud, Saadia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights based on the authors' own practice as university instructors, researchers and arbitrators of student plagiarism. Recognising the difficulty in defining plagiarism while still acknowledging the practical importance of doing so, the authors find the common element between the various types of plagiarism to be the lack of…

  7. The Case of the Pilfered Paper: Implications of Online Writing Assistance and Web-Based Plagiarism Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Phoebe; Vaughn, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    While there is nothing new about academic dishonesty, how it is committed, prevented, and detected has been dramatically transformed by the advent of online technologies. This article briefly describes the concurrent emergence of online writing assistance services and Web-based plagiarism detection tools and examines the implications of both for…

  8. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    accused authors (all of them), the authors whose work may have been plagiarized, and the copyright holder of the original material. The correspondence will include the alleged plagiarizing language and a copy of the original and suspected work. If all parties agree that plagiarism (whether intentional or unintentional) has occurred, a written letter of apology should be sent promptly by the offending author(s) to the Editor/Publisher and to the authors and copyright holder whose work has been plagiarized. If the offending work has been published, a notice of plagiarism, citing both the plagiarized and the offending articles, will be published in the next available issue of PMB. The plagiarizing authors shall agree that all dissemination of the offending article shall be accompanied by the notice of plagiarism. In the most serious cases of plagiarism, a retraction (erratum) will be published (in accordance with the STM guidelines on 'Preservation of the objective record of science', retraction is favoured over removal in virtually all cases), and further sanctions applied. If the offending work hasn't yet been published (i.e. it is detected by the referees), sanctions will still be applied. If the accused authors deny that plagiarism has occurred, the Editor and Publisher must explore the accusation further. The investigation will also involve the Journals Director and the Chief Scientific Adviser of IOP Publishing (who publish PMB on behalf of IPEM) and also the General Secretary of IPEM. All parties to the allegation will be encouraged to submit corroborating evidence, and the accused authors granted an opportunity (at no expense to the journal) to testify in person to defend themselves against the allegation. The investigation should be concluded as quickly as possible (particularly if the article in question has already been published online or in print). If the investigation of the allegation of plagiarism concludes in support of the allegation, then the process for

  9. Plagiarism Detection: A Comparison of Teaching Assistants and a Software Tool in Identifying Cheating in a Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Eva; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Essays that are assigned as homework in large classes are prone to cheating via unauthorized collaboration. In this study, we compared the ability of a software tool based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and student teaching assistants to detect plagiarism in a large group of students. To do so, we took two approaches: the first approach was…

  10. A Note on Academic Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, David

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that academic plagiarism is not addressed as vigorously as needed because the university code of professional conduct is not fully evolved and does not consider plagiarism as malpractice. In treating the problem, it is suggested that one place to start is teaching proper use of citation and annotation. (MSE)

  11. Detecting and (not) dealing with plagiarism in an engineering paper: beyond CrossCheck-a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Huo, Zhao-lin; Zhang, Yue-hong

    2014-06-01

    In papers in areas such as engineering and the physical sciences, figures, tables and formulae are the basic elements to communicate the authors' core ideas, workings and results. As a computational text-matching tool, CrossCheck cannot work on these non-textual elements to detect plagiarism. Consequently, when comparing engineering or physical sciences papers, CrossCheck may return a low similarity index even when plagiarism has in fact taken place. A case of demonstrated plagiarism involving engineering papers with a low similarity index is discussed, and editor's experiences and suggestions are given on how to tackle this problem. The case shows a lack of understanding of plagiarism by some authors or editors, and illustrates the difficulty of getting some editors and publishers to take appropriate action. Consequently, authors, journal editors, and reviewers, as well as research institutions all are duty-bound not only to recognize the differences between ethical and unethical behavior in order to protect a healthy research environment, and also to maintain consistent ethical publishing standards.

  12. Avoid the Plague: Tips and Tricks for Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ugly word. Copying someone else's work and attempting to claim credit for one's self is an act that involves a number of ethical failings--theft, laziness, coveting, and lying among others. Many educators blame the Internet for what they perceive as the rise of plagiarism. Although the Internet certainly enables more efficient…

  13. Plagiarism, Cheating and Research Integrity: Case Studies from a Masters Program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Carnero, Andres M; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Konda, Kelika A; Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, German F; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Maguiña, Jorge L; Segura, Eddy R; Quispe, Antonio M; Smith, Edward S; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G

    2016-11-15

    Plagiarism is a serious, yet widespread type of research misconduct, and is often neglected in developing countries. Despite its far-reaching implications, plagiarism is poorly acknowledged and discussed in the academic setting, and insufficient evidence exists in Latin America and developing countries to inform the development of preventive strategies. In this context, we present a longitudinal case study of seven instances of plagiarism and cheating arising in four consecutive classes (2011-2014) of an Epidemiology Masters program in Lima, Peru, and describes the implementation and outcomes of a multifaceted, "zero-tolerance" policy aimed at introducing research integrity. Two cases involved cheating in graded assignments, and five cases correspond to plagiarism in the thesis protocol. Cases revealed poor awareness of high tolerance to plagiarism, poor academic performance, and widespread writing deficiencies, compensated with patchwriting and copy-pasting. Depending on the events' severity, penalties included course failure (6/7) and separation from the program (3/7). Students at fault did not engage in further plagiarism. Between 2011 and 2013, the Masters program sequentially introduced a preventive policy consisting of: (i) intensified research integrity and scientific writing education, (ii) a stepwise, cumulative writing process; (iii) honor codes; (iv) active search for plagiarism in all academic products; and (v) a "zero-tolerance" policy in response to documented cases. No cases were detected in 2014. In conclusion, plagiarism seems to be widespread in resource-limited settings and a greater response with educational and zero-tolerance components is needed to prevent it.

  14. Plagiarism Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  15. Plagiarism Software: No Magic Bullet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warn, James

    2006-01-01

    The ready availability of Internet resources has made it easier than ever for students to plagiarize and many higher education institutions have resorted to checking essays with plagiarism detection software. Student behaviour is likely to change in response to this increased scrutiny but not necessarily in the desired direction. Internet…

  16. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-12-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces.

  17. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-01-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces. PMID:21487489

  18. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.

  19. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  20. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism.

  1. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  2. An Institutional Code of Ethics--A Response to Attitude of Israeli Teachers' Education College Students towards Academic Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold,, Roni; Baratz, Lea

    2011-01-01

    Academic plagiarism becomes very easy due to new opportunities provided by the Internet era (Scrinber, 2003; Underwood & Sazabo, 2003; Ross, 2005). We believe that academic dishonesty is a major issue, because it strikes at the heart of the academic and social values: honesty, trust and integrity. When dealing with education students, the…

  3. Source-Code Plagiarism in Universities: A Comparative Study of Student Perspectives in China and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongyang; Joy, Mike; Cosma, Georgina; Boyatt, Russell; Sinclair, Jane; Yau, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There has been much research and discussion relating to variations in plagiaristic activity observed in students from different demographic backgrounds. Differences in behaviour have been noted in many studies, although the underlying reasons are still a matter of debate. Existing work focuses mainly on textual plagiarism, and most often derives…

  4. Rethinking Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Chynette

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism, presenting someone's words or other creative products as one's own, is a mandatory discussion and writing assignment in many undergraduate business communication courses. Class discussions about this topic tend to be lively, ranging from questions about simply omitting identified sources to different standards of ethical behaviors…

  5. "Turnitin Said It Wasn't Happy": Can the Regulatory Discourse of Plagiarism Detection Operate as a Change Artefact for Writing Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Claire; Beaumont, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper centres on the tensions between the introduction of plagiarism detection software (Turnitin) for student and tutor use at undergraduate level and the aim to promote a developmental approach to writing for assessment at a UK university. Aims to promote developmental models for writing often aim to counteract the effects of the structural…

  6. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  7. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  8. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    PubMed

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools.

  9. Plagiarism in research.

    PubMed

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Plagiarism is a major problem for research. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the concept of "plagiarism" and discuss plagiarism normatively in relation to research. We suggest that plagiarism should be understood as "someone using someone else's intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own" and argue that this is an adequate and fruitful definition. We discuss a number of circumstances that make plagiarism more or less grave and the plagiariser more or less blameworthy. As a result of our normative analysis, we suggest that what makes plagiarism reprehensible as such is that it distorts scientific credit. In addition, intentional plagiarism involves dishonesty. There are, furthermore, a number of potentially negative consequences of plagiarism.

  10. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate.

    PubMed

    Supak-Smolcić, Vesna; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biodhemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biodchemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal.

  11. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate

    PubMed Central

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biochemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biochemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal. PMID:23894858

  12. Patchwork plagiarism--a jigsaw of stolen puzzle pieces.

    PubMed

    Supak Smolcić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism remains at the top in terms of interest to the scientific community. In its many vicious forms, patchwork plagiarism is characterized by numerous unresolved issues and often passes "below the radar" of editors and reviewers. The problem of detecting the complexity of misconduct has been partially resolved by plagiarism detection software. However, interpretation of relevant reports is not always obvious or easy. This article deals with plagiarism in general and patchwork plagiarism in particular, as well as related problems that editors must deal with to maintain the integrity of scientific journals.

  13. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  14. The plagiarism project.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Nancy R; Sorensen, Karen; Habousha, Racheline G; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a problem plaguing academia for centuries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to copy material from one electronic document and paste it into another. Many cases are unintentional, as writers are unaware of the rules regarding plagiarism. This paper provides an overview of plagiarism and describes a project in which librarians partnered with the assistant dean of a graduate science program to educate students about the perils of plagiarism and encourage ethical writing practices.

  15. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements. PMID:17288582

  16. Is It Cheating or Learning the Craft of Writing? Using Turnitin to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy…

  17. Pattern of Plagiarism in Novice Students' Generated Programs: An Experimental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Mahmoudabadi, Elham; Khodadadi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows that in computer programming courses plagiarism is a widespread problem. With the growing number of students in such courses, manual plagiarism detection is impractical. This requires instructors to use one of the many available plagiarism detection tools. Prior to choosing one of such tools, a metric that assures the…

  18. AuDeNTES: Automatic Detection of teNtative Plagiarism According to a rEference Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Leonardo; Micucci, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, students frequently take advantage of someone else's work to improve their own evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior seriously threatens the integrity of the academic system, and teachers invest substantial effort in preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students take examinations requiring the production of…

  19. Antiplagiarism Software Takes on the Honor Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Among the 100-odd colleges with academic honor codes, plagiarism-detection services raise a knotty problem: Is software compatible with a system based on trust? The answer frequently devolves to the size and culture of the university. Colleges with traditional student-run honor codes tend to "forefront" trust, emphasizing it above all else. This…

  20. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  1. Towards a testbed for malicious code detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, R.; Kerchen, P.; Crawford, R.; Ho, W.; Crossley, J.; Fink, G.; Levitt, K.; Olsson, R.; Archer, M. . Div. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes an environment for detecting many types of malicious code, including computer viruses, Trojan horses, and time/logic bombs. This malicious code testbed (MCT) is based upon both static and dynamic analysis tools developed at the University of California, Davis, which have been shown to be effective against certain types of malicious code. The testbed extends the usefulness of these tools by using them in a complementary fashion to detect more general cases of malicious code. Perhaps more importantly, the MCT allows administrators and security analysts to check a program before installation, thereby avoiding any damage a malicious program might inflict. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Stealing or Sharing? Cross-Cultural Issues of Plagiarism in an Open-Source Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haitch, Russell

    2016-01-01

    More professors and institutions want to move from a detect-and-punish to an educate-and-prevent model for dealing with plagiarism. Understanding the causes of plagiarism, especially among international students, can aid in efforts to educate students and prevent plagiarism. Research points to a confluence of causal factors, such as time pressure,…

  3. Plagiarism, Cultural Diversity and Metaphor--Implications for Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex, culturally loaded concept which causes much anxiety for both academics and students. Exactly what constitutes plagiarism is dependent on a number of contextual factors. Despite the difficulties associated with defining and detecting plagiarism, it is said to be on the increase, and students from "other cultures"…

  4. Technology and Plagiarism in the University: Brief Report of a Trial in Detecting Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Rob; Johnson, Diane; Bimber, Bruce; Almeroth, Kevin; Michaels, George

    2004-01-01

    College students exploit information technology to cheat on papers and assignments, but for the most part university faculty employ few technological techniques to detect cheating. This paper reports on a trial of software for the detection of cheating in a large undergraduate survey class. The paper discusses the decision to adopt electronic…

  5. Plagiarism and Cheating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Permuth, Steve

    Plagiarism and cheating can be defined as academic dishonesty and represent policy concerns among all levels of education. Such cases involve academic versus disciplinary decisions and the need to determine the student's understanding of the definition of plagiarism or cheating. This paper analyzes six legal issues raised in court cases and…

  6. The Plagiarism Polyconundrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethany, Reine D.

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism hinders student success because it shortcuts genuine writing practice and incurs penalties when discovered. Although students are aware of its potential consequences, plagiarism continues. This article reflects on the polyconundrum of empathizing with the many hindrances to student writing while deploying strategies to reduce plagiarism…

  7. Originality Detection Software in a Graduate Policy Course: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreuth Zeman, Laura; Steen, Julie A.; Metz Zeman, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the use of Turnitin originality detection software in a graduate social work course. Qualitative analysis of student responses revealed positive and negative spent completing assignments, and the tone of the class. Quantitative analysis of students' originality scores indicated a short-term…

  8. The Anatomy of a Plagiarism Initiative: One Library's Campus Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madray, Amrita

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism in media and print continues to be a major issue for professors, librarians, and students. Through initiatives and outreach from the B. Davis Memorial Library at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University, plagiarism Web sites have been created and workshops and programs continually provided for faculty and students to detect,…

  9. Automated assistance for detecting malicious code

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.; Kerchen, P.; Levitt, K.; Olsson, R.; Archer, M.; Casillas, M.

    1993-06-18

    This paper gives an update on the continuing work on the Malicious Code Testbed (MCT). The MCT is a semi-automated tool, operating in a simulated, cleanroom environment, that is capable of detecting many types of malicious code, such as viruses, Trojan horses, and time/logic bombs. The MCT allows security analysts to check a program before installation, thereby avoiding any damage a malicious program might inflict.

  10. Prevalence of plagiarism in recent submissions to the Croatian Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Baždarić, Ksenija; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Brumini, Gordana; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of plagiarism in manuscripts submitted for publication in the Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ). All manuscripts submitted in 2009-2010 were analyzed using plagiarism detection software: eTBLAST, CrossCheck, and WCopyfind. Plagiarism was suspected in manuscripts with more than 10% of the text derived from other sources. These manuscripts were checked against the Déjà vu database and manually verified by investigators. Of 754 submitted manuscripts, 105 (14%) were identified by the software as suspicious of plagiarism. Manual verification confirmed that 85 (11%) manuscripts were plagiarized: 63 (8%) were true plagiarism and 22 (3%) were self-plagiarism. Plagiarized manuscripts were mostly submitted from China (21%), Croatia (14%), and Turkey (19%). There was no significant difference in the text similarity rate between plagiarized and self-plagiarized manuscripts (25% [95% CI 22-27%] vs. 28% [95% CI 20-33%]; U = 645.50; P = 0.634). Differences in text similarity rate were found between various sections of self-plagiarized manuscripts (H = 12.65, P = 0.013). The plagiarism rate in the Materials and Methods (61% (95% CI 41-68%) was higher than in the Results (23% [95% CI 17-36%], U = 33.50; P = 0.009) or Discussion (25.5 [95% CI 15-35%]; U = 57.50; P < 0.001) sections. Three authors were identified in the Déjà vu database. Plagiarism detection software combined with manual verification may be used to detect plagiarized manuscripts and prevent their publication. The prevalence of plagiarized manuscripts submitted to the CMJ, a journal dedicated to promoting research integrity, was 11% in the 2-year period 2009-2010.

  11. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turnitin.Com as a Tool for Reducing Plagiarism in Graduate Student Term Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…

  13. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  14. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  15. Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writing - Reasons, recognition and remedies.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jyotindu

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is one of the most serious forms of scientific misconduct prevalent today and is an important reason for significant proportion of rejection of manuscripts and retraction of published articles. It is time for the medical fraternity to unanimously adopt a 'zero tolerance' policy towards this menace. While responsibility for ensuring a plagiarism-free manuscript primarily lies with the authors, editors cannot absolve themselves of their accountability. The only way to write a plagiarism-free manuscript for an author is to write an article in his/her own words, literally and figuratively. This article discusses various types of plagiarism, reasons for increasingly reported instances of plagiarism, pros and cons of use of plagiarism detection tools for detecting plagiarism and role of authors and editors in preventing/avoiding plagiarism in a submitted manuscript. Regular usage of professional plagiarism detection tools for similarity checks with critical interpretation by the editorial team at the pre-review stage will certainly help in reducing the menace of plagiarism in submitted manuscripts.

  16. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  17. What is Plagiarism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2012-01-01

    Manuscripts submitted to The Astrophysical Journal are required to contain "novel and significant" material and to be free of plagiarism. There is a surprising amount of confusion regarding the definition of plagiarism and what constitutes prior publication. I will discuss the definitions used by the ApJ and the procedures we follow to to support this rule. Individual members of the community frequently show a very different understanding of these standards and are surprised at the conflict. Time allowing, I will briefly discuss some of the other common ethical problems that arise during the preparation and publication of articles.

  18. Plagiarism and scientific writing: a personal commentary.

    PubMed

    Ponniah, Irulandy

    2012-11-01

    There have been a number of papers that have addressed the issue of plagiarism. Nevertheless, the charges of plagiarism usually merit little attention with experts, because it is still not clear what sort of copying actually constitutes plagiarism. Another problem that eludes consensus is whether plagiarism was committed with or without intention. This paper discusses certain issues relating to plagiarism and differentiates between intentional and unintentional forms of plagiarism.

  19. Plagiarism: A case history.

    PubMed

    Sadler, L L

    1977-03-01

    A case of plagiarism involving duplication of the author's drawings is discussed. The chronology of events leading to an out-of-court settlement is reviewed and an attempt is made to clarify certain often misunderstood points in the Copyright Law as it applies to illustrators.

  20. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism and Academic Honesty

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. Methods A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Results Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty. PMID:19885074

  1. Combating plagiarism: a shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Sujit D

    2010-01-01

    Scientific progress depends on the free dissemination of original thinking and research. With the evidence base formed by publication, investigators develop and implement additional studies, and policy makers propose new laws and regulations. The ramifications of this evidence can affect millions of lives and reallocate considerable resources for programmes or research. As such, it is incumbent on investigators to conduct rigorous research, which precludes engaging in scientific misconduct such as falsification, fabrication and plagiarism. This article addresses the causes and consequences of plagiarism and the processes by which plagiarism is discovered. It concludes by considering the responsibilities of members of the research community in preventing and addressing plagiarism.

  2. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  3. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  4. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.

  5. The Illusory Dichotomy of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhmcke, Anita; Booth, Tracey; Wangmann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has been characterised as a "major problem" for universities. While tensions between students and universities are inevitable, the problem with the existing system of plagiarism management and prevention is that it operates to problematise the relationship between the university and the student, rather than address the core…

  6. Exploring Student Self-Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Student self-plagiarism is a confusing issue for both faculty and students alike. This problem is compounded because both groups perceive the concept very differently. Recent literature regarding these perceptions is reviewed and some brief preliminary results of an exploratory multi-university study of student perceptions of self-plagiarism are…

  7. An Evaluation of the Cloze Procedure as a Test for Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Lionel; Gorassini, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of two experiments which evaluated the effectiveness of the cloze test as a method for detecting plagiarism. In both studies, the cloze performance of students was significantly better in nonplagiarizing than plagiarizing situations. Concludes that when used with caution, the cloze procedure appears to be potentially helpful in…

  8. The Scarlet "P": Plagiarism, Panopticism, and the Rhetoric of Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article is a rhetorical analysis of the anxious and outraged discourse employed in response to the "rising tide" of cheating and plagiarism. This discourse invites actions that are antithetical to the goals of education and the roles of educators, as exemplified by the proliferation of plagiarism-detection technologies. (Contains 15 notes.)

  9. Cheaters: A Case Study of Plagiarism in Composition Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to find a better understanding of plagiarism in the university writing classroom; specifically, institutional and departmental honor codes and policies were looked at--as was the tendency of individual instructors to follow those policies versus creating their own. The narrow purpose of the study was to investigate plagiarism…

  10. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2016-11-28

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  11. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  12. Organic Text Authors Charge Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the recent controversy involving two organic chemistry textbooks. The charge of plagiarism and the court litigations are the object of interest in the chemical community since many prominant scientists are planned as witnesses. (SA)

  13. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  14. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  15. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  16. Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  17. Staff and Student Attitudes to Plagiarism at University College Northampton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Jill

    2006-01-01

    University College Northampton (UCN) provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in a wide range of subjects. In the past, instances of plagiarism were considered rare and were dealt with by academic staff on a case-by-case basis. However, the increase in instances detected by staff has led to a need to address the issue more consistently. The…

  18. The Ethics and Politics of Policing Plagiarism: A Qualitative Study of Faculty Views on Student Plagiarism and Turnitin®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Samuel; Childers, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the usage of plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin® has increased dramatically among university instructors. At the same time, academic criticism of this software's employment has also increased. We interviewed 23 faculty members from various departments at a medium-sized, public university in the southeastern US to determine…

  19. DROP: Detecting Return-Oriented Programming Malicious Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Xiao, Hai; Shen, Xiaobin; Yin, Xinchun; Mao, Bing; Xie, Li

    Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is a new technique that helps the attacker construct malicious code mounted on x86/SPARC executables without any function call at all. Such technique makes the ROP malicious code contain no instruction, which is different from existing attacks. Moreover, it hides the malicious code in benign code. Thus, it circumvents the approaches that prevent control flow diversion outside legitimate regions (such as W ⊕ X ) and most malicious code scanning techniques (such as anti-virus scanners). However, ROP has its own intrinsic feature which is different from normal program design: (1) uses short instruction sequence ending in "ret", which is called gadget, and (2) executes the gadgets contiguously in specific memory space, such as standard GNU libc. Based on the features of the ROP malicious code, in this paper, we present a tool DROP, which is focused on dynamically detecting ROP malicious code. Preliminary experimental results show that DROP can efficiently detect ROP malicious code, and have no false positives and negatives.

  20. Plagiarism in law and medicine: challenges for scholarship, academia, publishers and regulators.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The phenomenon of plagiarism has evolved as a major problem in many fields with the increasing accessibility of material on the internet. It poses dilemmas for those involved in secondary and tertiary education, as well as for book publishers and those who edit journals. This editorial reviews important recent decisions in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia by courts and regulatory bodies in respect of doctors and lawyers who have engaged in plagiarism in various ways both while undergraduates and in the course of their professional careers. It reflects on the phenomenon of plagiarism, the challenges involved in its detection and the steps that can be taken to reduce its incidence.

