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Sample records for coder characteristics influence

  1. VLSI Universal Noiseless Coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi

    1989-01-01

    Proposed universal noiseless coder (UNC) compresses stream of data signals for efficient transmission in channel of limited bandwidth. Noiseless in sense original data completely recoverable from output code. System built as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, compressing data in real time at input rates as high as 24 Mb/s, and possibly faster, depending on specific design. Approach yields small, lightweight system operating reliably and consuming little power. Constructed as single, compact, low-power VLSI circuit chip. Design of VLSI circuit chip made specific to code algorithms. Entire UNC fabricated in single chip, worst-case power dissipation less than 1 W.

  2. Instruct coders' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, J.

    1971-01-01

    A manual designed both as an instructional manual for beginning coders and as a reference manual for the coding language INSTRUCT, is presented. The manual includes the major programs necessary to implement the teaching system and lists the limitation of current implementation. A detailed description is given of how to code a lesson, what buttons to push, and what utility programs to use. Suggestions for debugging coded lessons and the error messages that may be received during assembly or while running the lesson are given.

  3. VLSI Universal Noiseless Coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi

    1989-01-01

    Proposed universal noiseless coder (UNC) compresses stream of data signals for efficient transmission in channel of limited bandwidth. Noiseless in sense original data completely recoverable from output code. System built as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, compressing data in real time at input rates as high as 24 Mb/s, and possibly faster, depending on specific design. Approach yields small, lightweight system operating reliably and consuming little power. Constructed as single, compact, low-power VLSI circuit chip. Design of VLSI circuit chip made specific to code algorithms. Entire UNC fabricated in single chip, worst-case power dissipation less than 1 W.

  4. Non-orthogonal subband/transform coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a simplified digital subband coder/decoder. In the present invention a signal is fed into a coder. The coder uses a non-orthogonal algorithm that is simply implemented in the coder hardware. The simple non-orthogonal design is then used in the implementation of the decoder to decode the signal.

  5. Computationally efficient lossless image coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Parthasarathy; Sudharsanan, Subramania I.

    1999-12-01

    Lossless coding of image data has been a very active area of research in the field of medical imaging, remote sensing and document processing/delivery. While several lossless image coders such as JPEG and JBIG have been in existence for a while, their compression performance for encoding continuous-tone images were rather poor. Recently, several state of the art techniques like CALIC and LOCO were introduced with significant improvement in compression performance over traditional coders. However, these coders are very difficult to implement using dedicated hardware or in software using media processors due to their inherently serial nature of their encoding process. In this work, we propose a lossless image coding technique with a compression performance that is very close to the performance of CALIC and LOCO while being very efficient to implement both in hardware and software. Comparisons for encoding the JPEG- 2000 image set show that the compression performance of the proposed coder is within 2 - 5% of the more complex coders while being computationally very efficient. In addition, the encoder is shown to be parallelizabl at a hierarchy of levels. The execution time of the proposed encoder is smaller than what is required by LOCO while the decoder is 2 - 3 times faster that the execution time required by LOCO decoder.

  6. Picture data compression coder using subband/transform coding with a Lempel-Ziv-based coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Digital data coders/decoders are used extensively in video transmission. A digitally encoded video signal is separated into subbands. Separating the video into subbands allows transmission at low data rates. Once the data is separated into these subbands it can be coded and then decoded by statistical coders such as the Lempel-Ziv based coder.

  7. Image compression with QM-AYA adaptive binary arithmetic coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Joe-Ming; Langdon, Glen G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Q-coder has been reported in the literature, and is a renorm-driven binary adaptive arithmetic coder. A similar renorm-driven coder, the QM coder, uses the same approach with an initial attack to more rapidly estimate the statistics in the beginning, and with a different state table. The QM coder is the adaptive binary arithmetic coder employed in the JBIG and JPEG image compression algorithms. The QM-AYA arithmetic coder is similar to the QM coder, with a different state table, that offers balanced improvements to the QM probability estimation for the less skewed distributions. The QM-AYA performs better when the probability estimate is near 0.5 for each binary symbol. An approach for constructing effective index change tables for Q-coder type adaptation is discussed.

  8. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  9. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  10. Novel wavelet coder for color image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Houng-Jyh M.; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1997-10-01

    A new still image compression algorithm based on the multi-threshold wavelet coding (MTWC) technique is proposed in this work. It is an embedded wavelet coder in the sense that its compression ratio can be controlled depending on the bandwidth requirement of image transmission. At low bite rates, MTWC can avoid the blocking artifact from JPEG to result in a better reconstructed image quality. An subband decision scheme is developed based on the rate-distortion theory to enhance the image fidelity. Moreover, a new quantization sequence order is introduced based on our analysis of error energy reduction in significant and refinement maps. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed new algorithm in its high reconstructed quality for color and gray level image compression and low computational complexity. Generally speaking, it gives a better rate- distortion tradeoff and performs faster than most existing state-of-the-art wavelet coders.

  11. Research review: A comparison of levels of job satisfaction between traditional hospital coders and coders using computerized encoders.

    PubMed

    Osborn, C E; Zale, K E

    1996-08-01

    Computerized encoders that assist medical record department coders in making ICD-9-CM disease and operative code selections have been available for approximately 10 years but there have been no studies to evaluate job satisfaction among coders using this technology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in job satisfaction between coders who use computerized encoders and those who do not. The Job Descriptive Index was mailed to hospital medical record departments in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati, Ohio; the return rate was 93.5 percent. Results indicated that individuals in these three cities coding by the traditional manual method were more satisfied with their jobs than those who used computer technology. The coders in the traditional group were more challenged by their jobs and had more positive interactions with their peers and supervisors. Also traditional coders were satisfied with the pay they received; coders using computerized encoders believed that their pay was inadequate.

  12. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  13. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  14. Application of region selective embedded zerotree wavelet coder in CT image compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoli; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Qunjing; Hu, Cungang; Deng, Na; Li, Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Compression is necessary in medical image preservation because of the huge data quantity. Medical images are different from the common images because of their own characteristics, for example, part of information in CT image is useless, and it's a kind of resource waste to save this part information. The region selective EZW coder was proposed with which only useful part of image was selected and compressed, and the test image provides good result.

  15. Vector adaptive predictive coder for speech and audio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juin-Hwey (Inventor); Gersho, Allen (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A real-time vector adaptive predictive coder which approximates each vector of K speech samples by using each of M fixed vectors in a first codebook to excite a time-varying synthesis filter and picking the vector that minimizes distortion. Predictive analysis for each frame determines parameters used for computing from vectors in the first codebook zero-state response vectors that are stored at the same address (index) in a second codebook. Encoding of input speech vectors s.sub.n is then carried out using the second codebook. When the vector that minimizes distortion is found, its index is transmitted to a decoder which has a codebook identical to the first codebook of the decoder. There the index is used to read out a vector that is used to synthesize an output speech vector s.sub.n. The parameters used in the encoder are quantized, for example by using a table, and the indices are transmitted to the decoder where they are decoded to specify transfer characteristics of filters used in producing the vector s.sub.n from the receiver codebook vector selected by the vector index transmitted.

  16. Design and performance of an analysis-by-synthesis class of predictive speech coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Richard C.; Barnwell, Thomas P., III

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a broad class of analysis-by-synthesis linear predictive speech coders is quantified experimentally. The class of coders includes a number of well-known techniques as well as a very large number of speech coders which have not been named or studied. A general formulation for deriving the parametric representation used in all of the coders in the class is presented. A new coder, named the self-excited vocoder, is discussed because of its good performance with low complexity, and because of the insight this coder gives to analysis-by-synthesis coders in general. The results of a study comparing the performances of different members of this class are presented. The study takes the form of a series of formal subjective and objective speech quality tests performed on selected coders. The results of this study lead to some interesting and important observations concerning the controlling parameters for analysis-by-synthesis speech coders.

  17. Design and performance of an analysis-by-synthesis class of predictive speech coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Richard C.; Barnwell, Thomas P., III

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a broad class of analysis-by-synthesis linear predictive speech coders is quantified experimentally. The class of coders includes a number of well-known techniques as well as a very large number of speech coders which have not been named or studied. A general formulation for deriving the parametric representation used in all of the coders in the class is presented. A new coder, named the self-excited vocoder, is discussed because of its good performance with low complexity, and because of the insight this coder gives to analysis-by-synthesis coders in general. The results of a study comparing the performances of different members of this class are presented. The study takes the form of a series of formal subjective and objective speech quality tests performed on selected coders. The results of this study lead to some interesting and important observations concerning the controlling parameters for analysis-by-synthesis speech coders.

  18. A robust CELP coder with source-dependent channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukkar, Rafid A.; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan

    1990-01-01

    A CELP coder using Source Dependent Channel Encoding (SDCE) for optimal channel error protection is introduced. With SDCE, each of the CELP parameters are encoded by minimizing a perceptually meaningful error criterion under prevalent channel conditions. Unlike conventional channel coding schemes, SDCE allows for optimal balance between error detection and correction. The experimental results show that the CELP system is robust under various channel bit error rates and displays a graceful degradation in SSNR as the channel error rate increases. This is a desirable property to have in a coder since the exact channel conditions cannot usually be specified a priori.

  19. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  20. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  1. Performance analysis of embedded-wavelet coders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shih-Hsuan; Liao, Wu-Jie

    2005-09-01

    We analyze the design issues for the SPIHT (set partitioning in hierarchical trees) coding, one of the best-regarded embedded-wavelet-based algorithms in the literature. Equipped with the multiresolution decomposition, progressive scalar quantization, and adaptive arithmetic coding, SPIHT generates highly compact scalable bitstreams suitable for real-time multimedia applications. The design parameters at each stage of SPIHT greatly influence its performance in terms of compression efficiency and computational complexity. We first evaluate two important classes of wavelet filters, orthogonal and biorthogonal. Orthogonal filters are energy-preserving, while biorthogonal linear-phase filters allow symmetric extension across the boundary. Among the various properties of wavelets pertaining to coding, we investigate the effects of energy compaction, energy conservation, and symmetric extension, respectively. Second, the magnitude of biorthogonal wavelet coefficients may not faithfully reflect their actual significance. We explore a scaling scheme in quantization that minimizes the overall mean squared error. Finally, the contribution of entropy coding is measured.

  2. Comparative performance of wavelets and JPEG coders at high quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algazi, V. Ralph; Estes, Robert R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    In recent work, we have examined the performance of wavelet coders using a perceptually relevant image quality metric, the picture quality scale (PQS). In that study, we considered some of the design options available with respect to choice of wavelet basis, quantizer, and method for error- free encoding of the quantized coefficients, including the EZW methodology. A specific combination of these design options provides the best trade off between performance and PQS quality. Here, we extend this comparison by evaluating the performance of JPEG and the previously chosen optimal wavelet scheme, focusing principally on the high quality range.

  3. A trellis-searched APC (adaptive predictive coding) speech coder

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, K.T. ); Fischer, T.R. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a speech coding system that incorporates trellis coded vector quantization (TCVQ) and adaptive predictive coding (APC). A method for optimizing'' the TCVQ codebooks is presented and experimental results concerning survivor path mergings are reported. Simulation results are given for encoding rates of 16 and 9.6 kbps for a variety of coder parameters. The quality of the encoded speech is deemed excellent at an encoding rate of 16 kbps and very good at 9.6 kbps. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Multiresolutional encoding and decoding in embedded image and video coders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zixiang; Kim, Beong-Jo; Pearlman, William A.

    1998-07-01

    We address multiresolutional encoding and decoding within the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) framework for both images and video. By varying a resolution parameter, one can obtain decoded images at different resolutions from one single encoded bitstream, which is already rate scalable for EZW coders. Similarly one can decode video sequences at different rates and different spatial and temporal resolutions from one bitstream. Furthermore, a layered bitstream can be generated with multiresolutional encoding, from which the higher resolution layers can be used to increase the spatial/temporal resolution of the images/video obtained from the low resolution layer. In other words, we have achieved full scalability in rate and partial scalability in space and time. This added spatial/temporal scalability is significant for emerging multimedia applications such as fast decoding, image/video database browsing, telemedicine, multipoint video conferencing, and distance learning.

  5. Vector excitation speech or audio coder for transmission or storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant (Inventor); Gersho, Allen (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vector excitation coder compresses vectors by using an optimum codebook designed off line, using an initial arbitrary codebook and a set of speech training vectors exploiting codevector sparsity (i.e., by making zero all but a selected number of samples of lowest amplitude in each of N codebook vectors). A fast-search method selects a number N.sub.c of good excitation vectors from the codebook, where N.sub.c is much smaller tha ORIGIN OF INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract, and is subject to the provisions of Public Law 96-517 (35 USC 202) under which the inventors were granted a request to retain title.

  6. A low-delay 8 Kb/s backward-adaptive CELP coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumeyer, L. G.; Leblanc, W. P.; Mahmoud, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Code excited linear prediction coding is an efficient technique for compressing speech sequences. Communications quality of speech can be obtained at bit rates below 8 Kb/s. However, relatively large coding delays are necessary to buffer the input speech in order to perform the LPC analysis. A low delay 8 Kb/s CELP coder is introduced in which the short term predictor is based on past synthesized speech. A new distortion measure that improves the tracking of the formant filter is discussed. Formal listening tests showed that the performance of the backward adaptive coder is almost as good as the conventional CELP coder.

  7. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  8. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  9. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  10. Disparity in coding concordance: do physicians and coders agree?

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel P; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Awad

    2003-01-01

    Increasing demands for large-scale comparative analysis of health care costs has led to a similar demand for consistently classified data. Evidence-based medicine demands evidence that can be trusted. This study sought to assess managers' observed levels of agreement with physician code selections when classifying patient data. Using a non-sampled research design of both mailed and telephone surveys, we employ a nationwide cross-section of over 16,000 accredited US medical record managers. As a main outcome measure, we evaluate reported levels of agreement between physician and information manager code selections made when classifying patient data. Results indicate about 19 percent of respondents report that coder-physician classification disagreement occurred on more than 5 percent of all patient encounters. In some cases, disagreement occurred in 20 percent or more instances of code selection. This phenomenon shows significant variation across key demographic and market indicators. With the growing practice of measuring coded data quality as an outcome of health care financial performance, along with adoption of electronic classification and patient record systems, the accuracy of coded data is likely to remain uncertain in the absence of more consistent classification and coding practices.

  11. Custom CMOS Reed Solomon coder for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Owsley, P.; Maki, G.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI coder is presented that can function either as an encoder or decoder for Reed-Solomon codes. VLSI is one approach to implementing high-performance Reed-Solomon decoders. There are three VLSI technologies that could be used: gate arrays, standard cells, and full custom. The first two approaches are relatively easy to implement, but are limited in both performance and density. Full-custom VLSI is used to achieve both circuit density and speed, and allows control of the amount of interconnect. Speed, which is a function of capacitance, which is a function of interconnect, is an important parameter in high-performance VLSI. A single 8.2 mm x 8.4 mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed-Solomon code required by the Hubble Space Telescope is reported. The chip features a 10-MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6-micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes and shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections and random error corrections are supported with programmable correction of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors in the incoming message.

  12. Embedding adaptive arithmetic coder in chaos-based cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heng-Jian; Zhang, Jia-Shu

    2010-05-01

    In this study an adaptive arithmetic coder is embedded in the Baptista-type chaotic cryptosystem for implementing secure data compression. To build the multiple lookup tables of secure data compression, the phase space of chaos map with a uniform distribution in the search mode is divided non-uniformly according to the dynamic probability estimation of plaintext symbols. As a result, more probable symbols are selected according to the local statistical characters of plaintext and the required number of iterations is small since the more probable symbols have a higher chance to be visited by the chaotic search trajectory. By exploiting non-uniformity in the probabilities under which a number of iteration to be coded takes on its possible values, the compression capability is achieved by adaptive arithmetic code. Therefore, the system offers both compression and security. Compared with original arithmetic coding, simulation results on Calgary Corpus files show that the proposed scheme suffers from a reduction in compression performance less than 12% and is not susceptible to previously carried out attacks on arithmetic coding algorithms.

  13. Laser glass marking: influence of pulse characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolo, Ana; Coelho, João; Pires, Margarida

    2005-09-01

    Laser glass marking is currently used in several glass materials for different purposes, such as bar codes for product tracking, brand logos or just decoration. Systems with a variety of different laser sources, with inherent power ranges, wavelengths and pulse regimes have been used, namely CO2, Nd:YAG, Excimer, Ti-Sapphire lasers. CO2 Lasers systems, although being a reliable tool for materials processing, and very compact in the case of sealed low power lasers, are usually associated with a localized thermal loading on the material, causing brittle materials like glass to crack around the irradiated area. In this experimental study a pulsed CO2 laser was used to direct marking the glass surface. The temporal characteristics of the laser pulse--pulse length, period and duty cycle were varied, and glass materials with different thermal properties were used in order to correlate the marking process--cracking or softening with or without material removal with the laser and material characteristics. Glass materials with major industrial application, such as soda-lima, borosilicate (PYREX) glasses and crystal have been investigated. Laser marked areas have been characterized in terms of surface optical properties, like diffuse and direct reflectance and transmittance for white light, directly related with marked surface quality.

  14. Influence of inlet conditions on vortex characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essiptchouk, A.

    2011-09-01

    Vortex chambers are normally used for arc stabilization in linear plasma torches. In the present work, the effect of uniformity of the gas inlet channel distribution on the stabilizing characteristics of a swirled flow is studied numerically. The formation of a complex flow pattern with a toroidal recirculating flow area inside the vortex chamber is observed. For some regimes, two local maxima of the tangential velocity are observed in the middle section of the chamber. It is shown that an increment of the number of gas inlet channels leads to a more uniform gas input with disappearance of the second maximum, which increases the velocity amplification coefficient and, correspondingly, results in a better stabilizing effect. The obtained profiles of the radial distribution of the tangential velocity are compared with the results of Oseen's equation for an unconfined vortex.

  15. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…

  16. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…

  17. Inter-Coder Agreement in One-to-Many Classification: Fuzzy Kappa

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis involves classification of textual, visual, or audio data. The inter-coder agreement is estimated by making two or more coders to classify the same data units, with subsequent comparison of their results. The existing methods of agreement estimation, e.g., Cohen’s kappa, require that coders place each unit of content into one and only one category (one-to-one coding) from the pre-established set of categories. However, in certain data domains (e.g., maps, photographs, databases of texts and images), this requirement seems overly restrictive. The restriction could be lifted, provided that there is a measure to calculate the inter-coder agreement in the one-to-many protocol. Building on the existing approaches to one-to-many coding in geography and biomedicine, such measure, fuzzy kappa, which is an extension of Cohen’s kappa, is proposed. It is argued that the measure is especially compatible with data from certain domains, when holistic reasoning of human coders is utilized in order to describe the data and access the meaning of communication. PMID:26933956

  18. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp.

  19. Influence of feeders on operating characteristics of the impulse seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martsynkovskyy, V. A.; Hudkov, S.; Kundera, C.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents an refined calculation of impulse face seals with a self-regulated gap. Unlike the existing methods of calculation, wherein, for the sake of simplicity, influence of the feeder conductance is neglected, this article describes conductance effect on the operating characteristics of the seal. Static calculation method of a face impulse seal of the high-speed pump is presented.

  20. Development of the CODER System: A Testbed for Artificial Intelligence Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the CODER system, which was developed to investigate the application of artificial intelligence methods to increase the effectiveness of information retrieval systems, particularly those involving heterogeneous documents. Highlights include the use of PROLOG programing, blackboard-based designs, knowledge engineering, lexicological…

  1. Bit allocation for dependent quantization with applications to multiresolution and MPEG video coders.

    PubMed

    Ramchandran, K; Ortega, A; Vetterli, M

    1994-01-01

    We address the problem of efficient bit allocation in a dependent coding environment. While optimal bit allocation for independently coded signal blocks has been studied in the literature, we extend these techniques to the more general temporally and spatially dependent coding scenarios. Of particular interest are the topical MPEG video coder and multiresolution coders. Our approach uses an operational rate-distortion (R-D) framework for arbitrary quantizer sets. We show how a certain monotonicity property of the dependent R-D curves can be exploited in formulating fast ways to obtain optimal and near-optimal solutions. We illustrate the application of this property in specifying intelligent pruning conditions to eliminate suboptimal operating points for the MPEG allocation problem, for which we also point out fast nearly-optimal heuristics. Additionally, we formulate an efficient allocation strategy for multiresolution coders, using the spatial pyramid coder as an example. We then extend this analysis to a spatio-temporal 3-D pyramidal coding scheme. We tackle the compatibility problem of optimizing full-resolution quality while simultaneously catering to subresolution bit rate or quality constraints. We show how to obtain fast solutions that provide nearly optimal (typically within 0.3 dB) full resolution quality while providing much better performance for the subresolution layer (typically 2-3 dB better than the full-resolution optimal solution).

  2. PatternCoder: A Programming Support Tool for Learning Binary Class Associations and Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.

    2009-01-01

    PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…

  3. GapCoder automates the use of indel characters in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, Nelson D; Healy, John

    2003-02-19

    Several ways of incorporating indels into phylogenetic analysis have been suggested. Simple indel coding has two strengths: (1) biological realism and (2) efficiency of analysis. In the method, each indel with different start and/or end positions is considered to be a separate character. The presence/absence of these indel characters is then added to the data set. We have written a program, GapCoder to automate this procedure. The program can input PIR format aligned datasets, find the indels and add the indel-based characters. The output is a NEXUS format file, which includes a table showing what region each indel characters is based on. If regions are excluded from analysis, this table makes it easy to identify the corresponding indel characters for exclusion. Manual implementation of the simple indel coding method can be very time-consuming, especially in data sets where indels are numerous and/or overlapping. GapCoder automates this method and is therefore particularly useful during procedures where phylogenetic analyses need to be repeated many times, such as when different alignments are being explored or when various taxon or character sets are being explored. GapCoder is currently available for Windows from http://www.home.duq.edu/~youngnd/GapCoder.

  4. Development of the CODER System: A Testbed for Artificial Intelligence Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the CODER system, which was developed to investigate the application of artificial intelligence methods to increase the effectiveness of information retrieval systems, particularly those involving heterogeneous documents. Highlights include the use of PROLOG programing, blackboard-based designs, knowledge engineering, lexicological…

  5. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Design Assessment of intercoder agreement. Setting Community Australian football. Participants 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Main outcome measurements Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). Results The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific ‘X’ code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Conclusions Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise. PMID:22919021

  6. Identity and environmentalism: the influence of community characteristics.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ann; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community characteristics on self-proclaimed environmentalism. We find that the composition of a community affects the likelihood that a person claims to be a strong environmentalist even after controlling for individual political leaning, socio-economic characteristics, and pro-environment behaviors. Individuals are more likely to claim to be strong environmentalists if they live in areas where a larger share of the population has post-graduate degrees, if they live in heavily Democratic areas, or if they live in heavily Republican areas. These community effects occur only when individuals are predisposed to take on an environmental identity.

  7. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher frequency of contacts and higher number of friends, as well as lower heterogeneity of the friendship network are related to more social trust, less stress, and a better health. Frequency of contact and number of friends, as well as more heterogeneity of the friendship network increase the chance of receiving help from friends. With the exception of receiving help from friends, these benefits are in turn related to higher levels of SWB. Only the frequency of meeting friends face-to-face has a remaining positive direct influence on SWB.

  8. Influence of geophysical factors on oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranets, A.N.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.F.; Borisova, T.D.; Bubnov, V.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of geophysical factors, including magnetoionospheric disturbances, on decameter wave propagation over extended paths using oblique sounding (OS) data, and also to compare experimental and calculated OS ionograms for various conditions of radio waver propagation (season, time of day). Variations of oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics along a 9000 km long subauroral path for various geophysical conditions are considered. A comparison is made of experimental and calculated ionograms of oblique sounding.

  9. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder) neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)). Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469) children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics. PMID:26006128

  10. On the optimality of code options for a universal noiseless coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Rice, Robert F.; Miller, Warner

    1991-01-01

    A universal noiseless coding structure was developed that provides efficient performance over an extremely broad range of source entropy. This is accomplished by adaptively selecting the best of several easily implemented variable length coding algorithms. Custom VLSI coder and decoder modules capable of processing over 20 million samples per second are currently under development. The first of the code options used in this module development is shown to be equivalent to a class of Huffman code under the Humblet condition, other options are shown to be equivalent to the Huffman codes of a modified Laplacian symbol set, at specified symbol entropy values. Simulation results are obtained on actual aerial imagery, and they confirm the optimality of the scheme. On sources having Gaussian or Poisson distributions, coder performance is also projected through analysis and simulation.

  11. Lossless compression of medical images using Burrows-Wheeler Transformation with Inversion Coder.

    PubMed

    Preston, Collin; Arnavut, Ziya; Koc, Basar

    2015-08-01

    Medical imaging is a quickly growing industry where the need for highly efficient lossless compression algorithms is necessary in order to reduce storage space and transmission rates for the large, high resolution, medical images. Due to the fact that medical imagining cannot utilize lossy compression, in the event that vital information may be lost, it is imperative that lossless compression be used. While several authors have investigated lossless compression of medical images, the Burrows-Wheeler Transformation with an Inversion Coder (BWIC) has not been examined. Our investigation shows that BWIC runs in linear time and yields better compression rates than well-known image coders, such as JPEG-LS and JPEG-2000.

  12. A hardware architecture for a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsanan, Subramania; Cohen, Adam

    2005-03-01

    The H.264 video compression standard uses a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coder (CABAC) as an entropy coding mechanism. While the coder provides excellent compression efficiency, it is computationally demanding. On typical general-purpose processors, it can take up to hundreds of cycles to encode a single bit. In this paper, we propose an architecture for a CABAC encoder that can easily be incorporated into system-on-chip designs for H.264 compression. The CABAC is inherently serial and we divide the problem into several stages to derive a design that can provide a throughput of two cycles per encoded bit. The engine proposed is capable of handling binarization of the syntactical elements and provides the coded bit-stream via a first-in first-out buffer. The design is implemented on an Altera FPGA platform that can run at 50 MHz enabling a 25 Mbps encoding rate.

  13. An ODA-based coder/decoder for multimedia medical documents.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, V.; Navio, J.; Salvador, C. H.; Pulido, N.; Muñoz, A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dueñas, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the prototype of a coder/decoder based on the Open Document Architecture (ODA) standard for management of medical documents, as well as the working environment in which it has been developed. The prototype has been assessed in an X-Windows-equipped workstation with a relational database containing patient folders (text and still images) from the departmental information system of the liver transplantation unit. PMID:8130599

  14. A 4.8 kbps code-excited linear predictive coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremain, Thomas E.; Campbell, Joseph P., Jr.; Welch, Vanoy C.

    1988-01-01

    A secure voice system STU-3 capable of providing end-to-end secure voice communications (1984) was developed. The terminal for the new system will be built around the standard LPC-10 voice processor algorithm. The performance of the present STU-3 processor is considered to be good, its response to nonspeech sounds such as whistles, coughs and impulse-like noises may not be completely acceptable. Speech in noisy environments also causes problems with the LPC-10 voice algorithm. In addition, there is always a demand for something better. It is hoped that LPC-10's 2.4 kbps voice performance will be complemented with a very high quality speech coder operating at a higher data rate. This new coder is one of a number of candidate algorithms being considered for an upgraded version of the STU-3 in late 1989. The problems of designing a code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coder to provide very high quality speech at a 4.8 kbps data rate that can be implemented on today's hardware are considered.

  15. A progressive transmission image coder using linear phase uniform filterbanks as block transforms.

    PubMed

    Tran, T D; Nguyen, T Q

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel image coding scheme using M-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filterbanks (LPPRFBs) in the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) framework introduced by Shapiro (1993). The innovation here is to replace the EZWs dyadic wavelet transform by M-channel uniform-band maximally decimated LPPRFBs, which offer finer frequency spectrum partitioning and higher energy compaction. The transform stage can now be implemented as a block transform which supports parallel processing and facilitates region-of-interest coding/decoding. For hardware implementation, the transform boasts efficient lattice structures, which employ a minimal number of delay elements and are robust under the quantization of lattice coefficients. The resulting compression algorithm also retains all the attractive properties of the EZW coder and its variations such as progressive image transmission, embedded quantization, exact bit rate control, and idempotency. Despite its simplicity, our new coder outperforms some of the best image coders published previously in the literature, for almost all test images (especially natural, hard-to-code ones) at almost all bit rates.

  16. Applying the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy v1: a study of coder training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Caroline E; Richardson, Michelle; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill; Hardeman, Wendy; Michie, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) has been used to detect active ingredients of interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of user training in improving reliable, valid and confident application of BCTTv1 to code BCTs in intervention descriptions. One hundred sixty-one trainees (109 in workshops and 52 in group tutorials) were trained to code frequent BCTs. The following measures were taken before and after training: (i) inter-coder agreement, (ii) trainee agreement with expert consensus, (iii) confidence ratings and (iv) coding competence. Coding was assessed for 12 BCTs (workshops) and for 17 BCTs (tutorials). Trainees completed a course evaluation. Methods improved agreement with expert consensus (p < .05) but not inter-coder agreement (p = .08, p = .57, respectively) and increased confidence for BCTs assessed (both p < .05). Methods were as effective as one another at improving coding competence (p = .55). Training was evaluated positively. The training improved agreement with expert consensus, confidence for BCTs assessed, coding competence but not inter-coder agreement. This varied according to BCT.

  17. Characteristics of health maintenance organizations and their influence on efficiency.

    PubMed

    Draper, D A; Solti, I; Ozcan, Y A

    2000-02-01

    This study examines the efficiency of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) based on a sample of 249 HMOs operating in the United States in 1995. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to calculate the level of technical efficiency for each HMO included in the sample. Further descriptive analyses were conducted examining various structural and operational characteristics of HMOs and their impact on efficiency. Federal qualification status, Medicare programme participation, combined Medicare and Medicaid programmes participation, chain affiliation and size were found to be significant influences on HMO efficiency.

  18. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms—influence mothers’ infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  19. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of morphology on cervical injury characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A; Rao, Raj D

    2011-12-01

    Review of peer-reviewed literature. Outline the effects of neck and cervical spine morphology on soft tissue injury Potential during low velocity automotive rear impacts. Automotive rear impacts are mechanical events and the response of the human head-neck complex can be thought of in biomechanical terms. This manuscript reviews evidence from peer-reviewed studies implicating occupant-related factors in the onset and severity of cervical spine soft-tissue injury. Effects of anatomical characteristics, head-neck and spine orientation, facet joints, and neck muscles were reviewed. On the basis of existing biomechanically based research, the following occupant-related characteristics can influence the response of the cervical spine during automotive rear impacts: anatomical dimensions of the cervical spine, head-neck and cervical spine orientation at the time of impact, facet joint orientation, and neck muscle size and orientation. The response of the cervical spine to rear impacts can be described using biomechanical concepts. This review has identified occupant-related factors that can influence injury susceptibility and cited biomechanically related research to outline the method by which those factors affect the overall head-neck and cervical spine response in such a way as to increase the susceptibility or severity of injury for a given rear impact event.

  1. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; Fontijn-Tekamp, Anneke; van der Bilt, Andries

    2005-08-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subjects (age 42 +/- 12 years) by counting the number of chewing cycles needed to prepare food for swallowing. The influence of oral physiology on the swallowing threshold was determined by measuring salivary flow rate, maximum bite force and masticatory performance. We used about 10 cm(3) of bread, toast, melba toast, breakfast cake, peanuts and cheese to determine the influence on the swallowing threshold of various food characteristics, e.g. hardness, moisture and fat. Furthermore, we tested the effect of buttering the bread, toast, melba toast and breakfast cake on the swallowing threshold. Salivary flow rates were significantly and negatively correlated with the number of chewing cycles of melba toast and breakfast cake. Hence, subjects with more saliva needed less chewing cycles for these dry products. Maximum bite force and masticatory performance had an influence on the swallowing threshold for the hard products only (carrot and peanut). Although significant, the correlation coefficients were less than 0.28. Thus, the oral physiology parameters explained less than 10% of the variance in the swallowing threshold. We found significantly different numbers of chewing cycles for the various foods, ranging from 17 for cake to 63 for carrot. Hard and dry products needed more chewing cycles until swallowing. Buttering the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles needed before swallowing. This was especially true for the dry products cake, melba toast and toast. Hard and dry products require more chewing cycles and longer time in mouth until swallowing for sufficient breakdown to take place and for enough saliva to be added to form a coherent bolus safe for

  2. Maternal characteristics influence response to DHA during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gould, J F; Anderson, A J; Yelland, L N; Gibson, R A; Makrides, M

    2016-05-01

    We explored the degree to which maternal and offspring outcomes resulting from consuming prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 800mg/day) in a clinical trial were influenced by maternal characteristics. Among non-smokers, women who received DHA had heavier babies (adjusted mean difference (MD)=99g 95% CI 45-153, p<0.01; interaction p=0.01) and fewer low birth weight babies than control women (adjusted relative risk=0.43 95% CI 0.25-0.74, p<0.01; interaction p=0.01). From women who had not completed further education, children in the DHA group had higher cognitive scores at 18 months compared with control children (adjusted MD=3.15 95% CI 0.93-5.37, p=0.01; interaction p<0.01). Conversely, the children of women who completed further education in the DHA group had lower language scores than control children (adjusted MD -2.82 95% CI -4.90 to -0.73, p=0.01; interaction p=0.04). Our results support the notion that responsiveness to prenatal DHA may depend on the characteristics of specific population subgroups.