  1. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  2. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  3. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  4. Pluralizing Plagiarism: Identities, Contexts, Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Robillard, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Recent cases have demonstrated that plagiarism is a hot-button issue. It is also pervasive, occurring in universities, four-year colleges, community colleges, secondary schools, graduate programs, international classrooms, multicultural classrooms, writing centers, writing-across-the-curriculum programs, scholarly publications and the popular…

  5. Study on detection techniques for laser fuze using pseudorandom code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Li, Ping; Jia, Ruili; Chen, Huimin

    2008-03-01

    With the development of semiconductor laser technology, laser proximity fuzes have been widely used in various kinds of guided missiles and routine ammunitions. An approach to pulsed laser fuze based on pseudorandom code is presented in this paper. Based on the principle of laser fuze using pseudorandom code, the system has been divided into emitting module, receiving module, optical system and information processing module. The different modules have been analyzed in details and principles for selecting the parameters of the modules are given. The testing shows that laser fuze based on pseudorandom code has a better ability of detection and a higher resistance to interference. The theoretic foundation is provided for scientifically designing pulsed laser fuze of pseudorandom code.

  6. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person,Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (1) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows that SPA can detect porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points.

  7. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    PubMed Central

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Original article “Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects”, written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal “SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES”, Publisher “Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora”. RESULTS: Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection. PMID:27275319

  8. CrossCheck plagiarism screening : Experience of the Journal of Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsumi

    Due to technological advances in the past two decades, researchers now have unprecedented access to a tremendous amount of useful information. However, because of the extreme pressure to publish, this abundance of information can sometimes tempt researchers to commit scientific misconduct. A serious form of such misconduct is plagiarism. Editors are always concerned about the possibility of publishing plagiarized manuscripts. The plagiarism detection tool CrossCheck allows editors to scan and analyze manuscripts effectively. The Journal of Epidemiology took part in a trial of CrossCheck, and this article discusses the concerns journal editors might have regarding the use of CrossCheck and its analysis. In addition, potential problems identified by CrossCheck, including self-plagiarism, are introduced.

  9. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  10. Runtime Detection of C-Style Errors in UPC Code

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkelbauer, P; Liao, C; Panas, T; Quinlan, D

    2011-09-29

    Unified Parallel C (UPC) extends the C programming language (ISO C 99) with explicit parallel programming support for the partitioned global address space (PGAS), which provides a global memory space with localized partitions to each thread. Like its ancestor C, UPC is a low-level language that emphasizes code efficiency over safety. The absence of dynamic (and static) safety checks allows programmer oversights and software flaws that can be hard to spot. In this paper, we present an extension of a dynamic analysis tool, ROSE-Code Instrumentation and Runtime Monitor (ROSECIRM), for UPC to help programmers find C-style errors involving the global address space. Built on top of the ROSE source-to-source compiler infrastructure, the tool instruments source files with code that monitors operations and keeps track of changes to the system state. The resulting code is linked to a runtime monitor that observes the program execution and finds software defects. We describe the extensions to ROSE-CIRM that were necessary to support UPC. We discuss complications that arise from parallel code and our solutions. We test ROSE-CIRM against a runtime error detection test suite, and present performance results obtained from running error-free codes. ROSE-CIRM is released as part of the ROSE compiler under a BSD-style open source license.

  11. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

  12. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes.

  13. Detection and Characterization of Phase-Coded Radar Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Detection and Characterization of Phase-Coded Radar Signals 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Dr...Ernest R. Adams 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Cranfield University (RMCS) Shrivenham SN6 8LA United...Kingdom 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND

  14. [Is there protection against copying? Thoughts about plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-13

    There are at least two reasons why more and more cases of suspected plagiarism are perceived in the scientific literature. On one hand, the ever increasing pressure for publication makes it easier for authors, reviewers and editors to infringe or overlook this serious ethical misdemeanor; on the other hand, with the development of text analysis software, detecting text similarities has become a simple task. The judgement of actual cases, however, requires well-grounded professional knowledge and prudent human decisions.

  15. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  16. Judging Plagiarism: A Problem of Morality and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of plagiarism as an issue of morality. Outrage about student plagiarism in universities positions it as dishonesty and a transgression of standards. Despite this, there has been little work analysing the implications of positioning plagiarism as a moral matter in the making of judgments about plagiarism and…

  17. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  18. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  19. Viewpoint of Undergraduate Engineering Students on Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starovoytova, Diana; Namango, Saul Sitati

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, plagiarism has been a global concern, especially so, in institutions of higher learning. Furthermore, over the past decades, cases of student plagiarism, in higher education, have increased, substantially. This issue cannot be taken, without due consideration, and it is crucial for educators, and universities, at large, to find the…

  20. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  1. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO) roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence detection of excitatory

  2. Local graph regularized coding for salient object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Lina; Yang, Shuyuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wang, Shuang; Shi, Jiao

    2016-07-01

    Subspace segmentation based salient object detection has received increasing interests in recent years. To preserve the locality and similarity of regions, a grouping effect of representation is introduced to segment the salient object and background in subspace. Then a new saliency map is calculated by incorporating this local graph regularizer into coding, which explicitly explores the data self-representation model and thus locate more accurate salient regions. Moreover, a heuristic object-based dictionary from background superpixels is obtained in border set removing the image regions within the potential object regions. Experimental results on four large benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably against eight recent state-of-the-art methods in terms of three evaluation criterions, with a reduction of MAE by 19.8% than GR and 29.3% than CB in the two SED datasets, respectively. Meanwhile, our method also runs faster than the comparative detection approaches.

  3. Coded-aperture Raman imaging for standoff explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Scott T.; Guenther, B. D.; Brady, David J.; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the design of a deep-UV Raman imaging spectrometer operating with an excitation wavelength of 228 nm. The designed system will provide the ability to detect explosives (both traditional military explosives and home-made explosives) from standoff distances of 1-10 meters with an interrogation area of 1 mm x 1 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm. This excitation wavelength provides resonant enhancement of many common explosives, no background fluorescence, and an enhanced cross-section due to the inverse wavelength scaling of Raman scattering. A coded-aperture spectrograph combined with compressive imaging algorithms will allow for wide-area interrogation with fast acquisition rates. Coded-aperture spectral imaging exploits the compressibility of hyperspectral data-cubes to greatly reduce the amount of acquired data needed to interrogate an area. The resultant systems are able to cover wider areas much faster than traditional push-broom and tunable filter systems. The full system design will be presented along with initial data from the instrument. Estimates for area scanning rates and chemical sensitivity will be presented. The system components include a solid-state deep-UV laser operating at 228 nm, a spectrograph consisting of well-corrected refractive imaging optics and a reflective grating, an intensified solar-blind CCD camera, and a high-efficiency collection optic.

  4. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  5. Methodology for fast detection of false sharing in threaded scientific codes

    DOEpatents

    Chung, I-Hsin; Cong, Guojing; Murata, Hiroki; Negishi, Yasushi; Wen, Hui-Fang

    2014-11-25

    A profiling tool identifies a code region with a false sharing potential. A static analysis tool classifies variables and arrays in the identified code region. A mapping detection library correlates memory access instructions in the identified code region with variables and arrays in the identified code region while a processor is running the identified code region. The mapping detection library identifies one or more instructions at risk, in the identified code region, which are subject to an analysis by a false sharing detection library. A false sharing detection library performs a run-time analysis of the one or more instructions at risk while the processor is re-running the identified code region. The false sharing detection library determines, based on the performed run-time analysis, whether two different portions of the cache memory line are accessed by the generated binary code.

  6. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  7. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes: The New Mathematics of Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Kaye

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the embedded mathematics in which important but hidden calculations are being done for communications in commerce. Explains two key concepts, error detecting codes and error correcting codes. Illustrates these ideas using two familiar examples, barcodes and ISBN numbers. (ASK)

  8. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  9. Understanding Plagiarism and How It Differs from Copyright Infringement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dames, K. Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism has become the new piracy. Just as piracy was a few years ago, plagiarism has become the hot, new crime du jour--an act that suggests immorality and often scandal at once. What's more, plagiarism allegations feed into the society's "Candid Camera" mentality--the seemingly insatiable need to uncover wrongdoing. One of the biggest…

  10. The Crime of Plagiarism: A Critique of Literary Property Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    Understanding the history of plagiarism may put scholars in a position to define plagiarism more precisely and to decide plagiarism disputes involving students and scholars more fairly. The origins of literary property are found in ritual and religious drama. In classical Greece and Rome, literary property began to hold some value for the author.…

  11. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  12. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  13. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  14. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  15. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  16. Beyond "Gotcha!": Situating Plagiarism in Policy and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Argues for a context-sensitive understanding of plagiarism by analyzing a set of written institutional policies and suggesting ways that they might be revised. Offers examples of classroom practices to help teach a concept of plagiarism as situated in context. Concludes that plagiarism is an area where students need access to their teacher's…

  17. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  18. Using Anti-Plagiarism Software to Promote Academic Honesty in the Context of Peer Reviewed Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwith, Ann; Risquez, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    A variety of free and commercial software applications designed to detect plagiarism from Internet sources has appeared in recent years. However, their effectiveness and impact on student behaviour has been assumed rather than confirmed. The study presented here explores the responses and perceptions of a group of first year students at an Irish…

  19. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  20. Evaluation and Testing of the ADVANTG Code on SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; Hayes, John W.

    2013-09-24

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with evaluating the effectiveness of ORNL’s new hybrid transport code, ADVANTG, on scenarios of interest to our NA-22 sponsor, specifically of detection of diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). PNNL staff have determined that acquisition and installation of ADVANTG was relatively straightforward for a code in its phase of development, but probably not yet sufficient for mass distribution to the general user. PNNL staff also determined that with little effort, ADVANTG generated weight windows that typically worked for the problems and generated results consistent with MCNP. With slightly greater effort of choosing a finer mesh around detectors or sample reaction tally regions, the figure of merit (FOM) could be further improved in most cases. This does take some limited knowledge of deterministic transport methods. The FOM could also be increased by limiting the energy range for a tally to the energy region of greatest interest. It was then found that an MCNP run with the full energy range for the tally showed improved statistics in the region used for the ADVANTG run. The specific case of interest chosen by the sponsor is the CIPN project from Las Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is an active interrogation, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique to quantify the fissile content in a spent fuel assembly and is also sensitive to cases of material diversion. Unfortunately, weight windows for the CIPN problem cannot currently be properly generated with ADVANTG due to inadequate accommodations for source definition. ADVANTG requires that a fixed neutron source be defined within the problem and cannot account for neutron multiplication. As such, it is rendered useless in active interrogation scenarios. It is also interesting to note that this is a difficult problem to solve and that the automated weight windows generator in MCNP actually slowed down the problem. Therefore, PNNL had determined

  1. A dual-sided coded-aperture radiation detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, R. D.; Hood, W. E.; Polichar, R. M.; Cardone, F. H.; Chavez, L. G.; Grubbs, S. G.; Huntley, B. P.; Kuharski, R. A.; Shyffer, R. T.; Fabris, L.; Ziock, K. P.; Labov, S. E.; Nelson, K.

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a large-area, mobile, coded-aperture radiation imaging system for localizing compact radioactive sources in three dimensions while rejecting distributed background. The 3D Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS-3D) has been tested at speeds up to 95 km/h and has detected and located sources in the millicurie range at distances of over 100 m. Radiation data are imaged to a geospatially mapped world grid with a nominal 1.25- to 2.5-m pixel pitch at distances out to 120 m on either side of the platform. Source elevation is also extracted. Imaged radiation alarms are superimposed on a side-facing video log that can be played back for direct localization of sources in buildings in urban environments. The system utilizes a 37-element array of 5×5×50 cm 3 cesium-iodide (sodium) detectors. Scintillation light is collected by a pair of photomultiplier tubes placed at either end of each detector, with the detectors achieving an energy resolution of 6.15% FWHM (662 keV) and a position resolution along their length of 5 cm FWHM. The imaging system generates a dual-sided two-dimensional image allowing users to efficiently survey a large area. Imaged radiation data and raw spectra are forwarded to the RadioNuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), developed by our collaborators, for isotope ID. An intuitive real-time display aids users in performing searches. Detector calibration is dynamically maintained by monitoring the potassium-40 peak and digitally adjusting individual detector gains. We have recently realized improvements, both in isotope identification and in distinguishing compact sources from background, through the installation of optimal-filter reconstruction kernels.

  2. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-15

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes.

  3. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes

    PubMed Central

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215

  4. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  5. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism.

  6. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  7. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  8. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  9. Principles of error detection and error correction codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, M.

    1971-01-01

    Report is reviewed which considers theoretical basis of groups, rings, fields, and vector spaces, and their relationship to algebraic coding theory. Report serves as summary for engineers and scientists involved in data handling and processing systems.

  10. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  11. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  12. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  13. Bar Coding Platforms for Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Uwe R.

    A variety of novel bar coding systems has been developed as multiplex testing platforms for applications in biological, chemical, and biomedical diagnostics. Instead of identifying a target through capture at a specific locus on an array, target analytes are captured by a bar coded tag, which then uniquely identifies the target, akin to putting a UPC bar code on a product. This requires an appropriate surface functionalization to ensure that the correct target is captured with high efficiency. Moreover the tag, or bar code, has to be readable with minimal error and at high speed, typically by flow analysis. For quantitative assays the target may be labeled separately, or the tag may also serve as the label. A great variety of materials and physicochemical principles has been exploited to generate this plethora of novel bar coding platforms. Their advantages compared to microarray-based assay platforms include in-solution binding kinetics, flexibility in assay design, compatibility with microplate-based assay automation, high sample throughput, and with some assay formats, increased sensitivity.

  14. Attitude toward plagiarism among Iranian medical faculty members.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Hassanpour, Kiana; Aramesh, Kiarash; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.

  15. Education: Solomons Winner in Lengthy Plagiarism Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Steve

    1980-01-01

    Reports the outcome of a plagiarism suit against organic chemistry professor T. W. Graham Solomons by two emeritus professors at New York University. The ruling of not guilty leaves the way open for Solomons' counterclaim that he lost sales of the book because of the suit. (Author/SA)

  16. Classrooms that Discourage Plagiarism and Welcome Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Nancy Guillot

    2011-01-01

    The key to establishing a defense against plagiarism is understanding the reasons that students engage in the process in the first place. Many students enter new grade levels academically unprepared for new challenges. When students encounter gaps between knowledge and the expectations of the classroom, some engage in unethical practices to propel…

  17. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  18. Methods for Identifying Versioned and Plagiarized Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Timothy C.; Zobel, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate techniques for identifying plagiarism, revisions, and different versions of online documents. Highlights include ranking; parsing; similarity measures; identity measures; fingerprinting documents; measuring effectiveness via recall and precision; and experiments on two document…

  19. An Investigation of Plagiarism in Developmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Emily Grace Ehrlich; Agnello, Mary Frances; Kiser, Michelle; Osaghae, Osariemen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of higher education is to prepare students for the workforce. In order to prepare students for the workforce, many life lessons must be learned specifically respect for others' work. One of the invaluable lessons that a student can learn regarding respect for others' work is to appreciate originality and avoid of plagiarism. To be…

  20. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    PubMed

    Supak-Smocić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

  1. An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2012-07-16

    In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

  2. Alamouti-Type Space-Time Coding for Free-Space Optical Communication with Direct Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Vilnrotter, V.

    2003-11-01

    In optical communication systems employing direct detection at the receiver, intensity modulations such as on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position modulation (PPM) are commonly used to convey the information. Consider the possibility of applying space-time coding in such a scenario, using, for example, an Alamouti-type coding scheme [1]. Implicit in the Alamouti code is the fact that the modulation that defines the signal set is such that it is meaningful to transmit and detect both the signal and its negative. While modulations such as phase-shift keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) naturally fall into this class, OOK and PPM do not since the signal polarity (phase) would not be detected at the receiver. We investigate a modification of the Alamouti code to be used with such modulations that has the same desirable properties as the conventional Alamouti code but does not rely on the necessity of transmitting the negative of a signal.

  3. Detecting Aspects of Critical Thinking by Cleaning Online Message Transcript through Code-Recode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriogun, Peter K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the community of inquiry cognitive presence model was mapped to a recently developed semistructured approach to online discourse called SQUAD to detect aspects of critical or higher-order thinking online by cleaning online message transcript through the use of code-recode. It is argued that using code-recode in the way suggested…

  4. Flow-Based Detection of Bar Coded Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-06-24

    We have developed methods for flow control, electric field alignment, and readout of colloidal Nanobarcodes{copyright}. Our flow-based detection scheme leverages microfluidics and alternate current (AC) electric fields to align and image particles in a well-defined image plane. Using analytical models of the particle rotation in electric fields we can optimize the field strength and frequency necessary to align the particles. This detection platform alleviates loss of information in solution-based assays due to particle clumping during detection.

  5. Multiplexed fluorescence readout using time responses of color coded signals for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescence readout is an important technique for detecting biomolecules. In this paper, we present a multiplexed fluorescence readout method using time varied fluorescence signals. To generate the fluorescence signals, coded strands and a set of universal molecular beacons are introduced. Each coded strand represents the existence of an assigned target molecule. The coded strands have coded sequences to generate temporary fluorescence signals through binding to the molecular beacons. The signal generating processes are modeled based on the reaction kinetics between the coded strands and molecular beacons. The model is used to decode the detected fluorescence signals using maximum likelihood estimation. Multiplexed fluorescence readout was experimentally demonstrated with three molecular beacons. Numerical analysis showed that the readout accuracy was enhanced by the use of time-varied fluorescence signals.

  6. Multiplexed fluorescence readout using time responses of color coded signals for biomolecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence readout is an important technique for detecting biomolecules. In this paper, we present a multiplexed fluorescence readout method using time varied fluorescence signals. To generate the fluorescence signals, coded strands and a set of universal molecular beacons are introduced. Each coded strand represents the existence of an assigned target molecule. The coded strands have coded sequences to generate temporary fluorescence signals through binding to the molecular beacons. The signal generating processes are modeled based on the reaction kinetics between the coded strands and molecular beacons. The model is used to decode the detected fluorescence signals using maximum likelihood estimation. Multiplexed fluorescence readout was experimentally demonstrated with three molecular beacons. Numerical analysis showed that the readout accuracy was enhanced by the use of time-varied fluorescence signals. PMID:28018742

  7. Different hue coding underlying figure segregation and region detection tasks.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Uchikawa, Keiji

    2009-08-28

    Figure segregation from its background is one of the important functions of color vision for our visual system because it is a preliminary to shape recognition. However, little is known about the chromatic mechanisms underlying figure segregation as opposed to those underlying mere color discrimination and detection. We investigated whether there are differences in color difference thresholds between a shape discrimination task (involving figure segregation) and a simple region detection task. In the shape discrimination task the observer discriminated the shapes of two figures, which could be segregated from their background on the basis of a color direction (hue) difference. In the region detection task the observer simply detected a square region against its background. Thresholds of color direction differences from a range of background color directions were measured for each task. In addition, we added saturation variation in one condition to investigate the involvement of the cone-opponent channels in those tasks. First, the results showed that the saturation variation increased the thresholds evenly for all background color directions. This suggests that higher-order color mechanisms rather than the early cone-opponent mechanisms are involved in both of the two tasks. Second, the shapes of the background color direction-threshold functions were different between the two tasks and these shape differences were consistent across all observers. This finding suggests that hue information may be encoded differently for shape discrimination and region detection. Furthermore, differences in spatial frequency components and in the requirement for orientation extraction rarely affected the shapes of the threshold functions in additional experiments, suggesting the possibility that hue encoding for shape discrimination differs from encoding for region detection at a late stage of form processing where local orientation signals are globally integrated.

  8. Plagiarism Continues to Affect Scholarly Journals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    I have encountered 3 cases of plagiarism as editor of the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS). The first one was copying figures from a JKMS article without citation, the second was submission of a copied manuscript of a published article to JKMS, and the third was publishing a copied JKMS article in another journal. The first and third cases violated copyrights of JKMS, but the violating journals made no action on the misconduct. The second and third cases were slightly modified copies of the source articles but similarity check by the Crosscheck could not identify the text overlap initially and after one year reported 96% overlap for the second case. The similarity of the third case was reported 3%. The Crosscheck must upgrade its system for better reliable screening of text plagiarism. The copy of the second case was committed by a corrupt Chinese editing company and also by some unethical researchers. In conclusion, plagiarism still threatens the trustworthiness of the publishing enterprises and is a cumbersome burden for editors of scholarly journals. We require a better system to increase the vigilance and to prevent the misconduct. PMID:28049227

  9. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  10. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  11. Preventing Unintentional Plagiarism: A Method for Strengthening Paraphrasing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism may result from faulty cognitive processing and thereby be unintentional (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997). The current study tested the effectiveness of paraphrasing training designed to prevent unintentional plagiarism. Thirty-six students enrolled in research methods participated, one group received paraphrasing training; a control…

  12. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  13. Pandora's Box: Academic Perceptions of Student Plagiarism in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Plagiarism is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora's box--the elements contained inside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by academic members of staff to discuss student plagiarism openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we, as teachers, face when dealing with student…

  14. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Cheating and Plagiarism in Higher Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owunwanne, Daniel; Rustagi, Narendra; Dada, Remi

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that cheating and plagiarism are prominent problems in many universities. In informal conversations, it seems that different students perceive plagiarism differently. In this paper, we conducted a survey at Howard University to examine or to follow up with this growing trend. Specifically, team leaders in school…

  16. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  17. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  18. Online plagiarism training falls short in biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Holt, Emily A; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students' ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time.

  19. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  20. Good intentions: providing students with skills to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Zafron, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop.

  1. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    PubMed

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls.

  2. Don't Let Students "Overlook" Internet Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism involves stealing or closely imitating another's written, creative, electronic, photographed, taped, or promotional or research work, identifying it as your own without permission or authorization. In this article, the author presents a primer discussion of plagiarism prevention in middle school throughout high school. Among other…

  3. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  4. ESL Writers Discuss Plagiarism: The Social Construction of Ideologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Faun Bernbach; Youmans, Madeleine

    2000-01-01

    Examined group discussions among English as a Second Language college students and teachers regarding plagiarism. Through negotiation with more experienced peers and instructors, students negotiated and co-constructed notions of plagiarism by working in their zones of proximal development. Concludes that such socially situated discourse is…

  5. Factors Associated with Student Plagiarism in a Post-1992 University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger

    2005-01-01

    A model intended to explain the incidence of plagiarism among undergraduates in the Business Studies department of a post-1992 university was constructed and tested on a sample of 249 students completing Business Studies units at a post-1992 university in Greater London. It was hypothesised that the occurrence of plagiarism could be predicted via…

  6. The Thieves of Academe: Plagiarism in the University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Christopher S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of literary piracy at the collegiate level was examined in an exploratory study. Forms of plagiarism, especially term paper mills; student attitudes toward plagiarism; approaches to dealing with the problem; and measures educators can take to address the problem in the classroom are discussed. (MLW)

  7. Reducing Plagiarism by Using Online Software: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Ozgur; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    This action research attempts to explore the perceptions of Turkish university students on plagiarism while evaluating the effectiveness of an online application used to deter plagiarism. The participants were 40 first year university students studying in two different sections of an academic writing class. The findings show that the participants…

  8. Accuracy comparison among different machine learning techniques for detecting malicious codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a machine learning based model for malware detection is proposed. It can detect newly released malware i.e. zero day attack by analyzing operation codes on Android operating system. The accuracy of Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network for detecting malicious code has been compared for the proposed model. In the experiment 400 benign files, 100 system files and 500 malicious files have been used to construct the model. The model yields the best accuracy 88.9% when neural network is used as classifier and achieved 95% and 82.8% accuracy for sensitivity and specificity respectively.

  9. Neural coding and perceptual detection in the primate somatosensory thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Yuriria; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Salinas, Emilio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the sensory thalamus to perception and decision making is not well understood. We addressed this problem by recording single neurons in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the somatosensory thalamus while trained monkeys judged the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus of variable amplitude applied to the skin of a fingertip. We found that neurons in the VPL nucleus modulated their firing rate as a function of stimulus amplitude, and that such modulations accounted for the monkeys’ overall psychophysical performance. These neural responses did not predict the animals' decision reports in individual trials, however. Moreover, the sensitivity to changes in stimulus amplitude was similar when the monkeys’ performed the detection task and when they were not required to report stimulus detection. These results suggest that the primate somatosensory thalamus likely provides a reliable neural representation of the sensory input to the cerebral cortex, where sensory information is transformed and combined with other cognitive components associated with behavioral performance. PMID:22927423

  10. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  11. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  12. Multiplexed Detection of Cytokines Based on Dual Bar-Code Strategy and Single-Molecule Counting.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Dai, Shuang; Wang, Lei

    2016-02-02

    Cytokines play important roles in the immune system and have been regarded as biomarkers. While single cytokine is not specific and accurate enough to meet the strict diagnosis in practice, in this work, we constructed a multiplexed detection method for cytokines based on dual bar-code strategy and single-molecule counting. Taking interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as model analytes, first, the magnetic nanobead was functionalized with the second antibody and primary bar-code strands, forming a magnetic nanoprobe. Then, through the specific reaction of the second antibody and the antigen that fixed by the primary antibody, sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed on the substrate. Next, the primary bar-code strands as amplification units triggered multibranched hybridization chain reaction (mHCR), producing nicked double-stranded polymers with multiple branched arms, which were served as secondary bar-code strands. Finally, the secondary bar-code strands hybridized with the multimolecule labeled fluorescence probes, generating enhanced fluorescence signals. The numbers of fluorescence dots were counted one by one for quantification with epi-fluorescence microscope. By integrating the primary and secondary bar-code-based amplification strategy and the multimolecule labeled fluorescence probes, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits were both 5 fM. Unlike the typical bar-code assay that the bar-code strands should be released and identified on a microarray, this method is more direct. Moreover, because of the selective immune reaction and the dual bar-code mechanism, the resulting method could detect the two targets simultaneously. Multiple analysis in human serum was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in early clinical diagnosis.

  13. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    PICARD, R. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However, distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.

  14. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  15. An application of soft-decision to error-detecting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yanagidaira, H.; Kawai, K.

    This paper presents a decoding algorithm based upon soft decision, which gives the capability of error correction in the conventional-error-detecting system. The algorithm may be applied to the multi-PSK, multi-QAM, and any other digital modulation, including even the case where the differential coding is employed. In this paper, an investigation is performed for the application of the proposed algorithm to the 4-DPSK system which introduces a scheme of single parity check code, and the Automatic Repeat-Request (ARQ) system using a cyclic-redundancy check code (CRC). In addition, the experimental results from the trial equipment of the 4-DPSK system is briefly described.

  16. Detection and Location of Gamma-Ray Sources with a Modulating Coded Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Stromswold, David C.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Hansen, Randy R.

    2006-01-31

    This paper presents methods of detecting and locating a concelaed nuclear gamma-ray source with a coded aperture mask. Energetic gamma rays readily penetrate moderate amounts of shielding material and can be detected at distances of many meters. The detection of high energy gamma-ray sources is vitally important to national security for several reasons, including nuclear materials smuggling interdiction, monitoring weapon components under treaties, and locating nuclear weapons and materials in the possession terrorist organizations.

  17. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-03-15

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  18. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:28295027

  19. Low-Complexity Saliency Detection Algorithm for Fast Perceptual Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengyu; Jia, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    A low-complexity saliency detection algorithm for perceptual video coding is proposed; low-level encoding information is adopted as the characteristics of visual perception analysis. Firstly, this algorithm employs motion vector (MV) to extract temporal saliency region through fast MV noise filtering and translational MV checking procedure. Secondly, spatial saliency region is detected based on optimal prediction mode distributions in I-frame and P-frame. Then, it combines the spatiotemporal saliency detection results to define the video region of interest (VROI). The simulation results validate that the proposed algorithm can avoid a large amount of computation work in the visual perception characteristics analysis processing compared with other existing algorithms; it also has better performance in saliency detection for videos and can realize fast saliency detection. It can be used as a part of the video standard codec at medium-to-low bit-rates or combined with other algorithms in fast video coding. PMID:24489495

  20. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  1. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  2. Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and Decoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    REPORT Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded ...important, this report illustrates the performance of coded LR aided detectors. 1 Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and

  3. Threshold-Based OSIC Detection Algorithm for Per-Antenna-Coded TIMO-OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinzheng; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Pengcheng

    Threshold-based ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC) detection algorithm is proposed for per-antenna-coded (PAC) two-input multiple-output (TIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Successive interference cancellation (SIC) is performed selectively according to channel conditions. Compared with the conventional OSIC algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the complexity significantly with only a slight performance degradation.

  4. Optimal Multicarrier Phase-Coded Waveform Design for Detection of Extended Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata; Glover, Charles Wayne

    2013-01-01

    We design a parametric multicarrier phase-coded (MCPC) waveform that achieves the optimal performance in detecting an extended target in the presence of signal-dependent interference. Traditional waveform design techniques provide only the optimal energy spectral density of the transmit waveform and suffer a performance loss in the synthesis process of the time-domain signal. Therefore, we opt for directly designing an MCPC waveform in terms of its time-frequency codes to obtain the optimal detection performance. First, we describe the modeling assumptions considering an extended target buried within the signal-dependent clutter with known power spectral density, and deduce the performance characteristics of the optimal detector. Then, considering an MCPC signal transmission, we express the detection characteristics in terms of the phase-codes of the MCPC waveform and propose to optimally design the MCPC signal by maximizing the detection probability. Our numerical results demonstrate that the designed MCPC signal attains the optimal detection performance and requires a lesser computational time than the other parametric waveform design approach.

  5. A general-purpose contact detection algorithm for nonlinear structural analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, M.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Mello, F.J.

    1993-05-01

    A new contact detection algorithm has been developed to address difficulties associated with the numerical simulation of contact in nonlinear finite element structural analysis codes. Problems including accurate and efficient detection of contact for self-contacting surfaces, tearing and eroding surfaces, and multi-body impact are addressed. The proposed algorithm is portable between dynamic and quasi-static codes and can efficiently model contact between a variety of finite element types including shells, bricks, beams and particles. The algorithm is composed of (1) a location strategy that uses a global search to decide which slave nodes are in proximity to a master surface and (2) an accurate detailed contact check that uses the projected motions of both master surface and slave node. In this report, currently used contact detection algorithms and their associated difficulties are discussed. Then the proposed algorithm and how it addresses these problems is described. Finally, the capability of the new algorithm is illustrated with several example problems.

  6. An Exercise To Teach Bioscience Students about Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Chris J. R.; Harrison, Tim M.

    2003-01-01

    Plagiarism is an issue of increasing concern to educators, yet students are not always clear on the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable practice. Presents an exercise to help bioscience students make this important distinction. (Author/SOE)

  7. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  8. Detecting Heap-Spraying Code Injection Attacks in Malicious Web Pages Using Runtime Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younghan; Kim, Hyoungchun; Lee, Donghoon

    The growing use of web services is increasing web browser attacks exponentially. Most attacks use a technique called heap spraying because of its high success rate. Heap spraying executes a malicious code without indicating the exact address of the code by copying it into many heap objects. For this reason, the attack has a high potential to succeed if only the vulnerability is exploited. Thus, attackers have recently begun using this technique because it is easy to use JavaScript to allocate the heap memory area. This paper proposes a novel technique that detects heap spraying attacks by executing a heap object in a real environment, irrespective of the version and patch status of the web browser. This runtime execution is used to detect various forms of heap spraying attacks, such as encoding and polymorphism. Heap objects are executed after being filtered on the basis of patterns of heap spraying attacks in order to reduce the overhead of the runtime execution. Patterns of heap spraying attacks are based on analysis of how an web browser accesses benign web sites. The heap objects are executed forcibly by changing the instruction register into the address of them after being loaded into memory. Thus, we can execute the malicious code without having to consider the version and patch status of the browser. An object is considered to contain a malicious code if the execution reaches a call instruction and then the instruction accesses the API of system libraries, such as kernel32.dll and ws_32.dll. To change registers and monitor execution flow, we used a debugger engine. A prototype, named HERAD(HEap spRAying Detector), is implemented and evaluated. In experiments, HERAD detects various forms of exploit code that an emulation cannot detect, and some heap spraying attacks that NOZZLE cannot detect. Although it has an execution overhead, HERAD produces a low number of false alarms. The processing time of several minutes is negligible because our research focuses on

  9. Design and control of a ferromagnetic coded micro-carrier biochip sensor for multiplex detection of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Seng; Tsai, Jang-Zern; Li, Tung-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method for producing a novel type of ferromagnetic coded micro-carrier. The ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers are about 200 μm in length, 200 μm in width and 50 μm in thickness, and contain eight code elements with two distinguishable codes (hollow and solid), allowing for 2(8) unique codes. The code shapes include rectangle, circle, etc. Differently shaped coded micro-carriers could carry different antigens for detection of its complementary antibody. These many shapes of coded micro-carriers would be used simultaneously allowing us to make multiple detections for different antibodies at the same time. A molding process is applied for fabrication of the ferromagnetically coded micro-carriers where Fe material (Fe powder mixed with binder) is shaped in many tiny molds to produce the coded shapes used for identification of the bio-molecules. Magnetic force is used to control the movement and location of the ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers to prevent the loss during the hybridization process. The results of image process and analysis system testing are satisfactory. The results of our micro-carrier detection system for two sets of R and B color analysis are proportional to those obtained from ELISA antibody detection.

  10. A coded aperture compressive imaging array and its visual detection and tracking algorithms for surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yongtian; Wu, Hanxiao

    2012-10-29

    In this paper, we propose an application of a compressive imaging system to the problem of wide-area video surveillance systems. A parallel coded aperture compressive imaging system is proposed to reduce the needed high resolution coded mask requirements and facilitate the storage of the projection matrix. Random Gaussian, Toeplitz and binary phase coded masks are utilized to obtain the compressive sensing images. The corresponding motion targets detection and tracking algorithms directly using the compressive sampling images are developed. A mixture of Gaussian distribution is applied in the compressive image space to model the background image and for foreground detection. For each motion target in the compressive sampling domain, a compressive feature dictionary spanned by target templates and noises templates is sparsely represented. An l(1) optimization algorithm is used to solve the sparse coefficient of templates. Experimental results demonstrate that low dimensional compressed imaging representation is sufficient to determine spatial motion targets. Compared with the random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask, motion detection algorithms using a random binary phase mask can yield better detection results. However using random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask can achieve high resolution reconstructed image. Our tracking algorithm can achieve a real time speed that is up to 10 times faster than that of the l(1) tracker without any optimization.

  11. Blind Detection of Region Duplication Forgery Using Fractal Coding and Feature Matching.

    PubMed

    Jenadeleh, Mohsen; Ebrahimi Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    Digital image forgery detection is important because of its wide use in applications such as medical diagnosis, legal investigations, and entertainment. Copy-move forgery is one of the famous techniques, which is used in region duplication. Many of the existing copy-move detection algorithms cannot effectively blind detect duplicated regions that are made by powerful image manipulation software like Photoshop. In this study, a new method is proposed for blind detecting manipulations in digital images based on modified fractal coding and feature vector matching. The proposed method not only detects typical copy-move forgery, but also finds multiple copied forgery regions for images that are subjected to rotation, scaling, reflection, and a mixture of these postprocessing operations. The proposed method is robust against tampered images undergoing attacks such as Gaussian blurring, contrast scaling, and brightness adjustment. The experimental results demonstrated the validity and efficiency of the method.

  12. Contour coding based rotating adaptive model for human detection and tracking in thermal catadioptric omnidirectional vision.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yazhe; Li, Youfu

    2012-09-20

    In this paper, we introduce a novel surveillance system based on thermal catadioptric omnidirectional (TCO) vision. The conventional contour-based methods are difficult to be applied to the TCO sensor for detection or tracking purposes due to the distortion of TCO vision. To solve this problem, we propose a contour coding based rotating adaptive model (RAM) that can extract the contour feature from the TCO vision directly as it takes advantage of the relative angle based on the characteristics of TCO vision to change the sequence of sampling automatically. A series of experiments and quantitative analyses verify that the performance of the proposed RAM-based contour coding feature for human detection and tracking are satisfactory in TCO vision.

  13. Improved coded exposure for enhancing imaging quality and detection accuracy of moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Baoqi; Chen, Li; Han, Lin; Shen, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    The blur due to the rapidly relative motion between scene and camera during exposure has the well-known influence on the quality of acquired image and then target detection. An improved coded exposure is introduced in this paper to remove the image blur and obtain high quality image, so that the test accuracy of the surface defect and edge contour of motion objects can be enhanced. The improved exposure method takes advantage of code look-up table to control exposure process and image restoration. The restored images have higher Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structure SIMilarity (SSIM) than traditional deblur algorithm such as Wiener and regularization filter methods. The edge contour and defect of part samples, which move at constant speed relative to the industry camera used in our experiment, are detected with Sobel operator from the restored images. Experimental results verify that the improved coded exposure is better suitable for imaging moving object and detecting moving target than the traditional.

  14. Automatic Detection of Frontal Face Midline by Chain-coded Merlin-Farber Hough Trasform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Daichi; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

    We propose a novel approach for detection of the facial midline (facial symmetry axis) from a frontal face image. The facial midline has several applications, for instance reducing computational cost required for facial feature extraction (FFE) and postoperative assessment for cosmetic or dental surgery. The proposed method detects the facial midline of a frontal face from an edge image as the symmetry axis using the Merlin-Faber Hough transformation. And a new performance improvement scheme for midline detection by MFHT is present. The main concept of the proposed scheme is suppression of redundant vote on the Hough parameter space by introducing chain code representation for the binary edge image. Experimental results on the image dataset containing 2409 images from FERET database indicate that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of midline detection from 89.9% to 95.1 % for face images with different scales and rotation.

  15. Is It Happening? How to Avoid the Deleterious Effects of Plagiarism and Cheating in Your Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be "plaguing" if it is not discussed, understood, and enforced by the professor right at the beginning of the course and throughout the semester. Students usually don't "have" to cheat or plagiarize; they do so mainly because "they can." Professors who turn a deaf ear or a blind eye to students who plagiarize create deleterious…

  16. Is Cheating Always Intentional? The Perception of College Students toward the Issues of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    The definition of plagiarism that is used in university handbooks is a simple one, and policies along with tiers of disciplinary strategies are used by faculty members in higher education to deter students from committing a plagiarism infraction based on this simple definition. However, plagiarism still occurs on college campuses, and this may be…

  17. The Use of Technology to Combat Plagiarism in Business Communication Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Robert H.; Hummel, Julie Y.

    2011-01-01

    Some have called plagiarism literary theft. Plagiarizing is akin to stealing the intellect of another person. At times, plagiarism occurs because of ignorance, sloppy authorship, or lack of knowledge about proper sourcing. Sometimes, it is done purposefully. Experts have suggested that the concept of intellectual ownership is limited to Western…

  18. Measuring Plagiarism: Researching What Students Do, Not What They Say They Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2010-01-01

    Student plagiarism in colleges and universities has become a controversial issue in recent years. A key problem has been the lack of reliable empirical data on the frequency, nature and extent of plagiarism in student assignments. The aim of the study described here was to provide this data. Patterns of plagiarism were tracked in two university…

  19. A Safe Place: The Role of Librarians and Writing Centers in Addressing Citation Practices and Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buranen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In American colleges and universities, plagiarism is a hot topic: teachers wail and moan about the rise in student plagiarism (though often without evidence to demonstrate this supposed rise); they complain that the Web has "caused" plagiarism; and at the same time, many believe that technology is the key to "solving" the problem of student…

  20. An Integrated Academic Literacy Approach to Improving Students' Understanding of Plagiarism in an Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa; Singh, Nishani

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism in higher education is a widespread and complex issue. Students' understanding of plagiarism differs as a result of combining their prior learning about referencing with their current experience of institutional policies and generic resources. Plagiarism was identified as a major learning issue in a core second-year undergraduate…

  1. When Emotion Stands to Reason: A Phenomenological Study of Composition Instructors' Emotional Responses to Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Plagiarism has been the focus of considerable scholarly research in recent decades, much of which has examined the number of students who are plagiarizing, why they plagiarize, and what instructors can do to teach students to effectively and ethically integrate their own words and ideas with those of their sources. Overlooked in this scholarship…

  2. Plagiarism Awareness among Students: Assessing Integration of Ethics Theory into Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strittmatter, Connie; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The library literature on plagiarism instruction focuses on students' understanding of what plagiarism is and is not. This study evaluates the effect of library instruction from a broader perspective by examining the pre- and posttest (instruction) levels of students' perceptions toward plagiarism ethics. Eighty-six students completed a pre- and…

  3. Placing the Library at the Heart of Plagiarism Prevention: The University of Bradford Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sarah; Costigan, Anne; O'hara, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a vexing issue for Higher Education, affecting student transition, retention, and attainment. This article reports on two initiatives from the University of Bradford library aimed at reducing student plagiarism. The first initiative is an intensive course for students who have contravened plagiarism regulations. The second course…

  4. Literacy & Identity: Trust, Betrayal, and Authorship: Plagiarism and How We Perceive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional responses to plagiarism are rarely addressed in professional literature that focuses on ethics and good teaching practices. Yet, the emotions that are unleashed by cases of plagiarism, or suspicions of plagiarism, influence how we perceive our students and how we approach teaching them. Such responses have been complicated by online…

  5. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time.

  6. Capacity, cutoff rate, and coding for a direct-detection optical channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that Pierce's pulse position modulation scheme with 2 to the L pulse positions used on a self-noise-limited direct detection optical communication channel results in a 2 to the L-ary erasure channel that is equivalent to the parallel combination of L completely correlated binary erasure channels. The capacity of the full channel is the sum of the capacities of the component channels, but the cutoff rate of the full channel is shown to be much smaller than the sum of the cutoff rates. An interpretation of the cutoff rate is given that suggests a complexity advantage in coding separately on the component channels. It is shown that if short-constraint-length convolutional codes with Viterbi decoders are used on the component channels, then the performance and complexity compare favorably with the Reed-Solomon coding system proposed by McEliece for the full channel. The reasons for this unexpectedly fine performance by the convolutional code system are explored in detail, as are various facets of the channel structure.

  7. Direct-detection optical communication with color coded pulse position modulation signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.

    1985-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a direct-detection optical communication system which is based on a laser transmitter which produces single light pulses at selected nonoverlapping optical center frequencies are discussed. The signal format, called color coded pulse position modulation (CCPPM), uses more of the total available response bandwidth characteristics of the photodetector than does ordinary PPM signaling. The advantages of CCPPM signaling are obtained at the expense of an increased optical bandwidth of the transmitted signal and a more complicated transmitter and receiver structure. When the signal format is used in conjunction with block length Reed-Solomon codes, high data rates and reliable high-speed optical communications under conditions of optimal energy efficiency are obtained.

  8. Detection of code spread OFDM based on 0-1 integer quadratic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghariani, Ali; Zoltowski, Michael D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we introduce Integer Quadratic Programming (MIQP) approach to optimally detect QPSK Code Spread OFDM (CS-OFDM) by formulating the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem. The Branch and Bound (BB) algorithm is utilized to solve this integer quadratic programming problem. Furthermore, we propose combined preprocessing steps that can be applied prior to BB so that the computational complexity of the optimum receiver is reduced. The first step in this combination is to detect as much as possible symbols using procedures presented in [9], which is basically based on the gradient of quadratic function. The second step detects the undetected symbols from the first step using MMSE estimator. The result of the latter step will be used to predict the initial upper bound of the BB algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed preprocessing combination when applied prior to BB provides optimal performance with a significantly reduced computational complexity.

  9. Supersensitive detection and discrimination of enantiomers by dorsal olfactory receptors: evidence for hierarchical odour coding.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko; Emura, Makoto; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Kizumi, Miwako; Hamana, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Akio; Hirono, Junzo

    2015-09-11

    Enantiomeric pairs of mirror-image molecular structures are difficult to resolve by instrumental analyses. The human olfactory system, however, discriminates (-)-wine lactone from its (+)-form rapidly within seconds. To gain insight into receptor coding of enantiomers, we compared behavioural detection and discrimination thresholds of wild-type mice with those of ΔD mice in which all dorsal olfactory receptors are genetically ablated. Surprisingly, wild-type mice displayed an exquisite "supersensitivity" to enantiomeric pairs of wine lactones and carvones. They were capable of supersensitive discrimination of enantiomers, consistent with their high detection sensitivity. In contrast, ΔD mice showed selective major loss of sensitivity to the (+)-enantiomers. The resulting 10(8)-fold differential sensitivity of ΔD mice to (-)- vs. (+)-wine lactone matched that observed in humans. This suggests that humans lack highly sensitive orthologous dorsal receptors for the (+)-enantiomer, similarly to ΔD mice. Moreover, ΔD mice showed >10(10)-fold reductions in enantiomer discrimination sensitivity compared to wild-type mice. ΔD mice detected one or both of the (-)- and (+)-enantiomers over a wide concentration range, but were unable to discriminate them. This "enantiomer odour discrimination paradox" indicates that the most sensitive dorsal receptors play a critical role in hierarchical odour coding for enantiomer identification.

  10. Supersensitive detection and discrimination of enantiomers by dorsal olfactory receptors: evidence for hierarchical odour coding

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko; Emura, Makoto; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Kizumi, Miwako; Hamana, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Akio; Hirono, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Enantiomeric pairs of mirror-image molecular structures are difficult to resolve by instrumental analyses. The human olfactory system, however, discriminates (−)-wine lactone from its (+)-form rapidly within seconds. To gain insight into receptor coding of enantiomers, we compared behavioural detection and discrimination thresholds of wild-type mice with those of ΔD mice in which all dorsal olfactory receptors are genetically ablated. Surprisingly, wild-type mice displayed an exquisite “supersensitivity” to enantiomeric pairs of wine lactones and carvones. They were capable of supersensitive discrimination of enantiomers, consistent with their high detection sensitivity. In contrast, ΔD mice showed selective major loss of sensitivity to the (+)-enantiomers. The resulting 108-fold differential sensitivity of ΔD mice to (−)- vs. (+)-wine lactone matched that observed in humans. This suggests that humans lack highly sensitive orthologous dorsal receptors for the (+)-enantiomer, similarly to ΔD mice. Moreover, ΔD mice showed >1010-fold reductions in enantiomer discrimination sensitivity compared to wild-type mice. ΔD mice detected one or both of the (−)- and (+)-enantiomers over a wide concentration range, but were unable to discriminate them. This “enantiomer odour discrimination paradox” indicates that the most sensitive dorsal receptors play a critical role in hierarchical odour coding for enantiomer identification. PMID:26361056

  11. FORTRAN Automated Code Evaluation System (faces) system documentation, version 2, mod 0. [error detection codes/user manuals (computer programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A system is presented which processes FORTRAN based software systems to surface potential problems before they become execution malfunctions. The system complements the diagnostic capabilities of compilers, loaders, and execution monitors rather than duplicating these functions. Also, it emphasizes frequent sources of FORTRAN problems which require inordinate manual effort to identify. The principle value of the system is extracting small sections of unusual code from the bulk of normal sequences. Code structures likely to cause immediate or future problems are brought to the user's attention. These messages stimulate timely corrective action of solid errors and promote identification of 'tricky' code. Corrective action may require recoding or simply extending software documentation to explain the unusual technique.