  3. Amphibian occurrence is influenced by current and historic landscape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Piha, Henna; Luoto, Miska; Merilä, Juha

    2007-12-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and degradation are major threats to wetland species as reflected in the fact that wetlands have declined by more than 50% in Europe and North America during the last century. Both current and historic land-use patterns are likely to be significant determinants of wetland species' distributions; however their relative importance is often unknown. We studied the importance of local (study pond) and landscape (current and 18th-century landscape) characteristics in explaining the occurrence and species richness of amphibians (Rana arvalis, Bufo bufo, and Triturus vulgaris) on the Swedish island of Gotland, where more than 40% of wetlands have been lost since the 18th century. Current local habitat characteristics were the strongest determinants of occurrence for all study species. Additionally, species occurrence was related to current and historic landscape characteristics, which generally explained equal amounts of the variation in species-occurrence data. The proportions of both current and historic arable land were negative determinants of amphibian occurrence and species richness, indicating that agricultural land use may have an overall negative impact on amphibians, and that amphibians may occur less frequently in areas with a long agricultural history. Likewise, historic forest area was positively related to B. bufo occurrence and species richness, whereas current forests had no significant effects, suggesting that there may be a lag in the response of amphibians to agriculture-mediated habitat loss. Our results suggest that historic land-use patterns may influence current amphibian populations and that inclusion of historic land-use information could be a valuable tool in future studies on amphibian-habitat relations.

  4. Assessing the coding reliability of work accidents statistical data: How coders make a difference.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Celeste; Santos, Fernando P; Guedes Soares, Carlos; Silva, Sílvia A

    2016-12-01

    This study assesses the reliability of the coding procedure for a set of variables belonging to the European Statistics of Accidents at Work (ESAW). The work focused on the Portuguese data and experience with the system. In Portugal, this task has been systematically carried out by GEP (the governmental Cabinet for Strategy and Planning), here defined as the "reference group" or "expert group." However, it is anticipated that this coding task will be performed by non-expert people, since paper-forms will be replaced by e-forms, similarly to what happened in a few EU countries. This study aims to: (a) assess the current situation, that is, to quantify reliability of data coded by GEP (reference group), and (b) assess the impact on the reliability level when the coding is carried out by non-experts (two different groups of coders). The study comprises the estimation of both intercoder and intracoder reliability for a set of 8 nominal variables. The assessment applies 3 reliability coefficients calculated by 3 software packages. The results reveal that the expert group (GEP) holds good to excellent reliability (inter- and intracoder agreements), between 68-98%, while there is a considerable "loss of reliability" (-5% to -39%) when the coding process is transferred to other people, without special training or knowledge in this task. This work gives quantified evidence that reliability of coding accident data is substantially affected by the coders' profile. Moreover, certain variables, regardless of the coder, systematically hold a higher level of coding reliability than others, suggesting that certain codes may need improvement. Future studies should assess coding quality across the EU countries using the ESAW protocol. Directions for improving the quality of accident data and related statistics; data that is used by researchers and governmental decision-makers to derive prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights

  5. MeshEZW: an image coder using mesh and finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Thomas; Bonnaud, Laurent; Chassery, Jean-Marc

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to compress the information in an image, called MeshEZW. The proposed approach is based on the finite elements method, a mesh construction and a zerotree method. The zerotree method is an adaptive of the EZW algorithm with two new symbols for increasing the performance. These steps allow a progressive representation of the image by the automatic construction of a bitstream. The mesh structure is adapted to the image compression domain and is defined to allow video comrpession. The coder is described and some preliminary results are discussed.

  6. Endoscopist characteristics that influence the quality of colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Jover, Rodrigo; Zapater, Pedro; Bujanda, Luis; Hernández, Vicent; Cubiella, Joaquín; Pellisé, Maria; Ponce, Marta; Ono, Akiko; Lanas, Angel; Seoane, Agustín; Marín-Gabriel, José C; Chaparro, María; Cacho, Guillermo; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Fernández-Díez, Servando; Peris, Antonio; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Murcia, Oscar; Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Several factors have been shown to be related to colonoscopy quality; however, little is known about the effects of endoscopist factors. This study analyzed the influence of endoscopist-related characteristics on quality indicators for colonoscopy. The study included 48 endoscopists who each performed at least 20 colonoscopies in the colonoscopy arm of a randomized controlled trial comparing fecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening. These endoscopists performed a total of 3838 procedures in the trial. The following were calculated for each endoscopist: adenoma detection rate (ADR), advanced ADR, proximal ADR, distal ADR, and adenoma per colonoscopy rate (APCR). The characteristics of endoscopists were assessed with regard to colonoscopy quality using multivariate regression analysis. Endoscopist characteristics included age, sex, exclusive endoscopy practice, years as a physician, years as a specialist, specialty, total (life-long) number of colonoscopies performed, annual colonoscopy volume, number of hours/week dedicated to endoscopy and number of educational activities in the previous year. Factors associated with ADR were age of the endoscopist (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.21; P = 0.01) and life-long number of colonoscopies (OR 1.06, 95 %CI 1.01 - 1.11; P = 0.01). Only exclusive dedication to endoscopy practice was found to be independently related to proximal ADR (OR 1.71, 95 %CI 1.15 - 2.74; P = 0.001). Life-long number of colonoscopies was independently related to detection of distal adenomas (OR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01 - 1.13; P = 0.01). None of the analyzed endoscopist characteristics was associated with advanced ADR or APCR. This study found that the experience of the endoscopist and exclusive dedication to endoscopy practice, but not annual colonoscopy volume, were associated with better colonoscopy quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Gender influences headache characteristics with increasing age in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa

    2015-08-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.

  8. Influence of Students' Characteristics and Feelings on Cognitive Achievement in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Theo; Hermans, Chris; Aarnoutse, Cor

    2008-01-01

    Whereas educational research has provided evidence that students' characteristics affect their performance, at this stage little is known about which characteristics influence their learning processes and achievement in religious education. This article looks into characteristics that influence students' cognitive achievement in religious…

  9. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  10. Island characteristics within wetlands influence waterbird nest success and abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either <1 km or >4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.

  11. Influence of habitat characteristics on shore-spawning kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.

  12. Er:YAG crystal temperature influence on laser output characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Hlinomaz, Kryštof; Jelínková, Helena

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the temperature of the Er:YAG active medium on laser properties in eye-safe spectral region for three various pump wavelengths. The tested Er:YAG sample doped by 0.5% of Er3+ ions had a cylindrical shape with 25mm in length and 5mm in diameter. The absorption spectrum of the Er:YAG active medium in the range from 1400nm up to 1700nm for temperatures 80K and 300K was measured. The crystal was placed inside the vacuum chamber of a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat. The temperature was controlled within the 80 - 340K temperature range. Three pump sources generating at 1535, 1452, and 1467nm were applied. The first one was flash lamp pumped Er:glass laser (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse energy 148 mJ). The further two sources were fiber coupled laser diodes (repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse duration 10 ms, maximum pulse energies 106mJ and 195 mJ). The semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a pump curved mirror and output plan coupler with a reflectivity of 90% @ 1645 nm. The laser output characteristics were investigated in dependence on temperature of active medium for three laser pumping systems. The output energy has an optimum in dependence on active medium temperature and pump wavelengths. The maximal generated laser energies were 16.2mJ (90 K), 28.7mJ (120 K), and 33.2mJ (220 K), for pump wavelengths 1452 nm, 1467 nm, and 1535 nm, respectively.

  13. Bipolar disorder with seasonal pattern: clinical characteristics and gender influences

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Bellivier, Frank; Scott, Jan; Boudebesse, Carole; Lajnef, Mohamed; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Etain, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology with heterogeneous clinical presentations. Around 25% of BD patients may present with a depressive seasonal pattern (SP). However, there is limited scientific data on the prevalence of SP, its clinical manifestations and any gender influence. Four hundred and fifty-two BD I and II cases (62% female), recruited from three French university-affiliated psychiatric departments, were assessed for SP. Clinical, treatments and socio-demographic variables were obtained from structured interviews. One hundred and two (23%) cases met DSM-IV criteria for SP, with similar frequency according to gender. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between SP and BD II (OR=1.99, p=0.01), lifetime history of rapid cycling (OR=2.05, p=0.02), eating disorders (OR=2.94, p=0.003) and total number of depressive episodes (OR=1.13, p=0.002). 71% of cases were correctly classified by this analysis. However, when stratifying the analyses by gender, SP was associated with BD II subtype (OR=2.89, p=0.017) and total number of depressive episodes (OR=1.21, p=0.0018) in males but with rapid cycling (OR=3.02, p=0.0027) and eating disorders (OR=2.60, p=0.016) in females. This is the first study to identify different associations between SP and clinical characteristics of BD according to gender. We suggest that SP represents a potentially important specifier of BD. Our findings indicate that seasonality may reflect increased severity or complexity of disorder. PMID:23931033

  14. Cascade dams influence on sediment characteristics and phosphorus distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapin, Anne; Mourier, Brice; Rabiet, Marion; Malgorzata, Grybos; Kestens, Tim; Deluchat, Veronique

    2017-04-01

    Massive river artificialisation by dam construction, responding to the steadily increasing human demand of water and electricity leads to several environmental consequences, including alteration of hydrological dynamic and sediment discontinuity. Important decreases of water flows and sediment transport downstream impact phosphorus (P) flux to the ocean and its cycle, due to P sediment storage in dam reservoir. Moreover, the release of P from sediments may enhance eutrophication processes in dam reservoir. Our study focused on the influence of cascade dams on physical and chemical characteristics of sediments and particularly on P sedimentary speciation along river continuum. Considering these results, the potential of P release from dam reservoir sediments was appraised and compared to un-impacted river parts. In addition, key parameters controlling P release at sediment/water interface were evaluated. Champsanglard, Chézelles and Age are three consecutive hydroelectric reservoirs on Creuse River (France; respective surfaces area of 55 ha, 23 ha, 38 ha and approximative height of 20 m each) subjected to seasonal cyanobacterial blooms. Surface sediments (17 samples) were collected in dams and free-flow river sections (on a stretch of 17 km); chemical composition (Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and P), organic matter (OM) content, particle size distribution and P fractionation were analysed. An abrupt change in sediment granulometry from a coarse-medium sand to silt texture going through free-flow river to dam reservoirs was observed. The same assessment was made in regard to OM content (from 3 ± 3% in river parts to 18 ± 3% in dams) and total P (0.27 ± 0.11 mgP/g DW in river parts to 1.8 ± 0.3 mgP/gDW in dams). P enrichment in sediment from dam reservoir is due to the retention of fine size particles. Relation between total P content and sediment grain size within each dam reservoir highlighted the role of slowdown river flow occurring in dams. In Champsanglard reservoir

  15. The Influence of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation on Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raemdonck, Isabel; Gijbels, David; van Groen, Willemijn

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of learning at work, we set out to examine the factors which influence workplace learning behaviour. The study investigated the influence of the job characteristics from Karasek's Job Demand Control Support model and the personal characteristic self-directed learning orientation on workplace learning. A total…

  16. The Influence of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation on Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raemdonck, Isabel; Gijbels, David; van Groen, Willemijn

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of learning at work, we set out to examine the factors which influence workplace learning behaviour. The study investigated the influence of the job characteristics from Karasek's Job Demand Control Support model and the personal characteristic self-directed learning orientation on workplace learning. A total…

  17. Influence of toxic endophyte-infected fescue on sperm characteristics and endocrine factors of yearling Brahman-influenced bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen (mean age = 1.1 +/- 0.1 yr; mean BW = 478 +/- 34 kg) Brahman-influenced bulls were used to determine the influence of fescue type on sperm characteristics and serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and testosterone. Bulls were blocked by BW, scrotal circumference (SC), and pregrazing...

  18. The Influence of Children's Temperament Characteristics on Teachers' Decision Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullis, Michael; Cadwell, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen primary teachers provided information on 321 students concerning the students' temperament characteristics, school performance estimates, and classroom management decisions. Factor analysis of the temperament measures yielded three independent factors: Task Orientation, Adaptability, and Reactivity. A strong and consistent relationship…

  19. Attire, an influence on perceptions of counselors' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Heitmeyer, J R; Goldsmith, E B

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial impressions formed by 86 clients of counselors based on the counselors' attire. Clients' perceptions of counselors' selected characteristics of caring, authenticity, competency, and trustworthiness were assessed. In addition, clients reported their willingness to see a counselor based on their initial impression of the counselors' attire. Analysis showed that most of the clients preferred a moderate style of dress (neither too formal nor too casual) for both male and female counselors. A strong positive association was found between the counselors' attire and the clients' perception of the four selected characteristics of counselors.

  20. Influence of blade characteristics on axial flow compressor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Cherng, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    This experimental study was initiated as a result of earlier theoretical work which found that changes in the spanwise circulation distribution can have a significant influence on noise generation for the single rotor and for rotor-stator combinations. The experimental results presented here clearly show that the rotor noise, and especially the rotor-stator interaction noise, is affected by the type of radial loading, i.e., type of twist. Other blade parameters tested for their influence on far-field noise include rotor solidity, spacing between rotor and stator for twisted and untwisted blades, blade thickness, and stator chord length; radial effects on cutoff were also investigated.

  1. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  2. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  3. Individual Characteristics Influencing Teachers' Class Use of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Braak, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of Belgian secondary school teachers that investigated the relationship between computer use in the classroom and influencing factors on an individual level. Considers age, gender, teaching a technology-related subject, computer attitudes, and innovativeness; and uses stepwise logistic regression to analyze the strongest…

  4. Influence of storm characteristics on soil erosion and storm runoff

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. III Grace

    2008-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads can be major sources of sediment from forested watersheds. Storm runoff from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery of sediments and nutrients to stream systems resulting in degraded water quality. The volume and sediment concentrations of stormwater runoff emanating from forest roads can be greatly influenced by storm...

  5. Adolescent Characteristics Influencing Parental Power Perceptions in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Gerald W.

    The influence of the sex, grade, religiosity and birth order of adolescents on adolescents perceptions of the parental power structure in the family was examined in this study. Parental Power was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable following the French and Raven (1959) formulation of social power bases. The parental power dimensions…

  6. Reciprocal Influences of Personality and Job Characteristics Across Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    The present research uses an economically diverse, middle-aged sample to examine the concurrent and longitudinal interplay between personality and occupational experiences. Using the Five-Factor Model of personality and the Demand-Control Model of the occupational environment as guiding frameworks, participants (N = 722) reported on their personality, job characteristics, and occupational history; a subset (n = 297) made the same ratings approximately 10 years later. Measured concurrently, emotionally stable, extraverted, open, and conscientious participants reported jobs with greater decision-making latitude, whereas disagreeable participants had more physically demanding and dangerous jobs. Longitudinal cross-lagged analyses revealed that personality was associated with changes in decision latitude, hazardous working conditions, and physical demands. None of the job characteristics predicted change in personality at the factor level. Thus, personality shaped occupational experiences, but occupational experiences had minimal impact on personality. Support for the Five-Factor Theory perspective and implications for environmental approaches to personality development are discussed. PMID:20433619

  7. Polymerization Parameters Influencing the QCM Response Characteristics of BSA MIP

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Nam V. H.; Sussitz, Hermann F.; Lieberzeit, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Designing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for sensing proteins is still a somewhat empirical process due to the inherent complexity of protein imprinting. Based on Bovine Serum Albumin as a model analyte, we explored the influence of a range of experimental parameters on the final sensor responses. The optimized polymer contains 70% cross linker. Lower amounts lead to higher sensitivity, but also sensor response times substantially increase (to up to 10 h) at constant imprinting effect (signal ratio MIP/NIP on quartz crystal microbalance—QCM). However, by shifting the polymer properties to more hydrophilic by replacing methacrylic acid by acrylic acid, part of the decreased sensitivity can be recovered leading to appreciable sensor responses. Changing polymer morphology by bulk imprinting and nanoparticle approaches has much lower influence on sensitivity. PMID:25587416

  8. Preeclampsia and breast cancer: The influence of birth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-01

    In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. We conducted a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. Compared with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following preeclampsia. Although we find some variability according to birth characteristics, the risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia seems applicable to most preeclamptic pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sargassum filipendula alginate from Brazil: seasonal influence and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Caroline; Espindola, Ana Paula D M; Kleinübing, Sirlei Jaiana; Tasic, Ljubica; da Silva, Meuris Gurgel Carlos

    2014-10-13

    The aim of this work is focused on the extraction and characterization of the Brazilian seaweed Sargassum filipendula alginate. Alginates obtained at different seasons were characterized by liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The alginate extraction efficiency was about 20%. Different seasons of the year and different stages in the life cycle of Sargassum sp. in southeastern Brazil influenced the M/G and, consequently, the technological properties of extracted alginates.

  10. The influence of family characteristics on perinatal decision making.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Kirstie R; Stefano, John L; Lampron, Kim; Barrington, Keith J; Mackley, Amy B; Janvier, Annie

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether parental characteristics affect estimates of best interests and intervention decisions for preterm infants. The study consisted of an anonymous questionnaire given to nurses, physicians, and students. The study included scenarios of 3 sets of parents, including a 16-year-old teenager, a couple who were lawyers, and a couple with a history of in vitro fertilization, about to deliver at 22 5/7 weeks, 24 weeks, or 27 5/7 weeks. Respondents were asked whether active intervention is in the infant's best interests and whether they would comply with family decisions. A total of 1105 questionnaires were sent out, with 829 respondents in Canada and the United States. At 22 5/7 weeks' gestation, 21% of the respondents thought that resuscitation was in the infant's best interest; among respondents who did not agree, 59% would intervene if the parents wished. At 27 5/7 weeks' gestation, 95% of respondents thought that resuscitation was in the infant's best interest, yet 34% would accept comfort care. Estimates of best interest, and willingness to comply, varied significantly by parental characteristics. At 22 5/7 weeks' gestation, 17% of respondents believed that resuscitation was in the best interest of the teenaged mother's infant compared with 26% of respondents who believed that resuscitation was in the best interest for the infants of the others; this difference persisted at 24 weeks. At 22 5/7 and at 24 weeks' gestation, compliance with active care despite believing that it not in the infant's best interest was significantly more frequent for the in vitro fertilization couple and the lawyers than for the teenaged mother. At 27 weeks' gestation, more than 93% of respondents complied for all parents. Caregivers frequently are ready to intervene actively, or not, despite believing that it is against the infant's best interest. Willingness to do so varies according to parental characteristics.

  11. How Landscape Characteristics Influence Spatial Patterns of Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Zehe, E.; Blume, T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying transpiration in landscapes remains a challenging task. Especially bridging the gap between tree- or plot-scale measurements and information on the landscape scale which could be gathered from remote sensing, digital elevation models or forest inventories still poses considerable problems. These problems reach from errors associated with the measurements to the reliability of representing transpiration amounts by large-scale data. In this study we analyse spatial patterns of sap velocity to identify the importance of tree- or site-specific characteristics for transpiration at the landscape scale. We set up multiple linear regression models for a dataset of daily sap velocities for 61 trees at 24 locations in mixed beech and oak forests in a catchment in Luxemburg, recorded during the growing season of 2014. As predictors we use the tree-specific characteristics species, diameter and height and the site-specific characteristics basal area and number of stems for the respective stands as well as landscape attributes such as aspect, slope position and geology. Analysing the importance of these predictors could be useful for upscaling tree-based measurements to the landscape-scale based on data from digital elevation models, forest inventories or remote sensing. We also assess the temporal dynamics of the importance of tree- vs. site-specific predictors and link them to typical controls for sap flow such as atmospheric demand and soil moisture. First results indicate that site-specific predictors contribute considerably to the explained variance of the linear models. However, remotely sensed information explained very little of the variation in daily sap velocity patterns. Further analyses will quantify to which extent we can use the landscape-scale information from digital elevation models, geology and forest inventories to upscale tree-based transpiration estimates.

  12. SpeciesGeoCoder: Fast Categorization of Species Occurrences for Analyses of Biodiversity, Biogeography, Ecology, and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Töpel, Mats; Zizka, Alexander; Calió, Maria Fernanda; Scharn, Ruud; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the patterns and processes underlying the uneven distribution of biodiversity across space constitutes a major scientific challenge in systematic biology and biogeography, which largely relies on effectively mapping and making sense of rapidly increasing species occurrence data. There is thus an urgent need for making the process of coding species into spatial units faster, automated, transparent, and reproducible. Here we present SpeciesGeoCoder, an open-source software package written in Python and R, that allows for easy coding of species into user-defined operational units. These units may be of any size and be purely spatial (i.e., polygons) such as countries and states, conservation areas, biomes, islands, biodiversity hotspots, and areas of endemism, but may also include elevation ranges. This flexibility allows scoring species into complex categories, such as those encountered in topographically and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes. In addition, SpeciesGeoCoder can be used to facilitate sorting and cleaning of occurrence data obtained from online databases, and for testing the impact of incorrect identification of specimens on the spatial coding of species. The various outputs of SpeciesGeoCoder include quantitative biodiversity statistics, global and local distribution maps, and files that can be used directly in many phylogeny-based applications for ancestral range reconstruction, investigations of biome evolution, and other comparative methods. Our simulations indicate that even datasets containing hundreds of millions of records can be analyzed in relatively short time using a standard computer. We exemplify the use of SpeciesGeoCoder by inferring the historical dispersal of birds across the Isthmus of Panama, showing that lowland species crossed the Isthmus about twice as frequently as montane species with a marked increase in the number of dispersals during the last 10 million years. [ancestral area reconstruction; biodiversity

  13. Chemistry in interstellar space. [environment characteristics influencing reaction dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.

    1973-01-01

    The particular characteristics of chemistry in interstellar space are determined by the unique environmental conditions involved. Interstellar matter is present at extremely low densities. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are, therefore, to be expected. A relatively intense ultraviolet radiation is present in many regions. The temperatures are in the range from 5 to 200 K. Data concerning the inhibiting effect of small activation energies in interstellar clouds are presented in a table. A summary of measured activation energies or barrier heights for exothermic exchange reactions is also provided. Problems of molecule formation are discussed, taking into account gas phase reactions and surface catalyzed processes.

  14. Chemistry in interstellar space. [environment characteristics influencing reaction dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.

    1973-01-01

    The particular characteristics of chemistry in interstellar space are determined by the unique environmental conditions involved. Interstellar matter is present at extremely low densities. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are, therefore, to be expected. A relatively intense ultraviolet radiation is present in many regions. The temperatures are in the range from 5 to 200 K. Data concerning the inhibiting effect of small activation energies in interstellar clouds are presented in a table. A summary of measured activation energies or barrier heights for exothermic exchange reactions is also provided. Problems of molecule formation are discussed, taking into account gas phase reactions and surface catalyzed processes.

  15. Strong focusing influence on high gain FEL characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A.; Varfolomeev, A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of intrinsic alternating focusing in a linac-driven FEL with planar undulator is considered numerically. The analysis is done on the basis of TDA code for soft X-ray FEL with FD lattice implementing focusing of quadrupole and periodic sextupole type. The influence of the focusing (type and phase advance) on FEL performance and the reasons of difference in FEL performance for focusing of two kinds are analyzed. A possibility of some kind of beam conditioning for intrinsic focusing is discussed.

  16. Toward enhancing the distributed video coder under a multiview video codec framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jiann-Jone; Tsai, Yao-Hong; Chen, Chin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    The advance of video coding technology enables multiview video (MVV) or three-dimensional television (3-D TV) display for users with or without glasses. For mobile devices or wireless applications, a distributed video coder (DVC) can be utilized to shift the encoder complexity to decoder under the MVV coding framework, denoted as multiview distributed video coding (MDVC). We proposed to exploit both inter- and intraview video correlations to enhance side information (SI) and improve the MDVC performance: (1) based on the multiview motion estimation (MVME) framework, a categorized block matching prediction with fidelity weights (COMPETE) was proposed to yield a high quality SI frame for better DVC reconstructed images. (2) The block transform coefficient properties, i.e., DCs and ACs, were exploited to design the priority rate control for the turbo code, such that the DVC decoding can be carried out with fewest parity bits. In comparison, the proposed COMPETE method demonstrated lower time complexity, while presenting better reconstructed video quality. Simulations show that the proposed COMPETE can reduce the time complexity of MVME to 1.29 to 2.56 times smaller, as compared to previous hybrid MVME methods, while the image peak signal to noise ratios (PSNRs) of a decoded video can be improved 0.2 to 3.5 dB, as compared to H.264/AVC intracoding.

  17. Intelligibility in noise of three LPC (Linear Predictive Coders) voice channels with active noise reduction headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Charles W.; McKinley, Richard L.

    1988-11-01

    Voice communications processed by Linear Predictive Coders (LPC) are vulnerable to degradation by noise. An earlier study demonstrated that the major effect occurs at the listener. Possible mechanisms for this effect range from poor LPC speech quality to the apparent ease of masking LPC speech by noise. The intelligibility of analog systems is increased with improved signal-to-noise ratios at the ear of the listener. The previous study used state-of-the-art communications headsets with passive sound attenuation. The amount of attenuation provided by these headsets has reached a practical limit, consequently the speech-to-noise ratio cannot be increased for wearable devices. Improvements in speech intelligibility provided by the enhanced and high quality LPC vocoders have not eliminated the problem. A prototype Active Noise Reduction (ANR) headset used with the LPC vocoder systems provided active sound attenuation in addition to the passive attenuation of the headset and resulted in reduced noise at the ear. This reduction improved the speech-to-noise ratio which led to improved intelligibility. Current versions of active noise reduction systems have a high potential for markedly reducing the noise masking problem with the vocoders. State-of-the-art active noise reduction has been proven in laboratory and flight tests. This technology should be applied to these vocoder systems and verified in flight demonstrations in the future.

  18. Impact of video parameters on the DCT coefficient distribution for H.264-like video coders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaci, Nejat; Al-Regib, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    We examine the impact of various encoding parameters on the distribution of the DCT coefficients for H.264-like video coders. We model the distribution of the frame DCT coefficients using the most common Laplacian and Cauchy distributions. We show that the resolution, the quantization levels and the coding type have significant impact on the accuracy of the Laplacian and Cauchy distribution based models. We also show that the transform kernel (4 ×4 vs 8 × 8) has little impact. Moreover, we show that for the video sources that have little temporal or spatial detail, such as flat regions, the distribution of the frame DCT coefficients resembles a Laplacian distribution. When the video source exhibits more detail, such as texture and edges, the distribution of the frame DCT coefficients resembles a Cauchy distribution. The correlation between the details of the video source to the two probability distributions can be used to further improve the estimation of the distribution of the frame DCT coefficients, by using a classification based approach.

  19. Causes of injuries resulting in hospitalisation in Australia: assessing coder agreement on external causes.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, K; Enraght-Moony, E L; Waller, G; Walker, S M; Harrison, J E; McClure, R J

    2009-06-01

    To assess extent of coder agreement for external causes of injury using ICD-10-AM for injury-related hospitalisations in Australian public hospitals. A random sample of 4850 discharges from 2002 to 2004 was obtained from a stratified random sample of 50 hospitals across four states in Australia. On-site medical record reviews were conducted and external cause codes were assigned blinded to the original coded data. Code agreement levels were grouped into the following agreement categories: block level, 3-character level, 4-character level, 5th-character level, and complete code level. At a broad block level, code agreement was found in over 90% of cases for most mechanisms (eg, transport, fall). Percentage disagreement was 26.0% at the 3-character level; agreement for the complete external cause code was 67.6%. For activity codes, the percentage of disagreement at the 3-character level was 7.3% and agreement for the complete activity code was 68.0%. For place of occurrence codes, the percentage of disagreement at the 4-character level was 22.0%; agreement for the complete place code was 75.4%. With 68% agreement for complete codes and 74% agreement for 3-character codes, as well as variability in agreement levels across different code blocks, place and activity codes, researchers need to be aware of the reliability of their specific data of interest when they wish to undertake trend analyses or case selection for specific causes of interest.

  20. Influence of technology on magnetic tape storage device characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gniewek, John J.; Vogel, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    There are available today many data storage devices that serve the diverse application requirements of the consumer, professional entertainment, and computer data processing industries. Storage technologies include semiconductors, several varieties of optical disk, optical tape, magnetic disk, and many varieties of magnetic tape. In some cases, devices are developed with specific characteristics to meet specification requirements. In other cases, an existing storage device is modified and adapted to a different application. For magnetic tape storage devices, examples of the former case are 3480/3490 and QIC device types developed for the high end and low end segments of the data processing industry respectively, VHS, Beta, and 8 mm formats developed for consumer video applications, and D-1, D-2, D-3 formats developed for professional video applications. Examples of modified and adapted devices include 4 mm, 8 mm, 12.7 mm and 19 mm computer data storage devices derived from consumer and professional audio and video applications. With the conversion of the consumer and professional entertainment industries from analog to digital storage and signal processing, there have been increasing references to the 'convergence' of the computer data processing and entertainment industry technologies. There has yet to be seen, however, any evidence of convergence of data storage device types. There are several reasons for this. The diversity of application requirements results in varying degrees of importance for each of the tape storage characteristics.

  1. Influence of patients' characteristics and disease management on asthma control.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Laurent; Van Ganse, Eric; Devouassoux, Gilles; Bousquet, Jean; Chretin, Stephanie; Bauguil, Gisele; Pacheco, Yves; Chamba, Genevieve

    2006-06-01

    Although asthma control is a major outcome in disease management, little is known about its determinants. We sought to study the relationships between asthma control and patient characteristics or asthma management. Asthmatic patients (age 18-50 years) who were regular customers of pharmacies and had a prescription for an antiasthma medication were recruited consecutively. Patients completed a questionnaire, which was complemented by computerized pharmacy records of previously dispensed medications. Asthma control (adequate/inadequate) was assessed with the Asthma Control Test. Determinants of asthma control were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the 1351 patients included was 36.8 years (SD, 9.8), and 55.8% were women. A minority of patients were considered to have had their symptoms adequately controlled. Smoking, female sex, and a body mass index of greater than 30 kg/m2 were all independent determinants of inadequate control. Compared with patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy, those who were dispensed fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists presented with a significantly lower risk of inadequate asthma control (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96). Asthma control varied according to both the patients' characteristics and therapy. Our results strongly support the need to improve asthma control, especially in primary care and in women. A regular use of fixed controller combinations, helping patients to quit smoking, or addressing weight issues might contribute to improvement in asthma control.

  2. Influence of adolescent maternal characteristics on infant development.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Rachele; Lancaster, Sandra

    2007-09-01

    The present study proposed that several adolescent maternal variables would be associated with infant development. Using a sample of 71 adolescent mother-infant dyads, the study examined the relative influences of the adolescent's level of separation-individuation (Separation-Individuation Process Inventory), feelings of attachment towards the infant (Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale), and feelings of anxiety regarding separation (Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale) on infant mental and motor development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd ed.). As it was assumed that the adolescent's perceptions of being parented would provide the foundation for each of these independent variables, this factor was also included (Parental Bonding Instrument). In the current sample, adolescent separation-individuation was the only maternal psychological variable to uniquely predict infant development, but only on the mental scale. Present findings highlight the importance of considering critical developmental processes of adolescence when exploring cognitive functioning and other outcomes in infants of adolescents. A number of possible mechanisms for the influence of separation-individuation are considered in the discussion. Copyright © 2007 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Characteristics of leadership that influence clinical learning: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel; Cooke, Marie; Henderson, Amanda; Creedy, Debra K

    2011-11-01

    Leadership has been consistently implied in fostering clinical learning. However there is a lack of clarity about the form leadership should take. Limited quantitative research indicated a narrative approach to review literature from a broad perspective. A framework to guide the synthesis was developed to ensure a rigorous review process. Preliminary reading and review of papers using search terms nursing and leadership and clinical learning and learning culture narrowed the inclusion criteria to 245 papers published between 2000 and 2010. Given the diversity of the papers' focus, aim and context, a refined screening process justified the inclusion of twenty-six papers in the review. A critical appraisal of these peer-reviewed quantitative, qualitative and commentary papers identified factors/elements integral to effective leadership. Across the literature leadership was discussed in relation to two broad themes: influence of leadership on organisational learning and development and; influence of leadership on undergraduate clinical education. The factors central to leadership emerged as transformative principles, the role of the nurse unit/ward manager, collaboration and relationship building and role-modelling. The review has raised some suggestions for future research aimed at examining the impact of a leadership capacity building intervention that supports clinical learning.

  4. Patient characteristics influencing evaluation of written medicine information: lessons for patient education.

    PubMed

    Koo, Michelle M; Krass, Ines; Aslani, Parisa

    2005-09-01

    Written medicine information (WMI) is considered an important component of patient education. Despite the wealth of information on many aspects of WMI, there is a paucity of studies examining how patient characteristics influence use and evaluation of WMI. To investigate the influence of patient characteristics on the evaluation and intended future use of consumer medicine information (CMI), a form of WMI. A questionnaire was administered to patients from 3 rheumatology/pain clinics in teaching hospitals and 40 community pharmacies. The questionnaire examined patients' perceptions of CMI (comprehension, perceived usefulness, design rating) and likelihood of using CMI in the future. Information on patient characteristics (demographic data, health literacy level) was also collected. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between patient characteristics and their evaluation and intended future use of CMI. A total of 479 patients participated. Comprehension of CMI was associated with speaking primarily English at home, having attained secondary education or higher, and having adequate health literacy levels. Perceived usefulness of CMI was influenced by age and number of medications. Design rating was influenced by type of CMI, patient age, gender, and highest level of education. Intended future use was affected by health literacy level. In addition to individual patient characteristics, overall comprehension and perceived usefulness of CMI also influenced its intended future use. Patient characteristics were found to influence evaluation and intended future use of CMI. These findings should be taken into consideration in future research, development of WMI, and education of patients in everyday practice.