  12. Ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on CDMA with Kasami codes.

    PubMed

    Diego, Cristina; Hernández, Alvaro; Jiménez, Ana; Alvarez, Fernando J; Sanz, Rebeca; Aparicio, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises the design of an ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on Phased Array (PA) techniques, which steers the acoustic beam through the environment by electronics rather than mechanical means. The transmission of every element in the array has been encoded, according to Code Division for Multiple Access (CDMA), which allows multiple beams to be transmitted simultaneously. All these features together enable a parallel scanning system which does not only improve the image rate but also achieves longer inspection distances in comparison with conventional PA techniques.

  13. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  14. Two-stage sparse coding of region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels to detect saliency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Cai; Zhang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up saliency detection algorithm from the perspective of covariance matrices on a Riemannian manifold. Each superpixel is described by a region covariance matrix on Riemannian Manifolds. We carry out a two-stage sparse coding scheme via Log-Euclidean kernels to extract salient objects efficiently. In the first stage, given background dictionary on image borders, sparse coding of each region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels is performed. The reconstruction error on the background dictionary is regarded as the initial saliency of each superpixel. In the second stage, an improvement of the initial result is achieved by calculating reconstruction errors of the superpixels on foreground dictionary, which is extracted from the first stage saliency map. The sparse coding in the second stage is similar to the first stage, but is able to effectively highlight the salient objects uniformly from the background. Finally, three post-processing methods-highlight-inhibition function, context-based saliency weighting, and the graph cut-are adopted to further refine the saliency map. Experiments on four public benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and mean absolute error, and demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Auditory detection of ultrasonic coded transmitters by seals and sea lions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kane A; Hayes, Sean A; Michelle Wargo Rub, A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonic coded transmitters (UCTs) are high-frequency acoustic tags that are often used to conduct survivorship studies of vulnerable fish species. Recent observations of differential mortality in tag control studies suggest that fish instrumented with UCTs may be selectively targeted by marine mammal predators, thereby skewing valuable survivorship data. In order to better understand the ability of pinnipeds to detect UCT outputs, behavioral high-frequency hearing thresholds were obtained from a trained harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a trained California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Thresholds were measured for extended (500 ms) and brief (10 ms) 69 kHz narrowband stimuli, as well as for a stimulus recorded directly from a Vemco V16-3H UCT, which consisted of eight 10 ms, 69 kHz pure-tone pulses. Detection thresholds for the harbor seal were as expected based on existing audiometric data for this species, while the California sea lion was much more sensitive than predicted. Given measured detection thresholds of 113 dB re 1 μPa and 124 dB re 1 μPa, respectively, both species are likely able to detect acoustic outputs of the Vemco V16-3H under water from distances exceeding 200 m in typical natural conditions, suggesting that these species are capable of using UCTs to detect free-ranging fish.

  16. Transformation of the neural code for tactile detection from thalamus to cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Yuriria; Salinas, Emilio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2013-01-01

    To understand how sensory-driven neural activity gives rise to perception, it is essential to characterize how various relay stations in the brain encode stimulus presence. Neurons in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the somatosensory thalamus and in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond to vibrotactile stimulation with relatively slow modulations (∼100 ms) of their firing rate. In addition, faster modulations (∼10 ms) time-locked to the stimulus waveform are observed in both areas, but their contribution to stimulus detection is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether VPL and S1 neurons encode stimulus presence with similar accuracy and via the same response features. To address these questions, we recorded single neurons while trained monkeys judged the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus of variable amplitude, and their activity was analyzed with a unique decoding method that is sensitive to the time scale of the firing rate fluctuations. We found that the maximum detection accuracy of single neurons is similar in VPL and S1. However, VPL relies more heavily on fast rate modulations than S1, and as a consequence, the neural code in S1 is more tolerant: its performance degrades less when the readout method or the time scale of integration is suboptimal. Therefore, S1 neurons implement a more robust code, one less sensitive to the temporal integration window used to infer stimulus presence downstream. The differences between VPL and S1 responses signaling the appearance of a stimulus suggest a transformation of the neural code from thalamus to cortex. PMID:23798408

  17. Performance improvement of hybrid subcarrier multiplexing optical spectrum code division multiplexing system using spectral direct decoding detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Abdullah, M. K.; Mokhtar, M.

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system for the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Optical spectrum code division multiple-access (OSCDMA) is one of the multiplexing techniques that is becoming popular because of the flexibility in the allocation of channels, ability to operate asynchronously, enhanced privacy and increased capacity in bursty nature networks. On the other hand, subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technique is able to enhance the channel data rate of OSCDMA systems. In this paper, a newly developed detection technique for the OSCDM called spectral direct decoding (SDD) detection technique is compared mathematically with the AND subtraction detection technique. The system utilizes a new unified code construction named KS (Khazani-Syed) code. The results characterizing the bit-error-rate (BER) show that SDD offers a significant improved performance at BER of 10 -9.

  18. Real Time PCR to detect hazelnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Iniesto, Elisa; Jiménez, Ana; Prieto, Nuria; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Burbano, Carmen; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rodríguez, Julia; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Linacero, Rosario

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative RT-PCR method, employing novel primer sets designed on Cor a 9, Cor a 11 and Cor a 13 allergen-coding sequences has been setup and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity and applicability have been compared. The effect of processing on detectability of these hazelnut targets in complex food matrices was also studied. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was the best for hazelnut. RT-PCR using primers for Cor a 9, 11 and 13 allowed a specific and accurate amplification of these sequences. The limit of detection was 1 ppm of raw hazelnut. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples. Thermal treatments (roasting and autoclaving) reduced yield and amplificability of hazelnut DNA, however, high-hydrostatic pressure did not affect. Compared with an ELISA assay, this RT-PCR showed higher sensitivity to detected hazelnut traces in commercial foodstuffs. The RT-PCR method described is the most sensitive of those reported for the detection of hazelnut traces in processed foods.

  19. Detection and reconstruction of error control codes for engineered and biological regulatory systems.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Elebeoba Eni; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Johnston, Anna Marie; Pryor, Richard J.; Hart, William Eugene; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2003-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for all communication systems, engineered or living, is the problem of achieving efficient, secure, and error-free communication over noisy channels. Information theoretic principals have been used to develop effective coding theory algorithms to successfully transmit information in engineering systems. Living systems also successfully transmit biological information through genetic processes such as replication, transcription, and translation, where the genome of an organism is the contents of the transmission. Decoding of received bit streams is fairly straightforward when the channel encoding algorithms are efficient and known. If the encoding scheme is unknown or part of the data is missing or intercepted, how would one design a viable decoder for the received transmission? For such systems blind reconstruction of the encoding/decoding system would be a vital step in recovering the original message. Communication engineers may not frequently encounter this situation, but for computational biologists and biotechnologist this is an immediate challenge. The goal of this work is to develop methods for detecting and reconstructing the encoder/decoder system for engineered and biological data. Building on Sandia's strengths in discrete mathematics, algorithms, and communication theory, we use linear programming and will use evolutionary computing techniques to construct efficient algorithms for modeling the coding system for minimally errored engineered data stream and genomic regulatory DNA and RNA sequences. The objective for the initial phase of this project is to construct solid parallels between biological literature and fundamental elements of communication theory. In this light, the milestones for FY2003 were focused on defining genetic channel characteristics and providing an initial approximation for key parameters, including coding rate, memory length, and minimum distance values. A secondary objective addressed the question of

  20. Student Plagiarism and Faculty Responsibility in Undergraduate Engineering Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parameswaran, Ashvin; Devi, Poornima

    2006-01-01

    In undergraduate engineering labs, lab reports are routinely copied. By ignoring this form of plagiarism, teaching assistants and lab technicians neglect their role responsibility. By designing courses that facilitate it, however inadvertently, professors neglect their causal responsibility. Using the case of one university, we show via interviews…

  1. Staff and Student Perceptions of Plagiarism and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of academic misconduct are a significant issue in higher education. In this study, the attitudes of academic staff and students in a 3 year undergraduate nursing program to various forms of academic misconduct were assessed and compared. Forty-nine percent of staff and 39% of students thought that cheating on…

  2. Mouse Click Plagiarism: Can Technology Help to Fight Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulley Pitchford, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Many students arrive at university accustomed to adopting the internet as their primary source of information, but with no prior experience of referencing. This raises issues of the reliability and validity of digital sources, as well as bringing new opportunities for cheating. The internet has made plagiarism quicker and easier; a student simply…

  3. Strategies to Help Legal Studies Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Linda B.; Bast, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is certainly not new to academics, but it may be on the rise with easy access to the vast quantities of information available on the Internet. Students researching on the Internet do not have to take handwritten or typewritten notes. They can simply print out or copy and save whatever they find. They are even spared the tedium of having…

  4. Loss, Responsibility, Blame? Staff Discourses of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley; Deane, Janis

    2012-01-01

    Student plagiarism and difficulties with writing have been widely investigated in the literature, but there has been less research on staff perspectives. A Joint Information Services Committee (JISC)-funded questionnaire (n = 80) and focus group study investigated the views of lecturers, librarians and study advisors at a UK post-92 university,…

  5. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosen, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

  6. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  7. Awareness about Plagiarism amongst University Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramzan, Muhammad; Munir, Muhammad Asif; Siddique, Nadeem; Asif, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Research is an original and systematic investigation undertaken to discover new facts and information about a phenomenon. However a variety of empirical and ethical issues are on the rise in academia, especially plagiarism is quickly becoming part of global educational and research culture. More and more students and researchers are turning to the…

  8. Assessing Domestic vs. International Student Perceptions and Attitudes of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…

  9. Ensuring Effective Student Support in Higher Education Alleged Plagiarism Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Craig; Dooey, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct are matters of great concern at all levels of study worldwide. This is especially so for students in higher education institutions, where higher degrees and publications are key focus activities. Ready access to internet based resources assist academic writing practices. However, the unintentional,…

  10. Plagiarism Isn't Just an Issue for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Everyone is appalled at reports of rampant cheating among high school and college students, primarily by cutting and pasting from the Internet without providing citations. There are situations in real life where an individual suffered serious consequences for plagiarizing work. Many schools incorporate such scenarios in character education…

  11. A Reflection on Plagiarism, Patchwriting, and the Engineering Master's Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Early in his career as an engineering librarian, the author saw plagiarism in completely black and white terms. However, digging into the scholarly literature, he finds ample evidence that there are other factors at work in student writing besides a lack of ethics or the intent to cheat. In this article, he briefly highlights some of these…

  12. Online Anti-Plagiarism Service Sets off Court Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2007-01-01

    As educators grapple with how best to combat plagiarism in the Internet age, several high school students are suing a company that many districts and schools have hired to help them reduce such cheating. The lawsuit alleges that the company is violating the high school students' rights under U.S. copyright law. The lawsuit was filed by four…

  13. Coded excitation speeds up the detection of the fundamental flexural guided wave in coated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaojun; Moilanen, Petro; Zhao, Zuomin; Ta, Dean; Pirhonen, Jalmari; Salmi, Ari; Hæeggström, Edward; Myllylä, Risto; Timonen, Jussi; Wang, Weiqi

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental flexural guided wave (FFGW) permits ultrasonic assessment of the wall thickness of solid waveguides, such as tubes or, e.g., long cortical bones. Recently, an optical non-contact method was proposed for ultrasound excitation and detection with the aim of facilitating the FFGW reception by suppressing the interfering modes from the soft coating. This technique suffers from low SNR and requires iterative physical scanning across the source-receiver distance for 2D-FFT analysis. This means that SNR improvement achieved by temporal averaging becomes time-consuming (several minutes) which reduces the applicability of the technique, especially in time-critical applications such as clinical quantitative ultrasound. To achieve sufficient SNR faster, an ultrasonic excitation by a base-sequence-modulated Golay code (BSGC, 64-bit code pair) on coated tube samples (1-5 mm wall thickness and 5 mm soft coating layer) was used. This approach improved SNR by 21 dB and speeded up the measurement by a factor of 100 compared to using a classical pulse excitation with temporal averaging. The measurement now took seconds instead of minutes, while the ability to determine the wall thickness of the phantoms was maintained. The technique thus allows rapid noncontacting assessment of the wall thickness in coated solid tubes, such as the human bone.

  14. Selective Capture and Quick Detection of Targeting Cells with SERS-Coding Microsphere Suspension Chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Dian; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Ruimin; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun; Tang, Chuanbing

    2015-05-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) captured from blood fluid represent recurrent cancers and metastatic lesions to monitor the situation of cancers. We develop surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-coding microsphere suspension chip as a new strategy for fast and efficient capture, recovery, and detection of targeting cancer cells. Using HeLa cells as model CTCs, we first utilize folate as a recognition molecule to be immobilized in magnetic composite microspheres for capturing HeLa cells and attaining high capturing efficacy (up to 95%). After capturing cells, the composite microsphere, which utilizes a disulfide bond as crosslinker in the polymer shell and as a spacer for linking folate, can recycle 90% cells within 20 min eluted by glutathion solution. Taking advantage of the SERS with fingerprint features, we characterize captured/recovered cells with the unique signal of report-molecule 4-aminothiophenol through introducing the SERS-coding microsphere suspension chip to CTCs. Finally, the exploratory experiment of sieving cells shows that the magnetic composite microspheres can selectively capture the HeLa cells from samples of mixed cells, indicating that these magnetic composite microspheres have potential in real blood samples for capturing CTCs.

  15. Sub-Nyquist sampling and detection in Costas coded pulse compression radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Adnan; Mansoor, Atif Bin; Imran, Ali Shariq

    2016-12-01

    Modern pulse compression radar involves digital signal processing of high bandwidth pulses modulated with different coding schemes. One of the limiting factors in the radar's design to achieve desired target range and resolution is the need of high rate analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion fulfilling the Nyquist sampling criteria. The high sampling rates necessitate huge storage capacity, more power consumption, and extra processing requirement. We introduce a new approach to sample wideband radar waveform modulated with Costas sequence at a sub-Nyquist rate based upon the concept of compressive sensing (CS). Sub-Nyquist measurements of Costas sequence waveform are performed in an analog-to-information (A/I) converter based upon random demodulation replacing traditional A/D converter. The novel work presents an 8-order Costas coded waveform with sub-Nyquist sampling and its reconstruction. The reconstructed waveform is compared with the conventionally sampled signal and depicts high-quality signal recovery from sub-Nyquist sampled signal. Furthermore, performance of CS-based detections after reconstruction are evaluated in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared with conventional Nyquist-rate matched filtering scheme.

  16. Efficient postprocessing scheme for block-coded images based on multiscale edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuanhu; Yan, Hong; Tan, Zheng

    2001-09-01

    The block discrete cosine transform (BDCT) is the most widely used technique for the compression of both still and moving images, a major problem related with the BDCT techniques is that the decoded images, especially at low bit rate, exhibit visually annoying blocking effects. In this paper, based on Mallets multiscale edge detection, we proposed an efficient deblocking algorithm to further improved the coding performance. The advantage of our algorithm is that it can efficiently preserve texture structure in the original decompressed images. Our method is similar to that of Z. Xiong's, where the Z.Xiong's method is not suitable for images with a large portion of texture; for instance, the Barbara Image. The difference of our method and the Z.Xiong's is that our method adopted a new thresholding scheme for multi-scale edge detection instead of exploiting cross-scale correlation for edge detection. Numerical experiment results show that our scheme not only outperforms Z.Xiong's for various images in the case of the same computational complexity, but also preserve texture structure in the decompressed images at the same time. Compared with the best iterative-based method (POCS) reported in the literature, our algorithm can achieve the same peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) improvement and give visually very pleasing images as well.

  17. Nanoparticle-Based Bio-Bar Codes for the Ultrasensitive Detection of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Shad Thaxton, C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2003-09-01

    An ultrasensitive method for detecting protein analytes has been developed. The system relies on magnetic microparticle probes with antibodies that specifically bind a target of interest [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in this case] and nanoparticle probes that are encoded with DNA that is unique to the protein target of interest and antibodies that can sandwich the target captured by the microparticle probes. Magnetic separation of the complexed probes and target followed by dehybridization of the oligonucleotides on the nanoparticle probe surface allows the determination of the presence of the target protein by identifying the oligonucleotide sequence released from the nanoparticle probe. Because the nanoparticle probe carries with it a large number of oligonucleotides per protein binding event, there is substantial amplification and PSA can be detected at 30 attomolar concentration. Alternatively, a polymerase chain reaction on the oligonucleotide bar codes can boost the sensitivity to 3 attomolar. Comparable clinically accepted conventional assays for detecting the same target have sensitivity limits of ~3 picomdar, six orders of magnitude less sensitive than what is observed with this method.

  18. Detection by real time PCR of walnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Linacero, Rosario; Ballesteros, Isabel; Sanchiz, Africa; Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Martinez, Yolanda; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Rovira, Mercè; Burbano, Carmen; Cuadrado, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, employing novel primer sets designed on Jug r 1, Jug r 3, and Jug r 4 allergen-coding sequences, was set up and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity, and applicability were evaluated. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was best for walnut. RT-PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequence, and the limit of detection was 2.5pg of walnut DNA. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples, and Jug r 3 primers detected up to 100mg/kg of raw walnut (LOD 0.01%, LOQ 0.05%). Thermal treatment combined with pressure (autoclaving) reduced yield and amplification (integrity and quality) of walnut DNA. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) did not produce any effect on the walnut DNA amplification. This RT-PCR method showed greater sensitivity and reliability in the detection of walnut traces in commercial foodstuffs compared with ELISA assays.

  19. Assessment of absolute added correlative coding in optical intensity modulation and direct detection channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The performance of absolute added correlative coding (AACC) modulation format with direct detection has been numerically and analytically reported, targeting metro data center interconnects. Hereby, the focus lies on the performance of the bit error rate, noise contributions, spectral efficiency, and chromatic dispersion tolerance. The signal space model of AACC, where the average electrical and optical power expressions are derived for the first time, is also delineated. The proposed modulation format was also compared to other well-known signaling, such as on-off-keying (OOK) and four-level pulse-amplitude modulation, at the same bit rate in a directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser-based transmission system. The comparison results show a clear advantage of AACC in achieving longer fiber delivery distance due to the higher dispersion tolerance.

  20. Modulated pulse laser with pseudorandom coding capabilities for underwater ranging, detection, and imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2011-11-20

    Optical detection, ranging, and imaging of targets in turbid water is complicated by absorption and scattering. It has been shown that using a pulsed laser source with a range-gated receiver or an intensity modulated source with a coherent RF receiver can improve target contrast in turbid water. A blended approach using a modulated-pulse waveform has been previously suggested as a way to further improve target contrast. However only recently has a rugged and reliable laser source been developed that is capable of synthesizing such a waveform so that the effect of the underwater environment on the propagation of a modulated pulse can be studied. In this paper, we outline the motivation for the modulated-pulse (MP) concept, and experimentally evaluate different MP waveforms: single-tone MP and pseudorandom coded MP sequences.

  1. Decoding of DBEC-TBED Reed-Solomon codes. [Double-Byte-Error-Correcting, Triple-Byte-Error-Detecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A problem in designing semiconductor memories is to provide some measure of error control without requiring excessive coding overhead or decoding time. In LSI and VLSI technology, memories are often organized on a multiple bit (or byte) per chip basis. For example, some 256 K bit DRAM's are organized in 32 K x 8 bit-bytes. Byte-oriented codes such as Reed-Solomon (RS) codes can provide efficient low overhead error control for such memories. However, the standard iterative algorithm for decoding RS codes is too slow for these applications. The paper presents a special decoding technique for double-byte-error-correcting, triple-byte-error-detecting RS codes which is capable of high-speed operation. This technique is designed to find the error locations and the error values directly from the syndrome without having to use the iterative algorithm to find the error locator polynomial.

  2. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  3. The ethics of scholarly publishing: exploring differences in plagiarism and duplicate publication across nations.

    PubMed

    Amos, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    This study explored national differences in plagiarism and duplicate publication in retracted biomedical literature. The national affiliations of authors and reasons for retraction of papers accessible through PubMed that were published from 2008 to 2012 and subsequently retracted were determined in order to identify countries with the largest numbers and highest rates of retraction due to plagiarism and duplicate publication. Authors from more than fifty countries retracted papers. While the United States retracted the most papers, China retracted the most papers for plagiarism and duplicate publication. Rates of plagiarism and duplicate publication were highest in Italy and Finland, respectively. Unethical publishing practices cut across nations.

  4. Self-plagiarism in academic publishing: the anatomy of a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2013-09-01

    The paper discusses self-plagiarism and associated practices in scholarly publishing. It approaches at some length the conceptual issues raised by the notion of self-plagiarism. It distinguishes among and then examines the main families of arguments against self-plagiarism, as well as the question of possibly legitimate reasons to engage in this practice. It concludes that some of the animus frequently reserved for self-plagiarism may be the result of, among others, poor choice of a label, unwarranted generalizations as to its ill effects based on the specific experience (and goals) of particular disciplines, and widespread but not necessarily beneficial publishing practices.

  5. Metrics-based assessments of research: incentives for 'institutional plagiarism'?

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The issue of plagiarism--claiming credit for work that is not one's own, rightly, continues to cause concern in the academic community. An analysis is presented that shows the effects that may arise from metrics-based assessments of research, when credit for an author's outputs (chiefly publications) is given to an institution that did not support the research but which subsequently employs the author. The incentives for what is termed here "institutional plagiarism" are demonstrated with reference to the UK Research Assessment Exercise in which submitting units of assessment are shown in some instances to derive around twice the credit for papers produced elsewhere by new recruits, compared to papers produced 'in-house'.