  5. The Influence Factors Analysis and Characteristics Research of Shale Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Siyuan; jiang, Zhenxue

    2017-04-01

    Shales have become one of the leading unconventional oil and gas resources in the world today. The wettability is an important indicator of the rock that reflects the lipophilic and hydrophilic which not only affect oil and water distribution but also can affect the capillary pressure, relative permeability and irreducible water saturation. We present a study of shale wettability using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to monitor sequential imbibition of brine and oil (Dodecane).A total of eleven shale samples of Jiyang Depression of China were analyzed and compared abundance of organic matter, the movable hydrocarbon content, clay content and carbonate content with different wettability. The results showed that the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) with mixed wetting characteristic of shale samples are greater than just water wetting characteristic of shale samples that shows with the increase of TOC content, porosity can be convert into oil wetting by water wetting and the inorganic pores convert into organic pores. It indicates the presence of organic matter is the root cause of mix wettability with the organics contributing mainly to the oil-wetness of the shale samples. The samples that have oil-wetness are higher than the samples only water wetting on movable hydrocarbon contents and clay contents which shows the organic matters are accompanied with clay in the study area. But the samples that only for water wetting have the higher carbonate contents than the oil-wetness samples which indicate the inorganic pores are mainly formed by carbonate rocks. In summary, the shale reservoirs with mix wettability can be used as shale oil enriched favorable exploration targets.

  6. Donor characteristics can influence overall transplant activities: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, E; Rosati, A; Zanazzi, M; Becherelli, P; Gallo, M; Salvadori, M

    2004-01-01

    The notable increase in organ donations and transplants in Italy in recent years has lead to the development of an atypical approach to kidney transplantation. All propitious considerations left aside regarding the organ donation rate which has placed Italy among the European leaders, a careful comparative evaluation of the data taken from Italian and international registries demonstrates that renal transplantations in Italy have not shared the same significant growth. The typology of the donors has influenced in a decisive way not only the number of renal transplantations, but also the access to transplant for some age groups and probably even the quality and cost. The overall view which emerges is complex and somewhat contradictory, but we believe that this perspective can furnish solid arguments for choices that need not to be delayed for the living donor transplant, the divulgence of a donation culture in the population, and the criteria for the allocation of the organs.

  7. Influence of disorder on transfer characteristics of organic electrochemical transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlein, Jacob T.; Rivnay, Jonathan; Dunlap, David H.; McCulloch, Iain; Shaheen, Sean E.; McLeod, Robert R.; Malliaras, George G.

    2017-07-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving a great deal of attention as transducers of biological signals due to their high transconductance. A ubiquitous property of these devices is the non-monotonic dependence of transconductance on gate voltage. However, this behavior is not described by existing models. Using OECTs made of materials with different chemical and electrical properties, we show that this behavior arises from the influence of disorder on the electronic transport properties of the organic semiconductor and occurs even in the absence of contact resistance. These results imply that the non-monotonic transconductance is an intrinsic property of OECTs and cannot be eliminated by device design or contact engineering. Finally, we present a model based on the physics of electronic conduction in disordered materials. This model fits experimental transconductance curves and describes strategies for rational material design to improve OECT performance in sensing applications.

  8. Individual Variation in Life History Characteristics Can Influence Extinction Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, H I

    2001-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  9. Exploring Factors of Media Characteristic Influencing Flow in Learning through Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Beomkyu; Baek, Youngkyun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out factors of media characteristic which are considered to influence flow in learning through virtual worlds. One hundred ninety eight elementary students who are eleven to twelve years old participated in this study. After the exploratory factor analysis, to extract media characteristics of virtual worlds, seventy-eight…

  10. The Influence of Perceived Characteristics of Management Development Programs on Employee Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardts, Joost C. A.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; Maurer, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Employees' perceptions of Management Development (MD) programs is the topic of this study. The purpose is to examine the influence of three important perceived characteristics of MD programs on relevant MD outcomes. The MD characteristics are: availability of role models, perceived control, and understanding the MD program. Outcomes are:…

  11. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  12. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  13. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on human mobility [corrected].

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Arias, Juan Murillo; Barthelemy, Marc; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, José J

    2015-05-20

    Human mobility has been traditionally studied using surveys that deliver snapshots of population displacement patterns. The growing accessibility to ICT information from portable digital media has recently opened the possibility of exploring human behavior at high spatio-temporal resolutions. Mobile phone records, geolocated tweets, check-ins from Foursquare or geotagged photos, have contributed to this purpose at different scales, from cities to countries, in different world areas. Many previous works lacked, however, details on the individuals' attributes such as age or gender. In this work, we analyze credit-card records from Barcelona and Madrid and by examining the geolocated credit-card transactions of individuals living in the two provinces, we find that the mobility patterns vary according to gender, age and occupation. Differences in distance traveled and travel purpose are observed between younger and older people, but, curiously, either between males and females of similar age. While mobility displays some generic features, here we show that sociodemographic characteristics play a relevant role and must be taken into account for mobility and epidemiological modelization.

  14. Well characteristics influencing arsenic concentrations in ground water.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Melinda L; Barnes, Randal J

    2005-10-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic contamination is common in ground water in the upper Midwest. Arsenic is most likely to be present in glacial drift and shallow bedrock wells that lie within the footprint of northwest provenance Late Wisconsinan glacial drift. Elevated arsenic is more common in domestic wells and in monitoring wells than it is in public water system wells. Arsenic contamination is also more prevalent in domestic wells with short screens set in proximity to an upper confining unit, such as glacial till. Public water system wells have distinctly different well-construction practices and well characteristics when compared to domestic and monitoring wells. Construction practices such as exploiting a thick, coarse aquifer and installing a long well screen yield good water quantity for public water system wells. Coincidentally, these construction practices also often yield low arsenic water. Coarse aquifer materials have less surface area for adsorbing arsenic, and thus less arsenic available for potential mobilization. Wells with long screens set at a distance from an upper confining unit are at lower risk of exposure to geochemical conditions conducive to arsenic mobilization via reductive mechanisms such as reductive dissolution of metal hydroxides and reductive desorption of arsenic.

  15. Influence of media characteristics on energy dissipation in filter backwashing.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mustafa; Sabah, Eyup; Gulsen, Hakki; Celik, Mehmet S

    2003-09-15

    Effective cleaning of granular filters during backwashing processes needs maximum turbulence and maximum shear in the fluid particle field. The energy dissipation in a backwashed filter as a particulate fluidized bed arises due to the suspending and random motions of particles and turbulent fluctuations in the bed. Size, density, and sphericity of the filter materials greatly influence the fluidization behavior of the media. In this study, a new model is proposed for predicting the energy dissipation parameters namely the hydrodynamic shear stress (tau(a)), the velocity gradient (G(a)), the turbulence dissipation coefficient (C(a)), and the turbulence parameter (C(a)0.5/Re) in backwashing of filters for different types of filter materials (sand, anthracite, and glass ball). The hydrodynamic shear stress is the dominant mechanism of filter cleaning and appears to increase with increasing the density and size of the filter media particles. Using the basic set of data, a step by step procedure is developed to compute the velocity gradient G(a), the turbulence dissipation coefficient C(a), the hydrodynamic shear stress tau(a), and the turbulent parameter (C(a)0.5/ Re).

  16. Sonochemically synthesized iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Influence of precursor composition on characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anirban; Maitra, Saikat; Ghosh, Sobhan; Chakrabarti, Sampa

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Sonochemical synthesis of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Green synthesis without alkali at room temperature. • Characterization by UV–vis spectroscopy, FESEM, XRD and EDX. • Influence of precursor composition on characteristics. • Composition and characteristics are correlated. - Abstract: Iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized sonochemically from aqueous acetyl acetonate precursors of different proportions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Influences of precursor mixture on the characteristics have been examined and modeled. Linear correlations have been proposed between dopant dosing, extent of doping and band gap energy. Experimental data corroborated with the proposed models.

  17. The Influence of Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Electrospun 3D Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertea, A.; Manea, L. R.; Popa, A.; Bertea, A.

    2017-06-01

    Electrospinning is a fast developing technique that employs electrostatic repulsive forces to produce ultrafine fibres with application in fields like environment protection, medicine, sensors and many others. The characteristics of the polymer jet and the properties of the electrospun nanofibres are highly influenced by technological and environmental parameters. This paper offers a report on the main processing parameters that may influence the characteristics of the obtained nanofibres. The influence of flow rate, spinneret to collector distance and applied voltage on maximum fibre length, average fibre diameter, diameter uniformity and nanofibre quality is reviewed.

  18. Filter Characteristics Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45−DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9–19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11–13 µm should be used to challenge the system. PMID:23626725

  19. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  20. Maternal characteristics and clinical diagnoses influence obstetrical outcomes in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Adisasmita, Asri; Smith, Carl V; El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; Deviany, Poppy Elvira; Ryon, Judith J; Kiely, Michele; Rogers-Bloch, Quail; Gipson, Reginald F

    2015-07-01

    This Indonesian study evaluates associations between near-miss status/death with maternal demographic, health care characteristics, and obstetrical complications, comparing results using retrospective and prospective data. The main outcome measures were obstetric conditions and socio-economic factors to predict near-miss/death. We abstracted all obstetric admissions (1,358 retrospective and 1,240 prospective) from two district hospitals in East Java, Indonesia between 4/1/2009 and 5/15/2010. Prospective data added socio-economic status, access to care and referral patterns. Reduced logistic models were constructed, and multivariate analyses used to assess association of risk variables to outcome. Using multivariate analysis, variables associated with risk of near-miss/death include postpartum hemorrhage (retrospective AOR 5.41, 95 % CI 2.64-11.08; prospective AOR 10.45, 95 % CI 5.59-19.52) and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia (retrospective AOR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.05-3.57; prospective AOR 3.26, 95 % CI 1.79-5.94). Associations with near-miss/death were seen for antepartum hemorrhage in retrospective data (AOR 9.34, 95 % CI 4.34-20.13), and prospectively for poverty (AOR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.33-3.54) and delivering outside the hospital (AOR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.08-3.82). Postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of near-miss/death in Indonesia. Poverty and delivery outside the hospital are significant risk factors. Prompt recognition of complications, timely referrals, standardized care protocols, prompt hospital triage, and structured provider education may reduce obstetric mortality and morbidity. Retrospective data were reliable, but prospective data provided valuable information about barriers to care and referral patterns.

  1. Influence of smoking on audiological characteristics of hearing function.

    PubMed

    Gegenava, Kh A; Japaridze, Sh V; Kevanishvile, Z Sh; Lomidze, L S; Khechenashvili, T R

    2015-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and related diseases are global problem of health. Discussion regarding influence of smoking on hearing function has been continued about 20 years. The aim of our study was estimation of relation between smoking and development of cochlear neuritis. Research was conducted at Ltd. National Centre of ENT - Japaridze-Kevanishvili clinic and Ltd.Audiology National Center. The data were collected from September 2011 to December 2013. Cross- sectional observational study was carried out. 600 persons (mean age - 45.4±10.4) were enrolled in the research. After filling the informed consent persons were divided into two groups: smokers (300 smokers, apparently healthy persons, mean age 44.3±10.6 years) and control group (300 healthy non-smoker persons, mean age 46.5±10.2 years). All persons completed a questionnaire, which includes questions about smoking status too. The inclusion criterion in smokers group was a smoking habit during 5 years at least 10 cigarettes per day. Otoscopy and Acoustic impedance test (timpanometry, reflexometry, testing for Eustachian tube conductivity) were used for verification of outer and middle-ear normality. Pure Tone Audiometry was performed for hearing measure and identifies hearing nerve condition. Obtained results were statistically treated by the student's t-distribution. For minimal level of significance was taken p<0,05. In smokers group hearing loss was proved in 31.33% (94 persons) and in control group - in 17.34% (52 persons). Hearing-loss vs. normal-hearing ratio amounted hence to 0.46 (P<0.01) in the smokers group and to 0.21 (P<0.01) in the nonsmokers'. Hearing loss in smokers may be provided by different pathological mechanisms.

  2. Influence of the seismic noise characteristics on noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, F.; Pedersen, H. A.

    2005-12-01

    Cross-correlating seismic noise to obtain the Green function between two seismic sensors is a promising new technique for crustal tomography. We use data from 38 temporary broadband sensors in Finland to study how the nature of the seismic noise influences noise correlations. The study area is particularly well adapted for this study as the lateral variations of surface wave velocities are very small. We apply a processing technique which makes it possible to extract broadband signals between 2s and 35s period without applying any signal clipping. The extracted Green's functions are symmetrical at low and high-frequencies, but are strongly direction dependent around the two microseismic peaks (at approximately 15s and 8s). For these periods the signal amplitude varies by a factor of 90 between different azimuths. The maximum amplitudes are obtained for east-west profiles for the first microseismic peak and for east-west and north-south profiles for the second microseismic peak. The phase velocities when defined are however correct for all azimuths when all the traces in a given direction are used for slant stack. The group velocities calculated on individual traces do on the contrary vary strongly with azimuth, with a 1/cos dependence. We also apply f-k analysis on data from the NORSAR (Norway) and Gräfenberg (Germany) arrays as well as a small-aperture array in Finland to constrain the arrival directions of the coherent part of the noise. The microseismic noise generation is located west of the array for the first microseismic peak and west and north of the array for the second microseismic peak, in excellent agreement with the noise correlations. The f-k analysis also confirms that the noise generators are more randomly distributed for the long period (25s-50s) and short period (2s-4s) part of the noise. We conclude that in some frequency bands the noise in the study area is dominated by plane energy wavefronts, with strong phase perturbations. The profile

  3. A stimulus-dependent spike threshold is an optimal neural coder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas L; Johnson, Erik C; Ratnam, Rama

    2015-01-01

    A neural code based on sequences of spikes can consume a significant portion of the brain's energy budget. Thus, energy considerations would dictate that spiking activity be kept as low as possible. However, a high spike-rate improves the coding and representation of signals in spike trains, particularly in sensory systems. These are competing demands, and selective pressure has presumably worked to optimize coding by apportioning a minimum number of spikes so as to maximize coding fidelity. The mechanisms by which a neuron generates spikes while maintaining a fidelity criterion are not known. Here, we show that a signal-dependent neural threshold, similar to a dynamic or adapting threshold, optimizes the trade-off between spike generation (encoding) and fidelity (decoding). The threshold mimics a post-synaptic membrane (a low-pass filter) and serves as an internal decoder. Further, it sets the average firing rate (the energy constraint). The decoding process provides an internal copy of the coding error to the spike-generator which emits a spike when the error equals or exceeds a spike threshold. When optimized, the trade-off leads to a deterministic spike firing-rule that generates optimally timed spikes so as to maximize fidelity. The optimal coder is derived in closed-form in the limit of high spike-rates, when the signal can be approximated as a piece-wise constant signal. The predicted spike-times are close to those obtained experimentally in the primary electrosensory afferent neurons of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) and pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. We suggest that KCNQ/Kv7 channels (underlying the M-current) are good candidates for the decoder. They are widely coupled to metabolic processes and do not inactivate. We conclude that the neural threshold is optimized to generate an energy-efficient and high-fidelity neural code.

  4. A stimulus-dependent spike threshold is an optimal neural coder

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Douglas L.; Johnson, Erik C.; Ratnam, Rama

    2015-01-01

    A neural code based on sequences of spikes can consume a significant portion of the brain's energy budget. Thus, energy considerations would dictate that spiking activity be kept as low as possible. However, a high spike-rate improves the coding and representation of signals in spike trains, particularly in sensory systems. These are competing demands, and selective pressure has presumably worked to optimize coding by apportioning a minimum number of spikes so as to maximize coding fidelity. The mechanisms by which a neuron generates spikes while maintaining a fidelity criterion are not known. Here, we show that a signal-dependent neural threshold, similar to a dynamic or adapting threshold, optimizes the trade-off between spike generation (encoding) and fidelity (decoding). The threshold mimics a post-synaptic membrane (a low-pass filter) and serves as an internal decoder. Further, it sets the average firing rate (the energy constraint). The decoding process provides an internal copy of the coding error to the spike-generator which emits a spike when the error equals or exceeds a spike threshold. When optimized, the trade-off leads to a deterministic spike firing-rule that generates optimally timed spikes so as to maximize fidelity. The optimal coder is derived in closed-form in the limit of high spike-rates, when the signal can be approximated as a piece-wise constant signal. The predicted spike-times are close to those obtained experimentally in the primary electrosensory afferent neurons of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) and pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. We suggest that KCNQ/Kv7 channels (underlying the M-current) are good candidates for the decoder. They are widely coupled to metabolic processes and do not inactivate. We conclude that the neural threshold is optimized to generate an energy-efficient and high-fidelity neural code. PMID:26082710

  5. Influence of Mineralogical Characteristics of Iron Ore on Formation and Flow of Liquid Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Wu, Sheng-li; Zhang, Guo-liang

    The mineralogical characteristics of iron ores can influence their high temperature sintering performance. In this study, eight iron ore samples from Brazil, Australia, and South Africa were characterized by their chemical composition, mineral types, particle morphology, and gangue dispersity. Meanwhile the influence rules between the mineralogical characteristics and the high temperature characteristics were evaluated and analyzed. The results showed that the effect of SiO2 on assimilation characteristic of iron ores was relatively complex, Al2O3 and LOI of iron ores had negative correlation with assimilation temperature of iron ores, the dense slab-flaky mineral granule restrained to the assimilation characteristics of iron ores; liquid phase of iron ores with high SiO2 content and low Al2O3 content had high fluidity, and the higher dispersity of gangue minerals in iron ores was good to the fluidity of liquid phase.

  6. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  7. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  8. Experimental studies of influence of oil on the plants' optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, Elena V.; Timchenko, Pavel E.; Tregub, Nikolay V.; Selezneva, Ekaterina A.; Kornilin, Dmitriy V.

    2016-09-01

    The results of studies of influence of oil on vegetative biological objects using Raman spectroscopy method are presented. The characteristics of Raman spectra of plants growing under the influence of oil fractions were obtained. The main changes were detected at 605 cm-1 , 840 cm-1 , 2120 cm-1 wavenumbers, which is associated with increasing concentration of bromine, aromatic carbons and methane in plant leaves.

  9. Influence of gas heating on high pressure dc microdischarge I V characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belostotskiy, Sergey G.; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Economou, Demetre J.

    2008-11-01

    Experimental I-V characteristics of dc microdischarges in helium at different operating pressures (p = 300-800 Torr) reveal that the classical scaling law of the cathode layer (sheath) does not apply. It is shown that a modified semi-analytical model of the cathode layer that accounts for neutral gas heating is able to reproduce the trends of the experimental I-V characteristics. The model can also be used to quantify the influence of gas heating on microdischarge characteristics and to estimate conditions for stable operation of microdischarges.

  10. Influence of practice environment and nurse characteristics on perinatal nurses' responses to ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Penticuff, J H; Walden, M

    2000-01-01

    Previous research on nurses' responses to ethical dilemmas has focused either on nurse characteristics or on practice environment characteristics, but has not examined both influences concurrently. To explore the relative contributions of practice environment characteristics and nurse personal and professional characteristics to perinatal nurses' willingness to be involved in activities to resolve clinical ethical dilemmas. A descriptive correlational design and hierarchical multiple regression were used to examine responses of 127 perinatal nurses to three instruments: the Nursing Ethical Involvement Scales (NEIS), Perinatal Values Questionnaire (PVQ), and Demographic Data Sheet (DDS). The organizational variable, nursing influence, accounted for the greatest amount of variance in nurses' reported resolution actions, with nurses' concern about ethics and consequentialist values also contributing significantly. The three predictors together accounted for 31% (24% adjusted) of the variance in actions to resolve clinical ethical dilemmas. Level of nursing education was not a statistically significant influence. These results suggest that nurses are more likely to be involved in dilemma resolution activities when they perceive themselves to have higher levels of influence in their practice environments and higher levels of concern about the ethical aspects of clinical situations. Nurses who emphasize consideration of morally relevant aspects of individual patient situations (consequentialist value orientation) and deemphasize adherence to abstract standards, rules, and policies also are more likely to be involved in dilemma resolution.

  11. Family and Religious Characteristics' Influence on Delinquency Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petts, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting…

  12. The Influence of Personal Characteristics on Secondary School Teachers' Beliefs about School Guidance and Counselling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Egbochuku, ELizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated how personal characteristics of secondary school teachers influence their beliefs about their school guidance and counselling programs. Two hundred and sixteen senior secondary school teachers responded to the "Teachers Beliefs about School Guidance and Counselling Programs Inventory (TBSG &CI)". When…

  13. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    Treesearch

    M. Colter Chitwood; Marcus A. Lashley; John C. Kilgo; Kenneth H. Pollock; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16...

  14. Child and Family Characteristics Influencing Intervention Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Schultz, Beth

    2013-01-01

    A myriad of treatment options are available for children with autism spectrum disorders, yet little is understood regarding characteristics of parents (e.g., education) and children (e.g., severity of autism symptoms) that influence types and numbers of therapies utilized. Interviews from 70 caregivers were analyzed to determine potential…

  15. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  16. The influence of formulation and manufacturing process parameters on the characteristics of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys J; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Levina, Marina; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2011-07-20

    Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT.

  17. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  18. Family and Religious Characteristics' Influence on Delinquency Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petts, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting…

  19. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  20. What Characteristics of College Students Influence Their Decisions to Select Online Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, John T.; Henneberry, Shida R.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to identify a wide range of characteristics of college students that may influence their decisions to select online courses. The motivation underlying this study is the realization that online courses are no longer exclusively being taken by non-traditional students (for undergraduates, that would be students age…

  1. Preschool Characteristics Influence the Success of Professional Development: Is Your Preschool Ready, Willing, and Able?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mages, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    Institutional characteristics of preschool centers can influence the successful implementation of professional development programming. This article provides an overview of a dynamic Head Start teacher professional development program. The program, conducted by a well-respected theatre-in-education organization, was designed to help preschool…

  2. Influence of Teacher Characteristics on African American Student Math Achievement in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Dorthery Barron

    2012-01-01

    The achievement gap between African American and White students continues to be an issue of great concern for educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher characteristics on African American student math achievement: More specifically, the study examined years of teaching experience, campus teacher turnover, and the…

  3. Influence of Teacher Characteristics on African American Student Math Achievement in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Dorthery Barron

    2012-01-01

    The achievement gap between African American and White students continues to be an issue of great concern for educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher characteristics on African American student math achievement: More specifically, the study examined years of teaching experience, campus teacher turnover, and the…

  4. Sediment deposition from forest roads at stream crossings as influenced by road characteristics

    Treesearch

    A.J. Lang; W.M. Aust; M.C. Bolding; K.J. McGuire

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies associated with ditched forest roads and stream crossings in the Pacific Northwest have focused national attention on sediment production and best management practices (BMPs) at stream crossings. Few studies have quantified soil erosion rates at stream crossings as influenced by road characteristics and compared them to modeled rates. Soil erosion...

  5. Analysis of influence factors on 2 μm Tm3+-doped fiber laser output characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Jin, Guang-yong; Wang, Ji

    2016-10-01

    The affecting factors of 2 μm Tm3+-doped fiber laser output characteristics were theoretical analyzed. On the basis of the energy level structure and optical absorption properties of Tm3+ ion, combining with the basic principle of Tm3+-doped fiber laser, and starting from the energy level structures and the cross relaxation processes of Tm3+ ion, the three pumping methods of Tm doped fiber laser (TDF) were analyzed and discussed. The influences of output characteristics by different influence factors were simulated. Based on optimization of the equations, for different fiber lengths, doping concentrations and pumping absorption coefficients and other influence factors, the laser output characteristics under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. Combination the simulation analysis, through the reasonable design and the selection of the optimum parameters of the laser system, the high laser output performance scan be achieved by improving the injection power and controlling of fiber coil diameter. The influences of different factors on the output characteristics were analyzed in the issue. The high laser output performances can be obtained and the laser loss was reduced by selecting the parameters of the laser system properly.

  6. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  7. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  8. The Influence of Learner Characteristics on Satisfaction with Interactive Televised Courses in Florida Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Beverly L.; Kamata, Akihito; Smith, Kathleen Shea

    This report describes a pilot project designed to explore the influence of particular personality and demographic characteristics on community college student satisfaction with distance learning, specifically interactive telecommunications (ITV) courses. The study used the Telecourse Evaluation Questionnaire (TEQ) and the Sixteen Personality…

  9. Child and Family Characteristics Influencing Intervention Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Schultz, Beth

    2013-01-01

    A myriad of treatment options are available for children with autism spectrum disorders, yet little is understood regarding characteristics of parents (e.g., education) and children (e.g., severity of autism symptoms) that influence types and numbers of therapies utilized. Interviews from 70 caregivers were analyzed to determine potential…

  10. The Influence of Learning Characteristics on Evaluation of Audience Response Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGeorge, Erina L.; Homan, Scott R.; Dunning, John B.; Elmore, David; Bodie, Graham D.; Evans, Ed; Khichadia, Sangeetha; Lichti, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Audience Response Technology (ART) has been widely adopted on college campuses, and prior research indicates that, on average, it receives positive evaluations from students. However, research has not yet examined how characteristics of students as learners influence their responses to ART. The current study examined aptitude for learning,…

  11. The Influence of Learning Characteristics on Evaluation of Audience Response Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGeorge, Erina L.; Homan, Scott R.; Dunning, John B.; Elmore, David; Bodie, Graham D.; Evans, Ed; Khichadia, Sangeetha; Lichti, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Audience Response Technology (ART) has been widely adopted on college campuses, and prior research indicates that, on average, it receives positive evaluations from students. However, research has not yet examined how characteristics of students as learners influence their responses to ART. The current study examined aptitude for learning,…

  12. Father Caretaking Characteristics and Their Influence on Infant-Father Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotelchuck, Milton

    This paper describes five experimental studies which explored the influence of fathers' home caregiving and interactional characteristics on their infant's laboratory behavior. Approximately 300 families with children ranging in age from 6 to 24 months were studied. Each infant's reactions were observed as a function of the manipulation of the…

  13. The Influence of Formulation and Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Lyophilized Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhys J.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Levina, Marina; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2011-01-01

    Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT. PMID:24310589

  14. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  15. What Characteristics of College Students Influence Their Decisions to Select Online Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, John T.; Henneberry, Shida R.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to identify a wide range of characteristics of college students that may influence their decisions to select online courses. The motivation underlying this study is the realization that online courses are no longer exclusively being taken by non-traditional students (for undergraduates, that would be students age…

  16. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  17. Teacher Incentive Pay Programs in the United States: Union Influence and District Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Guodong; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Haigen; Qiao, Zhaogang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs in the United States. Using the 2007-08 SASS data set, it found an inverse relationship between union influence and districts' incentive pay offerings. Large and ethnically diverse districts in urban areas that did not meet the requirements for Adequate Yearly Progress as…

  18. Manual signing in adults with intellectual disability: influence of sign characteristics on functional sign vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics. Phonological and referential characteristics were assigned to the signs by speech-language pathologists. The iconicity (i.e., transparency, guessing the meaning of the sign; and translucency, rating on a 6-point scale) of the signs were tested in 467 students. Sign functionality was studied in 119 adults with ID (mean mental age of 50.54 months) by means of a questionnaire, filled out by a support worker. A generalized linear model with a negative binomial distribution (with log-link) showed that semantic category was the factor with the strongest influence on sign functionality, with grammatical class, referential concreteness, and translucency also playing a part. No sign phonological characteristics were found to be of significant influence on sign use. The meaning of a sign is the most important factor regarding its functionality (i.e., whether a sign is used in everyday communication). Phonological characteristics seem only of minor importance.

  19. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  20. Relationship Influences on Exploration in Adulthood: The Characteristics and Function of a Secure Base

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Brooke C.; Thrush, Roxanne L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation advances theory and research regarding relationship influences on exploration in adulthood. This is accomplished by (a) identifying important characteristics of a secure base, (b) examining the influence of the presence/absence of these characteristics on exploration behavior in adulthood, and (c) identifying individual difference factors that are predictive of the provision and receipt of secure base support. In two sessions, married couples (N = 167) provided reports of relationship dynamics involving exploration, and they participated in an exploration activity that was videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that the three identified characteristics of a secure base (availability, non-interference, and encouragement) are strongly predictive of exploration behavior, and that the provision and receipt of these behaviors can be predicted by individual differences in attachment. Implications of results and contributions to existing literature are discussed. PMID:20053031

  1. [On the mechanisms of the influence of imino acids on the physical characteristics of collagens].

    PubMed

    Rubin, M A; Tiktopulo, E I; Namiot, V A; tumanian, V G; Esipova, N G

    2008-01-01

    The influence of imino acids on the thermodynamic characteristics of collagen type structures in various collagens has been analyzed. It was shown that the basic mechanism of entropy increase in the protein-water system consists in the alteration in the number of cooperative segments accompanying the increase in imino acids content, which can be observed during the melting of the fibrous macromolecule. The range of variation in the physical characteristics of cooperative units is determined, in particular, by the variability of hydrogen bond parameters. This is displayed in a broadening of the bands of NH-valence vibrations and the half-widths of transitions in post-denatured structures. Thus, the basic mechanism of the influence of imino acids on thermodynamic characteristics of collagens is related to the complex nature of the melting process. The dehydration-hydration mechanisms of native and denatured states become significantly different upon replacement of any amino acid by an imino acid.

  2. Individual and coupled influences of AMO and ENSO on regional precipitation characteristics and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, Aneesh; Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the influences of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) on regional precipitation extremes and characteristics in the state of Florida is the focus of this study. Exhaustive evaluations of individual and combined influences of these oscillations using, descriptive indices-based assessment of statistically significant changes in rainfall characteristics, identification of spatially varying influences of oscillations on dry and wet spell transition states, antecedent precipitation prior to extreme events, intraevent temporal distribution of precipitation and changes in temporal occurrences of extremes including dry/wet cycles are carried out. Rain gage and gridded precipitation data analysis using parametric hypothesis tests confirm statistically significant changes in the precipitation characteristics from one phase to another of each oscillation and also in coupled phases. Spatially nonuniform and uniform influences of AMO and ENSO, respectively, on precipitation are evident. AMO influences vary in peninsular and continental parts of Florida and the warm (cool) phase of AMO contributes to increased precipitation extremes during wet (dry) season. The influence of ENSO is confined to dry season with El Niño (La Niña) contributing to increase (decrease) in extremes and total precipitation. Wetter antecedent conditions preceding daily extremes are dominant in AMO warm phase compared to the cool and are likely to impact design floods in the region. AMO influence on dry season precipitation extremes is noted for ENSO neutral years. The two oscillations in different phases modulate each other with seasonal and spatially varying impacts and implications on flood control and water supply in the region.

  3. Influence of the Laminar Plasma Torch Construction on the Jet Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiuquan; Yu, Deping; Xiang, Yong; Yao, Jin; Miao, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    Based on two typical laminar plasma torches (LPT), i.e. a multi-electrode plasma torch (MEPT) with segmented anode structure and a two-electrode plasma torch (TEPT) with conventional structure, this paper studied the influence of the LPTs construction on the jet characteristics. Experiments were designed to measure their arc voltage, jet length, thermal efficiency and specific enthalpy using a home-made data acquisition system. With them, the jet characteristics of the two different LPTs were compared in detail. Results show that different plasma torch construction leads to distinctively different characteristics of the generated plasma jet. Based on the different jet characteristics, a plasma torch with appropriate construction could be used to meet the different application requirements. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51405315) and the Laboratory of Precision Manufacturing Technology, CAEP (No. KF15002)

  4. Here comes the judge: the influence of judge personal characteristics on federal sexual harassment case outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Carol T; Perry, Elissa L; Pepper, Molly B

    2003-02-01

    This study explored the effects of judges' personal characteristics (gender, race, age, and political affiliation) and case characteristics on the outcomes of federal cases of hostile environment sexual harassment. Results revealed that even after controlling for the effects of relevant case characteristics (e.g., severity of the harassment), judges' personal characteristics influenced case outcomes. Specifically, younger judges and Democrat judges were more likely to find for the plaintiff (the alleged victim of harassment). The probability that the decision would favor the plaintiff was only 16% when the case was heard by an older judge but 45% when heard by a younger judge. The probability that the decision would favor the plaintiff was only 18% when the case was heard by a judge who had been appointed by a Republican president but 46% when the judge had been appointed by a Democrat president.

  5. Socioeconomic characteristics of enrollees appear to influence performance scores for medicare part D contractors.

    PubMed

    Young, Gary J; Rickles, Nathaniel M; Chou, Chia-Hung; Raver, Eli

    2014-01-01

    More than 150 private companies contract with the federal government to provide Part D prescription drug benefits to Medicare beneficiaries, either through stand-alone drug plans or as part of Medicare Advantage plans. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) evaluates these companies on a set of performance measures, including plan enrollees' medication adherence. We used 2012 data from CMS and data from the US Census Bureau to investigate whether these performance ratings are influenced by the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations. We found that some companies have a substantial advantage over others because of their enrollees' socioeconomic characteristics, with more than a third of the variation in adherence scores tied to these characteristics. CMS should seriously consider adjusting adherence scores to account for differences in the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations.

  6. Do patient characteristics influence nursing adherence to a guideline for preventing delirium?

    PubMed

    Ijkema, Roelie; Langelaan, Maaike; van de Steeg, Lotte; Wagner, Cordula

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the characteristics of patients influence nursing adherence to a quality improvement guideline. This guideline consists of delirium risk screening and preventive care, including the use of the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS). A retrospective patient record review study was performed in 18 Dutch hospitals that were implementing a quality improvement project regarding delirium care. The records of patients 70 years of age or older were reviewed over an 11-month period. Patient characteristics, as well as the extent of risk screening and the application of the DOSS within the screened and nonscreened groups, were recorded by experienced research nurses. Characteristics were compared between these groups and within the high-risk group using multilevel logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,881 patient records were analyzed. In 55% of the total sample, a risk screening was conducted, of which 44% were identified as patients with a high risk for delirium. Acute admissions were screened significantly less often. The DOSS was used in 48% of the patients in the high-risk group, but also in 13% of the patients without an identified risk and in 15% of the nonscreened patients. The factors influencing the use of the DOSS in screened and nonscreened patients included age, domestic circumstances, suffering from dementia, and acute admission. In the nonscreened group, comorbidity also showed significance. Patient characteristics influence nursing in preventive delirium care. The findings can help to improve preventive delirium care by nurses. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. A short report: Word-level phonological and lexical characteristics interact to influence phoneme awareness.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological characteristic, sound contrast similarity (similar vs. dissimilar), and a lexical characteristic, neighborhood density (dense vs. sparse). In a subsample of the participants-those with the highest vocabularies-results were in line with a predicted interactive effect of phonological and lexical characteristics on phoneme awareness performance: word sets contrasting similar sounds were less likely to yield correct responses in words from sparse neighborhoods than words from dense neighborhoods. Word sets contrasting dissimilar sounds were most likely to yield correct responses regardless of the words' neighborhood density. Based on these findings, theories of early phoneme awareness should consider both word-level and child-level influences on performance. Attention to these influences is predicted to result in more sensitive and specific measures of reading risk.

  8. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on different dimensions of household food insecurity in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Máximo; Ferre, Zuleika; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-03-01

    To determine the factor structure of the Latin American & Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and to study the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on each of the identified dimensions in Montevideo, Uruguay. Cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of urban households. Household food insecurity was measured using the ELCSA. The percentage of respondents who gave affirmative responses for each of the items of the ELCSA was determined. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the ELCSA's factor structure. A probit model was used to determine the impact of some individual and household sociodemographic characteristics on the identified dimensions of food insecurity. Metropolitan area centred on Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, April-September 2014. Adults aged between 18 and 93 years (n 742). The percentage of affirmative responses to the items of the ELCSA ranged from 4·4 to 31·7 %. Two factors were identified in the exploratory factor analysis performed on data from households without children under 18 years old, whereas three factors were identified for households with children. The identified factors were associated with different severity levels of food insecurity. Likelihood of experiencing different levels of food insecurity was affected by individual characteristics of the respondent as well as characteristics of the household. The influence of sociodemographic variables varied among the ELCSA dimensions. Household income had the largest influence on all dimensions, which indicates a strong relationship between income and food insecurity.

  9. Predators, environment and host characteristics influence the probability of infection by an invasive castrating parasite.

    PubMed

    Gehman, Alyssa-Lois M; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Hughes, A Randall; Kimbro, David L; Piehler, Michael F; Byers, James E

    2017-01-01

    Not all hosts, communities or environments are equally hospitable for parasites. Direct and indirect interactions between parasites and their predators, competitors and the environment can influence variability in host exposure, susceptibility and subsequent infection, and these influences may vary across spatial scales. To determine the relative influences of abiotic, biotic and host characteristics on probability of infection across both local and estuary scales, we surveyed the oyster reef-dwelling mud crab Eurypanopeus depressus and its parasite Loxothylacus panopaei, an invasive castrating rhizocephalan, in a hierarchical design across >900 km of the southeastern USA. We quantified the density of hosts, predators of the parasite and host, the host's oyster reef habitat, and environmental variables that might affect the parasite either directly or indirectly on oyster reefs within 10 estuaries throughout this biogeographic range. Our analyses revealed that both between and within estuary-scale variation and host characteristics influenced L. panopaei prevalence. Several additional biotic and abiotic factors were positive predictors of infection, including predator abundance and the depth of water inundation over reefs at high tide. We demonstrate that in addition to host characteristics, biotic and abiotic community-level variables both serve as large-scale indicators of parasite dynamics.

  10. Evaluating the Influence of Surface and Precipitation Characteristics on TMI and GMI Precipitation Retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, N.; Kirstetter, P.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Ferraro, R. R.; Kummerow, C. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.; Wang, N. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of surface and precipitation characteristics on Passive microwave (PMW) precipitation retrievals, precipitation products obtained from both the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) were evaluated relative to independent high-resolution reference precipitation products obtained using the NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Specifically the ability of each sensor to detect, classify, and quantify instantaneous surface precipitation at its native pixel resolution is examined and linked to surface and precipitation characteristics. Surface characteristics were derived optically using NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Precipitation mesoscale characteristics such as convective-stratiform classification and spatial structure were obtained from the high-resolution reference data. The quality of both PMW sensors' retrievals varied considerably with surface characteristics; both sensors displayed decreased detection and quantification statistics over sparsely vegetated and dry surfaces. Similarly, the quality of the precipitation retrievals was affected by precipitation characteristics and high relative errors were evident in isolated and small-scale precipitation events as well as in mixed stratiform-convective events. The error characteristics of the two sensors also differed in several significant aspects, namely TMI tended to overestimate precipitation relative to the reference, while GMI underestimated precipitation. The influence of the precipitation and surface characteristics was less evident in the more sophisticated GMI retrievals. An additional outcome of the study was the adaptation of the comparison framework between space and ground precipitation estimates to accommodate the new probabilistic features of the GPM-era PMW precipitation retrievals.

  11. Toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences: how task characteristics influence responses

    PubMed Central

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In research on Bayesian inferences, the specific tasks, with their narratives and characteristics, are typically seen as exchangeable vehicles that merely transport the structure of the problem to research participants. In the present paper, we explore whether, and possibly how, task characteristics that are usually ignored influence participants’ responses in these tasks. We focus on both quantitative dimensions of the tasks, such as their base rates, hit rates, and false-alarm rates, as well as qualitative characteristics, such as whether the task involves a norm violation or not, whether the stakes are high or low, and whether the focus is on the individual case or on the numbers. Using a data set of 19 different tasks presented to 500 different participants who provided a total of 1,773 responses, we analyze these responses in two ways: first, on the level of the numerical estimates themselves, and second, on the level of various response strategies, Bayesian and non-Bayesian, that might have produced the estimates. We identified various contingencies, and most of the task characteristics had an influence on participants’ responses. Typically, this influence has been stronger when the numerical information in the tasks was presented in terms of probabilities or percentages, compared to natural frequencies – and this effect cannot be fully explained by a higher proportion of Bayesian responses when natural frequencies were used. One characteristic that did not seem to influence participants’ response strategy was the numerical value of the Bayesian solution itself. Our exploratory study is a first step toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences, and highlights new avenues for future research. PMID:26300791

  12. Toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences: how task characteristics influence responses.

    PubMed

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In research on Bayesian inferences, the specific tasks, with their narratives and characteristics, are typically seen as exchangeable vehicles that merely transport the structure of the problem to research participants. In the present paper, we explore whether, and possibly how, task characteristics that are usually ignored influence participants' responses in these tasks. We focus on both quantitative dimensions of the tasks, such as their base rates, hit rates, and false-alarm rates, as well as qualitative characteristics, such as whether the task involves a norm violation or not, whether the stakes are high or low, and whether the focus is on the individual case or on the numbers. Using a data set of 19 different tasks presented to 500 different participants who provided a total of 1,773 responses, we analyze these responses in two ways: first, on the level of the numerical estimates themselves, and second, on the level of various response strategies, Bayesian and non-Bayesian, that might have produced the estimates. We identified various contingencies, and most of the task characteristics had an influence on participants' responses. Typically, this influence has been stronger when the numerical information in the tasks was presented in terms of probabilities or percentages, compared to natural frequencies - and this effect cannot be fully explained by a higher proportion of Bayesian responses when natural frequencies were used. One characteristic that did not seem to influence participants' response strategy was the numerical value of the Bayesian solution itself. Our exploratory study is a first step toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences, and highlights new avenues for future research.

  13. Influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on polishing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Satoshi; Gemma, Masaya; Hayashi, Keitoku; Kondo, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yakou, Takao; Arakawa, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Diamond electrodeposited wire tools are frequently used to cut thin wafers from hard and brittle materials. However, microcracks sometimes appear during the slicing process. The appearance of microcracks adversely affects slicing efficiency and slicing accuracy. In this study, we examine the influence of brittle behavior on the polishing characteristics such as polishing depth and tool wear. This is the first step toward investigating the influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on slicing characteristics. Ceramics such as alumina, silicon carbide, and zirconia are used as work materials. Even with the same degree of hardness, we found that the polishing depth values were greater for materials exhibiting brittle behavior. In the polishing of high-hardness materials, abrasive grains were badly damaged during the initial stages of polishing. Damage to the abrasive paper was less in wet polishing as compared with dry polishing. Moreover, wet polishing had a greater polishing depth than dry polishing. The polishing characteristics of the brittle materials were similar to the grooving characteristics produced using wire tools; however, both these characteristics depend on the brittle behavior of the work materials. Therefore, by performing simple polishing tests, estimating the state of grooving or slicing using wire tools is possible.

  14. Analysis of the Damping Characteristics of Cylindrical Resonators Influenced by Piezoelectric Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangkun; Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Xuezhong

    2017-01-01

    The cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) is a typical Coriolis vibratory gyroscope whose performance is mostly influenced by the damping characteristic of the cylindrical resonator. However, the tremendous damping influences caused by pasting piezoelectric electrodes on the gyroscope, which degrades the performance to a large extent, have rarely been studied. In this paper, the dynamical model is established to analyze various forms of energy consumption. In addition, a FE COMSOL model is also created to discuss the damping influences of several significant parameters of the adhesive layer and piezoelectric electrodes, respectively, and then explicit influence laws are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the adhesive layer has some impact on the damping characteristic, but it not significant. The Q factor decreases about 30.31% in total as a result of pasting piezoelectric electrodes. What is more, it is discovered that piezoelectric electrodes with short length, locations away from the outside edges, proper width and well-chosen thickness are able to reduce the damping influences to a large extent. Afterwards, experiments of testing the Q factor are set up to validate the simulation values. PMID:28471376

  15. Analysis of the Damping Characteristics of Cylindrical Resonators Influenced by Piezoelectric Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangkun; Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Xuezhong

    2017-05-04

    The cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) is a typical Coriolis vibratory gyroscope whose performance is mostly influenced by the damping characteristic of the cylindrical resonator. However, the tremendous damping influences caused by pasting piezoelectric electrodes on the gyroscope, which degrades the performance to a large extent, have rarely been studied. In this paper, the dynamical model is established to analyze various forms of energy consumption. In addition, a FE COMSOL model is also created to discuss the damping influences of several significant parameters of the adhesive layer and piezoelectric electrodes, respectively, and then explicit influence laws are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the adhesive layer has some impact on the damping characteristic, but it not significant. The Q factor decreases about 30.31% in total as a result of pasting piezoelectric electrodes. What is more, it is discovered that piezoelectric electrodes with short length, locations away from the outside edges, proper width and well-chosen thickness are able to reduce the damping influences to a large extent. Afterwards, experiments of testing the Q factor are set up to validate the simulation values.

  16. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  17. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China’s economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. Results The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants’ social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers’ work ability. Improving of migrant workers’ physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability. PMID:24725332

  18. Influence of borehole and formation characteristics on elemental standard spectra in geochemical logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wensheng; Yue, Aizhong; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Shusheng; Fan, Dechang

    2017-10-01

    Accurate acquisition of elemental standard spectra is one of the key links in geochemical elemental logging. Because elemental standard spectra are affected by borehole and formation characteristics, it is necessary to study the borehole and formation conditions required for the acquisition of ideal spectra. For these, we constructed a model comprising instruments, borehole and formation; applied the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code to simulate elemental standard spectral responses under different borehole and formation conditions; and performed a comparative analysis of these responses. The results demonstrate that, for the standard capture spectra of an element, a fresh water borehole yields spectra with good statistical properties and significant characteristic peaks. For elements with a high capture cross section and prominent characteristic peaks, a borehole of small diameter yields ideal spectra; conversely, a borehole of slightly larger diameter is suitable for elements with a low capture cross section and insignificant characteristic peaks. A formation containing a certain number of pores full of fresh water can yield better standard spectra except for elements that have a giant capture cross section such as Gd. A formation composed of various compounds of an element yields standard spectra with different effects, which means that an elemental compound has to be selected to get an ideal standard spectrum. For the standard inelastic spectrum of an element, the influence of the borehole fluid or pore fluid should be avoided as much as possible except for oxygen; formations composed of an elementary substance, or chlorides or hydrides of an element yields a better standard spectrum than one composed of its oxides, carbonates or other compounds containing elements with a large inelastic cross section. The compactness of the formation influences the characteristic peaks and statistical properties of the standard spectra. The simulation method takes fully

  19. Cylinder wake influence on the tonal noise and aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0018 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y.; Fujisawa, N.; Nakano, T.; Nashimoto, A.

    2006-11-01

    The influence of cylinder wake on discrete tonal noise and aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0018 airfoil is studied experimentally in a uniform flow at a moderate Reynolds number. The experiments are carried out by measuring sound pressure levels and spectrum, separation and the reattachment points, pressure distribution, fluid forces, mean-flow and turbulence characteristics around the airfoil with and without the cylinder wake. Present results indicate that the tonal noise from the airfoil is suppressed by the influence of the cylinder wake and the aerodynamic characteristics are improved in comparison with the case without the cylinder wake. These are mainly due to the separation control of boundary layers over the airfoil caused by the wake-induced transition, which is observed by surface flow visualization with liquid- crystal coating. The PIV measurements of the flow field around the airfoil confirm that highly turbulent velocity fluctuation of the cylinder wake induces the transition of the boundary layers and produces an attached boundary layer over the airfoil. Then, the vortex shedding phenomenon near the trailing edge of pressure surface is removed by the influence of the wake and results in the suppression of tonal noise.

  20. Adolescent first lapse following smoking cessation: situation characteristics, precipitants and proximal influences.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark G; Gwaltney, Chad J; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; Monti, Peter M; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Despite increased attention to adolescent smoking cessation, little is known about adolescent relapse following a quit attempt. To address this issue, the present study was designed to provide initial information regarding the characteristics of adolescent lapses to smoking following abstinence. Included in the present study were 204 adolescent participants in four independent smoking cessation trials. For the full sample, participants averaged 15.99 (1.27) years of age; 56% were female and 78% were white. Lapse characteristics and precipitants were assessed using the Adolescent Smoking Relapse Review. Three domains of the lapse experience were assessed: lapse situation characteristics, precipitants of use in the situation, and proximal influences (i.e., potential precipitants occurring on the same day, prior to the lapse situation). Participant reports indicated that the modal lapse situation occurred in the evening while socializing with friends at home. Urges or cravings and social pressure were commonly endorsed as occurring in lapse situations. The most frequently reported proximal influence was desire for a cigarette, followed by abstinence-violation cognitions (okay to smoke occasionally, wanted to see what it would be like) and negative emotions. The findings indicate that a broad range of factors appear to influence adolescent smoking lapse and commend the value of incorporating content relevant to managing social and affective cues, strategies for inhibiting the prepotent response to ask for a cigarette, addressing cognitions regarding the difficulty of not smoking (i.e., cessation expectancies) and combating perceptions of the ability to smoke occasionally. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Adolescent First Lapse Following Smoking Cessation: Situation Characteristics, Precipitants and Proximal Influences

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Strong, David R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Brown, Richard A.; Monti, Peter M.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention to adolescent smoking cessation, little is known about adolescent relapse following a quit attempt. To address this issue, the present study was designed to provide initial information regarding the characteristics of adolescent lapses to smoking following abstinence. Included in the present study were 204 adolescent participants in four independent smoking cessation trials. For the full sample, participants averaged 15.99 (1.27) years of age; 56% were female and 78% were white. Lapse characteristics and precipitants were assessed using the Adolescent Smoking Relapse Review. Three domains of the lapse experience were assessed: lapse situation characteristics, precipitants of use in the situation, and proximal influences (i.e., potential precipitants occurring on the same day, prior to the lapse situation). Participant reports indicated that the modal lapse situation occurred in the evening while socializing with friends at home. Urges or cravings and social pressure were commonly endorsed as occurring in lapse situations. The most frequently reported proximal influence was desire for a cigarette, followed by abstinence-violation cognitions (okay to smoke occasionally, wanted to see what it would be like) and negative emotions. The findings indicate that a broad range of factors appear to influence adolescent smoking lapse and commend the value of incorporating content relevant to managing social and affective cues, strategies for inhibiting the prepotent response to ask for a cigarette, addressing cognitions regarding the difficulty of not smoking (i.e., cessation expectancies) and combating perceptions of the ability to smoke occasionally. PMID:21903332

  2. Influence of population and exercise protocol characteristics on hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Brito, L.C.; Queiroz, A.C.C.; Forjaz, C.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to differences in study populations and protocols, the hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension (PAEH) are controversial. This review analyzed the factors that might influence PAEH hemodynamic determinants, through a search on PubMed using the following key words: “postexercise” or “post-exercise” combined with “hypotension”, “blood pressure”, “cardiac output”, and “peripheral vascular resistance”, and “aerobic exercise” combined only with “blood pressure”. Forty-seven studies were selected, and the following characteristics were analyzed: age, gender, training status, body mass index status, blood pressure status, exercise intensity, duration and mode (continuous or interval), time of day, and recovery position. Data analysis showed that 1) most postexercise hypotension cases are due to a reduction in systemic vascular resistance; 2) age, body mass index, and blood pressure status influence postexercise hemodynamics, favoring cardiac output decrease in elderly, overweight, and hypertensive subjects; 3) gender and training status do not have an isolated influence; 4) exercise duration, intensity, and mode also do not affect postexercise hemodynamics; 5) time of day might have an influence, but more data are needed; and 6) recovery in the supine position facilitates systemic vascular resistance decrease. In conclusion, many factors may influence postexercise hypotension hemodynamics, and future studies should directly address these specific influences because different combinations may explain the observed variability in postexercise hemodynamic studies. PMID:25098713

  3. Influence of population and exercise protocol characteristics on hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension.

    PubMed

    Brito, L C; Queiroz, A C C; Forjaz, C L M

    2014-08-01

    Due to differences in study populations and protocols, the hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension (PAEH) are controversial. This review analyzed the factors that might influence PAEH hemodynamic determinants, through a search on PubMed using the following key words: "postexercise" or "post-exercise" combined with "hypotension", "blood pressure", "cardiac output", and "peripheral vascular resistance", and "aerobic exercise" combined only with "blood pressure". Forty-seven studies were selected, and the following characteristics were analyzed: age, gender, training status, body mass index status, blood pressure status, exercise intensity, duration and mode (continuous or interval), time of day, and recovery position. Data analysis showed that 1) most postexercise hypotension cases are due to a reduction in systemic vascular resistance; 2) age, body mass index, and blood pressure status influence postexercise hemodynamics, favoring cardiac output decrease in elderly, overweight, and hypertensive subjects; 3) gender and training status do not have an isolated influence; 4) exercise duration, intensity, and mode also do not affect postexercise hemodynamics; 5) time of day might have an influence, but more data are needed; and 6) recovery in the supine position facilitates systemic vascular resistance decrease. In conclusion, many factors may influence postexercise hypotension hemodynamics, and future studies should directly address these specific influences because different combinations may explain the observed variability in postexercise hemodynamic studies.

  4. Influence of working liquid on the onset characteristics of a thermoacoustic engine with gas and liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ke; Lei, Tian; Jin, Tao

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of working liquid on the onset characteristics in a thermoacoustic engine with gas and liquid. The governing equations have been derived by the electro-acoustic analogy with thermoacoustics. According to the formulation of the liquid column impedance, we focus on the impact of density and kinematic viscosity of the working liquid on the onset characteristics. The calculations show that the onset temperature increases with a rise in the liquid's kinematic viscosity, and the oscillation frequency decreases with a rise in the liquid's density. Three liquids, i.e., water, potassium formate aqueous solution, and [EMIM][BF4], are used in the experiments to observe the onset characteristics of the engine. The comparison between calculation and experimental results confirms that the liquid's viscosity should be included in the calculation to obtain a better agreement with the experiment.

  5. Structural parameters that influence the noise reduction characteristics of typical general aviation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Grosveld, F.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of panel curvature and oblique angle of sound incidence on noise reduction characteristics of an aluminum panel are experimentally investigated. Panel curvature results show significant increase in stiffness with comparable decrease of sound transmission through the panel in the frequency region below the panel/cavity resonance frequency. Noise reduction data have been achieved for aluminum panels with clamped, bonded and riveted edge conditions. These edge conditions are shown to influence noise reduction characteristics of aluminum panels. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial and biaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. Results indicate important improvement in noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity resonance frequency.

  6. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  7. Influence of characteristics of micro-bubble clouds on backscatter lidar signal.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Rao, Jionghui; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-28

    Marine micro-bubbles are one of those important constituents that influence scattering characteristics of water column. Monte Carlo Based simulations show that a water entrained bubble cloud generate a characteristic backscatter of incident laser light [M. Xia, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 350 (2006)]. This characteristic can be used to detect and localize bubble clouds, leading to wide ranging applications, especially in optical remote sensing. This paper describes tests of an underwater lidar system applied to detecting cloud of micro-bubbles. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the system is capable of detecting bubbles ranging from diameter 10 microm approximately 200 microm, over a distance of 7-12 m from the detector. The dependence of the lidar return signal on size distribution of bubbles, concentration, thickness and location of bubble clouds is studied and compared with simulation results.

  8. Experimental Study on Influence of Trap Parameters on Dielectric Characteristics of Nano-Modified Insulation Pressboard

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingguo; Liu, Heqian; Chi, Minghe; Wang, Yonghong; Wei, Xinlao

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the influence of trap parameters on dielectric characteristics of nano-modified pressboards, pressboards were made using the nano doping method with different nanoparticle components. The dielectric characteristics of the modified pressboards were measured, and the trap parameters were investigated using the thermally stimulated current (TSC) method. The test results indicated that the conductivity initially declined and then rose with the increase of nano-Al2O3 content, whereas it solely rose with the increase of nano-SiC content. Moreover, the conductivity exhibited nonlinear characteristics with the enhancement of electric field stress at high nanoparticle content. The relative permittivity of modified pressboard declines initially and then rises with the increase of nanoparticle content. In addition, the breakdown strength of modified pressboards exhibited a pattern of incline followed by decline with the increase of nano-Al2O3 content, while it always declined with the increase of nano-SiC content. The analysis based on the energy band theory on trap parameters of the constructed multi-core model concludes that the nanoparticle components added in pressboard altered both the depth and density of traps. It is therefore concluded that trap parameters have significant influence on the dielectric characteristics of nano-modified insulation pressboard. PMID:28772448

  9. Experimental Study on Influence of Trap Parameters on Dielectric Characteristics of Nano-Modified Insulation Pressboard.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingguo; Liu, Heqian; Chi, Minghe; Wang, Yonghong; Wei, Xinlao

    2017-01-22

    In order to study the influence of trap parameters on dielectric characteristics of nano-modified pressboards, pressboards were made using the nano doping method with different nanoparticle components. The dielectric characteristics of the modified pressboards were measured, and the trap parameters were investigated using the thermally stimulated current (TSC) method. The test results indicated that the conductivity initially declined and then rose with the increase of nano-Al₂O₃ content, whereas it solely rose with the increase of nano-SiC content. Moreover, the conductivity exhibited nonlinear characteristics with the enhancement of electric field stress at high nanoparticle content. The relative permittivity of modified pressboard declines initially and then rises with the increase of nanoparticle content. In addition, the breakdown strength of modified pressboards exhibited a pattern of incline followed by decline with the increase of nano-Al₂O₃ content, while it always declined with the increase of nano-SiC content. The analysis based on the energy band theory on trap parameters of the constructed multi-core model concludes that the nanoparticle components added in pressboard altered both the depth and density of traps. It is therefore concluded that trap parameters have significant influence on the dielectric characteristics of nano-modified insulation pressboard.

  10. The influence of acceleration loading curve characteristics on traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Brien, Susan; Cusimano, Michael D; Marshall, Shawn

    2014-03-21

    To prevent brain trauma, understanding the mechanism of injury is essential. Once the mechanism of brain injury has been identified, prevention technologies could then be developed to aid in their prevention. The incidence of brain injury is linked to how the kinematics of a brain injury event affects the internal structures of the brain. As a result it is essential that an attempt be made to describe how the characteristics of the linear and rotational acceleration influence specific traumatic brain injury lesions. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the characteristics of linear and rotational acceleration pulses and how they account for the variance in predicting the outcome of TBI lesions, namely contusion, subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and epidural hematoma (EDH) using a principal components analysis (PCA). Monorail impacts were conducted which simulated falls which caused the TBI lesions. From these reconstructions, the characteristics of the linear and rotational acceleration were determined and used for a PCA analysis. The results indicated that peak resultant acceleration variables did not account for any of the variance in predicting TBI lesions. The majority of the variance was accounted for by duration of the resultant and component linear and rotational acceleration. In addition, the components of linear and rotational acceleration characteristics on the x, y, and z axes accounted for the majority of the remainder of the variance after duration.

  11. Influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yachao; Yu, Chaoqun; Meng, Kangkang; Tang, Xing

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) dry powder inhalation (DPI) characteristics and aerosolization properties. Spray-dried samples of AH, AH/leucine, and AH/leucine/mannitol were prepared from their corresponding water solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and the AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Following spray-drying, the resulting powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, tapped density, and angle of repose measurements, and the aerosolization performance was determined using a twin-stage liquid impinger. AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) obtained by cospray-drying improved the AH aerosolization properties. The AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) preparation exhibited the following properties: 62.34% yield, 0.34 g/cm(3) tap density, 2.71 microm d(ae), 33.45 degrees angle of repose, and 30.93% respirable fraction. The influence of the preparation process on DPI characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process.

  12. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems.

  13. The influence of the resonance effects on the radiative characteristics of helium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koryukina, E. V.; Koryukin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, the influence of an alternating circularly polarized electric field on the energy spectrum of the He atom is studied. The calculations are performed by the method of the energy matrix diagonalization of an atom in the electric field. This method has allowed us to study the behaviour of the helium energy spectrum from the same numerical procedure under resonant and non-resonant excitations by the electric field. Based on the calculation results, we have found that the resonance effects take place not only in the vicinity of resonance, but they influence the shift directions of the Stark states even under non-resonant excitation. Additionally, we have established that the helium energy spectrum behaves consistently in the electric field. The results obtained have allowed us to clarify mechanisms of the influence of the resonance effects on the radiative characteristics of helium plasma.

  14. Antibacterial Properties of Copper Nanoparticle Dispersions: Influence of Synthesis Conditions and Physicochemical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godymchuk, A.; Frolov, G.; Gusev, A.; Zakharova, O.; Yunda, E.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The production of bactericidal plasters, bandages and medicines with the inclusion of copper nanoparticles and copper ions may have a great potential in terms of their biomedical application. The work considers the influence of the synthesis conditions, size, aggregation status, and charge of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions as well as the type of microorganisms to the antibacterial properties of water suspensions of electroexplosive copper nanoparticles in the conditions in vitro in relation to strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Water dispersions of copper nanoparticles were shown to inhibit the growth of test cells for both G+ and G- microbacteria but the degree of such an influence strongly depended on the type of a test strain. The authors have demonstrated that use of deeply purified water and alcohol-containing stabilizers at the synthesis of nanoparticles via metals electric erosion in the liquid prevents the copper nanoparticles coagulation and significantly influences on their physicochemical characteristics and, consequently, antibacterial properties.

  15. Influence of infrared illumination on the characteristics of CdZnTe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.; Dorogov, P.; Loutchanski, A.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation of proper wavelength deep penetrating inside the CdZnTe detector may interact with trapping centers and has a significant influence on the trapping-detrapping processes of charge carriers from traps, thereby influencing charge collection efficiency in the detector. We studied the effect of infrared (IR) illumination on the characteristics of planar and quasi-hemispherical CdZnTe detectors. These results show that the near bandgap IR illumination significantly affects the detectors characteristics. By selecting a wavelength and intensity of illumination, detectors spectrometric characteristics can be significantly improved. Improvement of spectrometric characteristics is due to better uniformity of charge collection on the detector volume, as evidenced by the improvement in the total absorption peak symmetry and shape of the output pulses. The degree of improvement is different for various detectors depending on the characteristics of source material used for detector fabrication and theirs dimensions. For example, a detector of sizes 10 x 10 x 5 mm{sup 3} with an initial energy resolution (FWHM) of 20.6 keV at 662 keV under IR illumination was improved up to 9.1 keV, but a detector of sizes 5 x 5 x 2.5 mm{sup 3} with an initial energy resolution (FWHM) of 7.1 keV can be improved up to 4.8 keV. The IR illumination with a properly chosen intensity improves spectrometric characteristic in a wide range of energies without any losses of registration effectiveness. IR Illumination was practically performed using conventional GaAlAs IR LEDs with different peak wavelengths of emitted radiation. (authors)

  16. CFD investigation of the influence of volute geometrical variations on hydrodynamic characteristics of circulator pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Denghao; Yuan, Shouqi; Ren, Yun; Mu, Jiegang; Yang, Youdong; Liu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Improper design of volute geometry can be the main cause that leads to unsteady pressure pulsation and radial force in pumps. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of volute geometrical parameters on hydrodynamic characteristics of pump and the mechanism. However, the existing studies are limited to investigate the influence of only one or two volute geometrical parameters each time, and a systematic study of the influence of the combinations of different volute geometrical parameters on the pump's hydrodynamic characteristics is missing. In this paper, a study on the understanding of the influence of volute geometrical variations on hydrodynamic characteristics of a high speed circulator pump by using computational fluid dynamics(CFD) technology is presented. Five main volute geometrical parameters D 3, A 8, α 0, φ 0 and R t are selected and 25 different volute configurations are generated by using design of experiments(DOE) method. The 3D unsteady flow numerical simulations, which are based on the SST k- w turbulence model and sliding mesh technique provided by CFX, are executed on the 25 different volute configurations. The hydraulic performance, pressure pulsation and unsteady radial force inside the pump at design condition are obtained and analyzed. It has been found that volute geometrical parameters D 3 and A 8 are major influence factors on hydrodynamic characteristics of the pump, while α 0, φ 0 and R t are minor influence factors. The minimum contribution from both D 3 and A 8 is 58% on head, and maximum contribution from both D 3 and A 8 is 90% on pressure pulsation. Regarding the pressure pulsation intensity, two peaks can be found. One is in the tongue area and the other is in the diffusor area. The contributions are around 60% from tongue and 25% from diffusor, respectively. The amplitude of pressure pulsation has a quadratic polynomial functional relationship with respect to D 3/ D 2 and A 8/ A 10, and fluctuating level of

  17. Influence of topography and forest characteristics on snow distributions in a forested catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Yoichi; Takase, Keiji; Chono, Shunsuke; Ichion, Eiji; Ogura, Akira; Tanaka, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Stored water within snowpack is important for the hydrological balance in many mountainous environments around the world. However, monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of snow in such mountainous environments remains rather challenging. We therefore developed a snow depth meter using small temperature loggers. Small temperature loggers were attached to poles at 20 cm intervals from the ground surface. Snow depths were estimated by assessing the daily variations in temperatures. Using this snow depth meter, we continuously observed snow depths at 21 stations in a forested catchment in Japan over three winter seasons. Using correlation analysis, we then analyzed the influence of topography (i.e., elevation and aspect) and forest (i.e., canopy openness) on snow depths. Moreover, we estimated daily snow distributions in the area using multi-regression analysis, thus describing seasonal characteristics of snow distributions. Finally we investigated the relation between number of stations and estimation accuracies of snow distributions using a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We observed that the influence of topographical and forest characteristics changed considerably during the study period, with elevation having a major impact on snow depths. Further, aspect and forest cover had a great influence on the snow depths during the melting period. The regression of elevation slopes was 0.8-2.1 mm/m during rich snow years and 0.5-0.6 mm/m in little snow years. Also, the snow distribution during the melting period was found to be less uniform than during the snow accumulation period using histograms of snow depths. Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis shows that one station per 2.0-2.5 ha is enough to estimate accurate snow distributions. Given the above, we concluded that our proposed approach was quite useful for investigating the influence of topography and forest characteristics on snow accumulation and melting.

  18. The Influence of Anthropometric Characteristics on Kinematic Parameters of Children's Sprinter's Running.

    PubMed

    Blažević, Iva; Babić, Vesna; Zagorac, Nebojša

    2015-07-01

    Children's sprinters running differs from the adults' one primarily in their motoric abilities, anthropometric characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as psychological and sociological characteristics. This research's aim was to examine the influence of anthropometric characteristics on kinematic parameters of children's sprinter's running. The sample of variables consisted of variables which determine anthropometric characteristics (14 anthropometric characteristics) and of 5 kinematic parameters'variables of sprinter's running. Kinematic parameters of sprinter's running in the phase of maximal speed have been collected by applying the Optojump technology (Microgate, Italy) and the sprinter's running times were measured every 5 meters on a 50 m lap. The results obtained from the multiple regression analysis between the group of anthropometric characteristics and the 50 m running results indicate that the percentage of fatty tissue is a statistically significant variable with boys, while the same variable with girls is near the limit of statistical significance. In the factor structure of anthropometric characteristics two factors have been set apart with boys and three with girls. The first factor set apart with both boys and girls is the factor of body voluminosity, the second factor with boys is the factor of longitudinal dimensionality, while with girls it is the factor of fatty tissue quantity. The factor of longitudinal dimensionality is the third girls' factor. For most variables a negative correlation has been determined with a higher percentage of fat or a higher quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue with both boys and girls. Boys having a lower quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue achieve better results in 50 m running, they have a shorter duration of contact with the pad, a longer duration of the flight phase and a longer step length when compared to boys with a higher quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue. Boys with a

  19. Demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students and factors influencing their career choice and institution of learning.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Carl Halladay, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This information is important as it will assist optometry institutions to formulate effective student recruitment strategies. To assess the demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students, the factors that influence their selection of optometry as a career and institution of learning. We conducted a cross sectional study among Ghanaian optometry students using a structured questionnaire to collect data on the demographic characteristics and factors that might influence their choice of optometry as a career as well as choice of institution of learning. Two hundred and eighty students from the two optometry training institutions in Ghana; University of Cape Coast (48.2%) and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (51.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 17 to 28 years with most being males (72.5%), and the majority (79%) being from urban areas. The main factors that influenced their career choice were job availability after graduation (90%) and desire to help other people (89.2%). Factors that influenced their institution choice were preference for an institution (36.8%) and proximity to home (24.4%). In the absence of adequate optometry jobs in the public health sector, women will remain marginalised specifically those in rural areas. This marginalisation is however, a reflection of a broader societal disadvantage for women. Greater effort needs to be made to recruit high school students from rural areas to study optometry and more institutions need to provide optometry instruction throughout the country.