  6. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  7. "Thou Shalt Not Plagiarise": From Self-Reported Views to Recognition and Avoidance of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Throughout much of the literature on plagiarism in higher education, there is an implicit assumption that students who understand plagiarism, who have high ethical views and declare not to engage in plagiaristic behaviour are able to recognise it and avoid it in practice. Challenging this supposition, this paper contrasts students' self-reported…

  8. Helping International Students Succeed Academically through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Van Ullen, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet the needs of international students at the University at Albany. The research process workshop covered formulating research questions, as well as locating and evaluating sources. The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing…

  9. Good and Original: Plagiarism and Patchwriting in Academic Second-Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorari, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Plagiarism is regarded as a heinous crime within the academic community, but anecdotal evidence suggests that some writers plagiarize without intending to transgress academic conventions. This article reports a study of the writing of 17 postgraduate students. Source reports in the student-generated texts were compared to the original sources in…

  10. Collaboration as Plagiarism--Cheating Is in the Eye of the Beholder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roen, Duane H.; McNenny, Geraldine

    Negative attitudes toward collaborative writing are common, especially in the humanities, and some people view it as a form of plagiarism or cheating. Plagiarism, or the borrowing of ideas from other writers, can be both conscious and unconscious, and can stem from a variety of motives. Even single-authored works are products of many minds,…

  11. Reasons for College Students to Plagiarize in EFL Writing: Students' Motivation to Pass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Darwish, Salwa; Sadeqi, Abdul Azeez

    2016-01-01

    EFL students acquire their writing skill through practice and hard work. However, there seems to be a lot of reasons why EFL students should find the task of composing an essay so difficult that leads them to plagiarize. For that, the present paper tries to find out the real motivation for EFL students to plagiarize in writing. This research was…

  12. Chinese International Students' and Faculty Members' Views of Plagiarism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Alan

    2016-01-01

    As the enrollment of Chinese international students (CIS) increased at a private institution in the Midwest, so did suspected cases of plagiarism. This study addressed the problem of how faculty members grappled with CIS' interpretation and application of Western-based views of plagiarism. The purpose of the study was to identify similarities and…

  13. Students Turned Off by Turnitin? Perception of Plagiarism and Collusion by Undergraduate Bioscience Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompsett, Andrew; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2010-01-01

    Research on undergraduate bioscience students and the incidence of plagiarism is still in its infancy and a key problem arises in gauging the perception of undergraduate students on plagiarism and collusion in biosciences subjects because of the lack of empirical data. The aim of this study was to provide qualitative data on the perceptions of…

  14. Turnitin.com: Teachers' Perspectives of Anti-Plagiarism Software in Raising Issues of Educational Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Carr, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    Issues of academic plagiarism in educational institutions are often played out in the public arena. Media reports that "scandals" occur in universities where plagiarism has gone undetected, or unpunished can undermine public faith in the academic integrity of higher education. Antiplagiarism software has been successfully marketed to…

  15. Journals May Soon Use Anti-Plagiarism Software on Their Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This spring, academic journals may turn the anti-plagiarism software that professors have been using against their students on the professors themselves. CrossRef, a publishing industry association, and the software company iParadigms announced a deal last week to create CrossCheck, an anti-plagiarism program for academic journals. The software…

  16. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  17. Rebels without a Clause: Towards an Institutional Framework for Dealing with Plagiarism by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores why an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students is necessary and it outlines the main ingredients of such a framework that has been developed at Lancaster University. It defines plagiarism as a form of academic malpractice and frames it as a breach of academic integrity. The framework places a strong…

  18. Retribution, Deterrence and Reform: The Dilemmas of Plagiarism Management in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Universities face constant scrutiny about their plagiarism management strategies, policies and procedures. A resounding theme, usually media inspired, is that plagiarism is rife, unstoppable and university processes are ineffectual in its wake. This has been referred to as a "moral panic" approach (Carroll & Sutherland-Smith,…

  19. Plagiarism: using a collaborative approach in an online allied health professions course.

    PubMed

    Pence, Patricia L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the awareness and understanding of plagiarism among undergraduate students enrolled in an online allied health professions course in a community college in the Midwestern United States. The results suggested that the interventions were effective in educating students about how to avoid plagiarism.

  20. Substantive Editing as a Form of Plagiarism among Postgraduate Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In university plagiarism policies, and in the research into plagiarism, one form of collusion remains virtually unacknowledged: substantive editing performed by editors. While almost all Australian universities allow postgraduate students to have their thesis professionally edited, "substantive" editing is prohibited. This article…

  1. Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Students' Skills in Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism with a Themed Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estow, Sarah; Lawrence, Eva K.; Adams, Kathrynn A.

    2011-01-01

    To address the issue of plagiarism, students in two undergraduate Research Methods and Analysis courses conducted, analyzed, and wrote up original research on the topic of plagiarism. Students in an otherwise identical course completed the same assignments but examined a different research topic. At the start and end of the semester, all students…

  2. Teaching Students about Plagiarism: What It Looks Like and How It Is Measured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines how full-time faculty, adjunct instructors, and graduate teaching assistants teach students how to avoid plagiarism. Additionally, this case study includes a cross-section of teachers who encounter plagiarism in writing assignments across the curriculum. While many studies in the past have focused on students, this study…

  3. Online Academic-Integrity Mastery Training May Improve Students' Awareness of, and Attitudes toward, Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Guy J.; Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Thomas, Emma F.; O'Brien, Geraldine M.; Correia, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence has emerged in recent years that plagiarism can be reduced through the use of online mastery tests that are designed to train introductory psychology students in awareness of academic integrity and referencing conventions. Although these studies demonstrated a reduction in incidents of plagiarism they did not directly examine whether…

  4. An Investigation into Electronic-Source Plagiarism in a First-Year Essay Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since the emergence of the electronic era, plagiarism has become an increasingly prevalent problem at tertiary institutions. This study investigated the role electronic sources of information played in influencing plagiarism in an essay assignment in a first-year geography module at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Despite explicit…

  5. A Comparison of Chinese and Australian University Students' Attitudes towards Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John; Howard, Steven J.; Mu, Congjun; Bokosmaty, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a growing problem within Australian universities and abroad. Potentially exacerbating this situation, research indicates that students' attitudes toward plagiarism are typically more permissive and lenient than the policies of their tertiary institutions. There has been suggestion that this is especially so in Asian countries…

  6. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  7. "No Fair, Copycat!": What Children's Response to Plagiarism Tells Us about Their Understanding of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Adults believe that plagiarizing ideas is wrong, which requires an understanding that others can have ideas and that it is wrong to copy them. In order to test when this understanding emerges, we investigated when children begin to think plagiarism is wrong. In Study 1, children aged 7, 9 and 11 years old, as well as adults, disliked someone who…

  8. Deconstructing Attitudes towards Plagiarism of Japanese Undergraduates in EFL Academic Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a qualitative analysis of 276 first-year Japanese university science major responses to plagiarism to deconstruct prevailing generalizations regarding the incidence of plagiarism by Japanese university students. These students were enrolled in a compulsory yearlong English academic writing course. While utilizing a contextualized…

  9. "Not Necessarily a Bad Thing ...": A Study of Online Plagiarism amongst Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Whilst the copying, falsification and plagiarism of essays and assignments has long been a prevalent form of academic misconduct amongst undergraduate students, the increasing use of the internet in higher education has raised concern over enhanced levels of online plagiarism and new types of "cyber-cheating". Based on a self-report…

  10. Detection of Inpatient Health Care Associated Injuries: Comparing Two ICD-9-CM Code Classifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    example, currently the UTIDs database has nine fields for ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes plus a single additional field for an E-code. Some patients...information for physicians on sub-acute thromboses (SAT) and hypersensitivity reactions with use of the Cordis CYPHERTM Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent

  11. Quartz crystal microbalance detection of DNA single-base mutation based on monobase-coded cadmium tellurium nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqin; Lin, Fanbo; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Haitao; Zeng, Yue; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the detection of point mutation in DNA based on the monobase-coded cadmium tellurium nanoprobes and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was reported. A point mutation (single-base, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, namely, A, T, C and G, mutation in DNA strand, respectively) DNA QCM sensor was fabricated by immobilizing single-base mutation DNA modified magnetic beads onto the electrode surface with an external magnetic field near the electrode. The DNA-modified magnetic beads were obtained from the biotin-avidin affinity reaction of biotinylated DNA and streptavidin-functionalized core/shell Fe(3)O(4)/Au magnetic nanoparticles, followed by a DNA hybridization reaction. Single-base coded CdTe nanoprobes (A-CdTe, T-CdTe, C-CdTe and G-CdTe, respectively) were used as the detection probes. The mutation site in DNA was distinguished by detecting the decreases of the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric quartz crystal when the coded nanoprobe was added to the test system. This proposed detection strategy for point mutation in DNA is proved to be sensitive, simple, repeatable and low-cost, consequently, it has a great potential for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection.

  12. Detection of coding microsatellite frameshift mutations in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mouse intestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Woerner, Stefan M; Tosti, Elena; Yuan, Yan P; Kloor, Matthias; Bork, Peer; Edelmann, Winfried; Gebert, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Different DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient mouse strains have been developed as models for the inherited cancer predisposing Lynch syndrome. It is completely unresolved, whether coding mononucleotide repeat (cMNR) gene mutations in these mice can contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis and whether MMR-deficient mice are a suitable molecular model of human microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated intestinal tumorigenesis. A proof-of-principle study was performed to identify mouse cMNR-harboring genes affected by insertion/deletion mutations in MSI murine intestinal tumors. Bioinformatic algorithms were developed to establish a database of mouse cMNR-harboring genes. A panel of five mouse noncoding mononucleotide markers was used for MSI classification of intestinal matched normal/tumor tissues from MMR-deficient (Mlh1(-/-) , Msh2(-/-) , Msh2(LoxP/LoxP) ) mice. cMNR frameshift mutations of candidate genes were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Murine MSI intestinal tumors but not normal tissues from MMR-deficient mice showed cMNR frameshift mutations in six candidate genes (Elavl3, Tmem107, Glis2, Sdccag1, Senp6, Rfc3). cMNRs of mouse Rfc3 and Elavl3 are conserved in type and length in their human orthologs that are known to be mutated in human MSI colorectal, endometrial and gastric cancer. We provide evidence for the utility of a mononucleotide marker panel for detection of MSI in murine tumors, the existence of cMNR instability in MSI murine tumors, the utility of mouse subspecies DNA for identification of polymorphic repeats, and repeat conservation among some orthologous human/mouse genes, two of them showing instability in human and mouse MSI intestinal tumors. MMR-deficient mice hence are a useful molecular model system for analyzing MSI intestinal carcinogenesis.

  13. Slow and fast ultrasonic wave detection improvement in human trabecular bones using Golay code modulation.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Bahman; Manbachi, Amir; Mandelis, Andreas; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2012-09-01

    The identification of fast and slow waves propagating through trabecular bone is a challenging task due to temporal wave overlap combined with the high attenuation of the fast wave in the presence of noise. However, it can provide valuable information about bone integrity and become a means for monitoring osteoporosis. The objective of this work is to apply different coded excitation methods for this purpose. The results for single-sine cycle pulse, Golay code, and chirp excitations are compared. It is shown that Golay code is superior to the other techniques due to its signal enhancement while exhibiting excellent resolution without the ambiguity of sidelobes.

  14. A New Model for the Error Detection Delay of Finite Precision Binary Arithmetic Codes with a Forbidden Symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yuye; Sun, Jun; Wang, Jia; Wang, Peng

    In this paper, the statistical characteristic of the Error Detection Delay (EDD) of Finite Precision Binary Arithmetic Codes (FPBAC) is discussed. It is observed that, apart from the probability of the Forbidden Symbol (FS) inserted into the list of the source symbols, the probability of the source sequence and the operation precision as well as the position of the FS in the coding interval can affect the statistical characteristic of the EDD. Experiments demonstrate that the actual distribution of the EDD of FPBAC is quite different from the geometric distribution of infinite precision arithmetic codes. This phenomenon is researched deeply, and a new statistical model (gamma distribution) of the actual distribution of the EDD is proposed, which can make a more precise prediction of the EDD. Finally, the relation expressions between the parameters of gamma distribution and the related factors affecting the distribution are given.

  15. Automatic Plagiarism Detection with PAIRwise 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Allan; Almeroth, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    As part of the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Center for Information Technology and Society (CITS), the Paper Authentication and Integrity Research (PAIR) project was launched. We began by investigating how one recent technology affected student learning outcomes. One aspect of this research was to study the…

  16. Why do I always have the best ideas? The role of idea quality in unconscious plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy J; Stark, Louisa-Jayne

    2008-05-01

    Groups of individuals often work together to generate solutions to a problem. Subsequently, one member of the group can plagiarise another either by recalling that person's idea as their own (recall-own plagiarism), or by generating a novel solution that duplicates a previous idea (generate-new plagiarism). The current study examines the extent to which these forms of plagiarism are influenced by the quality of the ideas. Groups of participants initially generated ideas, prior to an elaboration phase in which idea quality was manipulated in two ways: participants received feedback on the quality of the ideas as rated by independent judges, and they generated improvements to a subset of the ideas. Unconscious plagiarism was measured in recall-own and generate-new tasks. For recall, idea improvement led to increased plagiarism, while for the generate-new task, the independent ratings influenced plagiarism. These data indicate that different source-judgement processes underlie the two forms of plagiarism, neither of which can be reduced simply to memory strength.

  17. [Plagiarism. Document from the Ethics Commission of the Medical School, University of Chile].

    PubMed

    Rosselot Jaramillo, Eduardo; Bravo Lechat, Mireya; Kottow Lang, Miguel; Valenzuela Yuraidini, Carlos; O'Ryan Gallardo, Miguel; Thambo Becker, Sergio; Horwitz Campos, Nina; Acevedo Pérez, Irene; Rueda Castro, Laura; Sotomayor, María Angélica

    2008-05-01

    Plagiarism is defined as the intellectual fraud in which an individual attempts to unduly appropriate, for his/her own benefit, the knowledge, ideas or discoveries of someone else. It is not uncommon in academic settings where research is conducted and a creative work is carried out. Due to the dismal consequences of plagiarism, cautionary measures and sanctions are required to avoid it. This paper is intended to warn and promote a discussion about plagiarism. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile and its ethics committee believe that a fight against these type of actions will contribute to prevent their detrimental effects on the moral and intellectual patrimony of our society.

  18. Who Discovered the Binary System and Arithmetic? Did Leibniz Plagiarize Caramuel?

    PubMed

    Ares, J; Lara, J; Lizcano, D; Martínez, M A

    2017-03-09

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) is the self-proclaimed inventor of the binary system and is considered as such by most historians of mathematics and/or mathematicians. Really though, we owe the groundwork of today's computing not to Leibniz but to the Englishman Thomas Harriot and the Spaniard Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz (1606-1682), whom Leibniz plagiarized. This plagiarism has been identified on the basis of several facts: Caramuel's work on the binary system is earlier than Leibniz's, Leibniz was acquainted-both directly and indirectly-with Caramuel's work and Leibniz had a natural tendency to plagiarize scientific works.

  19. Intensity modulation and direct detection Alamouti polarization-time coding for optical fiber transmission systems with polarization mode dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Ahmed Galib; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Alamouti space-time coding is modified in the form of polarization-time coding to combat against polarization mode dispersion (PMD) impairments in exploiting a polarization diversity multiplex (PDM) gain with simple intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) in optical transmission systems. A theoretical model for the proposed IM/DD Alamouti polarization-time coding (APTC-IM/DD) using nonreturn-to-zero on-off keying signal can surprisingly eliminate the requirement of channel estimation for decoding in the low PMD regime, when a two-transmitter and two-receiver channel is adopted. Even in the high PMD regime, the proposed APTC-IM/DD still reveals coding gain demonstrating the robustness of APTC-IM/DD. In addition, this scheme can eliminate the requirements for a polarization state controller, a coherent receiver, and a high-speed analog-to-digital converter at a receiver. Simulation results reveal that the proposed APTC scheme is able to reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio requirement by ˜3 dB and significantly enhance the PMD tolerance of a PDM-based IM/DD system.

  20. Strategies for Using Plagiarism Software in the Screening of Incoming Journal Manuscripts: Recommendations Based on a Recent Literature Survey.

    PubMed

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts. Several filters were applied, all of which appeared to lower the noise from irrelevant hits. The main conclusions were that plagiarism software offers a unique opportunity to screen for plagiarism easily but also that it has to be employed with caution as automated or uncritical use is far too unreliable to allow a fair basis for judging the degree of plagiarism in a manuscript. This remains the job of senior editors. Whereas a few cases of self-plagiarism that would not likely have been accepted with today's guidelines were indeed identified, no cases of fraud or serious plagiarism were found. Potential guidelines are discussed.

  1. Biobar-coded gold nanoparticles and DNAzyme-based dual signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive detection of protein by electrochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Li, Lingling; Yin, Zhouyang; Hou, Xiandeng; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-01-14

    A dual signal amplification strategy for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was designed based on biobar-coded gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and DNAzyme. CdSeTe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were chosen as the ECL signal probes. To verify the proposed ultrasensitive ECL aptasensor for biomolecules, we detected thrombin (Tb) as a proof-of-principle analyte. The hairpin DNA designed for the recognition of protein consists of two parts: the sequences of catalytical 8-17 DNAzyme and thrombin aptamer. Only in the presence of thrombin could the hairpin DNA be opened, followed by a recycling cleavage of excess substrates by catalytic core of the DNAzyme to induce the first-step amplification. One part of the fragments was captured to open the capture DNA modified on the Au electrode, which further connected with the prepared biobar-coded Au NPs-CdSeTe@ZnS QDs to get the final dual-amplified ECL signal. The limit of detection for Tb was 0.28 fM with excellent selectivity, and this proposed method possessed good performance in real sample analysis. This design introduces the new concept of dual-signal amplification by a biobar-coded system and DNAzyme recycling into ECL determination, and it is promising to be extended to provide a highly sensitive platform for various target biomolecules.

  2. Detection of Long Non-coding RNA Expression by Non-radioactive Northern Blots

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowen; Feng, Yi; Hu, Zhongyi; Zhang, Youyou; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Xu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in sequencing technology and transcriptome analysis, it is estimated that up to 75% of the human genome is transcribed into RNAs. This finding prompted intensive investigations on the biological functions of non-coding RNAs and led to very exciting discoveries of microRNAs as important players in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic applications. Research on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is in its infancy, yet a broad spectrum of biological regulations has been attributed to lncRNAs. As a novel class of RNA transcripts, the expression level and splicing variants of lncRNAs are various. Northern blot analysis can help us learn about the identity, size, and abundance of lncRNAs. Here we describe how to use northern blot to determine lncRNA abundance and identify different splicing variants of a given lncRNA. PMID:26721491

  3. Molecular Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Non-Protein Coding RNA-Mediated Monoplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Soo Yean, Cheryl Yeap; Selva Raju, Kishanraj; Xavier, Rathinam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chinni, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    Non-protein coding RNA (npcRNA) is a functional RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. Bacterial npcRNAs are structurally diversified molecules, typically 50–200 nucleotides in length. They play a crucial physiological role in cellular networking, including stress responses, replication and bacterial virulence. In this study, by using an identified npcRNA gene (Sau-02) in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we identified the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus. A Sau-02-mediated monoplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was designed that displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Fourteen different bacteria and 18 S. aureus strains were tested, and the results showed that the Sau-02 gene is specific to S. aureus. The detection limit was tested against genomic DNA from MRSA and was found to be ~10 genome copies. Further, the detection was extended to whole-cell MRSA detection, and we reached the detection limit with two bacteria. The monoplex PCR assay demonstrated in this study is a novel detection method that can replicate other npcRNA-mediated detection assays. PMID:27367909

  4. Plagiarism in Publications Using the Unpublished Raw Data of Archived Research.

    PubMed

    Yahaghi, Javad; Beddu, Salmia Bnt; Muda, Zakaria Che

    2017-04-01

    It is obligatory to educate student researchers before they start their work by teaching them about the various types of plagiarism and how to avoid them. It is also vital that research supervisors take into account the sources of data that are explored in their students' manuscripts. This article tries to draw the reader's attention to the importance of avoiding all types of plagiarism in their research.

  5. Noncoder: a web interface for exon array-based detection of long non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, Pascal; Ponomareva, Yuliya; Braun, Thomas; Uchida, Shizuka

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent technical developments, a high number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered in mammals. Although it has been shown that lncRNAs are regulated differently among tissues and disease statuses, functions of these transcripts are still unknown in most cases. GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (exon arrays) from Affymetrix, Inc. have been used widely to profile genome-wide expression changes and alternative splicing of protein-coding genes. Here, we demonstrate that re-annotation of exon array probes can be used to profile expressions of tens of thousands of lncRNAs. With this annotation, a detailed inspection of lncRNAs and their isoforms is possible. To allow for a general usage to the research community, we developed a user-friendly web interface called ‘noncoder’. By uploading CEL files from exon arrays and with a few mouse clicks and parameter settings, exon array data will be normalized and analysed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs. Noncoder provides the detailed annotation information of lncRNAs and is equipped with unique features to allow for an efficient search for interesting lncRNAs to be studied further. The web interface is available at http://noncoder.mpi-bn.mpg.de. PMID:23012263

  6. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  7. Plagiarism and Prosecution: A New Approach at Air University.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NOS PROGRAM PROECT S I WORK UaT ELEMENT NO NO0 NO. NO - E !,tc-de 5c rgYLXj",fICatoIIf PLAGIAMTSM!AN D PROSECUTION: A New 12...iden1ify by blork nu~mber) FIELD_____P____ SUB CR 19 ABST PACT CIIn.,n , e . If nve.Q and da-(Ify by 61,,cor ,-I,,Iberi -xa-~ e adrse the issue of plagiarism...it arise. 20 D1ST- 13 U- ’ AVAIL±ABILITY OF ABSTRAC-T 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 0) ,.C.3,F -,~*. *A E ? ~.SAME A’, PPT OT071 USERS UCASFE r22

  8. Perceptions of Plagiarism by STEM Graduate Students: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Michelle; Schwieder, David; Buhler, Amy; Bennett, Denise Beaubien; Royster, Melody

    2015-12-01

    Issues of academic integrity, specifically knowledge of, perceptions and attitudes toward plagiarism, are well documented in post-secondary settings using case studies for specific courses, recording discourse with focus groups, analyzing cross-cultural education philosophies, and reviewing the current literature. In this paper, the authors examine the perceptions of graduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at the University of Florida regarding misconduct and integrity issues. Results revealed students' perceptions of the definition and seriousness of potential academic misconduct, knowledge of institutional procedures, and views on faculty actions, all with a focus on divergences between U.S. and internationally-educated students. The open-ended questions provide anecdotal evidence to highlight personal experiences, positive and negative, aimed at the faculty, international students and undergraduates. Combined, these findings outline an important part of the campus academic integrity culture at a major American university. Recommendations for local actions also are discussed.

  9. Development of a Magnetic Electrochemical Bar Code Array for Point Mutation Detection in the H5N1 Neuraminidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. PMID:23860384

  10. Complementary code and digital filtering for detection of weak VHF radar signals from the mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.; Czechowsky, P.

    1983-12-01

    The SOUSY-VHF-Radar operates at a frequency of 53.5 MHz in a valley in the Harz mountains, Germany, 90 km from Hanover. The radar controller, which is programmed by a 16-bit computer holds 1024 program steps in core and controls, via 8 channels, the whole radar system: in particular the master oscillator, the transmitter, the transmit-receive-switch, the receiver, the analog to digital converter, and the hardware adder. The high-sensitivity receiver has a dynamic range of 70 dB and a video bandwidth of 1 MHz. Phase coding schemes are applied, in particular for investigations at mesospheric heights, in order to carry out measurements with the maximum duty cycle and the maximum height resolution. The computer takes the data from the adder to store it in magnetic tape or disc. The radar controller is programmed by the computer using simple FORTRAN IV statements. After the program has been loaded and the computer has started the radar controller, it runs automatically, stopping at the program end. In case of errors or failures occurring during the radar operation, the radar controller is shut off caused either by a safety circuit or by a power failure circuit or by a parity check system.

  11. A study of redundancy management strategy for tetrad strap-down inertial systems. [error detection codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Carestia, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms were developed that attempt to identify which sensor in a tetrad configuration has experienced a step failure. An algorithm is also described that provides a measure of the confidence with which the correct identification was made. Experimental results are presented from real-time tests conducted on a three-axis motion facility utilizing an ortho-skew tetrad strapdown inertial sensor package. The effects of prediction errors and of quantization on correct failure identification are discussed as well as an algorithm for detecting second failures through prediction.

  12. A positive detecting code and its decoding algorithm for DNA library screening.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Hiroaki; Jimbo, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    The study of gene functions requires high-quality DNA libraries. However, a large number of tests and screenings are necessary for compiling such libraries. We describe an algorithm for extracting as much information as possible from pooling experiments for library screening. Collections of clones are called pools, and a pooling experiment is a group test for detecting all positive clones. The probability of positiveness for each clone is estimated according to the outcomes of the pooling experiments. Clones with high chance of positiveness are subjected to confirmatory testing. In this paper, we introduce a new positive clone detecting algorithm, called the Bayesian network pool result decoder (BNPD). The performance of BNPD is compared, by simulation, with that of the Markov chain pool result decoder (MCPD) proposed by Knill et al. in 1996. Moreover, the combinatorial properties of pooling designs suitable for the proposed algorithm are discussed in conjunction with combinatorial designs and d-disjunct matrices. We also show the advantage of utilizing packing designs or BIB designs for the BNPD algorithm.

  13. Fully automated macular pathology detection in retina optical coherence tomography images using sparse coding and dictionary learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yankui; Li, Shan; Sun, Zhongyang

    2017-01-01

    We propose a framework for automated detection of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from retina optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, based on sparse coding and dictionary learning. The study aims to improve the classification performance of state-of-the-art methods. First, our method presents a general approach to automatically align and crop retina regions; then it obtains global representations of images by using sparse coding and a spatial pyramid; finally, a multiclass linear support vector machine classifier is employed for classification. We apply two datasets for validating our algorithm: Duke spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) dataset, consisting of volumetric scans acquired from 45 subjects-15 normal subjects, 15 AMD patients, and 15 DME patients; and clinical SD-OCT dataset, consisting of 678 OCT retina scans acquired from clinics in Beijing-168, 297, and 213 OCT images for AMD, DME, and normal retinas, respectively. For the former dataset, our classifier correctly identifies 100%, 100%, and 93.33% of the volumes with DME, AMD, and normal subjects, respectively, and thus performs much better than the conventional method; for the latter dataset, our classifier leads to a correct classification rate of 99.67%, 99.67%, and 100.00% for DME, AMD, and normal images, respectively.

  14. Replica Analysis of Multiuser Detection for Code Division Multiple Access with M-Ary Phase-Shift Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masato; Miyoshi, Seiji

    2013-07-01

    We analyze the performance of the maximizer of the posterior marginals (MPM) detector for code division multiple access (CDMA) multiuser detection with M-ary phase shift keying (M-ary PSK) in the large system limit by the replica method. The obtained theory agrees with computer simulation reasonably well. We also derive the theory in the case of the large M limit and discuss the dependence of the properties of M-ary PSK CDMA communication on M. We show that the waterfall phenomenon occurs for both the finite and infinite values of M. We also show that a value of M for which the decoded phase information on the original user symbol becomes minimum exists. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between the theory based on the replica method and that based on self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA).

  15. Disease outbreak detection through clique covering on a weighted ICPC-coded graph.

    PubMed

    van Vuurden, Klaske; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Even after a decade of increased research into the problem of detecting disease outbreaks, we lack a system that can limit the number of patients affected by a potential epidemic by recognising its existence at an early stage. In this paper we suggest the use of a weighted graph representing symptoms with an exceptionally high prevalence. Cliques with high weighted edges in such a graph will represent groups of symptoms that occur together more often than usual. As a result each clique will represent the main symptoms of a disease with a high incidence rate. This will make it easier to diagnose the nature of an outbreak, to reach the affected patients at an early stage and to distinguish between outbreaks occurring simultaneously.

  16. Developing Students' Referencing Skills: A Matter of Plagiarism, Punishment and Morality or of Learning to Write Critically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardi, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Just as plagiarism is viewed poorly in the academic community, so is plagiarism viewed poorly in student writing, with a range of sanctions and penalties applying for not displaying academic integrity. Yet learning to cite effectively to progress one's argument, position or understandings is a skill that takes time to develop and hone. This paper…

  17. Police, Design, Plan and Manage: Developing a Framework for Integrating Staff Roles and Institutional Policies into a Plagiarism Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher; White, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    When student plagiarism occurs, academic interest and institutional policy generally assume the fault rests with the student. This paper questions this assumption. We claim that plagiarism is a shared responsibility and a complex phenomenon that requires an ongoing calibration of the relative skills and experiences of students and staff in…

  18. Source Credibility and Idea Improvement Have Independent Effects on Unconscious Plagiarism Errors in Recall and Generate-New Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Timothy J.; Field, Ian; Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs when people try to generate new ideas or when they try to recall their own ideas from among a set generated by a group. In this study, the factors that independently influence these two forms of plagiarism error were examined. Participants initially generated solutions to real-world problems in 2 domains of knowledge…

  19. Anti-Cheating Crusader Vexes Some Professors: Software Kingpin Says Using his Product Would Cure Plagiarism Blight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2008-01-01

    A parallel between plagiarism and corporate crime raises eyebrows--and ire-- on campuses, but for John Barrie, the comparison is a perfectly natural one. In the 10 years since he founded iParadigms, which sells the antiplagiarism software Turnitin, he has argued--forcefully, and at times combatively--that academic plagiarism is growing, and that…

  20. Using Online Resources to Improve Writing Skills and Attitudes about Writing and Plagiarism of Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohe, B.; Schroeder, J.; Davis, S. R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Cheating and plagiarism are significant problems in higher education because they occur often and interfere with learning. Plagiarism creates shortcuts that bypass the time and effort required to develop the writing and analytical skills necessary to produce evidence of progress in mastering course content. The purpose of a two-semester writing…

  1. Making a Difference: Library and Teaching Faculty Working Together to Develop Strategies in Dealing with Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciammarella, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a problem affecting all colleges. Various strategies have been developed to deal with this situation. But, the collaborative efforts of subject faculty and librarians in creating a team approach towards plagiarism can produce positive results. Research shows that these relationships can provide structure to assignments…

  2. What Prevents ESL/FL Writers from Avoiding Plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American College Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how inexperienced English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language (ESL/EFL) writers can be helped to avoid plagiarism. Analyzes 10 North American Web sites on plagiarism, which provide a window to understanding how this issue has been problemitized and explained in Anglophone academic contexts. Concludes ESL/EFL may need to emphasize the role of…

  3. Task-Specific Codes for Face Recognition: How they Shape the Neural Representation of Features for Detection and Individuation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The variety of ways in which faces are categorized makes face recognition challenging for both synthetic and biological vision systems. Here we focus on two face processing tasks, detection and individuation, and explore whether differences in task demands lead to differences both in the features most effective for automatic recognition and in the featural codes recruited by neural processing. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study appeals to a computational framework characterizing the features representing object categories as sets of overlapping image fragments. Within this framework, we assess the extent to which task-relevant information differs across image fragments. Based on objective differences we find among task-specific representations, we test the sensitivity of the human visual system to these different face descriptions independently of one another. Both behavior and functional magnetic resonance imaging reveal effects elicited by objective task-specific levels of information. Behaviorally, recognition performance with image fragments improves with increasing task-specific information carried by different face fragments. Neurally, this sensitivity to the two tasks manifests as differential localization of neural responses across the ventral visual pathway. Fragments diagnostic for detection evoke larger neural responses than non-diagnostic ones in the right posterior fusiform gyrus and bilaterally in the inferior occipital gyrus. In contrast, fragments diagnostic for individuation evoke larger responses than non-diagnostic ones in the anterior inferior temporal gyrus. Finally, for individuation only, pattern analysis reveals sensitivity to task-specific information within the right “fusiform face area”. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate: 1) information diagnostic for face detection and individuation is roughly separable; 2) the human visual system is independently sensitive to both types of information; 3) neural

  4. Self-plagiarism and textual recycling: legitimate forms of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Bruton, Samuel V

    2014-01-01

    The concept of self-plagiarism frequently elicits skepticism and generates confusion in the research ethics literature, and the ethical status of what is often called "textual recycling" is particularly controversial. I argue that, in general, self-plagiarism is unethical because it is deceptive and dishonest. I then distinguish several forms of it and argue against various common rationalizations for textual recycling. I conclude with a discussion of two instances of textual recycling, distinguishing them in terms of their ethical seriousness but concluding that both are ethically problematic.

  5. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  6. Plagiarism and registered health professionals: navigating the borderlands between scholarly and professional misconduct.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Jon

    2013-12-01

    As access to published materials becomes more readily available, the ability to plagiarise material, deliberately or unwittingly has become easier than ever. This article explores important recent decisions in Australia and the United Kingdom regarding registered health practitioners who have engaged in plagiarism, both related and unrelated to their clinical practice, and explores the ways in which regulatory authorities in these countries have viewed scholarly misconduct committed by registered health professionals. This article also examines the implications of plagiarism for the registered health professions, and makes suggestions for strategies to reduce its influence and incidence in modern clinical practice.

  7. Coding Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Physiological Reproductive Traits in Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A linkage map of 40 linkage groups (LGs) was developed for brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, using an F2 interstrain hybrid progeny (n = 171) and 256 coding gene SNP developed specifically for brook charr and validated from a large (>1000) subset of putative SNP, as well as 81 microsatellite markers. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to reproduction functions, these fish were also phenotyped at six physiological traits, including spermatozoid head diameter, sperm concentration, plasma testosterone, plasma 11-keto-testosterone, egg diameter, and plasma 17β-estradiol. Five significant QTL were detected over four LGs for egg diameter and plasma 17β-estradiol concentration in females, and sperm concentration as well as spermatozoid head diameter in males. In females, two different QTLs located on LG 11 and LG 34 were associated with the egg number, whereas one QTL was associated with plasma 17β-estradiol concentration (LG 8). Their total percent variance explained (PVE) was 26.7% and 27.6%, respectively. In males, two QTL were also detected for the sperm concentration, and their PVE were estimated at 18.58% and 14.95%, respectively. The low QTL number, associated with the high PVE, suggests that the variance in these reproductive physiological traits was either under the control of one major gene or a small number of genes. The QTL associated with sperm concentration, plasma 17β-estradiol, and egg diameter appeared to be under a dominance effect, whereas the two others were under a negative additive effect. These results show that genes underlying the phenotypic variance of these traits are under different modes of action (additive vs. dominance) and may be used to predict an increase or a decrease in their phenotypic values in subsequent generations of selective breeding. Moreover, this newly developed panel of mapped SNP located in coding gene regions will be useful for screening wild populations, especially in the context of investigating the

  8. Research in Mathematics and Computer Science: Calculation of the Probability of Undetected Error for Certain Error Detection Codes. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    pectively. Figure 3. Code Weight Viewor for Dual of Code C2. -9- IQUALCOMM. Inc. Final Technical Repo for the Research in Mafthmatics and Cmputer Sience ...efforts. ANDREW J. VITERBI VICE CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF TECHNICAL OFFICER Education : Andrew J. Viterbi received the S.B. and S.M. degrees in Electrical...Coding, (with J.K. Omura), McGraw-Hill, 1979. JACK K. WOLF ENGINEERING ASSOCIATE Education : Jack Keil Wolf is a chaired professor in the Center for

  9. RETRACTION of articles with plagiarism in common with other publications.

    PubMed

    2016-09-30

    The GMR editorial staff was alerted about some manuscripts that were found to be substantially equal. The Publisher and Editor decided to retract these articles in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). After a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract these articles. The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics. The articles containing plagiarism in common with other publications are: Peng ZA, Lu RB, Xiao DM and Xiao ZM (2016). Increased expression of the lncRNA BANCR and its prognostic significance in human osteosarcoma. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (1): gmr15017480 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15017480. Man HB, Bi WP and Man HH (2016). Decreased microRNA-198 expression and its prognostic significance in human glioma. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15027656 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027656. Tang T, Zhang GC, Li CF, Liu YF, et al. (2016). Decreased miR-452 expression in human colorectal cancer and its tumor suppressive function. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15027730 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027730. Ma YB, Song DW, Nie RH and Mu GY (2016). MicroRNA-32 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets EZH2 in uveal melanoma. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15027935 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027935. Wang XJ, Xia M and Bi WP (2016). Decreased expression of miR-874 and its tumor suppressive function in human colorectal cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028077 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028077. Zhuo HC, Song YF, Ye J, Lai GX, et al. (2016). MicroRNA-154 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets HMGA2 in human non-small cell lung cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028173 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028173.

  10. The Nuremberg Code-A critique.

    PubMed

    Ghooi, Ravindra B

    2011-04-01

    The Nuremberg Code drafted at the end of the Doctor's trial in Nuremberg 1947 has been hailed as a landmark document in medical and research ethics. Close examination of this code reveals that it was based on the Guidelines for Human Experimentation of 1931. The resemblance between these documents is uncanny. It is unfortunate that the authors of the Nuremberg Code passed it off as their original work. There is evidence that the defendants at the trial did request that their actions be judged on the basis of the 1931 Guidelines, in force in Germany. The prosecutors, however, ignored the request and tried the defendants for crimes against humanity, and the judges included the Nuremberg Code as a part of the judgment. Six of ten principles in Nuremberg Code are derived from the 1931 Guidelines, and two of four newly inserted principles are open to misinterpretation. There is little doubt that the Code was prepared after studying the Guidelines, but no reference was made to the Guidelines, for reasons that are not known. Using the Guidelines as a base document without giving due credit is plagiarism; as per our understanding of ethics today, this would be considered unethical. The Nuremberg Code has fallen by the wayside; since unlike the Declaration of Helsinki, it is not regularly reviewed and updated. The regular updating of some ethics codes is evidence of the evolving nature of human ethics.

  11. Land and Discover! A Case Study Investigating the Cultural Context of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Neera; Power, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence, the common causal factors of plagiarism among international students are still widely seen to be poor language skills or a lack of academic integrity on the part of the students. This research uses the experiences of a particular cohort of students to explore these assumptions. It investigates and compares the…

  12. Academic Literacy and Plagiarism: Conversations with International Graduate Students and Disciplinary Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abasi, Ali R.; Graves, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examine how university plagiarism policies interact with international graduate students' academic writing in English as they develop identities as authors and students. The study is informed by the sociocultural theoretical perspective [Vygotsky, L. (1978). "Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes." Cambridge,…

  13. Western Rhetoric and Plagiarism: Gatekeeping for an English-Only International Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Explains that as a modern Western concept, the notion of plagiarism is now being used as a gate-keeping device, employed chiefly against non-English writing academics. Notes that international scholars are required to write in English and that access to English creates an academic elite who may master the rhetorical patterns of English. Discusses…

  14. Plagiarism across the Curriculum: How Academic Communities Can Meet the Challenge of the Undocumented Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Student plagiarism occurs in all academic disciplines, and so, for those of us involved with Writing Across the Curriculum and Writing In the Disciplines programs, the first thing we have to admit is: yes, it is our problem. It's everybody's problem, at bottom, of course, but WAC/WID directors are ideally positioned to offer both new conceptual…

  15. Internet Plagiarism in Higher Education: Tendencies, Triggering Factors and Reasons among Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eret, Esra; Ok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    While plagiarism has been a growing problem in higher education for a long time, the use of the Internet has made this increasing problem more unmanageable. In many countries, this problem has become a matter of discussion, and higher education institutions feel obliged to review their policies on academic dishonesty. As part of these efforts, the…

  16. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  17. Problems of Policing Plagiarism and Cheating in University Institutions Due to Incomplete or Inconsistent Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to gain an understanding of the definitions of plagiarism, and cheating that are used in the literature, in institutions, and by students. The information was gathered from a literature review, from university and college websites, and from an informal sampling of students from five different first-year classes. The…

  18. An Online Tutorial vs. Pre-Recorded Lecture for Reducing Incidents of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henslee, Amber M.; Goldsmith, Jacob; Stone, Nancy J.; Krueger, Merilee

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared an online academic integrity tutorial modified from Belter & du Pre (2009) to a pre-recorded online academic integrity lecture in reducing incidents of plagiarism among undergraduate students at a science and technology university. Participants were randomized to complete either the tutorial or the pre-recorded…

  19. Gauging the Effectiveness of Anti-Plagiarism Software: An Empirical Study of Second Language Graduate Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The use of anti-plagiarism services has grown very quickly in recent years to the point where over half of American universities now have a license. The most popular of these services, Turnitin, claims that it is licensed in 126 countries and available in 10 languages suggesting that the service is becoming widely used around the world. In order…

  20. Academic Integrity and Student Plagiarism: Guided Instructional Strategies for Business Communication Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Ephraim A.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining academic integrity is critical to the sustainability of a civil society and to the democratic process. Educators across the disciplines are growing increasingly disturbed by the level of plagiarism on university campuses. The author contends that developing supportive ways of empowering students to become more independent writers in…

  1. Two First-Year Students' Strategies for Writing from Sources: Patchwriting or Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan; Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report a case study of two first-year students at a university in Hong Kong doing the same writing assignment that required the use of sources. We explore the students' understanding of plagiarism, their strategies for composing, the similarity between their texts and source texts, and the lecturer's assessment of their work. The…

  2. Examining Differences among Online Faculty Reporting Student Plagiarism Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeder Stowe, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Among higher education faculty, having to address academic misconduct and plagiarism is often viewed as a negative aspect of teaching resulting in inconsistent reporting by faculty. Some faculty members take no action in response. Differences exist in attitudes between traditional regular full-time and part-time adjunct faculty members in terms of…

  3. Plagiarism and Other Sins Seem Rife in Science Journals, a Digital Sleuth Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Faculty members gnash their teeth and wring their hands when students plagiarize. They cry for offenders to be punished. But now an online text-search program directed at their own work suggests that professors in biomedicine may be just as guilty of paper-writing sins. More than 70,000 article abstracts appeared disturbingly similar to other…

  4. Distance Education and Plagiarism Prevention at the University of South Carolina Upstate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Breanne A.; Bradley, Lola

    2012-01-01

    At the University of South Carolina Upstate, two librarians created a series of workshops to proactively prevent plagiarism. To reach distance education students, online workshops were developed in Blackboard including basic and advanced workshops for lower and upper-level courses. The workshops are intended to introduce students to the concepts…

  5. Reducing the Prevalence of Plagiarism: A Model for Staff, Students and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Teh Eng (Elaine); Paull, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of plagiarism, according to the literature, is increasing. But why do students plagiarise and why the increase? Is it due to laziness, opportunity, ignorance, fear or ambivalence? Or do they know that there is little chance of any significant penalty? The literature suggests that all of these apply. Given this, are universities and,…

  6. Investigating Chinese University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Plagiarism from an Integrated Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…

  7. Teaching Note--Evaluation of an Avoiding Plagiarism Workshop for Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Judy

    2016-01-01

    A 1-hour workshop on how to avoid plagiarizing when writing academic papers was developed and delivered at an orientation session for BSW and MSW students at a university in the northeast United States. Six social work instructors led the workshops at the university's main campus and two extension centers. Before and after the workshop, students…

  8. Self-Plagiarism and Unfortunate Publication: An Essay on Academic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a steady stream of journal editorials condemning self-plagiarism and other questionable publishing practices. Whilst in the biomedical sciences, redundant publication is condemned for its potential to exaggerate the efficacy of clinical trials, the potential negative consequences of textual recycling are less obvious in the…

  9. Generating Knowledge and Avoiding Plagiarism: Smart Information Use by High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kirsty; McGregor, Joy

    2011-01-01

    The article reports phase 2 of a two-year study, dubbed the Smart Information Use project, the focus of which was appropriate seeking and use of information by students at various stages of their high school education, along with the avoidance of plagiarism. In four Australian high schools, teacher librarians and classroom teachers developed and…

  10. Discourses of Plagiarism: Moralist, Proceduralist, Developmental and Inter-Textual Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaposi, David; Dell, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs prevalent academic discourses of student plagiarism: moralism, proceduralism, development, and writing/inter-textuality. It approaches the discourses from three aspects: intention, interpretation and the nature of the academic community. It argues that the assumptions of the moralistic approach regarding suspect intention,…

  11. Teaching Students about Plagiarism: An Internet Solution to an Internet Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Eleanour

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has changed the ways that students think, learn, and write. Students have large amounts of information, largely anonymous and without clear copyright information, literally at their fingertips. Without sufficient guidance, the inappropriate use of this information seems inevitable. Plagiarism among college students is rising, due to…

  12. The Tangled Web: Investigating Academics' Views of Plagiarism at the University of Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Karin; Brown, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problematic question of student plagiarism, its causes and manifestations, and how it is addressed in academic environments. A literature survey was conducted to establish how higher education institutions approach these issues, and a twofold investigation was conducted at the University of Cape Town. Data was gathered…

  13. Academic Integrity, Remix Culture, Globalization: A Canadian Case Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Tokaryk, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a case study at a Canadian university that used a combination of surveys and focus groups to explore faculty members' and students' perceptions of plagiarism. The research suggests that the globalization of education and remix culture have contributed to competing and contradictory understandings of plagiarism…

  14. Detecting Selection in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Using DNA Sequence Data from Multiple Nuclear Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yednock, Bree K.; Neigel, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800) of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps). These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps) using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant) was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl), which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available. PMID:24896825

  15. Detecting selection in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, using DNA sequence data from multiple nuclear protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Yednock, Bree K; Neigel, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800) of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps). These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps) using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant) was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl), which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available.

  16. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  17. Source credibility and idea improvement have independent effects on unconscious plagiarism errors in recall and generate-new tasks.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy J; Field, Ian; Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs when people try to generate new ideas or when they try to recall their own ideas from among a set generated by a group. In this study, the factors that independently influence these two forms of plagiarism error were examined. Participants initially generated solutions to real-world problems in 2 domains of knowledge in collaboration with a confederate presented as an expert in 1 domain. Subsequently, the participant generated improvements to half of the ideas from each person. Participants returned 1 day later to recall either their own ideas or their partner's ideas and to complete a generate-new task. A double dissociation was observed. Generate-new plagiarism was driven by partner expertise but not by idea improvement, whereas recall plagiarism was driven by improvement but not expertise. This improvement effect on recall plagiarism was seen for the recall-own but not the recall-partner task, suggesting that the increase in recall-own plagiarism is due to mistaken idea ownership, not source confusion.

  18. C.U.R.R.F. (Codon Usage regarding Restriction Finder): a free Java(®)-based tool to detect potential restriction sites in both coding and non-coding DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Gatter, Michael; Gatter, Thomas; Matthäus, Falk

    2012-10-01

    The synthesis of complete genes is becoming a more and more popular approach in heterologous gene expression. Reasons for this are the decreasing prices and the numerous advantages in comparison to classic molecular cloning methods. Two of these advantages are the possibility to adapt the codon usage to the host organism and the option to introduce restriction enzyme target sites of choice. C.U.R.R.F. (Codon Usage regarding Restriction Finder) is a free Java(®)-based software program which is able to detect possible restriction sites in both coding and non-coding DNA sequences by introducing multiple silent or non-silent mutations, respectively. The deviation of an alternative sequence containing a desired restriction motive from the sequence with the optimal codon usage is considered during the search of potential restriction sites in coding DNA and mRNA sequences as well as protein sequences. C.U.R.R.F is available at http://www.zvm.tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/fakultaeten/fakultaet_mathematik_und_naturwissenschaften/fachrichtung_biologie/mikrobiologie/allgemeine_mikrobiologie/currf.