  20. Carrier characteristics influence the kinetics of passive drug loading into lipid nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Göke, Katrin; Bunjes, Heike

    2017-08-11

    Passive loading as a novel screening approach is a material-saving tool for the efficient selection of a suitable colloidal lipid carrier system for poorly water soluble drug candidates. This method comprises incubation of preformed carrier systems with drug powder and subsequent determination of the resulting drug load of the carrier particles after removal of excess drug. For reliable routine use and to obtain meaningful loading results, information on the kinetics of the process is required. Passive loading proceeds via a dissolution-diffusion based mechanism, where drug surface area and drug water solubility are key parameters for fast passive loading. While the influence of the drug characteristics is mostly understood, the influence of the carrier characteristics remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine how the lipid nanocarriers' characteristics, i.e. the type of lipid, the lipid content and the particle size, influence the kinetics of passive loading. Fenofibrate was used as model drug and the loading progress was analyzed by UV spectroscopy. The saturation solubility in the nanocarrier particles, i.e. the lipid type, did not influence the passive loading rate constant. Low lipid content in the nanocarrier and a small nanocarrier particle size both increased passive loading speed. Both variations increase the diffusivity of the nanocarrier particles, which is the primary cause for fast loading at these conditions: The quicker the carrier particles diffuse, the higher is the speed of passive loading. The influence of the diffusivity of the lipid nanocarriers and the effect of drug dissolution rate were included in an overall mechanistic model developed for similar processes (A. Balakrishnan, B.D. Rege, G.L. Amidon, J.E. Polli, Surfactant-mediated dissolution: contributions of solubility enhancement and relatively low micelle diffusivity, J. Pharm. Sci. 93 (2004) 2064-2075). The resulting mechanistic model gave a good estimate of the speed of

  1. Modeling PCB transfer into hen eggs: influence of physiological characteristics of the animal.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Agnès; Martin, Olivier; Travel, Angélique; Puillet, Laurence; Feidt, Cyril; Jondreville, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens are likely to be exposed to a wide range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To improve the safety of poultry farming systems in terms of POPs, the present research focused on assessing the impact of physiological characteristics of the hen on the transfer of ingested PCBs to eggs. Modeling was used as a research tool to explore the impact of some physiological characteristics on the transfer of PCBs in the laying hen. The mathematical model simulates the dynamics of the size of the lipid compartments in the animal and the frequency of laying, with the PCB concentrations in egg yolk and adipose tissue being model outputs. Simulations were run to assess effects of animal characteristics on the transfer of PCBs to eggs. Laying rate proportionally influenced the PCB level of eggs and adipose tissue at steady state. Body fat diluted absorbed PCBs in the absence of laying and significantly influenced the decontamination rate of tissues during depuration after an exposure period. Application of the present model to actual exposure cases highlights its value in improving the support of risk management in livestock farming. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. [Influence of temperature and humidity on physico-pharmaceutical characteristics of Rasilez(®) tablets].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Nakajima, Takanori; Iwata, Masanori; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Takayama, Kozo; Saito, Hiroshi; Sako, Ken-ichi; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Rasilez(®) tablets (RTs) contain the active ingredient aliskiren, which is a direct renin inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system and used for the treatment of hypertension. We examined the influence of temperature and humidity on the physico-pharmaceutical characteristics (mass, volume, hardness, elution) of RTs. The RTs were preserved under conditions in which the temperature and humidity were altered using the second-order spherical composite experimental design for multi-objective problems. The characteristics of RTs were influenced more by the humidity than temperature, and differed markedly with over 55% relative humidity (RH). The mass and volume were increased with increasing humidity, and the tablets swelled. The hardness after vacuum-drying of the tablets, which preserved moisture conditions, was increased. Semitransparent particles were observed in the cross-section of the drying tablets in which aliskiren crystal forms were changed to amorphous forms. The mean dissolution time (MDT) of tablets was reduced with increasing humidity. The critical relative humidity (CRH) of the tablets was 36.1%RH at 30°C. These results suggest that RTs, on moisture absorption, showed changes in not their appearance and hardness, but also in crystal forms and the elution characteristics of aliskiren.

  3. Influence of Organizational Characteristics on Success in Implementing Process Improvement Goals in Correctional Treatment Settings.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Michael; Welsh, Wayne N; Stein, Lynda; Lehman, Wayne; Melnick, Gerald; Warda, Umme; Shafer, Michael; Ulaszek, Wendy; Rodis, Eleni; Abdel-Salam, Sami; Duvall, Jamieson

    2016-08-12

    Although research indicates that organizational characteristics substantially influence the adoption and use of evidence-based practices (EBPs), there has been little empirical research on organizational factors most likely to influence successful implementation of EBPs, particularly in criminal justice settings. This study examined organizational characteristics related to the success of change teams in achieving improvements in assessment and case-planning procedures for persons leaving correctional settings and receiving community services. In this evaluation of the Organizational Process Improvement Intervention (OPII), part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS) cooperative, 21 sites were randomized to an early-start or a delayed-start condition. For this analysis, data from both conditions were combined. Agencies with fewer program needs, good communication, adequate staffing levels, good supervision, positive attitude toward rehabilitation, and higher institutional capacity for change were better able to implement planned changes in assessment and case-planning procedures. Such agencies may be better candidates for implementation improvement strategies, whereas other agencies could benefit from pre-intervention efforts aimed at strengthening these characteristics before attempting to improve assessment procedures.

  4. Influence of Distance Between Metal Squares in Checkerboard Patterns on Transmittance Characteristics in the Infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashira, Takaya; Kageyama, Tomoaki; Kashiwagi, Kouhei; Miyashita, Hidetoshi; Takano, Keisuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Lee, Sang-Seok

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of the distance between metal squares in self-complementary metal checkerboard patterns (CPs) on the transmittance characteristics in the infrared (IR) region. Transmittance characteristics of CPs in the IR region are rarely studied. Here, to clarify experimentally the influence of reactance variation in CPs on the transmittance in the IR region, we fabricated self-complementary metallic CPs with differing distances between the metal squares, and their transmittances were measured. Initially, two types of capacitive CPs (C-CPs) and three types of inductive CPs (I-CPs) were fabricated, and their IR transmittances were measured. The CPs were configured to have different gaps or overlapping distances between the metal squares for the C-CPs and I-CPs, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the distance configuration of CPs consisting of both C-CPs and I-CPs, on the transmittances of x- and y-polarized incident IR electromagnetic waves. The evaluated hybrid CPs, referred to as anisotropic CPs (A-CPs), were fabricated with horizontal metal patterns in contact with each other and separated vertical components. The results demonstrated that the transmittance depends on sensitively to the gap or the overlapping distance between the metal squares of the self-complementary metallic CPs. Moreover, we observed remarkable changes in the transmittance associated with the A-CPs, resulting from the polarization of the incident IR electromagnetic waves.

  5. Avian and Habitat Characteristics Influence Tick Infestation Among Birds in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine M; Miller, James R; Allan, Brian F

    2017-05-01

    Avian movements are an important mechanism by which ticks and associated pathogens can colonize new locations. The temporal and geographic extent of tick and pathogen dispersal is dependent on tick phenology and host movements across a landscape. We evaluated bird-host traits and habitat characteristics that may influence tick infestation and subsequent dispersal in Illinois. To determine which characteristics of host species and habitats influence infestation, we examined captured birds in 22 forest patches across east-central Illinois during migratory periods in fall of 2012 and 2013, and spring of 2013 and 2014. We examined 1,028 birds of 78 species; 136 (13.2%) individuals representing 33 (42.3%) species were infested with at least one tick. We determined that infestation prevalence was greatest among birds that 1) forage primarily in the forest understory; 2) use large forest patches; 3) use patches with less invasive shrub cover. Furthermore, infestation intensity was greatest among birds captured during fall migration. These findings highlight the importance of avian and habitat traits that may influence tick infestation among passerine birds. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The influence of lightning activity and anthropogenic factors on large-scale characteristics of natural fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    A module for simulating of natural fires (NFs) in the climate model of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM), is extended with respect to the influence of lightning activity and population density on the ignition frequency and fire suppression. The IAP RAS CM is used to perform numerical experiments in accordance with the conditions of the project that intercompares climate models, CMIP5 (Coupled Models Intercomparison Project, phase 5). The frequency of lightning flashes was assigned in accordance with the LIS/OTD satellite data. In the calculations performed, anthropogenic ignitions play an important role in NF occurrences, except for regions at subpolar latitudes and, to a lesser degree, tropical and subtropical regions. Taking into account the dependence of fire frequency on lightning activity and population density intensifies the influence of characteristics of natural fires on the climate changes in tropics and subtropics as compared to the version of the IAP RAS CM that does not take the influence of ignition sources on the large-scale characteristics of NFs into consideration.

  7. The influence of travel time on breast cancer characteristics, receipt of primary therapy, and surveillance mammography.

    PubMed

    Onega, Tracy; Cook, Andrea; Kirlin, Beth; Shi, Xun; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Tuzzio, Leah; Buist, Diana S M

    2011-08-01

    Travel time has been shown to influence some aspects of cancer characteristics at diagnosis and care for women with breast cancer, but important gaps remain in our understanding of its impact. We examined the influence of travel time to the nearest radiology facility on breast cancer characteristics, treatment, and surveillance for women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. We included 1,012 women with invasive breast cancer (stages I and II) who had access to care within an integrated health care delivery system in western Washington State. The travel times to the nearest radiology facility were calculated for all the U.S. Census blocks within the study area and assigned to women based on residence at diagnosis. We collected cancer characteristics, primary and adjuvant therapies, and surveillance mammography for at least 2.5 years post diagnosis and used multivariable analyses to test the associations of travel time. The majority of women (68.6%) lived within 20 min of the nearest radiology facility, had stage I disease (72.7%), received breast conserving therapy (68.7%), and had annual surveillance mammography the first 2 years after treatment (73.7%). The travel time was not significantly associated with the stage or surveillance mammography after adjusting for covariates. Primary therapy was significantly related to travel time, with greater travel time (>30 min vs. ≤ 10 min) associated with a higher likelihood of mastectomy compared to breast conserving surgery (RR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01). The travel time was not associated with the stage at diagnosis or surveillance mammography receipt. The travel time does seem to influence the type of primary therapy among women with breast cancer, suggesting that women may prefer low frequency services, such as mastectomy, if geographic access to a radiology facility is limited.

  8. Landscape characteristics influence pond occupancy by frogs after accounting for detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.; Rochefort, L.

    2005-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that landscape attributes such as the amount and proximity of habitat are important for amphibian spatial patterns. This has produced a number of studies focusing on the effects of landscape characteristics on amphibian patterns of occurrence in patches or ponds, most of which conclude that the landscape is important. We identified two concerns associated with these studies: one deals with their applicability to other landscape types, as most have been conducted in agricultural landscapes; the other highlights the need to account for the probability of detection. We tested the hypothesis that landscape characteristics influence spatial patterns of amphibian occurrence at ponds after accounting for the probability of detection in little-studied peatland landscapes undergoing peat mining. We also illustrated the costs of not accounting for the probability of detection by comparing our results to conventional logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that frog occurrence increased with the percent cover of ponds within 100, 250, and 1000 m, as well as the amount of forest cover within 1000 m. However, forest cover at 250 m had a negative influence on frog presence at ponds. Not accounting for the probability of detection resulted in underestimating the influence of most variables on frog occurrence, whereas a few were overestimated. Regardless, we show that conventional logistic regression can lead to different conclusions than analyses accounting for detectability. Our study is consistent with the hypothesis that landscape characteristics are important in determining the spatial patterns of frog occurrence at ponds. We strongly recommend estimating the probability of detection in field surveys, as this will increase the quality and conservation potential of models derived from such data. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products.

  10. Suicide in the City: Do Characteristics of Place Really Influence Risk?*

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Justin T.; Wadsworth, Tim; Rogers, Richard G.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article investigates the role of social context on individual suicide mortality with attention paid to the possibility that contextual effects are simply the sum of individual characteristics associated with suicide. Methods We use restricted data from the 1986–2006 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which include nearly one million records and 1,300 suicides, to examine the role of familial and socioeconomic context on adult suicide. Results Results show that adults living in cities with more socioeconomic disadvantage and fewer families living together have higher odds of suicidal death than adults living in less disadvantaged cities and cities with more families living together, respectively, after controlling for individual-level socioeconomic status, marital status, and family size. Conclusion The findings support classic sociological arguments that the risk of suicide is indeed influenced by the social milieu and cannot simply be explained by the aggregation of individual characteristics. PMID:26236047

  11. Influence of hot spot features on the initiation characteristics of heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Engelke, Ray

    2010-01-01

    To gain insights into the critical hot spot features influencing energetic materials initiation characteristics, well-defined micron-scale particles have been intentionally introduced into the homogeneous explosive nitromethane (NM). Two types of potential hot spot origins have been examined - shock impedance mismatches using solid silica beads, and porosity using hollow microballoons - as well as their sizes and inter-particle separations. Here, we present the results of several series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NM/particle mixtures with well-controlled shock inputs. Detailed insights into the nature of the reactive flow during the build-up to detonation have been obtained from the response of in-situ electromagnetic gauges, and the data have been used to establish Pop-plots (run-distance-to-detonation vs. shock input pressure) for the mixtures. Comparisons of sensitization effects and energy release characteristics relative to the initial shock front between the solid and hollow beads are presented.

  12. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  13. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  14. Influence of self-made saliva substitutes on tribological characteristics of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; Dąbrowski, Jan Ryszard; Olchowik, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of friction pairs. Each pair consists of enamel and one of the following materials: ceramics, the Meridian B2 dental composite, the GK dental amalgam, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes used were prepared using pyrophosphates, xanthan gum, and mucins dissolved in a saline buffer. The results of the tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under investigation (coefficient of friction and linear wear) were different from each other. Some similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the environment of human saliva and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. Microscopic observations of the surfaces of the enamel samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear.

  15. Young Parents’ Relationship Characteristics, Shared Sexual Behaviors, Perception of Partner Risks, and Dyadic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Lesser, Janna; González-Figueroa, Evelyn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of heterosexually-transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners’ behaviors and personal history. Higher concordance was found for relationship characteristics and partners’ personal history (e.g., incarceration) than on shared sexual behaviors. Most males and females stated that they were monogamous; however, those whose partners reported concurrency were unaware of this. Many were unaware of their partners’ HIV testing status. Relationship quality was higher when females accurately perceived their partners’ self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Length of the relationship did not influence concordance. Findings support the need for HIV prevention programs to promote open discussion about condom use and HIV testing within sexual partnerships. PMID:19337935

  16. Axisymmetric electromagnetic field influence on the characteristic velocity of an arc-jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oggero, M.; Gennuso, D.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for determining the influence of an axisymmetric EM field on the characteristic velocity of an arc jet are presented. The experimental set up is briefly described. Tests were performed with rotation induced by the centrifugal and magnetic fields in the same sense. The fuels used were HE and N2 and the results are discussed. It is found that by variation of the induction, current, and arc jet strength, the behavior is determined essentially by the shape of the cathodic and anodic blobs on the electrodes together with their movement under the combined effect of the aerodynamic and magnetic fields. In view of the different characteristics of He and N2 in respect to the dissociation heat and ionization, it is expected that the regime of the arc jet when used with H2 fuel will be similar to that with He.

  17. Young parents' relationship characteristics, shared sexual behaviors, perception of partner risks, and dyadic influences.

    PubMed

    Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Lesser, Janna; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Evelyn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G

    2009-01-01

    Rising rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners' behaviors and personal history. Higher concordance was found for relationship characteristics and partners' personal history (e.g., incarceration) than on shared sexual behaviors. Most males and females stated that they were monogamous; however, those whose partners reported concurrency were unaware of this. Many were unaware of their partners' HIV testing status. Relationship quality was higher when females accurately perceived their partners' self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Length of the relationship did not influence concordance. Findings support the need for HIV prevention programs to promote open discussion about condom use and HIV testing within sexual partnerships.

  18. Child and family characteristics influencing intervention choices in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Schultz, Beth

    2013-09-01

    A myriad of treatment options are available for children with autism, yet little is understood regarding characteristics of parents (e.g., education) and children (e.g., severity of autism symptoms) that influence types and amounts of therapy utilization. Interviews from 70 families were analyzed to determine potential influences on utilization (e.g., start of first services, use of traditional services). Descriptive findings regarding therapy types were similar to national studies. However, only three of the variables predicted utilization of specific therapies: severity of sensory processing problems was associated with earlier initiation of services in general, and higher maternal and paternal education was associated with the use of dietary and/or vitamin therapy as well as with more types of services. No other variables had predictive value; thus, the amount and type of therapies received may be more related to diagnostic practices and/or to the affordances/constraints of service delivery and reimbursement systems at particular ages.

  19. Influence of volume recombination on characteristics of positive column in narrow gas discharge tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylovskaya, L. V.; Mykhaylovska, A. S.

    2007-06-01

    The theoretical analysis of the influence of a volume electron-ionic recombination on energy and spatial characteristics of the glow discharge plasma of the positive column in gases is developed taking into account the equation for a longitudinal electric field and Ohm's low for a full electrical current. It is shown, that under certain conditions, even in the diffusion mode of glow discharge, this influence reduces to essential modifications of the internal discharge parameters (electron temperature, electron concentration at the tube axis and longitudinal electric field). Dependences of the internal gas discharge plasma parameters on the external ones, such as gas pressure, the discharge current, the radius of working capillary are considered for the narrow gas discharge tubes.

  20. Influence of drug physicochemical characteristics on in vitro transdermal absorption of hydrophobic drug nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui-Sheng; Shen, Bao-de; Shen, Gang; Wang, Li-Qiang; Zheng, Juan; Li, Xiao-Rong; Min, Hong-Yan; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-Long

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the influence of drug physicochemical characteristics on in vitro transdermal absorption of hydrophobic drug nanosuspensions. Four drug nanosuspensions were produced by high-pressure homogenization technique, which were the same in stabilizer and similar in particle size. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystalline state of the nanocrystals did not change. In vitro permeation study demonstrated that the drug nanosuspensions have a higher rate of permeation that ranged from 1.69- to 3.74-fold compared to drug microsuspensions. Correlation analysis between drug physicochemical properties and Jss revealed that log P and pKa were factors that influenced the in vitro transdermal absorption of hydrophobic drug nanosuspensions, and drugs with a log P value around 3 and a higher pKa value (when pKa < pH+2) would gain higher Jss in this paper.

  1. The numerical study of the influence of rheological parameters stratified flows characteristics in cable dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozitsyna, M. V.; Trufanova, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Today the process of coextrusion is the most technological in the cable production with cross-linked polyethylene, composed of two or more layers of polymeric insulation. Since the covering technology is a simultaneous imposition of all necessary layers (two semiconducting shields on the insulation and conductor and one - on insulation), the main focus of this study is the analysis of significance of various factors influence on stratified flows characteristics. This paper has considered the flow of two abnormally viscous liquids in the cable head. The problem has been solved through a three-dimensional statement by applying the finite element method in the Ansys software package. The influence has been estimated by varying the rheological properties of materials to create all necessary layers thickness.

  2. Interpersonal Privacy Management in Distributed Collaboration: Situational Characteristics and Interpretive Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sameer; Kobsa, Alfred; John, Ajita; Brotman, Lynne S.; Seligmann, Doree

    To understand how collaborators reconcile the often conflicting needs of awareness and privacy, we studied a large software development project in a multinational corporation involving individuals at sites in the U.S. and India. We present a theoretical framework describing privacy management practices and their determinants that emerged from field visits, interviews, and questionnaire responses. The framework identifies five relevant situational characteristics: issue(s) under consideration, physical place(s) involved in interaction(s), temporal aspects, affordances and limitations presented by technology, and nature of relationships among parties. Each actor, in turn, interprets the situation based on several simultaneous influences: self, team, work site, organization, and cultural environment. This interpretation guides privacy management action(s). Past actions form a feedback loop refining and/or reinforcing the interpretive influences. The framework suggests that effective support for privacy management will require that designers follow a socio-technical approach incorporating a wider scope of situational and interpretive differences.

  3. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of positive corona discharge in air

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Pengfei Zhang, Bo Chen, Shuiming He, Jinliang

    2016-06-15

    Detailed positive corona discharge characteristics, such as the corona onset voltage, pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under different air humidity with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental results indicate that the pulse amplitude decreases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency increases as the air humidity increases. This phenomenon is different from that of negative corona discharge. Therefore, to have an insight into the mechanism of humidity influence on positive corona discharge, a positive corona discharge model based on the continuity equations is utilized. The simulations present a dynamic development of positive corona discharge and, meanwhile, reveal the humidity influence on positive corona discharge.

  4. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  5. Comparison of influence of ageing on low-temperature characteristics of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacková, Pavla; Valentin, Jan; Benešová, Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Ability of relaxation of asphalt mixtures and thus its resilience to climate change and traffic load is decreasing by influence of aging – in this case aging of bituminous binder. Binder exposed to climate and UV ages and becomes more fragile and susceptible to damage. The results of the research presented in this paper are aimed to finding a correlation between low-temperature properties of referential and aged asphalt mixture specimens and characteristics (not low-temperature) of bituminous binders. In this research there were used conventional road binders, commonly used modified binders and binders additionally modified in the laboratory. The low-temperature characteristics were determined by strength flexural test, commonly used in the Czech Republic for High Modulus Asphalt Mixtures (TP 151), and semi-cylindrical bending test (EN 12697-44). Both of the tests were extended by specimens exposed to artificial long-term aging (EN 12697-52) – storing at 85° C for 5 days. The results were compared with characteristics of binders for finding a suitable correlation between characteristics of binders and asphalt mixtures.

  6. Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology on Wine Chemical and Sensorial Characteristics: Potentialities and Drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cláudia; Santos, Mickael C; Saraiva, Jorge A; Rocha, Sílvia M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    During last years, scientific research on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a nonthermal processing technology for preservation or aging of wine has increased substantially. HHP between 200 and 500MPa is able to inactivate bacteria and yeasts in red and white wines, suggesting that it may be used for wine preservation. However, these treatments have been shown to promote changes on sensorial and physicochemical characteristics in both red and white wines, not immediately in the first month, but along storage. The changes are observed in wine color, aroma, and taste due mainly to reactions of phenolic compounds, sugars, and proteins. These reactions have been associated with those observed during wine aging, leading to aged-like wine characteristics perceived by sensorial analysis. This chapter will present the influence of HHP technology on wine chemical and sensorial characteristics, criticaly discussing its potentialities and drawbacks. The appropriate use of HHP, based on the scientific knowledge of the reactions occuring in wine promoted by HHP, will allow to exploit this technology for wine production achieving distinct characteristics to address particular market and consumer demands. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  8. Gaussian beam reflection characteristics on 2D randomly rough sea surface influenced by incident laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sun, Chunsheng

    2014-12-01

    Laser reflection characteristics from the two-dimensional randomly rough sea surface are affected by the sea state, weather conditions, the incident laser parameters and other factors. All of the factors could not be artificially changed except the incident laser parameters. Therefore, the research of the relationship between laser reflection characteristics from 2-D randomly rough sea surface and incident laser parameters will give support to laser detection on the sea surface. This paper deals with the simulated calculation of the Gaussian beam reflection characteristics from the 2-D randomly rough sea surface with different incident laser parameters. In this paper, the 2-D rough sea surface is simulated with fractal method, after which the sea surface is divided into a lot of small planes, the width or length of which is much greater than the wavelength of the incident laser. Then the geometrical optics method is used to calculate the Gaussian beam reflection from 2-D randomly and rough sea surface. After that, the Gaussian beam reflection characteristics varies different incident laser parameters are numerical calculated. Finally, the detailed discussion of some factors including the divergence angle and the incident angle of the Gaussian beam which have influences on reflection properties is given.

  9. Influence of technological factors on characteristics of hybrid fluid-film bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltsov, A.; Prosekova, A.; Rodichev, A.; Savin, L.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of the parameters of micro- and macrounevenness on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing with slotted throttling is considered in the present paper. The quantitative assumptions of calculation of pressure distribution, load capacity, lubricant flow rate and power loss due to friction in a radial hybrid bearing with slotted throttling are taken into account, considering the shape, dimensions and roughness of the support surfaces inaccuracies. Numerical simulation of processes in the lubricating layer is based on the finite-difference solution of the Reynolds equation using an uneven orthogonal computational grid with adaptive condensation. The results of computational and physical experiments are presented.

  10. Receiver operating characteristics of perceptrons: Influence of sample size and prevalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freking, Ansgar; Biehl, Michael; Braun, Christian; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    1999-11-01

    In many practical classification problems it is important to distinguish false positive from false negative results when evaluating the performance of the classifier. This is of particular importance for medical diagnostic tests. In this context, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have become a standard tool. Here we apply this concept to characterize the performance of a simple neural network. Investigating the binary classification of a perceptron we calculate analytically the shape of the corresponding ROC curves. The influence of the size of the training set and the prevalence of the quality considered are studied by means of a statistical-mechanics analysis.

  11. Influence of the electrode system on the emission characteristics of a vacuum spark

    SciTech Connect

    Bashutin, O. A. Alkhimova, M. A.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Dodulad, E. I.; Savelov, A. S.; Sarantsev, S. A.

    2013-11-15

    The influence of the electrode system on the emission characteristics of a high-current low-inductance vacuum spark is investigated. It is shown that the structure and composition of the spark plasma radiating in the X-ray spectral range depend substantially on the geometry and relative position of the electrodes. A mechanism related to the effect of the initial distribution of the electric field in the electrode gap is proposed to explain such a dependence. The conditions in which the radiating plasma forms from the erosion products of one or both electrodes are determined.

  12. [The characteristics and influence of the health culture of tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Xue-Chun

    2012-05-01

    The Tibetan people's knowledge on preserving health is an important part of Tibetan medical culture. Most of the Tibetans live on the plateau where it is cold with decreased oxygen. They are devout Buddhists and they have developed a variety of healthy folk customs. These factors form the health culture of Tibetan medicine and demonstrate the plateau characteristics of health, psychology health and health customs. The health culture of Tibetan medicine has far-reaching influence because of the spread of Buddhism. Therefore it is worth exploring and carrying forward.

  13. Research on influence factor about the dynamic characteristic of armored vehicle hydraulic-driven fan system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zhiqiang; Mao, Feiyue; Liu, Xiangbo; Li, Huaying; Han, Shousong

    2017-01-01

    In view of the large power of armored vehicle cooling system, the demand for high fan speed control and energy saving, this paper expounds the basic composition and principle of hydraulic-driven fan system and establishes the mathematical model of the system. Through the simulation analysis of different parameters, such as displacement of motor and working volume of fan system, the influences of performance parameters on the dynamic characteristic of hydraulic-driven fan system are obtained, which can provide theoretical guidance for system optimization design.

  14. Trauma Center Staffing, Infrastructure, and Patient Characteristics that Influence Trauma Center Need

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Mark; Sasser, Scott M.; Lairet, Julio; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Sugerman, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most effective use of trauma center resources helps reduce morbidity and mortality, while saving costs. Identifying critical infrastructure characteristics, patient characteristics and staffing components of a trauma center associated with the proportion of patients needing major trauma care will help planners create better systems for patient care. Methods We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank-Research Dataset to determine the proportion of critically injured patients requiring the resources of a trauma center within each Level I–IV trauma center (n=443). The outcome variable was defined as the portion of treated patients who were critically injured. We defined the need for critical trauma resources and interventions (“trauma center need”) as death prior to hospital discharge, admission to the intensive care unit, or admission to the operating room from the emergency department as a result of acute traumatic injury. Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) was used to determine how hospital infrastructure, staffing Levels, and patient characteristics contributed to trauma center need. Results Nonprofit Level I and II trauma centers were significantly associated with higher levels of trauma center need. Trauma centers that had a higher percentage of transferred patients or a lower percentage of insured patients were associated with a higher proportion of trauma center need. Hospital infrastructure characteristics, such as bed capacity and intensive care unit capacity, were not associated with trauma center need. A GLM for Level III and IV trauma centers showed that the number of trauma surgeons on staff was associated with trauma center need. Conclusion Because the proportion of trauma center need is predominantly influenced by hospital type, transfer frequency, and insurance status, it is important for administrators to consider patient population characteristics of the catchment area when planning the construction of new trauma centers or

  15. Influence of multiple water-quality characteristics on copper toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sciera, K.L.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Klaine, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality influences the bioavailability and toxicity of copper to aquatic organisms. Understanding the relationships between water-quality parameters and copper toxicity may facilitate the development of site-specific criteria for water quality and result in better protection of aquatic biota. Many studies have examined the influence of a single water-quality parameter on copper toxicity, but the interactions of several characteristics have not been well studied in low-hardness water. The goal of the present research was to examine the interactions among water-quality characteristics and their effects on copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOC source, pH, and hardness on acute copper toxicity were determined using a complete factorially designed experiment. Hardness, pH, DOC, and interaction of pH and DOC all significantly affected copper toxicity. A predictive model based on these data described 88% of the variability in copper toxicity. This model also explained 58% of the variability in copper toxicity for an independent dataset of South Carolina (USA) waters. The biotic ligand model underpredicted the acute copper toxicity to fathead minnows when compared with observed values.

  16. Influence of landscape characteristics on retention of expandable radiocollars on young ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Swanson, Christopher C.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Sievers, Jaret D.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Kie, John G.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    One tool used for wildlife management is the deployment of radiocollars to gain knowledge of animal populations. Understanding the influence of individual factors (e.g., species, collar characteristics) and landscape characteristics (e.g., forested cover, shrubs, and fencing) on retention of expandable radiocollars for ungulates is important for obtaining empirical data on factors influencing ecology of young-of-the-year ungulates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 198 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, 142 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns, and 73 mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in South Dakota, Minnesota, and California, USA. We documented 72 (36.4%), 8 (5.6%), and 7 (9.6%) premature (2, SE = 0.1, n = 75) compared with areas where fawns shed collars (x = 3.24 km/km2, SE = 0.1, n = 56) prior to 270 days. Researchers of fawns should consider that radiocollars can be shed prematurely when estimating desired sample size to yield a suitable strength of inference about some natural process of interest.

  17. Cardiovascular Responses Associated with the Moving Beans Task: Influence of Psychological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Iokawa, Kazuaki; Munakata, Masanori; Hattori, Tomomi; Saiki, Shuko; Sone, Toshimasa; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    High blood pressure (BP) after stroke is associated with a poor outcome. However, exercise training or speech therapy for patients with stroke can raise the BP. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular responses during the moving beans task (MBT) used in occupational therapy and to study the influence of psychological characteristics on cardiovascular responses during this task in healthy subjects. In 34 healthy volunteers, the BP and the heart rate (HR) were continuously measured during the baseline period, the 5-minute MBT, and the 1-minute cold pressor test (CPT). All subjects completed self-reported questionnaires, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-2, and the Japanese version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the mean blood pressure (MBP) significantly increased during the MBT and the CPT compared with the baseline values. SBP, DBP, and MBP responses during the MBT significantly correlated with the TAS-20 scores. Moreover, DBP response during the MBT correlated with the CES-D scores. The MBT significantly raised BP without increasing the HR. BP responses during this task were influenced by the psychological characteristics of depression and alexithymia. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Individual variability and environmental characteristics influence older adults' abilities to manage everyday technology.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Almkvist, Ove; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2012-03-01

    The ability to manage everyday technology (ET), such as computers and microwave ovens, is increasingly required in the performance of everyday activities and participation in society. This study aimed to identify aspects that influence the ability to manage ET among older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and without known cognitive impairment were assessed as they managed their ET at home. Data were collected using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). Rasch-based measures of the person's ability to manage ET were analyzed. These measures were used as dependent variables in backward procedure ANOVA analyses. Different predefined aspects that could influence the ability to manage ET were used as independent variables. Three aspects had a significant effect upon the ability to manage ET. These were: (1) variability in intrapersonal capacities (such as "the capacity to pay attention and focus", (2) environmental characteristics (such as "the impact of the design") and (3) diagnostic group. Variability in intrapersonal capacities seems to be of more importance than the actual level of intrapersonal capacity in relation to the ability to manage ET for this sample. This implies that investigations of ability to manage ET should also include intraperson variability. Additionally, adaptations in environmental characteristics could simplify the management of ET to support older adults as technology users.

  19. The Influence of Temperature on Mode I Fracture Toughness and Fracture Characteristics of Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gan; Kang, Yong; Meng, Tao; Hu, Yao-qing; Li, Xiao-hong

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of temperature on the mode I fracture toughness of sandstone using semicircular bend specimens. Fracture characteristics were studied using scanning electron microscopy and other means. The results showed that temperature influenced fracturing in three stages along a temperature gradient. In the low-temperature stage (20-100 °C), fracture toughness increases slowly, with a total increase of approximately 11%. At the medium-temperature stage (100-500 °C), fracture toughness decreases slowly, at a rate of approximately 18%. During the high-temperature stage (500-800 °C), fracture toughness was reduced by approximately 44%. The mode I fracture toughness has a clear temperature threshold (500-600 °C). Below this threshold, the fracture toughness decreases slowly. When the temperature threshold is reached, the fracture toughness decreases sharply. The sharp decrease is mainly caused by the creation of a fragmentation structure. The sandstone experiences more transgranular fracture mechanics in the low-temperature stage compared to the high-temperature stage. Above 100 °C, the mechanisms include transgranular fracturing, intergranular fracturing, thermal cracking, and mutual coupling fracturing. When the temperature exceeds 500 °C, several different fragmentation structures are seen. This research study provides significant data to evaluate fracture characteristics and rock safety and stability after heat treatment.

  20. Polyurethane-based microparticles: formulation and influence of processes variables on its characteristics.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elisa; Cordeiro, Rosemeyre; Alves, Patrícia; Rasteiro, M G; Gil, M H

    2008-05-01

    This study reports the development of polyurethane-based microparticles and the influence of some processes variables on its characteristics. These microparticles were prepared by emulsion polymerization, using poly(caprolactone) diol (PCL) and poly(propylene glycol), tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate terminated (TDI) or poly(propylene oxide)-based tri-isocyanated pre-polymer (TI). The reaction of polymerization was confirmed by attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Their thermal characteristics were investigated by dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). For good microparticles formation, formulation 80/20 (mass ratio isocyanate/PCL) was the most indicated. Their spherical shape and smooth surface were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Zeta potential measurements suggest that ionized carbonyl groups existent at the surface can be responsible for the negative potentials obtained. Respecting size and size distribution of the particles, measured by laser diffraction spectroscopy (LDS), the stirring speed and type were the process variables that most influenced it.

  1. Detecting the influence of anthropogenic forcings on changes in the South Asian Monsoon subseasonal rainfall characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Bollasina, M. A.; Ting, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    Subseasonal variability of the South Asian summer monsoon leads to wet and dry spells that cause acute agricultural and societal impacts. Previous studies have documented changes in several subseasonal precipitation characteristics, including increases in dry-day frequency, dry-spell frequency, and wet-spell intensity. However, the causes of these historical changes remain poorly understood. We use rainfall observations and climate model simulations to identify the influence of individual natural and anthropogenic forcing agents on historical trends in wet and dry spells over the core-monsoon region during the peak-monsoon season (July-August). We show that aerosol forcing is not only the primary driver of seasonal rainfall trends, but also of changes in total number of dry days, dry-spell frequency and intensity, and wet-spell frequency. By suppressing mean seasonal rainfall but increasing daily variability, aerosol forcing leads to fewer wet spells, along with fewer, shorter, less-intense dry spells. Although greenhouse gases (GHGs) largely oppose the aerosol-induced changes, the aerosol imprint dominates the spatial changes in seasonal and subseasonal rainfall characteristics during the late 20th century. The dominant influence of aerosols on subseasonal wet and dry spells has important implications for efforts to simultaneously manage global GHGs and regional air quality and adapt to changes in climate in coming decades.

  2. The influence of titania-zirconia-zirconium titanate nanotube characteristics on osteoblast cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Minagar, Sepideh; Li, Yuncang; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biomaterial surfaces and their influence on cell behavior provide insights concerning the design of surface physicochemical and topography properties of implant materials. Fabrication of biocompatible metal oxide nanotubes on metallic biomaterials, especially titanium alloys such as Ti50Zr via anodization, alters the surface chemistry as well as surface topography of the alloy. In this study, four groups of TiO2-ZrO2-ZrTiO4 nanotubes that exhibit diverse nanoscale dimensional characteristics (i.e. inner diameter Di, outer diameter Do and wall thicknesses Wt) were fabricated via anodization. The nanotubes were annealed and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and 3-D profilometry. The potential applied during anodization influenced the oxidation rate of titanium and zirconium, thereby resulting in different nanoscale characteristics for the nanotubes. The different oxidation and dissolution rates both led to changes in the surface roughness parameters. The in vitro cell response to the nanotubes with different nanoscale dimensional characteristics was assessed using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). The results of the MTS assay indicated that the nanotubes with inner diameter (Di)≈40nm exhibited the highest percentage of cell adhesion of 41.0%. This result can be compared to (i) 25.9% cell adhesion at Di≈59nm, (ii) 33.1% at Di≈64nm, and (iii) 33.5% at Di≈82nm. The nanotubes with Di≈59nm exhibited the greatest roughness parameter of Sa (mean roughness), leading to the lowest ability to interlock with SaOS2 cells.

  3. Using a PBPK model to study the influence of different characteristics of nanoparticles on their biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Emond, C.; Johanson, G.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-04-01

    The studies on potential health risks possessed by engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been growing rapidly. However, detailed and systemic knowledge on the uptake and biodistribution of NPs in body is still limited. Moreover, there is a need to characterize the relation between the characteristics of NPs (size, surface modifications, etc.) and their behaviours in the body. The aim of this study is to explore how these characteristics will influence the NPs uptake and biodistribution. We have successfully developed a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the biodistribution of polyethylene glycol-coated polyacrylamide NPs in rats, modelling the capture and removal of NPs by phagocytizing cells. Based on this PBPK model, the behaviours of other nanoparticles (polymeric, quantum dot, silver, titanium oxide and cerium oxide NPs) are investigated, based on data from several experiments published in the literature. Size is one of the important properties to consider. Our model parameterization suggests that the uptake rate by phagocytizing cells will decrease as the size of nanoparticles increases when the removal rates for these nanoparticles are similar. This could indicate that the phagocytizing cells are saturated by the number of NPs rather than absolute mass. Nevertheless, surface modification, such as polyethylene glycol coating, may reduce the uptake rate by phagocytizing cells. With phagocytizing cells serving as a deposit of NPs, these influences of different characteristics of NPs to the behavior of phagocytizing cells could affect the fate of NPs in the body not only during the initial uptake within the first hour but also in long-term at the kinetic and dynamic levels.

  4. The influence of incontinence on the characteristic properties of the skin in bedridden elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Makino, Mayumi; Takagi, Miyuki; Maki, Kumiko; Murakami, Emiko; Tasaka, Yoshiko; Sato, Noriko; Akiba, Shunichi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Ando, Kikue

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of skin breakdown induced by incontinence have been proposed from a variety of experimental studies. However, studies on the influence of skin properties caused by incontinence of bedridden subjects are very limited. This work was conducted to reveal how incontinence influences skin properties by comparing bedridden incontinent elderly subjects with age-matched healthy continent elderly and middle-aged subjects. Bedridden incontinent elderly subjects (n = 35, 83.5 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± SD), healthy continent elderly (n = 41, 75.9 ± 5.6 years), and middle-aged (n = 20, 41.3 ± 2.8 years) were recruited for this study. Skin surface pH, capacitance/hydration, transepidermal water loss, and bacteria on forearm and buttock skin were measured. Hydration and transepidermal water loss values between healthy elderly subjects and incontinent elderly subjects were significantly different on buttock skin. Significant differences between those two groups were also observed regarding pH and total bacteria levels on buttock skin. The forearm skin showed no significant difference in these parameters. No significant influence was observed between with and without urination at the measurement time except for the pH of buttock skin. No significant correlation was observed except between pH and bacteria levels on buttock skin of incontinent elderly subjects. In this study, we clarified the characteristic features of skin induced by incontinence. Our results indicate that these parameters are adequate not only to evaluate the characteristic skin features of bedridden incontinent subjects but also to develop new diapers to avoid the diaper dermatitis caused by incontinence. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. The influence of farmer demographic characteristics on environmental behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rob J F

    2014-03-15

    Many agricultural studies have observed a relationship between farmer demographic characteristics and environmental behaviours. These relationships are frequently employed in the construction of models, the identification of farmer types, or as part of more descriptive analyses aimed at understanding farmers' environmental behaviour. However, they have also often been found to be inconsistent or contradictory. Although a considerable body of literature has built up around the subject area, research has a tendency to focus on factors such as the direction, strength and consistency of the relationship - leaving the issue of causality largely to speculation. This review addresses this gap by reviewing literature on 4 key demographic variables: age, experience, education, and gender for hypothesised causal links. Overall the review indicates that the issue of causality is a complex one. Inconsistent relationships can be attributed to the presence of multiple causal pathways, the role of scheme factors in determining which pathway is important, inadequately specified measurements of demographic characteristics, and the treatment of non-linear causalities as linear. In addition, all demographic characteristics were perceived to be influenced (to varying extents) by cultural-historical patterns leading to cohort effects or socialised differences in the relationship with environmental behaviour. The paper concludes that more work is required on the issue of causality.

  6. The influence of sociodemographic characteristics on agreement between self-reports and expert exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Sembajwe, Grace; Quinn, Margaret; Kriebel, David; Stoddard, Anne; Krieger, Nancy; Barbeau, Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    Often in exposure assessment for epidemiology, there are no highly accurate exposure data and different measurement methods are considered. The objective of this study was to use various statistical techniques to explore agreement between individual reports and expert ratings of workplace exposures in several industries and investigate the sociodemographic influences on this agreement. A cohort of 1,282 employees at 4 industries/14 worksites answered questions on workplace physical, chemical, and psychosocial exposures over the past 12 months. Occupational hygienists constructed job exposure matrices (JEMs) based on worksite walkthrough exposure evaluations. Worker self-reports were compared with the JEMs using multivariable analyses to explore discord. There was poor agreement between the self-reported and expert exposure assessments, but there was evidence that agreement was modified by sociodemographic characteristics. Several characteristics including gender, age, race/ethnicity, hourly wage and nativity strongly affected the degree of discord between self-reports and expert raters across a wide array of different exposures. Agreement between exposure assessment tools may be affected by sociodemographic characteristics. This study is cross-sectional and therefore, a snapshot of potential exposures in the workplace. Nevertheless, future studies should take into account the social contexts within which workplace exposures occur. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The influence of rear turn-signal characteristics on crash risk.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John M; Flannagan, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between the relative risk of a rear-end collision during a turn, merge, or lane change maneuver and the characteristics of the rear turn-signal configuration was examined using crash data from seven states in the United States. Rear turn-signal characteristics-including color, optics, separation, and light source-were identified for 55 vehicle models and used in a logistic regression analysis to model the odds of a rear-end collision. Additional variables including driver demographics (gender, age), vehicle age, and light condition were also modeled. Risk was assessed using a contrast group of striking vehicles in similar collisions. The results suggest that the odds of being the struck vehicle were 3% to 28% lower among vehicles equipped with amber versus red turn signals. Although the analysis suggests that there may be a safety benefit associated with amber rear turn signals, it is unclear whether turn-signal color alone is responsible. The results suggest that aspects of a vehicle's rear signal characteristics may influence crash risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of donor characteristics and preparation methods on the potency of human cryoprecipitate.

    PubMed

    Burka, E R; Puffer, T; Martinez, J

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of donor characteristics and preparative procedural variation on the potency of human cryoprecipitate was carried out on 30 whole blood and 139 plasmapheresis donors. Recovery of plasma Factor VIII in cryoprecipitate ranged from 11.2 to 89.4 per cent (average, 38 +/- 18%). The Factor VIII content of bags of cryoprecipitate ranged from 29 to 379 units (average, 111 +/- 77 units). No difference existed between whole blood donors and regular plasmapheresis donors. The only donor characteristic which was related to the potency of cryoprecipitate was the plasma concentration of Factor VIII which varied as much as sixfold on repeated visits of the same donor. The findings indicate that, within the limitations imposed by the regulations of the American Association of Blood Banks and the practicalities of an ordinary blood bank workload, no donor characteristic or variation in preparative procedures was of predictive value in obtaining cryoprecipitate of high potency. The potency of cryoprecipitate from individual donors appears to be related to factors inherent in the donor plasma itself.

  9. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    PubMed

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Aromatic Residues on the Material Characteristics of Aβ Amyloid Protofibrils at the Atomic Scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun Joon; Baek, Inchul; Lee, Myeongsang; Na, Sungsoo

    2015-08-03

    Amyloid fibrils, which cause a number of degenerative diseases, are insoluble under physiological conditions and are supported by native contacts. Recently, the effects of the aromatic residues on the Aβ amyloid protofibril were investigated in a ThT fluorescence study. However, the relationship between the material characteristics of the Aβ protofibril and its aromatic residues has not yet been investigated on the atomic scale. Here, we successfully constructed wild-type (WT) and mutated types of Aβ protofibrils by using molecular dynamics simulations. Through principle component analysis, we established the structural stability and vibrational characteristics of F20L Aβ protofibrils and compared them with WT and other mutated models such as F19L and F19LF20L. In addition, structural stability was assessed by calculating the elastic modulus, which showed that the F20L model has higher values than the other models studied. From our results, it is shown that aromatic residues influence the structural and material characteristics of Aβ protofibrils.

  11. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs) provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES), urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR). Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs. PMID:22111707

  12. What clinical characteristics of children with autism influence their inclusion in regular classrooms?

    PubMed

    Yianni-Coudurier, C; Darrou, C; Lenoir, P; Verrecchia, B; Assouline, B; Ledesert, B; Michelon, C; Pry, R; Aussilloux, C; Baghdadli, A

    2008-10-01

    This study took place in the context of recent legislation enacted in several countries--including France--and aimed at promoting inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities. It focuses on young children with autism and examines the links between the children's characteristics and their weekly hours of regular-classroom inclusion and intervention in specialised setting. Standardised clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for 77 children with autism, along with data about their interventional programmes. The study showed that the number of hours of inclusion at school was influenced by the children's behavioural and adaptive characteristics, as well as by the socioprofessional category of their parents, although these factors did not affect the number of hours spent in specialised setting. Moreover, the total amount of time per week spent in interventional services of any kind was very small for some of the children. The time spent in special-intervention services and regular classrooms combined did not add up to an adequate number of weekly hours for these children, particularly those exhibiting at least one of the following characteristics: low adaptation level, major behavioural problems or low socioprofessional category of parents.

  13. Influence mechanism on flow and heat transfer characteristics for air-cooled steam condenser cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei Feng; Dai, Yi Ping; Li, Mao Qing; Ma, Qing Zhong

    2012-09-01

    Air-cooled steam condensers (ACSCs) have been extensively utilized to reject waste heat in power industry to save water resources. However, ACSC performance is so sensitive to ambient wind that almost all the air-cooled power plants in China are less efficient compared to design conditions. It is shown from previous research that the influence of ambient wind on the cell performance differs from its location in the condenser. As a result, a numerical model including two identical ACSC cells are established, and the different influence on the performance of the cells is demonstrated and analyzed through the computational fluid dynamics method. Despite the great influence from the wind speeds, similar cell performance is obtained for the two cells under both windless and wind speed conditions when the wind parallels to the steam duct. Fan volumetric effectiveness which characterizes the fan performance, as well as the exchanger heat transfer rate, drops obviously with the increasing wind speed, and performance difference between the exchanger pair in the same A-frame also rises continuously. Furthermore, different flow and heat transfer characteristics of the windward and leeward cell are obtained at different wind angles, and ambient wind enhances the performance of the leeward cell, while that of the windward one changes little.

  14. Influence of electrode geometry on the high-field characteristics of photoconductive silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Madangarli, V.P.; Gradinaru, G.; Korony, G.; Sudarshan, T.S.; Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Patterson, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    A series of experiment were conducted to study the influence of electrode geometry on the prebreakdown (and breakdown) characteristics of high resistivity ({rho} > 30 k{Omega}-cm), p-type Si wafers under quasi-uniform and non-uniform electric field configurations. In the quasi-uniform field configuration, the 1mm thick Si wafer was mounted between the slots of two plane parallel stainless steel disc electrodes (parallel), while the non-uniform field was obtained by mounting the wafer between two pillar-type electrodes with a hemispherical tip (pillar). The main objective of the above investigation was to verify if the uniform field configuration under a parallel system has a positive influence by reducing the field enhancement at the contact region, as opposed to the definite field enhancement present in the case of the non-uniform pillar system. Also, it was proposed to study the effect of the contact profile on the field distribution over the wafer surface and hence its influence on the high-field performance of the Si wafers.

  15. Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a reef-building coral

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Peters, Jason W.; Eggleston, David

    2016-01-01

    Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between reef sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and reef characteristics, with sounds at the loudest reef generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on coral settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with reef habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key coral species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species. PMID:27761342

  16. Influence of guide vane setting in pump mode on performance characteristics of a pump-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyou; Wang, Hongjie; Nielsen, Torbjørn K.; Gong, Ruzhi; Wei, Xianzhu; Qin, Daqing

    2016-11-01

    Performance characteristics in pump mode of pump-turbines are vital for the safe and effective operation of pumped storage power plants. They are resultant of Euler head (power input) and hydraulic losses (power dissipation). In this paper, 3-D steady simulations were performed under 13mm, 19mm and 25mm guide vane openings (GVOs). Three groups of operating points under the three GVOs were chosen based on experimental validation to investigate the influence of guide vane setting on flow patterns upstream and downstream. Analysed results show that, the guide vane setting will obviously change the flow pattern downstream, which in turn influences the flow upstream. It shows a strong effect on hydraulic losses in guide and stay vanes. In addition, at the large part load conditions, the change of GVO will increase the relative flow angle at the runner outlet. As a consequence, it decreases the Euler head. However, at other operating conditions, it only has a little influence on Euler head. Flow patterns in pump mode are very dependent on the GVO and discharge.

  17. Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a reef-building coral.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Peters, Jason W; Eggleston, David

    2016-01-01

    Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between reef sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and reef characteristics, with sounds at the loudest reef generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on coral settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with reef habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key coral species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species.

  18. Physical Model of Solar Activity Influence on Climate Characteristics of Troposphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodykh, S. I.; Zherebtsov, G. A.; Kovalenko, V. A.

    2009-10-01

    A new model of solar activity influence on the parameters of the terrestrial climate system is discussed. The main points of the model of solar activity effect on the terrestrial climate system are presented. The key conception of this model is the influence of heliogeophysical disturbances on the terrestrial climate system parameters controlling the energy flux going from the Earth to the space in polar regions. The model is based on the physical mechanism of the influence of heliogeophysical factors on climate characteristics and atmospheric circulation in high-latitude troposphere through atmospheric electricity. According to this model, the growth of solar activity results in the decrease of radiative cooling in high-latitude regions, increase of temperature of lower and middle troposphere, reorganization of the thermobaric field, decrease of the mean meridional gradient of temperature between polar and equatorial regions, which determine the meridional transportation of heat. The decrease of heat flow-out from low-latitude regions results in temperature increase in lower and middle latitude regions, and increase of heat content of the ocean and climate system. Some observational data are presented that confirm the proposed model.

  19. Influence of Ramjets' water inflow on supercavity shape and cavitator drag characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuang; Dang, Jianjun; Luo, Kai; Li, Daijin; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    Water ramjets using outer water as an oxidizer have been demonstrated as a potential propulsion mode for underwater High Speed Supercavitating Vehicles (HSSVs) because of their higher energy density, power density, and specific impulse, but water flux changes the shapes of supercavity. To uncover the cavitator drag characteristics and the supercavity shape of HSSVs with water inflow for ramjets, supercavitation flows around a disk cavitator with inlet hole are studied using the homogenous model. By changing the water inflow in the range of 0-10 L/s through cavitators having different water inlet areas, a series of numerical simulations of supercavitation flows was performed. The water inflow flux of ramjets significantly influences the drag features of disk cavitators and the supercavity shape, but it has little influence on the slender ratio of supercavitaty. Furthermore, as the water inlet area increases, the drag coefficient of the cavitators' front face decreases, but this increase does not influence the diameter of the supercavity's maximum cross section and the drag coefficient of the entire cavitator significantly. In addition, with increasing water flux of the ramjet, both the drag coefficient of cavitators and the maximum diameter of supercavities decrease stably. This research will be helpful for layout optimization and supercavitaty scheme design of HSSVs with water inflow for ramjets.

  20. Ultra-fast analog-to-digital converter based on a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder with a photonic crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Soroosh, Mohammad; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Farshidi, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose what we believe is a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on photonic crystals. The proposed structure is composed of a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder. The nonlinear triplexer is for creating discrete levels in the continuous optical input signal, and the optical coder is for generating a 2-bit standard binary code out of the discrete levels coming from the nonlinear triplexer. Controlling the resonant mode of the resonant rings through optical intensity is the main objective and working mechanism of the proposed structure. The maximum delay time obtained for the proposed structure was about 5 ps and the total footprint is about 1520  μm2.

  1. Burst packet loss concealment using multiple codebooks and comfort noise for CELP-type speech coders in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Hong Kook; Jung, Min A; Lee, Seong Ro; Choi, Seung Ho

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a packet loss concealment (PLC) algorithm for CELP-type speech coders is proposed in order to improve the quality of decoded speech under burst packet loss conditions in a wireless sensor network. Conventional receiver-based PLC algorithms in the G.729 speech codec are usually based on speech correlation to reconstruct the decoded speech of lost frames by using parameter information obtained from the previous correctly received frames. However, this approach has difficulty in reconstructing voice onset signals since the parameters such as pitch, linear predictive coding coefficient, and adaptive/fixed codebooks of the previous frames are mostly related to silence frames. Thus, in order to reconstruct speech signals in the voice onset intervals, we propose a multiple codebook-based approach that includes a traditional adaptive codebook and a new random codebook composed of comfort noise. The proposed PLC algorithm is designed as a PLC algorithm for G.729 and its performance is then compared with that of the PLC algorithm currently employed in G.729 via a perceptual evaluation of speech quality, a waveform comparison, and a preference test under different random and burst packet loss conditions. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed PLC algorithm provides significantly better speech quality than the PLC algorithm employed in G.729 under all the test conditions.

  2. Design Characteristics Influence Performance of Clinical Prediction Rules in Validation: A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jong-Wook; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Urreta, Iratxe; Burls, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new clinical prediction rules are derived and validated. But the design and reporting quality of clinical prediction research has been less than optimal. We aimed to assess whether design characteristics of validation studies were associated with the overestimation of clinical prediction rules’ performance. We also aimed to evaluate whether validation studies clearly reported important methodological characteristics. Methods Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of clinical prediction rule studies published between 2006 and 2010. Data were extracted from the eligible validation studies included in the systematic reviews. A meta-analytic meta-epidemiological approach was used to assess the influence of design characteristics on predictive performance. From each validation study, it was assessed whether 7 design and 7 reporting characteristics were properly described. Results A total of 287 validation studies of clinical prediction rule were collected from 15 systematic reviews (31 meta-analyses). Validation studies using case-control design produced a summary diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 2.2 times (95% CI: 1.2–4.3) larger than validation studies using cohort design and unclear design. When differential verification was used, the summary DOR was overestimated by twofold (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to complete, partial and unclear verification. The summary RDOR of validation studies with inadequate sample size was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to studies with adequate sample size. Study site, reliability, and clinical prediction rule was adequately described in 10.1%, 9.4%, and 7.0% of validation studies respectively. Conclusion Validation studies with design shortcomings may overestimate the performance of clinical prediction rules. The quality of reporting among studies validating clinical prediction rules needs to be improved. PMID:26730980

  3. Design Characteristics Influence Performance of Clinical Prediction Rules in Validation: A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

    PubMed

    Ban, Jong-Wook; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Urreta, Iratxe; Burls, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Many new clinical prediction rules are derived and validated. But the design and reporting quality of clinical prediction research has been less than optimal. We aimed to assess whether design characteristics of validation studies were associated with the overestimation of clinical prediction rules' performance. We also aimed to evaluate whether validation studies clearly reported important methodological characteristics. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of clinical prediction rule studies published between 2006 and 2010. Data were extracted from the eligible validation studies included in the systematic reviews. A meta-analytic meta-epidemiological approach was used to assess the influence of design characteristics on predictive performance. From each validation study, it was assessed whether 7 design and 7 reporting characteristics were properly described. A total of 287 validation studies of clinical prediction rule were collected from 15 systematic reviews (31 meta-analyses). Validation studies using case-control design produced a summary diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 2.2 times (95% CI: 1.2-4.3) larger than validation studies using cohort design and unclear design. When differential verification was used, the summary DOR was overestimated by twofold (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to complete, partial and unclear verification. The summary RDOR of validation studies with inadequate sample size was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to studies with adequate sample size. Study site, reliability, and clinical prediction rule was adequately described in 10.1%, 9.4%, and 7.0% of validation studies respectively. Validation studies with design shortcomings may overestimate the performance of clinical prediction rules. The quality of reporting among studies validating clinical prediction rules needs to be improved.

  4. Platelet serotonin transporter (5HTt): physiological influences on kinetic characteristics in a large human population.

    PubMed

    Banović, Miroslav; Bordukalo-Niksić, Tatjana; Balija, Melita; Cicin-Sain, Lipa; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    The present study had two goals: first, to give a detailed description of a reliable method for full kinetic analysis of serotonin transporter (5HTt) on the membrane of human platelets, and second, as a main issue, to report on physiological influences on kinetic characteristics of this transmembrane transport on a large population of healthy individuals. Full kinetic analyses of platelet serotonin uptake were performed on 334 blood donors of both sexes by the use of 14C-radioisotopic method, which was first optimized according to assumptions of enzyme kinetic analyses, with regard to platelet concentration, duration of uptake, concentration of substrate as well as important technical parameters (underpressure of filtration, blanks, incubating temperature, etc). Kinetic parameters of platelet serotonin uptake in the whole population were for V(max): 142 +/- 25.3 pmol 5HT/10(8) platelets/minute and for K(m): 0.404 +/- 0.089 microM 5HT. Besides the report on kinetic values of 5HT transporter protein, we have also described major physiological influences on the mentioned parameters, V(max), K(m) and their derivative, V(max)/K(m) (transporter efficiency): range and frequency distribution of normal values, intraindividual stability over time, lack of age influence, gender dependence and seasonal variations. The report on kinetic values and main physiological influences on platelet serotonin transport kinetics, obtained by the use of thoroughly reassessed methodology, and on by far the largest human population studied until now, offers a reliable frame of reference for pathophysiological studies of this parameter in various clinical fields.

  5. The Influence of Students' Pre-College Characteristics, High School Experiences, College Expectations, and Initial Enrollment Characteristics on Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the extent to which pre-college characteristics, high school experiences, college expectations, and initial enrollment characteristics were related to graduation from college. Data from admission applications, the "ACT Compass" survey, and initial enrollment measures for Fall 2004 and Fall 2005 first-time…

  6. The Influence of Students' Pre-College Characteristics, High School Experiences, College Expectations, and Initial Enrollment Characteristics on Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the extent to which pre-college characteristics, high school experiences, college expectations, and initial enrollment characteristics were related to graduation from college. Data from admission applications, the "ACT Compass" survey, and initial enrollment measures for Fall 2004 and Fall 2005 first-time…

  7. The influence of pharmacy and pharmacist characteristics on the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Puspitasari, Hanni Prihhastuti; Aslani, Parisa; Krass, Ines

    2015-10-01

    A range of extended/enhanced pharmacy services (EPS) are increasingly being offered in community pharmacies following a global paradigm shift in professional pharmacy practice from a product-oriented focus to a patient-centered approach. A number of pharmacy/pharmacist characteristics have been reported to influence EPS provision. To investigate the association between EPS provision and community pharmacists' support in CVD secondary prevention and to identify pharmacy/pharmacist characteristics which predict EPS provision and CVD support. Setting Australian community pharmacies. Mail surveys to 1350 randomly selected pharmacies, stratified by state/territory, exploring professional activities provided to clients with CVD, characteristics of pharmacies (including EPS provision), and pharmacist characteristics. The survey data were analyzed using univariate analyses and multiple linear regression analysis. The level of community pharmacists' CVD support, determined by summing respondents' score for seven CVD support-related activities, and the pharmacies' level of involvement in EPS provision, determined by summing respondents' score for four types of EPS. EPS provision was then used as an independent variable in the regression analysis of CVD support. A response rate of 15.8% (209/1320) was obtained after three waves of the survey. Pharmacy documentation, a private area, Quality Care Pharmacy Program accreditation, number of pharmacists, and pharmacists' resource adequacy were predictors of EPS provision (adjusted R2 = 0.299, p < 0.001). The provision of CVD support was predicted by EPS provision (β = 0.290, p < 0.001), pharmacists' frequent contacts with general practitioners (β = 0.298, p < 0.001), and pharmacy documentation (β = 0.134, p = 0.033). The regression model of CVD support explained 34.2% of the variation (p < 0.001). Community pharmacists could contribute to CVD secondary prevention if they had frequent contacts with general practitioners and

  8. Experimental study for the influence of surface characteristics on the fringe patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yifan; Xi, Jiangtao; Yu, Yanguang; Guo, Qinghua; Yin, Yongkai

    2014-11-01

    Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has been widely used for three dimensional (3D) imaging and measurement. The fringe acquisition of FPP mainly depends on the diffuse light from the surface of objects, thus the characteristics of object surface have significant influence on phase calculation. One of the essential factors related to phase precision is modulation index, which has a direct relationship with the surface reflectivity. This paper presents a comparative study which focuses on the modulation index of different materials. The distribution of modulation index for different samples is statistical analyzed, which leads to the conclusion that the modulation index is determined by the diffuse reflectivity rather than the type of materials. This work is helpful to the development of effective de-noising algorithms to improve the measurement accuracy.

  9. Influence of membrane surface shape change on the performance characteristics of a fiber optic microphone.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Madamopoulos, Nicholas; Xiao, Wen

    2010-12-10

    At a reflective intensity modulated fiber optic microphone (RIM-FOM), the acoustic signal makes a membrane vibrate and modulate the reflected intensity. In the existing models of the RIM-FOM, the offset of all points of the membrane, due to the vibration, is assumed to be equal. However, this assumption does not represent the actual vibration of the membrane, which follows a continuous surface shape change caused by the acoustic signal. We establish a revised theoretical model in which the influence of the actual membrane surface shape change on the reflective intensity modulation is considered. Experiments show that there is a discrepancy between the experimental optimum operating distance and the analytical result from the existing model, while our new model gives a better agreement with the experimental results. In particular, our analysis shows that, in using the existing model, the other microphone performance characteristics are misestimated, while our revised model can provide a closer solution.

  10. Influence of Aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-04-01

    Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury that results in restoration of tissue integrity. This end is achieved mainly by the synthesis of the connective tissue matrix. Collagen is the major protein of the extracellular matrix, and is the component which ultimately contributes to wound strength. In this work, we report the influence of Aloe vera on the collagen content and its characteristics in a healing wound. It was observed that Aloe vera increased the collagen content of the granulation tissue as well as its degree of crosslinking as seen by increased aldehyde content and decreased acid solubility. The type I/type III collagen ratio of treated groups were lower than that of the untreated controls, indicating enhanced levels of type III collagen. Wounds were treated either by topical application or oral administration of Aloe vera to rats and both treatments were found to result in similar effects.

  11. Researching on resonance characteristics influenced by the structure parameters of 1-3-2 piezocomposites plate.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Qin, Lei; Wang, Li-Kun; Wan, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Bai-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    The 1-3-2 composite is made of 1-3 composite and ceramic base. Its effective properties are calculated based on the linear piezoelectric theory and uniform field theory. The influence of piezoelectric phase volume fraction and composite aspect (thickness/width) on resonance characteristic of square 1-3-2 piezoelectric composite plate has been researched. In addition, some 1-3-2 composite samples were fabricated by dice-fill technology. The resonance frequency of samples was investigated. The results show that the experiment agrees well with the calculation. The pure thickness resonance mode of 1-3-2 composite will be gained when the volume fraction of ceramic bottom is less than 30%; that of ceramic rods is in the range of 30 approximately 80% and the ratio of thickness to width is less than 0.35.

  12. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of negative corona discharge in air

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Pengfei Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Chen, Shuiming

    2015-09-15

    Detailed negative corona discharge characteristics, such as the pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under various air humidities with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental result reveals that the pulse amplitude increases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency deceases as the air humidity increases. Empirical formulae are first established for the pulse amplitude and repetition frequency with the humidity factor taken into consideration. The effective ionization integral is calculated and a positive correlation is found between the integral and the pulse amplitude. Furthermore, a simplified negative-ion cloud model is built up to investigate the mechanism of the humidity's influence on negative corona discharge. Based on the theoretical analyses, the correlation between pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, and air humidity is well explained.

  13. Influence of technological deviations on the basic operational characteristics of hydrodynamic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevych, Y.; Savchenko, I.; Sovenko, N.

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to define a methodology to determine the analytical approximate closed-form expression of probabilistic characteristics of load capacity of liquid-lubricated journal bearings in the case of a steady flow regime. Influence of random change of basic geometrical parameters of journal bearings (gap value and eccentricity) on the load capacity of bearing is considered. It is shown that the actual value of hydrodynamic force in bearing can substantially differ from a calculation one. The got results confirm the necessity of application of such approach at consideration both geometrical and operating parameters of bearing, for example, axes misalignment, deviation of surface form, roughness and others, which have casual nature too.

  14. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  15. Influence of the cooling liquid on surface quality characteristics in milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampu, N. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B. A.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Cooling system and cooling liquid characteristics are among the main factors influencing surface quality and tool wear. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of the cooling liquid, used in different concentrations and at different temperatures, on the quality of the surface layer processed by milling. In order to make this analysis a Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) cooling device is used. Three different volumetric ratios were used to modify the concentration of the cooling fluid (25% water to 75% emulsion, 50% water to 50% emulsion, 75% water to 25% emulsion) and three different temperatures. The studies revealed that surface roughness can be correlated with the variation of the cooling liquid temperature while surface flatness can be correlated to both, cooling liquid temperature and concentration.

  16. Simulation of the Influences of the Pressure Ratio and Cu Vapour on SF6 Arc Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Li, Xingwen; Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Lijun

    2009-02-01

    The inlet and outlet pressure of the SF6 high voltage circuit-breaker nozzle are of importance in determining the thermal interruption capability of a breaker. Besides, electrode evaporation is inevitable during the arcing process, which may affect the SF6 arc behaviour significantly. In this study a numerical investigation on the arc characteristics of a supersonic nozzle is carried out, by considering the influence of the pressure ratio between the inlet and outlet, and the Cu vapour. It is demonstrated that a lower inlet pressure may result in a higher arc temperature, a lower arc voltage and a smaller mach number, and Cu vapour from electrode evaporation may cool the arc significantly.