  19. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  20. A dual-amplified electrochemical detection of mRNA based on duplex-specific nuclease and bio-bar-code conjugates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Wang, Lin-Lin; Luo, Jie; Wei, Qing-Li

    2015-03-15

    On the basis of strong preference for cleaving double-stranded DNA or DNA in DNA:RNA heteroduplexes of duplex-specific nuclease (DSN), a dual-amplified electrochemical detection of mRNA was developed in this article, by coupling the enhancement of DSN and bio-bar-code conjugates. Capture probe was linked with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at its 5' end and bio-bar-code at its 3' end. In the presence of target surviving mRNA, all hybridized S1 strands were cleaved off the biosensor by the DSN, and the bio-bar-code probe with CdS nanoparticles (CdS NPs) was released into the solution. The metal sulfide nanoparticles were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) subsequently. This assay exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity with a detection limit of 0.48fM. In addition, we proved that this simple and cost-effective strategy is capable of detecting the target in complicated biological samples and holds great potential application in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  1. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  2. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  3. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  4. Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Catelani, Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports (JCR). LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords "retracted", "retraction" "withdrawal", "withdrawn", "removed" and "redress". Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. "Plagiarism" was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to "plagiarism". The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications.

  5. Stealth transmission of temporal phase en/decoded polarization-modulated-code-shift-keying optical-code-division multiple-access signal over synchronous digital hierarchy network with asynchronous detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zhu, Huatao; Zheng, Jilin

    2014-06-01

    An innovative approach for security-enhanced optical stealth transmission in a synchronous digital hierarchy network is proposed and experimentally investigated. The security enhancement is achieved through a signal modulation format, so-called polarization-modulated-code-shift-keying, which is implemented with two superstructured fiber Bragg gratings-based optical-code-division multiple-access encoders and a polarization modulator. The proposed modulation format can provide a constant energy level for both bits 0's and 1's, which avoids secure vulnerability of single-stealth-user with on-off-keying modulation before coupling into the host channel and after the cascade of filters. Moreover, a self-made cost-effective gain-switched distributed feedback laser with relatively narrow spectrum is first employed as a stealth optical source, which greatly reduces the system cost and complexity. The stealth signal is recovered and detected asynchronously. The experimental results show high secure performance and robustness against eavesdropping, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit.

  6. Do Cheaters Never Prosper? The Impact of Examples, Expertise, and Cognitive Load on Cryptomnesia and Inadvertent Self-Plagiarism of Creative Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Gayle T.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the presence of examples may lead to cryptomnesia, or inadvertent plagiarism, on creative tasks. Various experiential and environmental attributes may magnify this finding. For instance, novices, with limited knowledge, may be more prone to inadvertently plagiarize examples, and increases in cognitive load may result…

  7. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions.

  8. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions. PMID:24944543

  9. Utility of rapid database searching for quality assurance: 'detective work' in uncovering radiology coding and billing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; Iyoob, Christopher; Maston, Keith; Coleman, Beverly G.

    2011-03-01

    When the first quarter of 2010 Department of Radiology statistics were provided to the Section Chiefs, the authors (SH, BC) were alarmed to discover that Ultrasound showed a decrease of 2.5 percent in billed examinations. This seemed to be in direct contradistinction to the experience of the ultrasound faculty members and sonographers. Their experience was that they were far busier than during the same quarter of 2009. The one exception that all acknowledged was the month of February, 2010 when several major winter storms resulted in a much decreased Hospital admission and Emergency Department visit rate. Since these statistics in part help establish priorities for capital budget items, professional and technical staffing levels, and levels of incentive salary, they are taken very seriously. The availability of a desktop, Web-based RIS database search tool developed by two of the authors (WK, WB) and built-in database functions of the ultrasound miniPACS, made it possible for us very rapidly to develop and test hypotheses for why the number of billable examinations was declining in the face of what experience told the authors was an increasing number of examinations being performed. Within a short time, we identified the major cause as errors on the part of the company retained to verify billable Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes against ultrasound reports. This information is being used going forward to recover unbilled examinations and take measures to reduce or eliminate the types of coding errors that resulted in the problem.

  10. Multi-Sensor Detection with Particle Swarm Optimization for Time-Frequency Coded Cooperative WSNs Based on MC-CDMA for Underground Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Linyuan; Han, Ruisong; Shao, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) technology adapted to underground channel conditions is developed, which has important theoretical and practical value for safety monitoring in underground coal mines. According to the characteristics that the space, time and frequency resources of underground tunnel are open, it is proposed to constitute wireless sensor nodes based on multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) to make full use of these resources. To improve the wireless transmission performance of source sensor nodes, it is also proposed to utilize cooperative sensors with good channel conditions from the sink node to assist source sensors with poor channel conditions. Moreover, the total power of the source sensor and its cooperative sensors is allocated on the basis of their channel conditions to increase the energy efficiency of the WSN. To solve the problem that multiple access interference (MAI) arises when multiple source sensors transmit monitoring information simultaneously, a kind of multi-sensor detection (MSD) algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely D-PSO, is proposed for the time-frequency coded cooperative MC-CDMA WSN. Simulation results show that the average bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed WSN in an underground coal mine is improved significantly by using wireless sensor nodes based on MC-CDMA, adopting time-frequency coded cooperative transmission and D-PSO algorithm with particle swarm optimization. PMID:26343660

  11. Multi-Sensor Detection with Particle Swarm Optimization for Time-Frequency Coded Cooperative WSNs Based on MC-CDMA for Underground Coal Mines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Linyuan; Han, Ruisong; Shao, Xiaotao

    2015-08-27

    In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) technology adapted to underground channel conditions is developed, which has important theoretical and practical value for safety monitoring in underground coal mines. According to the characteristics that the space, time and frequency resources of underground tunnel are open, it is proposed to constitute wireless sensor nodes based on multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) to make full use of these resources. To improve the wireless transmission performance of source sensor nodes, it is also proposed to utilize cooperative sensors with good channel conditions from the sink node to assist source sensors with poor channel conditions. Moreover, the total power of the source sensor and its cooperative sensors is allocated on the basis of their channel conditions to increase the energy efficiency of the WSN. To solve the problem that multiple access interference (MAI) arises when multiple source sensors transmit monitoring information simultaneously, a kind of multi-sensor detection (MSD) algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely D-PSO, is proposed for the time-frequency coded cooperative MC-CDMA WSN. Simulation results show that the average bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed WSN in an underground coal mine is improved significantly by using wireless sensor nodes based on MC-CDMA, adopting time-frequency coded cooperative transmission and D-PSO algorithm with particle swarm optimization.

  12. Field and Pretreatment-free Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Organic Polluted Water through Alkyne-coded SERS Test Kit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Ren, Jia-Qiang; Shen, Ai-Guo; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2016-10-03

    Field and pretreatment-free detection of heavy metal ions in organic polluted water is important but still challenging in current water pollution emergency response system. Here we report a Poly adenine-DNA-mediated approach for rationally designed alkyne-coded surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) test kit, enabling rapid and simultaneous detection of Hg2+ and Ag+ by portable spectrometer, impervious to organic interferences. Due to the formation of thymine (T)-Hg2+-T and cytosine (C)-Ag+-C, highly recognizable SERS signals are rapidly detected when two different alkynes labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are induced to undergo controllable bridging upon the additive of low volume targets. For multiplex detection through portable spectrometer, the limits of detection reach 0.77 nM and 0.86 nM for Hg2+ and Ag+, respectively. Of particular significance, the proposed C≡C contained Raman reporters provide an extremely effective solution for multiplex sensing in spectral silent region when the hyperspectral and fair intense optical noises originating from lower wave number region (<1800 cm-1) are inevitable under complex ambient conditions.

  13. Impact of Error Detecting or Correcting Codes on the Sensitivity to DPA of an AES S-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif

    2014-09-01

    The robustness of a chip intended for security related requisitions relies upon its capacity to universally oppose to different sorts of ambushes. This paper manages securities against non intrusive or semi obtrusive assaults. The two fundamental classes are strike focused around force utilization (either by checking the current, e.g. DPA, or by observing the electromagnetic emanations, i.e. EMA) and strike focused around the infusion of issues throughout the provision execution (DFA). Data repetition is regularly proposed as a premise for countermeasures against DFA. This paper examines the impact of the decision of the code on the worldwide vigor of the circuit. The study is centered around the assessment of the affectability to DPA of a few ensured renditions of an AES circuit.

  14. Sequential Two-Dimensional Partial Response Maximum Likelihood Detection Scheme with Constant-Weight Constraint Code for Holographic Data Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2012-08-01

    A sequential two-dimensional (2D) partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) detection scheme for holographic data storage (HDS) systems is proposed. We use two complexity reduction schemes, a reduced-state trellis and a constant-weight (CW) constraint. In the reduced-state trellis, the limited candidate bits surrounding the target bit are considered for the 2D PRML detector. In the CW constraint, the trellis transitions that violate the CW condition that each code-word block has only one white bit are eliminated. However, the 2D PRML detector using the complexity reduction schemes, which operates on 47 states and 169 branches, has performance degradation. To overcome performance degradation, a sequential detection algorithm uses the estimated a priori probability. By the sequential procedure, we mitigate 2D intersymbol interference with an enhanced reliability of the branch metric. Simulation results show that the proposed 2D PRML detection scheme yields about 3 dB gains over the one-dimensional PRML detection scheme.

  15. Sharing a task or sharing space? On the effect of the confederate in action coding in a detection task.

    PubMed

    Guagnano, Delia; Rusconi, Elena; Umiltà, Carlo Arrigo

    2010-03-01

    Several studies showed a Simon effect when two participants sit close to each other and perform one of the two halves of a two-choice RT task. That is, each participant perform a go-nogo task. A Simon effect emerges, which instead is absent when the same go-nogo tasks are performed individually. Hence the terms were introduced of "social Simon task" and 'social Simon effect". As of now, the social Simon effect was observed with social Simon tasks that overtly gave the participants the impression of being performing in collaboration with another person. In the present study we show that the social Simon effect was present also when, in the social Simon task, the two participants did not actually collaborate. It is, however, absent when participants perform the social task outside of each other's peripersonal space (i.e., outside arm-reach). We argue that the social Simon effect does not necessarily imply a representation of the other's action, as previously suggested. The presence of an active confederate in peripersonal space might simply provide a reference for coding one's own action in space.

  16. Comparison of the Eragen Multi-Code Respiratory Virus Panel with Conventional Viral Testing and Real-Time Multiplex PCR Assays for Detection of Respiratory Viruses▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Max Q.; Buller, Richard S.; Rankin, Anne; Mason, Sheila; Whetsell, Amy; Agapov, Eugene; Lee, Wai-Ming; Storch, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput multiplex assays for respiratory viruses are an important step forward in diagnostic virology. We compared one such assay, the PLx Multi-Code Respiratory Virus Panel (PLx-RVP), manufactured by Eragen Biosciences, Inc. (Madison, WI), with conventional virologic testing, consisting of fluorescent-antibody staining plus testing with the R-mix system and fibroblast tube cultures. The test set consisted of 410 archived respiratory specimens, mostly nasopharyngeal swabs, including 210 that had been positive by conventional testing for a balanced selection of common respiratory viruses. Specimens yielding discrepant results were evaluated using a panel of respiratory virus PCR assays developed, characterized, and validated with clinical specimens. PLx-RVP increased the total rate of detection of viruses by 35.8%, and there was a 25.7% increase in the rate of detection of positive specimens. Reference PCR assay results corroborated the PLx-RVP result for 54 (82%) of 66 discrepancies with conventional testing. Of the 12 specimens with discrepancies between PLx-RVp and the reference PCRs, 6 were positive for rhinovirus by PLx-RVP and the presence of rhinovirus was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The remaining six specimens included five in which the PLx-RVP failed to detect parainfluenza virus and one in which the detection of influenza A virus by PLx-RVP could not be confirmed by the reference PCR. Taking the results of the reference PCR assay results into account, the sensitivities of the PLx-RVP for individual viruses ranged from 94 to 100% and the specificities ranged from 99 to 100%. We conclude that PLx-RVP is a highly accurate system for the detection of respiratory viruses and significantly improves the rate of detection of these viruses compared to that by conventional virologic testing. PMID:20484608

  17. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  18. We Won't Get Fooled Again: On the Absence of Angry Responses to Plagiarism in Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robillard, Amy E.

    2007-01-01

    This is an article about the complex relationship between anger and plagiarism in composition studies. Here, the author brings into dialogue two strands of inquiry that have shaped recent disciplinary conversations in composition studies but that have yet to publicly influence each other. Because emotions and authorship have both been perceived…

  19. Is Plagiarism Changing over Time? A 10-Year Time-Lag Study with Three Points of Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Guy J.; Vardanega, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Are more students cheating on assessment tasks in higher education? Despite ongoing media speculation concerning increased "copying and pasting" and ghostwritten assignments produced by "paper mills", few studies have charted historical trends in rates and types of plagiarism. Additionally, there has been little comment from…

  20. Academic Misconduct: An Investigation into Male Students' Perceptions, Experiences & Attitudes towards Cheating and Plagiarism in a Middle Eastern University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayan, Bilal M.

    2017-01-01

    Academic misconduct in many educational institutions in the Middle East is an inherent problem. This has been particularly true amongst the university student population. The proliferation of the Internet and the ownership of mobile and electronic devices, have, in part, witnessed rates of cheating, plagiarism and academic misconduct cases…

  1. A Comparison of the Act and Frequency of Plagiarism between Technical and Non-Technical Programme Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Chetty, Thiba Naraina; Ismail, Zalina Bt; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2016-01-01

    Concerned with intellectual theft, we decided to examine intellectual theft among undergraduates at a private higher education institution. The aim of this study was to compare the act and frequency of plagiarism, particularly between programmes, gender, year of study and academic performance. This study adopted the quantitative approach, using a…

  2. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  3. Exploring the attitudes of medical faculty members and students in Pakistan towards plagiarism: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach's alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum.

  4. New hybrid peak-to-average power ratio reduction technique based on carrier interferometry codes and companding technique for optical direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maivan, Lap; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Mangone, Fall; Chen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    In direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) will cause nonlinear effects in both electrical and optical devices and optical fiber transmission when the nonlinear amplifiers are employed. A new hybrid technique based on carrier interferometry codes and companding transform has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to reduce the high PAPR in an optical direct-detection optical OFDM system. The proposed technique is then experimentally demonstrated and the results show the effectiveness of the new method. The PAPR of the hybrid signal has been reduced by about 5.7 dB when compared to the regular system at a complementary cumulative distribution function of 10-4. At a bit error rate of 10-4, after transmission over 100-km single-mode fiber with a μ of 2, the receiver sensitivity is improved by 3.7, 4.2, and 5 dB with launch powers of 3, 6, and 9 dBm, respectively.

  5. Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee

    2016-11-20

    Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.

  6. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  7. Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection Algorithms to Prevent Data Exfiltration in Near Real Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    2013-TN-008 | ii CMU/SEI-2013-TN-008 | iii List of Figures Figure 1: Sample Squid and ICAP Server Implementation 7 Figure 2: GreasySpoon Login 10...out of many different file formats • Squid Proxy—a web proxy with the ability to decrypt SSL traffic • GreasySpoon—a customizable ICAP server for...components: an indexer, the GreasySpoon ICAP server, and the Squid proxy. The indexer continually builds and maintains an index of all text contained in

  8. Is plagiarism creating an opportunity for the development of new assessment strategies?

    PubMed

    Bassendowski, Sandra L; Salgado, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Have traditional student assessment strategies such as the formal written paper outlived their usefulness? Given reports of plagiarism in post-secondary institutions and the ease with which students can 'cut and paste' content from online sources, the relevance and applicability of traditional assessment strategies need to be examined in light of these technological advances. The introduction of technology and the Internet into classrooms has been the most important educational change to occur in the last one hundred years, yet assessment strategies reflect the characteristics of the printing press to a greater extent than the capabilities of technology and the Internet. The paper explores a connection to the visual arts in terms of creation, re-creation, the 'desire to conceal', and contemporary means of interpretation. A search of the literature reveals a need for teaching and learning environments to evolve along with a technologically-based society.

  9. Genome-Wide Detection of Predicted Non-coding RNAs Related to the Adhesion Process in Vibrio alginolyticus Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Zhao, Lingmin; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Zheng, Jiang; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to adhere to fish mucus can be affected by environmental conditions and is considered to be a key virulence factor of Vibrio alginolyticus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this ability remains unclear. Our previous study showed that stress conditions such as exposure to Cu, Pb, Hg, and low pH are capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a crucial role in the intricate regulation of bacterial gene expression, thereby affecting bacterial pathogenicity. Thus, we hypothesized that ncRNAs play a key role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process. To validate this, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect ncRNA dynamics in samples after stress treatments. The expression of randomly selected novel ncRNAs was confirmed by QPCR. Among the significantly altered ncRNAs, 30 were up-regulated and 2 down-regulated by all stress treatments. The QPCR results reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Target prediction and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these ncRNAs are closely related to pathways associated with in vitro adhesion, and our results indicated that chemical stress-induced reductions in the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus might be due to the perturbation of ncRNA expression. Our findings provide important information for further functional characterization of ncRNAs during the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. PMID:27199948

  10. Detection of genetic diversity and selection at the coding region of the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene in Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Jin, Long; Long, Keren; Chai, Jie; Ma, Jideng; Tang, Qianzi; Tian, Shilin; Hu, Yaodong; Lin, Ling; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2016-01-10

    Domestication and subsequent selective pressures have produced a large variety of pig coat colors in different regions and breeds. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a crucial role in determining coat color of mammals. Here, we investigated genetic diversity and selection at the coding region of the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) in Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs. By contrast, genetic variability was much lower in Landrace pigs than in Tibetan pigs. Meanwhile, haplotype analysis showed that Tibetan pigs possessed shared haplotypes, suggesting a possibility of recent introgression event by way of crossbreeding with neighboring domestic pigs or shared ancestral polymorphism. Additionally, we detected positive selection at the MC1R in both Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs through the dN/dS analysis. These findings suggested that novel phenotypic change (dark coat color) caused by novel mutations may help Tibetan pigs against intensive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and camouflage in wild environment, whereas white coat color in Landrace were intentionally selected by human after domestication. Furthermore, both the phylogenetic analysis and the network analysis provided clues that MC1R in Asian and European wild boars may have initially experienced different selective pressures, and MC1R alleles diversified in modern domesticated pigs.

  11. A concatenated coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    A concatenated coding scheme for error contol in data communications was analyzed. The inner code is used for both error correction and detection, however the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if either the inner code decoder fails to make a successful decoding or the outer code decoder detects the presence of errors after the inner code decoding. Probability of undetected error of the proposed scheme is derived. An efficient method for computing this probability is presented. Throughout efficiency of the proposed error control scheme incorporated with a selective repeat ARQ retransmission strategy is analyzed.

  12. [Plagiarism techniques in practice journal Johannes Franc (1649–1725) and copying practice illustrated by urology texts].

    PubMed

    Breuer, R; Winckelmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    In the seventeenth century it was customary in medicine to copy texts from other authors without citing the source. This practice is illustrated by the diary of Johannes Franc (1649–1725), a physician in the city of Ulm, who handwrote a practice journal in Latin and German Gothic script entering text passages plagiarized as follows: he reproduced them almost word for word in order to pass them off as his own experiences, used them as a model for his prescriptions and as a template for his case histories, and integrated them into his work to support his argumentation. In addition, he summarized texts from various sources, refined them by omitting portions, and incorporated his own experiences for embellishment. These plagiarism techniques and the purpose they served are analyzed and compared to some passages taken from the original texts.

  13. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  14. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  15. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  16. Selective encryption for H.264/AVC video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tuo; King, Brian; Salama, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Due to the ease with which digital data can be manipulated and due to the ongoing advancements that have brought us closer to pervasive computing, the secure delivery of video and images has become a challenging problem. Despite the advantages and opportunities that digital video provide, illegal copying and distribution as well as plagiarism of digital audio, images, and video is still ongoing. In this paper we describe two techniques for securing H.264 coded video streams. The first technique, SEH264Algorithm1, groups the data into the following blocks of data: (1) a block that contains the sequence parameter set and the picture parameter set, (2) a block containing a compressed intra coded frame, (3) a block containing the slice header of a P slice, all the headers of the macroblock within the same P slice, and all the luma and chroma DC coefficients belonging to the all the macroblocks within the same slice, (4) a block containing all the ac coefficients, and (5) a block containing all the motion vectors. The first three are encrypted whereas the last two are not. The second method, SEH264Algorithm2, relies on the use of multiple slices per coded frame. The algorithm searches the compressed video sequence for start codes (0x000001) and then encrypts the next N bits of data.

  17. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  18. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  19. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  20. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    SciTech Connect

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-12

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surface codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. Lastly, the specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.

  1. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    DOE PAGES

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-12

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surfacemore » codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. Lastly, the specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.« less

  2. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-01

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surface codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. The specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.

  3. On the undetected error probability for shortened Hamming codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Kasami, T.; Kitai, A.; Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Shortened Hamming codes are widely used for error detection in data communications. In this paper, a method for computing the probability of an undetected error for these codes is presented. This method is then used to evaluate the error-detection performance of the shortened codes obtained from the two distance-four Hamming codes adopted by CCITT X.25 for error control for packet-switched networks. It is shown that shortening a code does affect its error-detection performance.

  4. Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA as signal amplifier for cancerous cells assay using ruthenium nanoparticle-based ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Hao, Shuangyuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Shusheng

    2010-09-07

    Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA (bbc-DL-DNA) is employed as a label for the amplification assay of cancer cells in combination with the newly explored chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol-H(2)O(2)-Ru(3+) and specificity of structure-switching aptamers selected by cell-based SELEX.

  5. A dip-stick type biosensor using bioluminescent bacteria encapsulated in color-coded alginate microbeads for detection of water toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Insup; Seo, Ho Bin; Lee, Ji-eun; Kim, Byoung Chan; Gu, Man Bock

    2014-09-21

    The use of genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria, in which bioluminescence is induced by different modes of toxic action, represents an alternative to acute toxicity tests using living aquatic organisms (plants, vertebrates, or invertebrates) in an aqueous environment. A number of these bacterial strains have been developed, but there have been no attempts to develop a hand-held type of biosensor for monitoring or identification of toxicity. We report a facile dip-stick type biosensor using genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria as a new platform for classification and identification of toxicity in water environments. This dip-stick type biosensor is composed of eight different optically color-coded functional alginate beads that each encapsulates a different bioluminescent bacterial strain and its corresponding fluorescent microbead. These color-coded microbeads exhibit easy identification of encapsulated microbeads, since each microbead has a different color code depending on the bioluminescent bacterial strain contained and improved cell-stability compared to liquid culture. This dip-stick type biosensor can discriminate different modes of toxic actions (i.e. DNA damage, oxidative damage, cell-membrane damage, or protein damage) of sample water tested by simply dipping the stick into the water samples. It was found that each color-coded microbead emitted distinct bioluminescence, and each dip-stick type biosensor showed different bioluminescence patterns within 2 hours, depending on the toxic chemicals contained in LB medium, tap water, or river water samples. This dip-stick type biosensor can, therefore, be widely and practically used in checking toxicity of water in the environment primarily in situ, possibly indicating the status of biodiversity.

  6. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  7. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  8. The Meaning and Mediated Nature of Cheating and Plagiarism among Graduate Students in a College of Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Patrick G.; Simmons, Janice M.

    Cheating and plagiarism were studied at a midwestern public university's College of Education, by interviewing three male and three female students who were in Master's programs in health education, rehabilitation counseling, and community counseling. None of the six students had had a formal orientation program covering expectations about…

  9. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  10. Complete coding regions of two novel HLA-B alleles detected by phototyping (PCR-SSP) in the British caucasoid population: B*5108 and B*5002.

    PubMed

    Vilches, C; Bunce, M; de Pablo, R; Murray, A K; McIntyre, C A; Kreisler, M

    1997-07-01

    Two previously reported PCR-SSP variants of the HLA-B locus, B51GAC and B45v, were investigated by RT-PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of their complete coding regions. They have been shown to correspond to the new alleles B*5108 and B*5002, both of which differ from the common B*5101 and B*5001 subtypes, respectively, by amino acid replacements at their alpha-2 domain alpha-helices. The primary structure of B*5002, intermediate between those of B*4501 and B*5001, raises further concern about the current classification of B*45 as a B12 rather than as a B*50 subtype.

  11. Comparative genomics approach to detecting split-coding regions in a low-coverage genome: lessons from the chimaera Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali, Chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Dessimoz, Christophe; Zoller, Stefan; Manousaki, Tereza; Qiu, Huan; Meyer, Axel; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2011-09-01

    Recent development of deep sequencing technologies has facilitated de novo genome sequencing projects, now conducted even by individual laboratories. However, this will yield more and more genome sequences that are not well assembled, and will hinder thorough annotation when no closely related reference genome is available. One of the challenging issues is the identification of protein-coding sequences split into multiple unassembled genomic segments, which can confound orthology assignment and various laboratory experiments requiring the identification of individual genes. In this study, using the genome of a cartilaginous fish, Callorhinchus milii, as test case, we performed gene prediction using a model specifically trained for this genome. We implemented an algorithm, designated ESPRIT, to identify possible linkages between multiple protein-coding portions derived from a single genomic locus split into multiple unassembled genomic segments. We developed a validation framework based on an artificially fragmented human genome, improvements between early and recent mouse genome assemblies, comparison with experimentally validated sequences from GenBank, and phylogenetic analyses. Our strategy provided insights into practical solutions for efficient annotation of only partially sequenced (low-coverage) genomes. To our knowledge, our study is the first formulation of a method to link unassembled genomic segments based on proteomes of relatively distantly related species as references.

  12. A concatenated coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Lin, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a concatenated coding scheme for error control in data communications is presented and analyzed. In this scheme, the inner code is used for both error correction and detection; however, the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if either the inner code decoder fails to make a successful decoding or the outer code decoder detects the presence of errors after the inner code decoding. Probability of undetected error (or decoding error) of the proposed scheme is derived. An efficient method for computing this probability is presented. Throughput efficiency of the proposed error control scheme incorporated with a selective-repeat ARQ retransmission strategy is also analyzed. Three specific examples are presented. One of the examples is proposed for error control in the NASA Telecommand System.

  13. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  14. Dinucleotide circular codes and bijective transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-12-07

    The presence of circular codes in mRNA coding sequences is postulated to be involved in informational mechanisms aimed at detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame during protein synthesis. Most of the recent research is focused on trinucleotide circular codes. However, also dinucleotide circular codes are important since dinucleotides are ubiquitous in genomes and associated to important biological functions. In this work we adopt the group theoretic approach used for trinucleotide codes in Fimmel et al. (2015) to study dinucleotide circular codes and highlight their symmetry properties. Moreover, we characterize such codes in terms of n-circularity and provide a graph representation that allows to visualize them geometrically. The results establish a theoretical framework for the study of the biological implications of dinucleotide circular codes in genomic sequences.

  15. Ultrasensitive and selective detection of copper (II) and mercury (II) ions by dye-coded silver nanoparticle-based SERS probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Jing; Lai, Yuming; Wu, Chong; Sun, Shuqing; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2013-01-15

    A simple and distinctive method for the ultrasensitive detection of Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using cysteine-functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) attached with Raman-labeling molecules was developed. The glycine residue in a silver nanoparticle-bound cysteine can selectively bind with Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and form a stable inner complex. Silver nanoparticles co-functionalized with cysteine and 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-(6'-azobenzotriazolyl)phenol (AgNP conjugates) can be used to detect Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) based on aggregation-induced SERS of the Raman tags. The addition of SCN(-) to the analyte can successfully mask Hg(2+) and allow for the selective detection of Cu(2+). This SERS-based assay showed an unprecedented limit of detection (LOD) of 10pM for Cu(2+) and 1pM for Hg(2+); these LODs are a few orders of magnitude more sensitive than the typical colorimetric approach based on the aggregation of noble nanoparticles. The analysis of real water samples diluted with pure water was performed and verified this conclusion. We envisage that this SERS-based assay may provide a general and simple approach for the detection of other metal ions of interest, which can be adopted from their corresponding colorimetric assays that have already been developed with significantly improved sensitivity and thus have wide-range applications in many areas.

  16. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  17. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  18. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  19. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  20. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  1. NRC Job Code V6060: Extended in-situ and real time monitoring. Task 4: Detection and monitoring of leaks at nuclear power plants external to structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S. H.

    2012-08-01

    In support of Task 4 of the NRC study on compliance with 10 CFR part 20.1406, minimization of contamination, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a one-year scoping study, in concert with a parallel study performed by NRC/NRR staff, on monitoring for leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) external to structures. The objective of this task-4 study is to identify and assess those sensors and monitoring techniques for early detection of abnormal radioactive releases from the engineered facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) to the surrounding underground environment in existing NPPs and planned new reactors. As such, methods of interest include: (1) detection of anomalous water content of soils surrounding SSCs, (2) radionuclides contained in the leaking water, and (3) secondary signals such as temperature. ANL work scope includes mainly to (1) identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, the sensors and techniques that have most promise to detect radionuclides and/or associated chemical releases from SSCs of existing NPPs and (2) review and provide comments on the results of the NRC/NRR staff scoping study to identify candidate technologies. This report constitutes the ANL deliverable of the task-4 study. It covers a survey of sensor technologies and leak detection methods currently applied to leak monitoring at NPPs. The survey also provides a technology evaluation that identifies their strength and deficiency based on their detection speed, sensitivity, range and reliability. Emerging advanced technologies that are potentially capable of locating releases, identifying the radionuclides, and estimating their concentrations and distributions are also included in the report along with suggestions of required further research and development.

  2. Maximal dinucleotide comma-free codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-21

    The problem of retrieval and maintenance of the correct reading frame plays a significant role in RNA transcription. Circular codes, and especially comma-free codes, can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of error-detection in this process. In recent years much attention has been paid to the investigation of trinucleotide circular codes (see, for instance, Fimmel et al., 2014; Fimmel and Strüngmann, 2015a; Michel and Pirillo, 2012; Michel et al., 2012, 2008), while dinucleotide codes had been touched on only marginally, even though dinucleotides are associated to important biological functions. Recently, all maximal dinucleotide circular codes were classified (Fimmel et al., 2015; Michel and Pirillo, 2013). The present paper studies maximal dinucleotide comma-free codes and their close connection to maximal dinucleotide circular codes. We give a construction principle for such codes and provide a graphical representation that allows them to be visualized geometrically. Moreover, we compare the results for dinucleotide codes with the corresponding situation for trinucleotide maximal self-complementary C(3)-codes. Finally, the results obtained are discussed with respect to Crick׳s hypothesis about frame-shift-detecting codes without commas.

  3. Detection of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum by real-time PCR targeting the gene coding for exo-1,3-β-glucanase.

    PubMed

    Keeratijarut, Angsana; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Srichunrusami, Chutatip; Onpeaw, Pornpit; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Brandhorst, T Tristan; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2015-09-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum. Early and accurate diagnosis is the key to prompt treatment and an improved prognosis for patients with pythiosis. An alternative to microbiological and immunological approaches for facilitating diagnosis of pythiosis is the PCR-based assay. Until recently, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region was the only target available for PCR-based detection of P. insidiosum. Failure to detect P. insidiosum by PCR amplification using the rDNA-specific primers has been reported. PinsEXO1, encoding an exo-1,3-β-glucanase, is an alternative, novel and efficient target for identification of P. insidiosum by conventional PCR. In this study, we aimed to develop a real-time (RT)-PCR approach targeting PinsEXO1 and compare its performance with conventional PCR for the detection of P. insidiosum. Both conventional and RT-PCR assays were positive for all 35 P. insidiosum strains tested, whilst all 58 control fungi were negative. The turnaround time for conventional PCR was 10 h, whilst that for RT-PCR was 7.5 h. The lowest amounts of genomic DNA template required for successful amplification by conventional and RT-PCR were 1 and 1 × 10(-4) ng, respectively. In conclusion, the RT-PCR assay retained 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detection of P. insidiosum. It showed a substantially improved analytical sensitivity and turnaround time that could improve diagnosis of pythiosis. The assay could also facilitate quantitative DNA analysis and epidemiological studies of P. insidiosum.

  4. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  5. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  6. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  7. An Assessment of the Detection of Highly Enriched Uranium and its Use in an Improvised Nuclear Device using the Monte Carlo Computer Code MCNP-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    In 2002 and again in 2003, an investigative journalist unit at ABC News transported a 6.8 kilogram metallic slug of depleted uranium (DU) via shipping container from Istanbul, Turkey to Brooklyn, NY and from Jakarta, Indonesia to Long Beach, CA. Targeted inspection of these shipping containers by Department of Homeland Security (DHS) personnel, included the use of gamma-ray imaging, portal monitors and hand-held radiation detectors, did not uncover the hidden DU. Monte Carlo analysis of the gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of a DU slug and one consisting of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) showed that DU was a proper surrogate for testing the ability of DHS to detect the illicit transport of HEU. Our analysis using MCNP-5 illustrated the ease of fully shielding an HEU sample to avoid detection. The assembly of an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) -- a crude atomic bomb -- from sub-critical pieces of HEU metal was then examined via Monte Carlo criticality calculations. Nuclear explosive yields of such an IND as a function of the speed of assembly of the sub-critical HEU components were derived. A comparison was made between the more rapid assembly of sub-critical pieces of HEU in the ``Little Boy'' (Hiroshima) weapon's gun barrel and gravity assembly (i.e., dropping one sub-critical piece of HEU on another from a specified height). Based on the difficulty of detection of HEU and the straightforward construction of an IND utilizing HEU, current U.S. government policy must be modified to more urgently prioritize elimination of and securing the global inventories of HEU.

  8. Efficiency of a model human image code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Hypothetical schemes for neural representation of visual information can be expressed as explicit image codes. Here, a code modeled on the simple cells of the primate striate cortex is explored. The Cortex transform maps a digital image into a set of subimages (layers) that are bandpass in spatial frequency and orientation. The layers are sampled so as to minimize the number of samples and still avoid aliasing. Samples are quantized in a manner that exploits the bandpass contrast-masking properties of human vision. The entropy of the samples is computed to provide a lower bound on the code size. Finally, the image is reconstructed from the code. Psychophysical methods are derived for comparing the original and reconstructed images to evaluate the sufficiency of the code. When each resolution is coded at the threshold for detection artifacts, the image-code size is about 1 bit/pixel.

  9. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  10. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  11. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  12. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  13. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  14. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  15. Shift register generators and applications to coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    The most important properties of shift register generated sequences are exposed. The application of shift registers as multiplication and division circuits leads to the generation of some error correcting and detecting codes.

  16. Multiplexed coding in the human basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, D. S.; Cerquetti, D.; Merello, M.

    2016-04-01

    A classic controversy in neuroscience is whether information carried by spike trains is encoded by a time averaged measure (e.g. a rate code), or by complex time patterns (i.e. a time code). Here we apply a tool to quantitatively analyze the neural code. We make use of an algorithm based on the calculation of the temporal structure function, which permits to distinguish what scales of a signal are dominated by a complex temporal organization or a randomly generated process. In terms of the neural code, this kind of analysis makes it possible to detect temporal scales at which a time patterns coding scheme or alternatively a rate code are present. Additionally, finding the temporal scale at which the correlation between interspike intervals fades, the length of the basic information unit of the code can be established, and hence the word length of the code can be found. We apply this algorithm to neuronal recordings obtained from the Globus Pallidus pars interna from a human patient with Parkinson’s disease, and show that a time pattern coding and a rate coding scheme co-exist at different temporal scales, offering a new example of multiplexed neuronal coding.

  17. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  18. Rapid detection of HCV genotyping 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b and 6a in a single reaction using two-melting temperature codes by a real-time PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Athar, Muhammad Ammar; Xu, Ye; Xie, Xiaoting; Xu, Zhenxing; Ahmad, Vakil; Hayder, Zulfiqar; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Liao, Yiqun; Li, Qingge

    2015-09-15

    The genotype of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important indicator for antiviral therapeutic response. We hereby described development of a rapid HCV genotyping approach that enabled the identification of the six most common HCV subtypes of Asia, i.e., 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6a, in a single reaction. Using two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes that target the core region of the HCV genome, the exact subtype could be accurately identified by two-melting temperature codes determined from the two respective probes in a real-time PCR assay. Analytical sensitivity studies using armored RNA samples representing each of the six HCV subtypes showed that 5 copies/reaction of HCV RNA could be detected. The assay was evaluated using 244 HCV-positive serum samples and the results were compared with sequencing analysis. Of the 224 samples, subtype 3a (127, 52.3%) was the dominant, followed by 1b (51, 20.9%), 3b (47, 19.3%), 2a (8, 3.3%), 6a (4, 1.6%) and the least was subtype 1a (1, 0.4%). Moreover, 6 (2.5%) mixed infection samples were also detected. These results were fully concordant with sequencing analysis. We concluded that this real-time PCR-based assay could provide a rapid and reliable tool for routine HCV genotyping in most Asian countries.

  19. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  20. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  1. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  2. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  3. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  4. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  5. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  6. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  7. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  8. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  9. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  10. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  11. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  12. Low-cost coding techniques for digital fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avizienis, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Published report discusses fault location properties of arithmetic codes. Criterion for effectiveness of given code is detection probability of local fault by application of checking algorithm to results of entire set of algorithms of processor. Report also presents analysis of arithmetic codes with low-cost check algorithm which possesses partial fault-location properties.

  13. Comprehensive Small RNA-Seq of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-Infected Human Cells Detects Patterns of Novel, Non-Coding AAV RNAs in the Absence of Cellular miRNA Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stutika, Catrin; Mietzsch, Mario; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Weger, Stefan; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Wei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses express small regulatory RNAs, which interfere with viral or cellular gene expression. For adeno-associated virus (AAV), a small ssDNA virus with a complex biphasic life cycle miRNAs or other small regulatory RNAs have not yet been described. This is the first comprehensive Illumina-based RNA-Seq analysis of small RNAs expressed by AAV alone or upon co-infection with helper adenovirus or HSV. Several hotspots of AAV-specific small RNAs were detected mostly close to or within the AAV-ITR and apparently transcribed from the newly identified anti-p5 promoter. An additional small RNA hotspot was located downstream of the p40 promoter, from where transcription of non-coding RNAs associated with the inhibition of adenovirus replication were recently described. Parallel detection of known Ad and HSV miRNAs indirectly validated the newly identified small AAV RNA species. The predominant small RNAs were analyzed on Northern blots and by human argonaute protein-mediated co-immunoprecipitation. None of the small AAV RNAs showed characteristics of bona fide miRNAs, but characteristics of alternative RNA processing indicative of differentially regulated AAV promoter-associated small RNAs. Furthermore, the AAV-induced regulation of cellular miRNA levels was analyzed at different time points post infection. In contrast to other virus groups AAV infection had virtually no effect on the expression of cellular miRNA, which underscores the long-established concept that wild-type AAV infection is apathogenic. PMID:27611072

  14. Comprehensive Small RNA-Seq of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-Infected Human Cells Detects Patterns of Novel, Non-Coding AAV RNAs in the Absence of Cellular miRNA Regulation.

    PubMed

    Stutika, Catrin; Mietzsch, Mario; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Weger, Stefan; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Wei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses express small regulatory RNAs, which interfere with viral or cellular gene expression. For adeno-associated virus (AAV), a small ssDNA virus with a complex biphasic life cycle miRNAs or other small regulatory RNAs have not yet been described. This is the first comprehensive Illumina-based RNA-Seq analysis of small RNAs expressed by AAV alone or upon co-infection with helper adenovirus or HSV. Several hotspots of AAV-specific small RNAs were detected mostly close to or within the AAV-ITR and apparently transcribed from the newly identified anti-p5 promoter. An additional small RNA hotspot was located downstream of the p40 promoter, from where transcription of non-coding RNAs associated with the inhibition of adenovirus replication were recently described. Parallel detection of known Ad and HSV miRNAs indirectly validated the newly identified small AAV RNA species. The predominant small RNAs were analyzed on Northern blots and by human argonaute protein-mediated co-immunoprecipitation. None of the small AAV RNAs showed characteristics of bona fide miRNAs, but characteristics of alternative RNA processing indicative of differentially regulated AAV promoter-associated small RNAs. Furthermore, the AAV-induced regulation of cellular miRNA levels was analyzed at different time points post infection. In contrast to other virus groups AAV infection had virtually no effect on the expression of cellular miRNA, which underscores the long-established concept that wild-type AAV infection is apathogenic.

  15. Detection of 98. 5% of the mutations in 200 Belgian cystic fibrosis alleles by reverse dot-blot and sequencing of the complete coding region and exon/intron junctions of the CFTR gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cuppens, H.; Marynen, P.; Cassiman, J.J. ); De Boeck, C. )

    1993-12-01

    The authors have previously shown that about 85% of the mutations in 194 Belgian cystic fibrosis alleles could be detected by a reverse dot-blot assay. In the present study, 50 Belgian chromosomes were analyzed for mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene by means of direct solid phase automatic sequencing of PCR products of individual exons. Twenty-six disease mutations and 14 polymorphisms were found. Twelve of these mutations and 3 polymorphisms were not described before. With the exception of one mutant allele carrying two mutations, these mutations were the only mutations found in the complete coding region and their exon/intron boundaries. The total sensitivity of mutant CF alleles that could be identified was 98.5%. Given the heterogeneity of these mutations, most of them very rare, CFTR mutation screening still remains rather complex in the population, and population screening, whether desirable or not, does not appear to be technically feasible with the methods currently available. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  17. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  18. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  19. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  20. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  1. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  2. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  3. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  4. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  5. Robust Self-Authenticating Network Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-30

    a subspace U of W u = nk{v) E This formulation is very similar to non-coherent detection in the MIMO case: Zheng and Tse Network coding and...network error correction Just as in the MIMO case: Constructing codes is equivalent to packing subspaces of dimension An in ambient space of dimension n...surveillance and reconnaissance and command and control massive amounts of informa- tion sharing by providing ’bandwidth-available" environment Through

  6. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  7. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  8. Coding Strategies for X-ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Andrew

    This work focuses on the construction and application of coded apertures to compressive X-ray tomography. Coded apertures can be made in a number of ways, each method having an impact on system background and signal contrast. Methods of constructing coded apertures for structuring X-ray illumination and scatter are compared and analyzed. Apertures can create structured X-ray bundles that investigate specific sets of object voxels. The tailored bundles of rays form a code (or pattern) and are later estimated through computational inversion. Structured illumination can be used to subsample object voxels and make inversion feasible for low dose computed tomography (CT) systems, or it can be used to reduce background in limited angle CT systems. On the detection side, coded apertures modulate X-ray scatter signals to determine the position and radiance of scatter points. By forming object dependent projections in measurement space, coded apertures multiplex modulated scatter signals onto a detector. The multiplexed signals can be inverted with knowledge of the code pattern and system geometry. This work shows two systems capable of determining object position and type in a 2D plane, by illuminating objects with an X-ray `fan beam,' using coded apertures and compressive measurements. Scatter tomography can help identify materials in security and medicine that may be ambiguous with transmission tomography alone.

  9. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  10. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  11. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  12. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  13. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.

  14. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  15. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  16. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  17. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  18. A Pseudorandom Code Modulated LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, K. P.; Eichinger, W. E.; Kruger, A.

    2009-12-01

    Typical Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) uses high power pulsed lasers to ensure a detectable return signal. For short ranges, modulated diode lasers offer an attractive alternative, particularly in the areas of size, weight, cost, eye safety and use of energy. Flexible electronic modulation of the laser diode allows the development of pseudorandom code (PRC) LIDAR systems that can overcome the disadvantage of low output power and thus low signal to noise ratios. Different PRCs have been proposed. For example, so called M-sequences can be generated simply, but are unbalanced: they have more ones than zeros, which results in a residual noise component. Other sequences such as the A1 and A2 sequences are balanced, but have two autocorrelation peaks, resulting in undesirable pickup of signals from different ranges. In this work, we investigate a new code, an M-sequence with a zero added at the end. The result is still easily generated and has a single autocorrelation peak, but is now balanced. We loaded these sequences into a commercial arbitrary waveform generator (ARB), an Agilent 33250A, which then modulates the laser diode. This allows sequences to be changed quickly and easily, permitting us to design and investigate a wide range of PRC sequences with desirable properties. The ARB modulates a Melles Griot 56ICS near infrared laser diode at a 10 MHz chip rate. Backscatter is collected and focused by a telescope and the detected signal is sampled and correlated with the known PRC. We have gathered data from this LIDAR system and experimentally assessed the performance of this new class of codes.

  19. Report of a case of cyberplagiarism - and reflections on detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Background The Internet is an invaluable tool for researchers and certainly also a source of inspiration. However, never before has it been so easy to plagiarise the work of others by clipping together (copy & paste) an apparently original paper or review paper from paragraphs on several websites. Moreover, the threshold of stealing ideas, whether lifting paragraphs or perhaps even whole articles from the Internet, seems to be much lower than copying sections from books or articles. In this article, we shall use the term "cyberplagarism" to describe the case where someone, intentionally or inadvertently, is taking information, phrases, or thoughts from the World Wide Web (WWW) and using it in a scholarly article without attributing the origin. Objective To illustrate a case of cyberplagiarism and to discuss potential methods using the Internet to detect scientific misconduct. This report was also written to stimulate debate and thought among journal editors about the use of state of the art technology to fight cyberplagiarism. Methods A case of a recent incident of cyberplagiarism, which occurred in the Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (JRCSEd), is reported. A systematic search of the Internet for informatics tools that help to identify plagiarism and duplicate publication was conducted. Results This is the first in-depth report of an incident where significant portions of a web article were lifted into a scholarly article without attribution. In detecting and demonstrating this incident, a tool at www.plagiarism.org, has proven to be particularly useful. The plagiarism report generated by this tool stated that more than one third (36%) of the JRCSEd article consisted of phrases that were directly copied from multiple websites, without giving attribution to this fact. Conclusions Cyberplagiarism may be a widespread and increasing problem. Plagiarism could be easily detected by journal editors and peer-reviewers if informatics tools would be

  20. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.