  17. Non-local sub-characteristic zones of influence in unsteady interactive boundary-layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothmayer, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of incompressible, unsteady, interactive, boundary layers are examined for a model hypersonic boundary layer and internal flow past humps or, equivalently, external flow past short-scaled humps. Using a linear high frequency analysis, it is shown that the domains of dependence within the viscous sublayer may be a strong function of position within the sublayer and may be strongly influenced by the pressure displacement interaction, or the prescribed displacement condition. Detailed calculations are presented for the hypersonic boundary layer. This effect is found to carry over directly to the fully viscous problem as well as the nonlinear problem. In the fully viscous problem, the non-local character of the domains of dependence manifests itself in the sub-characteristics. Potential implications of the domain of dependence structure on finite difference computations of unsteady boundary layers are briefly discussed.

  18. Influence of Impactor Mass on the Damage Characteristics and Failure Strength of Laminated Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kemmerly, Heather L.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the effect of impactor mass on the low-speed impact response of laminated flat composite plates is presented. Dropped weight impact response, damage characteristics, and residual strengths of quasi-isotropic flat plates are presented for a range of energy levels by systematically varying the mass of the impactor. Measured contact forces and damage areas are also presented. The results indicate that the contact force and damage area are nonlinear functions of the impactor mass and vary considerably over the entire range of energy levels considered. The different damage levels induced in a plate specimen when impacted at a given energy level with impactors of different masses significantly influence its compressive residual strength. The results provide clear and consistent trends in contact force, damage area, and compression-after-impact strength when the data are expressed as a function of the impactor momentum.

  19. Influence of configuration details on the subsonic characteristics of a space shuttle orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, J. P.; Phillips, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel of a model of a space shuttle orbiter design in order to determine the influence of minor configuration geometric details on the aerodynamic characteristics at subsonic speeds. A plane wing was tested with a small planform fillet; a twisted wing was tested with both a small and a large planform fillet. Tailored attitude-control propulsion-system wing-tip and body pods, trisegmented elevons, and canopy effects were also investigated. The tests were conducted at angles of attack from -3 deg to 24 deg for sideslip angles of 0 deg and 6 deg and at a Mach number of 0.25.

  20. The influence of water body characteristics on phytoplankton diversity and production in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemberton, Katharine; Rees, Andrew P.; Miller, Peter I.; Raine, Robin; Joint, Ian

    2004-11-01

    The influence of water body characteristics on phytoplankton biodiversity and production has been studied in stratified, mixed and frontal water masses in the Celtic Sea. The stations were in close geographical proximity to each other, yet very different phytoplankton assemblages were found. The factors that control phytoplankton biodiversity were investigated. Satellite remote sensing was used to map the development of stratification and fronts in spring and this placed the stations within a strong temporal context. Stations with a well-mixed water column had high nutrient concentrations, high rates of production and the phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by diatoms. At those stations with a stratified water column, nutrient concentrations were depleted but the assemblage was dominated by dinoflagellates and microflagellates. The ratios of depth-integrated primary production to depth-integrated chlorophyll concentration ( P/B ratio) were higher at those stations with mixed water columns than at those in stratified waters. That is, under the low nutrient/high light conditions at the stratified station, there was less production than might have been expected for the quantity of chlorophyll present. The photosynthetic characteristics of the phytoplankton assemblages were determined at the stratified stations. P mB values varied from 1.43 to 4.79 mg C [mg Chl] -1 h -1, while α B ranged from 0.011 to 0.047 mg C [mg Chl] -1 h -1 (μmol photons m -2 s -1) -1. Phytoplankton biodiversity was low at every station and did not appear to influence primary production rates; the highest rate of daily primary production measured (2.4 g C m -2 d -1) was at a station where a single species accounted for >70% of the phytoplankton biomass.

  1. [Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life].

    PubMed

    Grbić, Gordana; Djokić, Dragoljub; Kocić, Sanja; Mitrašinović, Dejan; Rakić, Ljiljana; Prelević, Rade; Krivokapić, Žarko; Miljković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees). The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life). Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics) were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation), variance analysis and factor analysis. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee's gender (p > 0.005). Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p < 0.001). In relation to the number of children, there was no statistically significant difference in he grading of the quality of life (p > 0.005). The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual). Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

  2. Influence of body adiposity on structural characteristics of skeletal muscle in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Tresoldi, Daniele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    The structure of skeletal muscle (SM) can be characterized by quantitative (size) and qualitative (composition) attributes, which are disparately reported to be influenced by body adiposity. This study tests the hypothesis that body adiposity exerts a systematic influence on these muscle characteristics and evaluates the possible functional implications for movements. Lower limb SM volume (VSM) and attenuation (ATTSM), an inverse measure of lipid infiltration in muscle, were determined with computed tomography in 21 men (BMI = 21-36 kg m(-2) ; age = 31-71 years.) and 18 women (BMI = 19-35 kg m(-2) ; age = 32-76 years.). After adjusting for age, a multivariate regression analysis revealed that body adiposity positively correlated (P<0·05-0·001) with absolute VSM and cross-sectional area (CSA) in both genders, while VSM per unit body mass (VSM/BM) decreased with adiposity (P<0·001) in women and was constant in men. ATTSM was higher in men (P<0·05) and decreased (P<0·05) with adiposity in both genders. The product of ATTSM by average muscle CSA (predictor of maximal strength) and by VSM/BM (predictor of maximal dynamic performance) was lower in women (P<0·001) and was reduced by age in both genders (P<0·05-0·01), while obesity had a negative effect (P<0·001) only on the predictor of performance. In conclusion, body adiposity significantly increases SM size and reduces ATTSM. Structural indicators accounting for both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of SM may be useful predictors of the effects of obesity on motor function at different ages. With rising body adiposity and advancing age, women appear mostly affected by the decline of SM features relevant for motor performance. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Influence of hydrophibization of impellers of centrifugal pumps on their operating characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, A. V.; Parygin, A. G.; Naumov, A. V.; Vikhlyantsev, A. A.; Šoukal, J.; Sedlář, M.; Komárek, M.

    2016-12-01

    This work presents experimental estimation results of changing of basic operation characteristics of a group of centrifugal pumps covering a range of values of dimensionless power-speed coefficient n s from 33 to 330 after hydrophobization of their impellers' surfaces. Hydrophobization of functional surfaces of impellers in all experiments was performed by formation of structures of organic covers by technology of MPEI NRU, which provides increasing of limiting wetting angle of surfaces to 120° and greater. Results of experimental researches of the influence of hydrophobization of impeller surfaces for high-speed pump ( n s = 330) on its characteristics is presented for the first time. Positive effect of applying hydrophobization technology to impeller surfaces in all the considered range of power-speed coefficient was generalized and estimated. It was shown that hydrophobization of impeller surfaces of centrifugal pumps provides increment to their efficiency factors within an acceptable operation range from 0.5 to 7.5%. Empiric function defining dependencies of efficiency factor increment of pump on relative supply and power-speed coefficient are suggested. Possibilities and estimation of extending acceptable operation range of a pump depending on powerspeed coefficient as a result of impeller surface hydrophobization are shown. Experimental data of comparative cavitation tests of high-speed pumps before and after hydrophobization of their impeller surfaces are generalized for the first time for considered range of power-speed coefficient values. The influence of power-speed coefficient on changing of critical net pump suction head (critical positive suction pressure) is shown. Based on existing knowledge on pumps, an attempt to validate experimentally obtained lows of changing of power and anticavitation features of centrifugal pumps after hydrophobization of their impeller surfaces is made.

  4. Otoacoustic emissions in bushcricket ears: general characteristics and the influence of the neuroactive insecticide pymetrozine.

    PubMed

    Möckel, Doreen; Seyfarth, Ernst-August; Kössl, Manfred

    2011-02-01

    The tympanal organ of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata emits pronounced distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Their characteristics are comparable to those measured in other insects, such as locusts and moths, with the 2f1-f2 emission being the most prominent one. Yet the site of their generation is still unclear. The spatial separation between the sound receiving spiracle and the hearing organ in this species allows manipulations of the sensory cells without interfering with the acoustical measurements. We tried to interfere with the DPOAE generation by pharmacologically influencing the tympanal organ using the insecticide pymetrozine. The compound appears to act selectively on scolopidia, i.e., the mechanosensor type characteristically constituting tympanal organs. Pymetrozine solutions were applied as closely as possible to the scolopidia via a cuticle opening in the tibia, distally to the organ. Applications of pymetrozine at concentrations between 10(-3) and 10(-7) M to the tympanal organ led to a pronounced and irreversible decrease of the DPOAE amplitudes.

  5. Chemical characteristics and biofuels potentials of various plant biomasses: influence of the harvesting date.

    PubMed

    Godin, Bruno; Lamaudière, Stéphane; Agneessens, Richard; Schmit, Thomas; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Stilmant, Didier; Gerin, Patrick A; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    An optimal valorization of plant biomasses to produce biofuels requires a good knowledge of the available contents and molecular composition of the main chemical components, which changes with the harvesting date. Therefore, we assessed the influence of harvesting date on the chemical characteristics of various energy crops in the context of their conversion to biofuels. We showed that the biomass chemical composition, enzymatic digestible organic matter, bioethanol and thermal energy production potential for each species are impacted by the harvesting date. The proportion of enzymatically digestible organic matter decreases as the harvesting date is delayed. This is related to the increase in cellulose and lignin contents. The suitability of the biomasses for bioethanol production increases with harvest stage, as the total carbohydrates content increases. The suitability of the biomasses as a source of thermal energy increases according to the harvesting date as the proportion of organic matter increases and the content of mineral compounds decreases. For all investigated energy conversions, the best harvesting period is autumn, because the significantly higher crop dry matter yield largely compensates for the sometimes slightly less favorable chemical characteristics. While the biomass composition of energy crops changes with harvest stage, the dry biomass yield per unit area is the main factor that controls the total amount of chemical components, digestible organic matter, bioethanol and thermal energy that can be expected to be harvested per unit area. The biomass compositions presented in this paper are essential to investigate their suitability for bioenergy conversion. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Australian perspectives on surrogacy: the influence of cognitions, psychological and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, Deborah; Cook, Roger

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore current Australian support levels for surrogacy treatments and also whether this support differed between traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy. The focus was also on understanding the underlying influences on surrogacy attitudes. It was hypothesized that cognitions, psychological and demographic characteristics would all predict attitudes to surrogacy and that cognitive concerns about surrogacy would be the strongest predictor. Participants (N = 195: 79 male, 116 female; age range 18-76 years) were first-year psychology undergraduates (47%) and friends and associates of the authors (53%). They completed a survey pack which assessed attitudes and knowledge about surrogacy, as well as empathy and other personality characteristics. The results indicated that there has been a marked increase in support for surrogacy treatment in recent years, with nearly 80% of participants supporting surrogacy, and that support for gestational surrogacy was greater than that for traditional surrogacy (P< 0.001). As anticipated, cognitive concerns about surrogacy were the strongest predictors of surrogacy attitudes (R(2)= 0.393). A limitation of the present study was the use of a non-representative, self-selected sample that tended to be well educated and perhaps liberal minded. Despite this, given the high levels of support, it could be concluded that the recent, more permissive legislative changes, which were finalized in 2010, are reflective of the values of Australian society.

  7. Influence of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; He, Zhengbin; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the influence of ultrasound-assisted extraction on eucalyptus samples with special focus on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters was explored. Ultrasound and Soxhlet extraction were used to pretreat samples respectively, then samples were assayed by component analysis, TG-FTIR, and kinetic analysis. Ultrasound-assisted extraction did change the physiochemical characteristics of eucalyptus samples, particularly in regards to the quantity of extractives obtained. In TG and DTG curves, ultrasound-extracted samples reflected lower residual weight ratio (17.77%) and higher maximum weight loss rate (-22.92%/min), and were accompanied by a slight shift in the weight loss rate peak to lower temperature (366°C). The volatiles produced during pyrolysis and the discrepancies of product distribution between experimental and controlled groups were explored based on TG-FTIR spectra. According to kinetic analysis results, ultrasound-treated samples showed higher activation energy at the primary portion of thermal degradation with an average of 206.09kJ/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of skin surface roughness degree on energy characteristics of light scattered by a biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of modelling of photometric characteristics of light in soft tissues illuminated by a parallel beam along the normal to the surface, obtained with allowance for the skin roughness parameters and the angular structure of radiation approaching the surface from within the tissue. The depth structure of the fluence rate and the spectra of the diffuse reflection of light by the tissue in the interval of wavelengths 300 - 1000 nm are considered. We discuss the influence of the tilt angle variance of rough surface microelements and light refraction on the studied characteristics. It is shown that these factors lead to the reduction of the radiation flux only in the near-surface tissue layer and practically do not affect the depth of light penetration into the tissue. On the other hand, the degree of the surface roughness and the conditions of its illumination from within the tissue essentially affect the coefficient of diffuse reflection of light and lead to its considerable growth compared to the cases of a smooth interface and completely diffuse illumination, often considered to simplify the theoretical problem solution. The role of the roughness of skin surface is assessed in application to the solution of different direct and inverse problems of biomedical optics.

  9. Neighborhood Characteristics: Influences on Pain and Physical Function in Youth at Risk for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Cathleen; Reed, Emily A.; Hingston, Tessa; Dennis, Catlin H.; Wilson, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood features such as community socioeconomic status, recreational facilities, and parks have been correlated to the health outcomes of the residents living within those neighborhoods, especially with regard to health-related quality of life, body mass index, and physical activity. The interplay between one’s built environment and one’s perceptions may affect physical health, well-being, and pain experiences. In the current study, neighborhood characteristics and attitudes about physical activity were examined in a high-risk (youths with a parent with chronic pain) and low-risk (youths without a parent with chronic pain) adolescent sample. There were significant differences in neighborhood characteristics between the high-risk (n = 62) and low-risk (n = 77) samples (ages 11–15), with low-risk participants living in residences with more walkability, closer proximity to parks, and higher proportion of neighborhood residents having college degrees. Results indicate that neighborhood features (e.g., walkability and proximity to parks), as well as positive attitudes about physical activity were correlated with lower levels of pain and pain-related disability, and higher performance in physical functioning tests. These findings suggest that the built environment may contribute to pain outcomes in youth, above and beyond the influence of family history of pain. PMID:27869773

  10. Influences of Turbulence Characteristic on the Dispersion Behavior of Droplets in the Spray Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    The authors investigated the effect of the turbulence of an air current on droplet dispersion in a spray flame. Wire meshes of different mesh sizes were inserted behind a two-fluid type nozzle each time to vary the air current turbulence characteristics, and then methanol was sprayed to form a spray flame. Droplets in the spray flame were measured with a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). In the no-reaction field, the turbulence characteristics were measured by using a hot wire anemometer to determine the influences of the turbulence on droplet dispersion in a flame. As the mesh size of the wire mesh was reduced in the investigation, the droplet dispersion was shown to reduce the volume of cluster and also the number density of the droplets. Measuring the turbulence statistics confirmed a decrease of the Stokes number in proportion to the mesh size of the wire mesh. Droplet flying trajectories through turbulence were calculated. According to the calculation results, inserting a finer wire mesh was found to move flying trajectories closer to the streamline of the vortex. When a finer wire mesh was inserted, droplets were drawn closer to the vortex and formed clusters near the vortex. Consequently, droplets were found to disintegrate and disperse under the great in fluences of a vortex.

  11. Clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy after salpingostomy and influence on ongoing pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongli; Chen, Jinhong; Lu, Wen; Li, Bilan; Du, Guiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to assay the clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) and its influence on ongoing pregnancy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 2498 patients who received salpingostomies as primary management for ectopic pregnancies from January 2004 to December 2009, using medical records and telephone inquiries. Clinical characteristics of the 52 patients (2.08%) who were diagnosed with PEP after salpingostomy were compared with those who received satisfactory treatment. The odds ratios and 95% confidential intervals were calculated for each variable by univariate and (for significantly different factors) multivariate analysis. Results Preoperatively, patients with PEP after salpingostomy significantly differed from the non‐PEP patients in gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesiolysis. Serum β‐human chorionic gonadotropin levels in PEP patients were monitored after surgery, which had declined by 28.31% on postoperative day (POD) 4, 40.22% on POD 7, 51.46% on POD 10 and 53.43% on POD 21. Repeat ectopic pregnancy (REP) tended to occur more frequently in PEP patients (PEP: 5 cases, 10.20%; non‐PEP: 4 cases, 2.80%; P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that pelvic adhesions and PEP were the strongest independent predictors of REP. Conclusion Gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesions were significantly correlated with PEP. PEP was an independent prognostic factor for REP. However, a multicenter study is needed to support and extend our findings. PMID:28127836

  12. Influence of photoirradiation conditions on dentin bond durability and interfacial characteristics of universal adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Kazutaka; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Nojiri, Kie; Ueta, Hirofumi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-06-23

    The influence of photoirradiation conditions on dentin bond durability and interfacial characteristics of universal adhesives was investigated. Universal adhesives were applied to the dentin surfaces and photoirradiated with 100 mW/cm(2) for 40 s, 200 mW/cm(2) for 20 s, and 400 mW/cm(2) for 10 s. A resin composite was bonded to dentin to determine shear bond strength after 24 h water storage and 30,000 thermal cycles, and water contact angle of cured adhesive were measured by the sessile drop method. Greater dentin bond strengths after 24 h water storage and 30,000 thermal cycles were achieved under these conditions at light intensity exceeding 200 mW/cm(2). Universal adhesives photoirradiated above 200 mW/cm(2) exhibited significantly higher water contact angles than those at 100 mW/cm(2). The results of this study suggested that the photoirradiation conditions affect the dentin bond durability and interfacial characteristics of universal adhesives even at the same total energy.

  13. Study about the influence of cavitation on the dynamic characteristics for the sliding bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, L. M.; Luo, Y. Y.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sliding bearings are employed to support the rotor system and limit the vibration amplitude. In high speed rotor system, cavitation often occurs in the oil film and affects the dynamic characteristics of the sliding bearing greatly. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate the cavitation in the oil film with homogeneous two-phase mixture flow using Singhal-et-al cavitation model in the commercial code FLUENT-solver. Cases without cavitation model were also calculated at the same time. Many computations with different frequency ratios were conducted. Then the rotor dynamic characteristics of the sliding bearing were retrieved. The results show that the cavitation has great influences on the pressure distribution in the oil film. As the rotational speed or whirling speed of the journal increases, the cavitation will become prominent. The dynamic coefficients of the bearing such as stiffness and damping with cavitation model considered are quite different from that without cavitation. So it is worth to pay attention to and do further study about the cavitation in the sliding bearing in the high speed rotor system.

  14. Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in periphyton of Boreal Shield lakes: influence of watershed physiographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mélanie; Planas, Dolors; Mucci, Alfonso

    2006-02-15

    Little is known about Hg accumulation in littoral communities, especially in periphyton biofilm of unperturbed lakes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and establish relationships between total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in periphyton communities of Boreal lakes and watershed physiographic and lake morphometric characteristics. This study was carried out on 23 Boreal Canadian Shield lakes located between 47-50 degrees N and 73-77 degrees W. Periphyton was sampled on rocks, the dominant periphyton substrate in the littoral zone of these lakes. Periphyton algal biomass (Chla) ranged from 12 to 164 mg m(-2) whereas THg concentrations varied from 42 to 271 ng g(-1) DW and MeHg levels varied from 3 to 55 ng Hg g(-1) DW. Periphyton biomass was positively correlated to latitude, watershed wetland area and negatively correlated to watershed slope and depth of the lake. THg concentrations in periphyton were negatively correlated to watershed wetland area whereas MeHg concentrations were negatively correlated to latitude and positively correlated to watershed slope, dissolved sulfate concentration and the presence of beavers in the lake. This study confirms that periphyton can accumulate large amounts of Hg and the accumulation is strongly influenced by watershed characteristics and periphyton biomass.

  15. Influences of device structures on microstructure-correlated photovoltaic characteristics of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fu-Chiao; Yang, Cheng-Chi; Tseng, Po-Tsung; Chou, Wei-Yang; Cheng, Horng-Long

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic characteristics of organic solar cells (OSCs) are correlated with microstructural qualities of active layers (ALs). Numerous efforts focused on improving process conditions of ALs to attain effective microstructures to achieve high-efficiency OSCs. Aside from AL process conditions, layer properties under AL can also influence microstructural qualities of AL. In this study, we adopted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture as AL, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as hole extraction layer, and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) as electron extraction layer to prepare OSCs with different device structures, that is, normal type (PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/BPEI) and inverted type (BPEI/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS) structures. We discovered that although devices have similar layer components, they have different photovoltaic characteristics. Inverted devices demonstrated higher power conversion efficiency than normal devices. Various methods, including absorption spectroscopy and microscopy, were used to study AL microstructures of different devices. We observed that P3HT crystallites grown on BPEI had longer vertical size and shorter horizontal size compared with those grown on PEDOT:PSS; these properties could result from larger interfacial tension of P3HT with BPEI than with PEDOT:PSS. Observed shape of P3HT crystallites in inverted devices facilitated efficient charge transport to electrodes and suppressed current leakage. As a result, inverted devices generated improved photovoltaic performance.

  16. The influence of visual characteristics of barriers on railway noise perception.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Luigi; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Di Gabriele, Maria

    2013-02-15

    Noise annoyance is considered as the main effect of noise, it is a complex and multifaceted psychological concept dealing with immediate behavioral and evaluative aspects. In the last decades the research has intensely investigated the correlation between noise exposure and noise annoyance, nevertheless recent studies confirm that non-auditory factors influence the noise perception of individuals. In particular audio-video interaction can play a fundamental role. Today Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) systems allow building laboratory test providing realistic experiences of the surrounding environment to detect more accurate information about the reactions of the local population. Regarding the interventions for environmental noise control the barriers represent the main solution; however some aspects related to their visual characteristic have to be further investigated. This paper presented a case study, where a sample of residents living close to a railway line assessed noise-related aspects for several barriers with different visual characteristics in an IVR laboratory test. In particular, three main factors were analyzed: the barrier type concerning the visibility of the noise source through the screen, the visual aspect of the barrier concerning some aesthetic issues and the noise level at the receiver concerning the acoustic performance of the barrier and the magnitude of the sound source. The main results of the ANOVA analysis showed that for transparent barriers Perceived Loudness and Noise Annoyance were judged lower than for opaque barriers; this difference increased as noise level increased. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Influence of Shot Peening on Surface Characteristics of High-Speed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yasunori; Fukaura, Kenzo

    High-speed steels are generally used for the cutting of other hard materials. These are hard materials, and can be used at high temperatures. Therefore, some of them are used for warm metal forming such as forging. However, in the tools used in hot working, an excellent hot hardness and long-life fatigue are strongly required. In the present study, the influence of shot peening on the surface characteristics of high-speed steels was investigated. Shot peening imparts compressive residual stresses on the metal surface, thus improving the fatigue life of the machine parts. In the experiment, the shot peening treatment was performed using an air-type shot peening machine. The shots made of cemented carbide were used. The workpieces were two types, W-type and Mo-type alloys. Surface roughness, compressive residual stress, and hardness of the peened workpieces were measured. It was found that shot peening using the hard shot media was effective in improving the surface characteristics of high-speed steels.

  18. The Influence of Patient Characteristics on the Perceived Value of Inpatient Educational Experiences by Medical Trainees.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Renée; Mahant, Sanjay; Wadhwa, Anupma; Bismilla, Zia; Zhao, Xiu Yan; Martimianakis, Tina; Cohen, Eyal

    2015-08-01

    Medical education relies heavily on workplace learning where trainees are educated through their clinical experience. Few studies have explored trainees' perceptions of the educational value of these patient care experiences. The aim of this study was to identify pediatric patient characteristics that medical trainees perceive as educationally valuable. Over 2 months, trainees on pediatric inpatient wards ranked the perceived educational value of patients under their care on a 4-point bipolar Likert scale. Three patient characteristics were examined: complex-chronic and noncomplex-chronic preexisting conditions, difficult social circumstances, and rare diseases. Patient-level predictors of cases perceived as educationally valuable (defined as scores≥3) were examined by using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 325 patients were rated by 51 trainees (clinical medical students [45%], first-year residents [29%], third-year residents/fellows [26%]). Rare diseases had a higher educational value score (adjusted odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.88, P=.02). Complex-chronic and noncomplex-chronic preexisting conditions and difficult social circumstances did not affect the perceived educational value. Trainees attribute the most educational value to caring for patients with rare diseases. Although trainees' perceptions of learning do not necessarily reflect actual learning, they may influence personal interest and limit learning from an educational experience. Knowledge of trainee perceptions of educational experience therefore can direct medical educators' approaches to inpatient education. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  20. Child and family characteristics influencing intervention choices in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Schultz, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A myriad of treatment options are available for children with autism, yet little is understood regarding characteristics of parents (e.g., education) and children (e.g., severity of autism symptoms) that influence types and amounts of therapy utilization. Interviews from 70 families were analyzed to determine potential influences on utilization (e.g., start of first services, use of traditional services). Descriptive findings regarding therapy types were similar to national studies. However, only three of the variables predicted utilization of specific therapies: severity of sensory processing problems was associated with earlier initiation of services in general, and higher maternal and paternal education was associated with the use of dietary and/or vitamin therapy as well as with more types of services. No other variables had predictive value; thus, the amount and type of therapies received may be more related to diagnostic practices and/or to the affordances/constraints of service delivery and reimbursement systems at particular ages. PMID:24089593

  1. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  2. Influence of submission form characteristics on clinical information received in biopsy accession.

    PubMed

    Brannick, Erin M; Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Xiaoli; Stromberg, Paul C

    2012-11-01

    Clinical information supplied to diagnostic laboratories through biopsy submission forms is crucial to accurate, timely diagnosis and to clinicopathologic correlation between microscopic findings and the clinical condition of the patient. The current study attempts to quantify the prevalence of deficient and inadequate submissions in veterinary biopsy service and to determine whether form characteristics, such as the open or closed nature of the form and the presence of specific prompts, influence reporting of essential case information. The hypotheses of this study are, first, that deficient and inadequate biopsy submissions do occur in veterinary medicine and, second, that open-type biopsy submission forms elicit quantitatively and qualitatively more complete case information overall, and in specific content areas, compared to closed-type biopsy submission forms. Three percent of submissions reviewed were information deficient, devoid of information beyond patient signalment, and more than 88% of forms supplied inadequate clinical information in at least 1 key content area. Both form type and specific prompts significantly influenced reporting of important clinical information. This study demonstrates the need and lays the foundation for informational completeness research in veterinary medicine.

  3. The Influence of topography on formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water in Shapotou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yanxia; Li, Xinrong; Hui, Rong; Zhao, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water for different topographic positions were observed using the PVC pipes manual weighing and CPM method in the typical mobile dunes fixed by straw checkerboard barriers in Shapotou. The results indicated that the formation amounts and duration of hygroscopic and condensate water show moderate spatial heterogeneity at the influence of topography. The formation amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at different aspects conform to the classical convection model, in which the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts are highest at hollow, and windward aspect gets more water than leeward aspect, the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different aspects are expressed as: hollow>Western-faced aspect>Northern-faced aspect>hilltop>Southern-faced aspect>Eastern-faced aspect. The hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different slope positions for every aspect are as follows: the foot of slope>middle slope>hilltop. A negatively linear correlation is got between slope angles and hygroscopic and condensate water amounts, hygroscopic and condensate water amounts decrease gradually along with the increase of slope angles, the amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at the vertical aspect are only half of horizontal aspect, which indicated topography were important influence factors for the formation of the hygroscopic and condensate water in arid area.

  4. [Variation characteristics and influencing factors of air pollution index in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Zhao, Ai-Fang; Ma, Qian

    2012-06-01

    Based on the daily air pollution index (API), primary pollutant, air quality level and status of 42 cities in China during 2001-2010, the characteristics of air quality were analyzed. The results showed that the atmosphere was significantly influenced by consumption of coal. The primary pollutant was PM10, and the air quality status was excellent (0 < API < 50), good (50 < API <100) and slightly polluted (100 < API < 150) in the majority. The air pollution status varied seasonally, which was the most serious in winter, and slightest in summer. The air quality was better and better in the observed period generally; The spatial distribution of urban air environment displayed a worsening trend from the south to the north and from the coasts to the inland; The local emission and natural dust transmission from the Northwest China was the main sources of urban air pollution; The air pollutants were impacted by the meteorological elements, and the air pollution index correlated linearly with precipitation, wind speed and temperature inversion; The distribution of weather conditions, which was affected by the terrain, also could influence the air quality; In addition, the human activities had both positive and negative functions on the urban air quality.

  5. Influence of grain activation conditions on functional characteristics of brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2017-09-01

    Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.

  6. Competitive sorption and desorption of heavy metals in mine soils: influence of mine soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vega, F A; Covelo, E F; Andrade, M L

    2006-06-15

    Many mine soils are chemically, physically, and biologically unstable and deficient. They are sometimes amended with sewage sludge and ashes but often contain heavy metals that increase the already high mine soils' heavy metal contents. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in mutual competition were added to five mine soils (Galicia, Spain). Soil capacities for heavy metal sorption and retention were determined by means of distribution coefficients and selectivity sequences among metals. Influence of soil characteristics on sorption and retention was also examined. Retention selectivity sequences indicate that, in most of the soils, Pb is the preferred retained metal, followed by Cr. The last metals in these sequences are Ni, Cd, and Zn. Soil organic matter content plays a fundamental role in control of Pb sorption. Gibbsite, goethite, and mica influence Cr retention. Soil organic matter, oxides, and chlorite contents are correlated with K(d sigma sp medium). Heavy metals are weakly adsorbed by soils and then desorbed in high amounts. To recover these soils it is necessary to avoid the use of residues or ashes that contain heavy metals due to their low heavy metal retention capacity.

  7. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  8. Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients: variables influencing clinical characteristics and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S.; Wagener, M. M.; Singh, N.

    2001-01-01

    Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus- based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9-143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C. neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients. PMID:11384512

  9. Quality of life after cancer-How the extent of impairment is influenced by patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Peters, Elisabeth; Mendoza Schulz, Laura; Reuss-Borst, Monika

    2016-10-10

    Although this effect is well known, tailored treatment methods have not yet been broadly adopted. The aim of this study was to identify those patient characteristics that most influence the impairment of quality of life and thus to identify those patients who need and can benefit most from specific intervention treatment. 1879 cancer patients were given the EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire at the beginning and end of their inpatient rehabilitation. Patients' scores were compared to those of 2081 healthy adults (Schwarz and Hinz, Eur J Cancer 37:1345-1351, 2001). Furthermore, differences in quality of life corresponding to sex, age, tumor site, TNM stage, interval between diagnosis and rehabilitation, and therapy method were examined. Compared to the healthy population, the study group showed a decreased quality of life in all analyzed domains. This difference diminished with increasing age. Women reported a lower quality of life then men in general. Patients with prostate cancer showed the least impairment in several domains. Patients having undergone chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy were impaired the most. Surprisingly, TNM stage and interval between diagnosis and rehabilitation did not significantly influence quality of life. Global quality of life and all functional domains significantly improved after a 3-week rehabilitation program. Despite an individualized and increasingly better tolerable therapy, the quality of life of cancer patients is still considerably impaired. However, systematic screening of psychosocial aspects of cancer, e.g. quality of life, could enable improved intervention.

  10. The influence of menstrual risk factors on tumor characteristics and survival in postmenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orgéas, Chantal C; Hall, Per; Rosenberg, Lena U; Czene, Kamila

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Hormonal factors are implicated in tumor progression and it is possible that factors influencing breast cancer induction could affect prognosis. Our study investigated the effects of menstrual risk factors on tumor characteristics and survival in postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods We used a nationwide, population-based, case-case design of 2,640 Swedish women who were 50 to 74 years old and had postmenopausal breast cancer during 1993 to 1995. Follow-up was conducted until 31 December 2000. We used polytomous multiple logistic regression to investigate the relationships between menstrual factors (age at menarche, cycle length, irregular menstruation, lifetime number of menstrual cycles, and age at menopause), tumor characteristics (size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor [PR] status, lymph node involvement, and histology), and Cox proportional hazards modeling for 5-year survival. Results Younger ages at menarche were significantly associated with grade and lymph node involvement. Women with an age at menarche of 11 years or younger had a more than twofold excess risk of medium-grade (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 4.18) and high-grade (OR = 2.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 4.16) tumors. Early menarche significantly increased the risk of lymph node metastases. Survival was poorest in women with the earliest age at menarche, with a 72% increased risk of dying within 5 years after diagnosis (hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.89). No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors with tumor characteristics or survival. Conclusions Age at menarche has a significant impact on breast cancer prognosis and survival. It remains to be established whether the associations are attributable to age at menarche directly or are associated with the early-life physiological events of breast development and carcinogenesis also taking place during childhood and puberty, as menarche is only the culmination of

  11. Assessing the influence of gestalt-type characteristics on preferences over lifetime health profiles.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Adam

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the basic tenets of economic theory, there is substantial evidence that people's remembered and predicted utility of events systematically differs from the utility that they experience. These systematic differences are caused by "gestalt characteristics.'' The objective of this study was to test whether people maximize quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), or whether QALY maximization is compromised by their being influenced by factors that resemble the gestalt characteristics when choosing between lifetime health profiles. Time trade-off values were elicited from 50 respondents, who were also presented with a series of hypothetical questions that each depicted 2 lifetime health profiles. The respondents were asked to choose which of the 2 profiles in each question they would prefer to experience. By inputting the values that the respondents placed on the health states into the lifetime health profiles, it was possible to observe whether their answers were consistent with QALY maximization or with various hypothesized gestalt-type effects. Across decisions that involve a simple trade-off between the length of life and the quality of the health state, choices consistent with QALY maximizing were relatively common, although even here approximately half of the respondents violated this rule. Consistency with QALY maximization was lower in most of the other tests and indicated that many people might, for example, prefer to trade off some lifetime health to experience a good end to life, or to avoid highly unstable lifetime health profiles. The respondents' answers were often consistent with the hypothesized gestalt-type effects, but it is probable that for some of the questions the characteristics themselves were not driving the respondents' answers and that factors such as complex rates of discounting might have played a role. However, whatever the driving motivation behind the respondents' answers, the important point to note from this study is that

  12. Influence of physician and patient characteristics on adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Nada; Chiarelli, Anna M; Sloan, Margaret; Stewart, Donna E; Mai, Verna; Howlett, Roberta I

    2008-02-01

    Identifying physician and patient characteristics is important in implementing effective, targeted strategies to improve breast cancer detection rates through increased screening recommendations and uptake. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Ontario physicians recommend breast screening using mammography every 2 years for women aged 50-69 as encouraged by the Ontario Breast Screening Program. This study also aimed to identify physician and patient characteristics that may influence adherence to these recommendations. The study design was a cross-sectional study. Using the Canadian Medical Directory-Ontario database, 3063 questionnaires were mailed to all active general and family practitioners. A response rate of 38% (N = 939) was achieved. Adherence to screening was defined as recommending screening to women aged 50-69 only, every 2 years as outlined by the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Bivariate analyses and unconditional logistic regression were used to assess physician adherence to screening guidelines. Only 38.9% of physicians followed recommended breast screening guidelines. After adjusting for physician sex and age, predictors of screening adherence include physicians working in academic or research centers (odds ratio 8.3, 95% confidence interval 1.7-39.7) and those reporting that over 31% of their patients to be of low-income (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.4). Compared with physicians working in a rural/town setting (<10 000 people), those located in a large city (>100 000 people) were less likely to adhere to screening guidelines (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.7). A low proportion of Ontario physicians adhere to recommended breast screening guidelines. Future research into effective strategies to increase adherence should take into account practice location, setting and patient characteristics.

  13. Influence of seasonal canopy development on turbulent flow characteristics in a hedgerow vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence is the main driver of vegetation-atmosphere exchanges. Flow characteristics determine the transport of energy and matter between different layers of the canopy and the atmosphere, defining local microclimatic conditions and influencing physiological processes of the vegetation. Therefore, studying turbulent flow dynamics inside and above the canopy is crucial to correctly predict overall fluxes of matter and energy and to understand their nature. Numerous studies have already investigated the characteristics of canopy turbulence over a wide range of vegetation types, leading to a thorough description of canopy turbulence. However, only a few studies have investigated the influence of gradual canopy structural changes such as foliage density (on multi-day time scales) on turbulence field properties. We hypothesize that seasonal variations of foliage density play a crucial role modifying foliage drag and canopy roughness, determining the degree of coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere, and changing the profiles of turbulent moments. The aim of this study was to follow the continuous evolution of turbulent flow characteristics from leaf budbreak to fully developed foliage in a hedgerow vineyard in the North East of Italy. Synchronous measurements from a vertical profile of five sonic anemometers on a 5 m tower have been collected at 20 Hz from beginning of April to end of July 2015.Detailed measurements of Leaf Area Density (LAD) profile and canopy architecture were performed at regular intervals (ca. weekly) around the tower. The canopy bulk drag coefficient increased during the growing season, suggesting that the coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere increased with LAD. Vertical profiles of turbulent statistics showed to be highly correlated to local values of LAD. The penetration of momentum flux in the canopy decreased with the gradual increase of foliage. Most of the drag was exerted by the part of the canopy with denser foliage

  14. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Viviane de Souza; de Almeida, Vitor Rosa; Matos, João Batista; Vicentini, Tamiris Iara; van den Brand, Henry; Boleli, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C), control (37.5°C), or high (39°C) temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively) from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C) was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C) and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C). The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to increased

  15. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Morita, Viviane de Souza; Almeida, Vitor Rosa de; Matos, João Batista; Vicentini, Tamiris Iara; van den Brand, Henry; Boleli, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C), control (37.5°C), or high (39°C) temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively) from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C) was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C) and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C). The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to increased

  16. Influence of mixture characteristics on the oxidative aging of asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morian, Nathan E.

    The objective of this research effort focused on the evaluation of asphalt mixtures with respect to thermal cracking. Preliminary investigations soon indicated that a fundamental evaluation of thermal cracking was highly dependent upon the more complicated understanding of asphalt binder oxidation. The oxidation of asphalt binders within an asphalt mixture were understood to potentially be influenced by the mixture characteristics (i.e. air void levels, binder content, etc.) and aggregate properties (i.e. aggregate absorption, gradation, etc.). Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate and quantify the effects different aggregate sources and mixture properties may have on the oxidation and thermal cracking performance of asphalt mixtures. The investigation specifically focused on quantifying the oxidation of the asphalt binder alone and as part of the asphalt mixture when subjected to isothermal oven aging. The oxidation parameters of pan-aged asphalt binders were quantified, according to the standard of practice in the industry. These parameters were then compared to extracted and recovered mixture-aged asphalt binders to examine the influence of the main aggregate and mixture factors on the binder oxidation. The study observed differences between the pan-aged and mixture-aged asphalt binders in terms of oxidation kinetics, rheological measures, and the combined effect represented as the hardening susceptibility. Further evaluation of the binder oxidation based upon the dynamic modulus measures indicated marked influences of the mixture characteristics, the individual component materials, and the interactions between the investigated factors. Differentiation of the experimental factors was further identified by the newly developed low-temperature evaluation method, Uniaxial Thermal Stress and Strain Test (UTSST). The UTSST provides a fundamental approach to characterize the thermo-viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures permitting the

  17. Influence of season on testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in Martina Franca jackasses.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Panzani, S; Contri, A; Bronzo, V; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2013-02-01

    with spring and autumn, and a lower curvilinear velocity compared with winter were found. No differences in amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness and linearity were observed neither between seasons nor in SS versus AW. Seminal pH did not show any seasonal difference; also sperm morphology did not show any significant difference during the whole year. This study demonstrated that under our climatic and management conditions Martina Franca donkey stallions do not show significant differences in testicular morphometric characteristics during the year, even if a certain seasonal influence exists on reaction time and some seminal parameters. Considering the variable temperature and photoperiod during the four seasons where the study was performed, this lack of substantial differences could be related to a characteristic of the Martina Franca breed.

  18. Female migrants, family members and community socio-demographic characteristics influence facility delivery in Rufiji, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Levira, Francis; Gaydosh, Lauren; Ramaiya, Astha

    2014-09-23

    Health professionals and public health experts in maternal and newborn health encourage women to deliver at health facilities in an effort to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. In the existing literature, there is scant information on how migration, family members and community influence facility delivery. This study addresses this knowledge gap using 10 years of longitudinal surveillance data from a rural district of Tanzania. Multilevel logistic regression was used to quantify the influence of hypothesized migration, family and community-level factors on facility delivery while adjusting for known confounders identified in the literature. We report adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Overall, there has been an increase of 14% in facility delivery over the ten years, from 63% in 2001 to 77% in 2010 (p < .001). Women residing in households with female migrants from outside their community were more likely to give birth in a facility AOR = 1.2 (95% CI 1.11-1.29). Furthermore, the previous facility delivery of sisters and sisters-in-law has a significant influence on women's facility delivery; AOR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.45 and AOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.35-2.13 respectively. Community level characteristics play a role as well; women in communities with higher socioeconomic status and older women of reproductive age had increased odds of facility delivery; AOR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.88-2.98 and AOR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32 respectively. Although there has been an increase in facility delivery over the last decade in Rufiji, this study underscores the importance of female migrants, family members and community in influencing women's place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that future interventions designed to increase facility delivery must integrate person-to-person facility delivery promotion, especially through women of the community and within families. Furthermore, the results suggest that investment in formal education of the community and

  19. Watershed land use influences on river discharge and channel characteristics across northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galster, J. C.; Palmer, K.; Birrer, M.; Espinosa, S.; Pope, G. A.; Feng, H.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    River characteristics such as sediment size, channel dimensions, and discharges can be strongly controlled by watershed land use. This project investigated three watersheds in northern New Jersey with varying degrees of forested, agriculture, and urban land uses to determine the effects of land use on these rivers. The watersheds are the Flatbrook, the Wallkill, and the Rockaway rivers and are predominantly forested, forested/agricultural, and forested/urban respectively. Eight sites across these fourth and fifth-order watersheds were investigated including: 1) the grain size using the Wolman pebble count method, 2) channel dimensions (slope, width, depth) with a total station, and 3) channel stability using the rapid geomorphic assessment (RGA). Channel width changes from 1930 to present were determined using historic aerial photographs, and river discharge characteristics were compiled using custom software to determine the flashiness (as measured by the Reynolds-Baker Index) and the Baseflow Index. The three adjacent watersheds have minimal variations in potential confounding variables such as watershed slope, climate, and precipitation, allowing for the isolation of the effects of land use changes. While some of the general relationship between how land use changes affect rivers (e.g., urban streams typically have larger grain sizes and flashier discharges), studies such as this one are important in determining how rivers respond locally. Across the studied watersheds, forested land uses are positively associated with rapid geomorphic assessments scores, indicating the influence of upstream land use and the importance of vegetation. Forested land use is also associated with efficient discharges as measured by hydraulic radius, although there were not significant changes in channel width from 1930 to present. The flashiness of all rivers has increased over time while the baseflow index has decreased, which may be a climatic signal as opposed to being influenced

  20. Influence of metal oxides on the adsorption characteristics of PPy/metal oxides for Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the pure PPy and PPy/metal oxide composites including PPy/SiO2, PPy/Al2O3, and PPy/Fe3O4 as well as PPy coated commercial SiO2 and Al2O3 (PPy/SiO2(C) and PPy/Al2O3(C)) were successfully synthetized via chemical oxidative polymerization in acid aqueous medium to investigate the influence of metal oxides on adsorption capacity and their adsorption characteristics for Methylene Blue (MB). The composites were characterized by Zeta potential analysis, BET analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the metal oxides have great impact on textural properties, morphology, Zeta potential and PPy polymerization on their surface, further influence the adsorption capacity of their composites. The PPy/Al2O3(C) composite owns the highest specific surface area, rougher surface and most PPy content, and show the highest monolayer adsorption capacity reaching 134.77mg/g. In the adsorption characteristic studies, isotherm investigation shows an affinity order of PPy/metal oxides of PPy/Al2O3(C)>PPy/Al2O3>PPy/SiO2(C)>PPy/SiO2>PPy/Fe3O4>PPy, stating the affinity between PPy and MB was greatly improved by metal oxide, and Al2O3 owns high affinity for MB, followed by SiO2 and Fe3O4. Kinetic data of the composites selected (PPy/SiO2(C), PPy/Al2O3(C) and PPy/Fe3O4) were described more appropriately by the pseudo-second-order model, and the order of K2 is PPy/Al2O3>PPy/SiO2>PPy/Fe3O4, further showing a fast adsorption and good affinity of PPy/Al2O3(C) for MB. The regeneration method by HCl-elution and NaOH-activation was available, and the composites selected still owned good adsorption and desorption efficiency after six adsorption-desorption cycles.

  1. Influence of granule characteristics on microstructure quality of compacts made from spray-dried powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Sreeram

    Powder compaction is a widely used technique for the manufacture of high volume of ceramic components that have simple shapes and sizes. However, this technique is inherently prone to strength-limiting defects like large intergranular pores and remnants of the initial granule structure. These defects are a major obstacle that hinder the use of powder compaction to fabricate parts for applications where strength is an important criterion. The objective of this work is to understand the important factors that control the elimination of strength-limiting defects in compacts made from spray dried powders. The influence of granule density, internal lubricants, particle shape and external application of a plasticizer to already spray dried powders on compaction behavior was investigated. Emphasis was placed on role of these factors in the elimination of large intergranular pores and persistent granule interfaces. The powders were spray dried under varying conditions to tailor the granule characteristics, including granule density, granule size distribution, binder content and lubricant content. These powders were compacted at different pressures, and the microstructures of green and sintered compacts were then evaluated, and strength-limiting features were quantified. Comparisons were made on the basis of compaction curves, green strength, green density and microstructure quality at different pressures. Lowering the granule density reduced the number of granule relics and large intergranular pores. The presence of an internal lubricant improved particle packing and yielded compacts with higher green density and fewer large intergranular pores at comparable pressures. Spray dried powders with the externally applied plasticizer deformed at lower compaction pressures. This allowed easier knitting of particles across granule interfaces and elimination of large intergranular pores and persistent granule interfaces. Spherical (equiaxed) particles rearranged better at granule

  2. Influence of G-jitter on the characteristics of a non-premixed flame: Experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulain, Pierre; Cordeiro, Pierre; Rouvreau, Sébastien; Legros, Guillaume; Fuentes, Andres; Torero, José L.

    2005-03-01

    The combustion of a flat plate in a boundary layer under microgravity conditions, which was first described by Emmons, is studied using a gas burner. Magnitude of injection and blowing velocities are chosen to be characteristic of pyrolyzing velocity of solid fuels, and of ventilation systems in space stations. These velocities are about 0.1 m/s for oxidiser flow and 0.004m/s for fuel flow. In this configuration, flame layout results from a coupled interaction between oxidiser flow, fuel flow and thermal expansion. Influences of these parameters are studied experimentally by means of flame length and standoff distance measurements using CH* chemiluminescence's and visible emission of the flame. Flow was also studied with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Inert flows, with and without injection, and reacting flow in a microgravity environment were considered to distinguish aerodynamic from thermal effect. Thermal expansion effects have been shown by means of the acceleration of oxidiser flow. Three-dimensional effects, which are strongly marked for high injection velocities were studied. Three-dimensional tools adaptability to parabolic flights particular conditions were of concern. Flame sensitivity to g-jitters was investigated according to g-jitters frequency and range involved by parabolic flights. It appears that flame location (standoff distance), flame characteristics (length, thickness, brightness) and the aerodynamic field of the low velocity reacting flow are very much affected by the fluctuation of the gravity level or g-jitter. The lower the g-jitter frequency is, the higher the perturbation. Consequently it is difficult to perform relevant experiments for a main flow velocity lower than 0.05m/s. DNS calculations confirm the present observations, but most of the results are presented elsewhere.

  3. Influence of soil characteristics and wind waves on salt-marsh erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Roner, M.; Ghinassi, M.; Tommasini, L.; Finotello, A.; Zago, F.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are typical morphological features which furnish a shoreline buffer between the sea and the mainland, dissipating waves and mitigating erosion during storms. In the Venice Lagoon, salt-marsh area has rapidly decreased in the last two centuries with variable rates in different areas of the Lagoon. Here we analyze the possible influence of soil characteristics on marsh lateral erosion, to unravel the contribution of different sediment types in increasing, or decreasing, the resistance of salt-marsh margins to wave processes. To this end we collected 10 undisturbed sediment cores at different sites in the Venice Lagoon. Each core, recovered from the marsh edge, was analyzed in order to estimate the vertical distribution of organic matter content (through loss on ignition), the grain size of the inorganic fraction, and the density of the sediments. Marsh retreat during the last decades at each core site, was determined by comparing aerial photographs acquired between 1978 and 2010. The wave power impacting the marsh boundary was computed on the basis of a fully coupled wind-wave tidal model. Our results suggest that salt-marsh retreat is relatively weakly correlated with soil characteristics, such as particle size, bulk density and organic matter content. On the contrary, marsh erosion is strongly correlated with the incident wave power density through a linear relationship. Our results, obtained on the basis of a multidisciplinary approach involving geomorphology, sedimentology, and mathematical modeling, are valuable for the understanding of the evolution of coastal landscapes and their restoration, also in the face of changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Clinical Characteristics and Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-gyo; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Kang; Lee, Ji Eun; Jhun, Byung Woo

    2016-02-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon inflammatory lung disease, and limited data exist concerning the clinical characteristics and factors that influence its occurrence. We retrospectively reviewed the records of AEP patients treated at Korean military hospitals between January 2007 and December 2013. In total, 333 patients were identified; their median age was 22 years, and all were men. All patients presented with acute respiratory symptoms (cough, sputum, dyspnea, or fever) and had elevated levels of inflammatory markers including median values of 13,185/µL for white blood cell count and 9.51 mg/dL for C-reactive protein. All patients showed diffuse ground glass opacity/consolidation, and most had pleural effusion (n = 265; 80%) or interlobular septal thickening (n = 265; 85%) on chest computed tomography. Most patients had normal body mass index (n = 255; 77%), and only 30 (9%) patients had underlying diseases including rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis. Most patients had recently changed smoking habits (n = 288; 87%) and were Army personnel (n = 297; 89%).The AEP incidence was higher in the Army group compared to the Navy or Air Force group for every year (P = 0.002). Both the number of patients and patients with high illness severity (oxygen requirement, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia severity score class ≥ III) tended to increase as seasonal temperatures rose. We describe the clinical characteristics of AEP and demonstrate that AEP patients have recently changed smoking habits and work for the Army. There is an increasing tendency in the numbers of patients and those with higher AEP severity with rising seasonal temperatures.

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon inflammatory lung disease, and limited data exist concerning the clinical characteristics and factors that influence its occurrence. We retrospectively reviewed the records of AEP patients treated at Korean military hospitals between January 2007 and December 2013. In total, 333 patients were identified; their median age was 22 years, and all were men. All patients presented with acute respiratory symptoms (cough, sputum, dyspnea, or fever) and had elevated levels of inflammatory markers including median values of 13,185/µL for white blood cell count and 9.51 mg/dL for C-reactive protein. All patients showed diffuse ground glass opacity/consolidation, and most had pleural effusion (n = 265; 80%) or interlobular septal thickening (n = 265; 85%) on chest computed tomography. Most patients had normal body mass index (n = 255; 77%), and only 30 (9%) patients had underlying diseases including rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis. Most patients had recently changed smoking habits (n = 288; 87%) and were Army personnel (n = 297; 89%).The AEP incidence was higher in the Army group compared to the Navy or Air Force group for every year (P = 0.002). Both the number of patients and patients with high illness severity (oxygen requirement, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia severity score class ≥ III) tended to increase as seasonal temperatures rose. We describe the clinical characteristics of AEP and demonstrate that AEP patients have recently changed smoking habits and work for the Army. There is an increasing tendency in the numbers of patients and those with higher AEP severity with rising seasonal temperatures. PMID:26839479

  6. Influence of Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle Characteristics on Cardiovascular Disease After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric J.; Baker, K. Scott; Lee, Stephanie J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Khera, Nandita; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Martin, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of cardiovascular disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients and Methods HCT survivors of ≥ 1 year treated from 1970 to 2010 (n = 3,833) were surveyed from 2010 to 2011 on current cardiovascular health and related lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, recreational physical activity). Responses (n = 2,362) were compared with those from a matched general population sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]; n = 1,192). Results Compared with NHANES participants, HCT survivors (median age, 55.9 years; median 10.8 years since HCT; 71.3% allogeneic) had higher rates of cardiomyopathy (4.0% v 2.6%), stroke (4.8% v 3.3%), dyslipidemia (33.9% v 22.3%), and diabetes (14.3% v 11.7%; P < .05 for all comparisons). Prevalence of hypertension was similar (27.9% v 30.0%), and survivors were less likely to have ischemic heart disease (6.1% v 8.9%; P < .01). Among HCT survivors, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were independent risk factors for ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, and smoking was associated with ischemic heart disease and diabetes (odds ratios [ORs], 1.8 to 2.1; P = .02). Obesity was a risk factor for post-transplantation hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes (ORs ≥ 2.0; P < .001). In contrast, lower fruit/vegetable intake was associated with greater risk of dyslipidemia and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.8; P ≤ .01), and lower physical activity level was associated with greater risk of hypertension and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.5; P < .05). Healthier lifestyle characteristics among HCT survivors attenuated risk of all cardiovascular conditions assessed. Conclusion Attention of clinicians to conventional cardiovascular risk factors and modifiable lifestyle characteristics offers hope of reducing serious cardiovascular morbidity after HCT. PMID:24297944

  7. [Influence of double rice cropping system innovation on paddy soil profile form and soil characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi-Bai; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Li, Lian-Fang; Wang, Bo-Ren; Bai, Ling-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the double rice cropping paddy field in red soil area to evaluate the influence of cropping system innovation on soil profile form and related soil characteristics. Four cropping systems of rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus Linn.), forage, paddy-upland rotation, and upland were substituted for the double rice cropping system. The results indicated that compared with those under double rice cropping system, the thickness of cultivated horizon under upland cropping system increased by 4 cm, that of plow pan declined by 2 cm, > 2 mm aggregates in wet-sieved particle-size fractions increased by 6.94%, wet-sieved mean-mass diameter increased by 0.37 mm, contents of humic acid carbon and fulvic acid carbon increased by 0.15 and 0.49 g kg(-1), respectively, and quotient of aggregates water stability was 0.78 times higher. Under paddy-upland rotation, the quotient of aggregates water stability was higher (95.86), while soil nutrient contents changed a little. Under rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch system, soil organic matter content increased by 1.3 g kg(-1), quotient of aggregates water stability declined by 8.82, but other parameters had less changes. Under forage system, the thickness of cultivated and transitional horizons increased by 2 cm and 9 cm, respectively, quotient of aggregates water stability increased by 1.39, while the contents of soil organic matter and total potassium decreased by 5.6 and 2.8 g kg(-1), respectively. Among all test cropping systems, forage system had the greatest changes in soil characteristics. It was completely feasible to substitute the local double rice cropping system for paddy-upland rotation or upland cropping, particularly in the areas where full irrigation was not available. However, attention should be paid to the decrease of soil potassium content when the cropping system innovation was practiced.

  8. Characteristics influencing location of death for children with life-limiting illness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Emily; MacLeod, Rod; Drake, Ross

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether demographic and diagnostic characteristics were associated with location of death in a series of children with life-limiting illnesses. A population-level case series was carried out by reviewing mortality records. Sociodemographic characteristics, diagnosis and referral to paediatric palliative care (PPC) were analysed for association with location of death. New Zealand Children and young people aged 28 days-18 years who died from a life-limiting illness between 2006 and 2009 inclusive. Location of death-home, hospital, other. Of 494 deaths, 53.6% (256/494) died in hospital and 41.9% (203/494) died at home. Asian (OR=2.66, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.04) and Pacific children (OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.29) had an increased risk of death in hospital compared with European children, while children with cancer (adjusted OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.75) and children referred to the PPC service (adjusted OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.96) had a decreased risk. Population-attributable risk for referral to the PPC service was 28.2% (95% CI 11.25 to 47.75). Most children in New Zealand with a life-limiting illness die in hospital with a significant influence resulting from ethnic background, diagnosis and referral to the PPC service. These findings have implications for resourcing PPC services and end-of-life care.

  9. [Characteristics and influencing factors of phosphorus adsorption on sediment in Lake Taihu and Lake Hulun].

    PubMed

    Chuai, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Liu-Yan; Cheng, Shu-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Mu, Yun-Song

    2014-03-01

    Lake Taihu and Lake Hulun in southern and northern China were selected for the investigation of differences in the characteristics and influencing factors of phosphorus (P) adsorption on the sediments of these two lakes by laboratory simulation experiment. The results showed that: (1) The P adsorption capacity of sediment in Lake Taihu was much higher than that in Lake Hulun, and the maximum adsorption capability for the sediments in these two lakes was 1428.57 mg x kg(-1) and 56.81 mg x kg(-1), respectively; (2) Compared with the sediments in Lake Hulun, the particle diameters from sediments in Lake Taihu were much smaller, and their specific surface areas were much larger, so their P adsorption capacity were much higher; (3) The equilibrium adsorbed amounts in these two lakes were correlated with the total amounts of Al, Fe, Mn (P < 0.05) and significantly correlated to the contents of active Al, Fe, Si, Mn (P < 0.01). However, there was significant negative correlation between the equilibrium adsorbed amounts and total Si contents for the sediments in these two lakes (P < 0.01); (4) The P adsorption capacity decreased as pH values in the overlying water increased, and the increase of pH values affected the adsorption behavior of phosphorus on the sediments in Lake Taihu much more obviously. Therefore, the characteristics of sediments and the variations of pH values in the overlying water affected the adsorption behavior of P on sediments in lake water body.

  10. Does the microclimate under hail nets influence micromorphological characteristics of apple leaves and cuticles?

    PubMed

    Hunsche, Mauricio; Blanke, Michael M; Noga, Georg

    2010-08-15

    A higher frequency of hail storms, possibly due to climate change, has led to increased installation of hail nets worldwide. The objective of the present work was to investigate potential effects of the microclimate under these hail nets on micromorphological characteristics of the leaves and adaxial leaf cuticles. Leaves of apple cultivars 'Pinova' and 'Fuji' grown on trees under white (highly translucent) or red-black (low transmittance) hail nets or on uncovered (control) trees were evaluated in June, August, September and October. The microclimate under the colored hail nets had no impact on leaf micromorphology, amount of cuticular wax, or leaf thickness. Similarly, no differences in thickness and permeability for calcium could be established between cuticles of leaves grown on trees under the two types of hail nets or uncovered trees. For all evaluated parameters, significant differences were detected between the two cultivars examined. In both cultivars, leaf wax synthesis followed a characteristic curve, increasing from the first to the second evaluation, and then decreasing continuously without affecting cuticular penetration of calcium. Overall, our results show that a reduction of the hail nets by 6-10% in both light and humidity was insufficient to influence the surface properties of apple leaves and permeability of cuticles. This may suggest that pest management strategies, i.e. formulation of agrochemicals, their application and dose, do not need to be adapted when used under hail nets. Overall, the present results indicate that the microclimatic changes brought about by colored hail nets are sufficient to enhance the vegetative growth and induce the 'shade avoidance syndrome', but do not appear to affect the leaf cuticular properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy after salpingostomy and influence on ongoing pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Chen, Jinhong; Lu, Wen; Li, Bilan; Du, Guiqiang; Wan, Xiaoping

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assay the clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) and its influence on ongoing pregnancy. We retrospectively reviewed 2498 patients who received salpingostomies as primary management for ectopic pregnancies from January 2004 to December 2009, using medical records and telephone inquiries. Clinical characteristics of the 52 patients (2.08%) who were diagnosed with PEP after salpingostomy were compared with those who received satisfactory treatment. The odds ratios and 95% confidential intervals were calculated for each variable by univariate and (for significantly different factors) multivariate analysis. Preoperatively, patients with PEP after salpingostomy significantly differed from the non-PEP patients in gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesiolysis. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in PEP patients were monitored after surgery, which had declined by 28.31% on postoperative day (POD) 4, 40.22% on POD 7, 51.46% on POD 10 and 53.43% on POD 21. Repeat ectopic pregnancy (REP) tended to occur more frequently in PEP patients (PEP: 5 cases, 10.20%; non-PEP: 4 cases, 2.80%; P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that pelvic adhesions and PEP were the strongest independent predictors of REP. Gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesions were significantly correlated with PEP. PEP was an independent prognostic factor for REP. However, a multicenter study is needed to support and extend our findings. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Research of factors influencing centrifugal pump external characteristics based on orthogonal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. B.; Liu, Z. Q.

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the impact on external characteristics of single-stage and single-suction centrifugal pump, four parameters: cutwater gap(δ), blade number(z), impeller outlet width(b) and blade outlet angle(β) were taken into account. Orthogonal test method is a method which can make a comprehensive comparison among factors we are interested in. Thereby, it can't be more appropriate to adopt this approach to study the influence of the four factors referred above. Based on the prototype pump's geometric parameters, each of these factors took four levels. According to the principle of selecting orthogonal array, the L16(45) array was selected and 16 models were designed. After that, commercial CFD software CFX was used to calculate the head and efficiency under different conditions to determine the optimal operating condition Qr. The 16 models' rated flow rates were basically smaller than the prototype's. Considering this difference, in order to analyze the influence on the head under similar condition, the flow rate was made dimensionless and 3 conditions are chosen(Qr/Q=1, 1.25 and 1.375). Through the analysis of averaged respond head and efficiency, the laws of head and efficiency changing with the variation of the factors were obtained. Commonly, if a dependent's change cause by a independent variable is smaller than 5%, we can neglect the independent variable's effect. Thus the paper presents a research showing the factors' changing limitations considering the head changing by a percentage smaller than 5%. The conclusion of this article has important reference value for design of centrifugal pumps.

  13. Characteristics influencing the variability of urban CO 2 fluxes in Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; Beringer, Jason; Tapper, Nigel J.

    Urban areas are significant contributors to global carbon dioxide emissions. Vehicle emissions and other anthropogenic related activities are a frequent source of CO 2 to the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Micrometeorological techniques used for observations in Northern Hemisphere cities have found that urban CO 2 fluxes are consistently a source. This study investigates CO 2 fluxes in an Australian city, adding to the global database of CO 2 fluxes in a bid to aid in future development of planning policies concerning reductions in CO 2 emissions. Using the eddy covariance approach, fluxes of CO 2 were measured at a suburban site (Preston) in Melbourne, Australia from February 2004 to June 2005 to investigate temporal variability. A second site (Surrey Hills) with differing surface characteristics (in particular, greater vegetation cover) was also established in Melbourne and ran simultaneously for 6 months (February 2004-July 2004). Results showed that both sites were a net source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. Diurnal patterns of fluxes were largely influenced by traffic volumes, with two distinct peaks occurring at the morning and evening traffic peak hours, with the winter morning peak averaging 10.9 μmol m -2 s -1 at Preston. Summer time fluxes were lower than during winter due to greater vegetative influence and reduced natural gas combustion. Vegetation limited the source of CO 2 in the afternoon, yet was not enough to combat the strong local anthropogenic emissions. Surrey Hills showed higher fluxes of CO 2 despite greater vegetation cover because of higher local traffic volumes. Annual emissions from Preston were estimated at 84.9 t CO 2 ha -1 yr -1. Magnitudes and patterns of suburban CO 2 fluxes in Melbourne were similar to those observed in Northern Hemisphere suburban areas.

  14. Characteristics of nitrogen loading and its influencing factors in several typical agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Meng, Cen; Li, Baozhen; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loading have been recognized to be critical for the maintenance and restoration of water quality in agricultural watersheds, in response to the spread of water eutrophication. This paper estimates N loading and investigates its influencing factors in ten small watersheds variously dominated by forest and agricultural land use types in the subtropics of China, over an observation period of 23-29 months. The results indicate that the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N were 0.83, 0.07, and 0.46 mg N L(-1) in the forest watersheds and 1.49-5.16, 0.21-3.23, and 0.99-1.30 mg N L(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, respectively. Such concentrations exceed the national criteria for nutrient pollution in surface waters considerably, suggesting severe stream pollution in the studied agricultural watersheds. The average annual TN loadings (ANL) were estimated to be 1,640.8 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, 63.3-86.1 % of which was composed of dissolved inorganic N (DIN; comprising NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N). The watershed with intensive livestock production (i.e., the maximum livestock density of 2.66 animal units (AU) ha(-1)) exhibited the highest ANL (2,928.7 kg N km(-2) year(-1)) related to N loss with effluent discharge. The results of correlation and principle component analysis suggest that livestock production was the dominant influencing factor for the TN and NH4 (+)-N loadings and that the percentages of cropland in watersheds can significantly increase the NO3 (-)-N loading in agricultural watersheds. Therefore, to restore and maintain water quality, animal production regulations and more careful planning of land use are necessary in the agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

  15. Influence of pregnancy on body weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Bauer, M L; Reynolds, L P

    2001-09-01

    Crossbred heifers (initially 24 mo, approximate age and 378 +/- 32.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate the influence of pregnancy and advancing gestation on DMI, BW, carcass weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass. Heifers (naturally serviced (n = 22; nonpregnant controls, n = 17), were grouped in common pens. Heifers were provided corn silage and hay-based diets formulated to provide 0.45 kg of ADG. Treatments were pregnancy and nonpregnancy; pregnant and nonpregnant heifers were slaughtered on d 40, 120, 200, and 270. Live weight at slaughter and BW change throughout the trial were not influenced by pregnancy (P > 0.1). Carcass weight per unit of BW was decreased due to pregnancy (P < 0.05) and an interaction was found in eviscerated BW (EvBW; P < 0.1), with the pregnant heifers having greater live weights, carcass weights, and EvBW at the d-200 slaughter period. Ruminal fluid fill and total fill (g/kg BW) declined as slaughter period advanced, resulting in the pregnant heifers having less fill at d 270 (P< 0.07). However, ME intake was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant heifers (P > 0.1) at any of the slaughter periods. Heart mass responded differently when nonpregnant and pregnant were analyzed over time and an interaction was detected as slaughter period advanced (P < 0.1). Liver, duodenum, jejunum, and large intestinal mass were not responsive to pregnancy (P > 0.1). Data indicate that ruminal fill is altered by pregnancy but visceral organ mass is not greatly changed by treatment.

  16. Air quality resolution for health impacts assessment: influence of regional characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Saari, R. K.; Selin, N. E.

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate how regional characteristics of weather, population, and background pollution might impact the selection of optimal model resolution when calculating the human health impacts of changes to air quality. Using an approach consistent with air quality policy evaluation, we use a regional chemical transport model (CAMx) and a health benefits mapping program (BenMAP) to calculate the human health impacts associated with changes in ozone and fine particulate matter resulting from an emissions reduction scenario. We evaluate this same scenario at 36, 12 and 4 km resolution for nine regions in the Eastern US representing varied characteristics. We find that the human health benefits associated with changes in ozone concentrations are sensitive to resolution, especially in urban areas where we estimate that benefits calculated using coarse resolution results are on average two times greater than benefits calculated using finer scale results. In three urban areas we analyzed, results calculated using 36 km resolution modeling fell outside the uncertainty range of results calculated using finer scale modeling. In rural areas the influence of resolution is less pronounced with only an 8% increase in the estimated health impacts when using 36 km resolution over finer scales. In contrast, health benefits associated with changes in PM2.5 concentrations were not sensitive to resolution and did not follow a pattern based on any regional characteristics evaluated. The largest difference between the health impacts estimated using 36 km modeling results and either 12 or 4 km results was at most ±10% in any region. Several regions showed increases in estimated benefits as resolution increased (opposite the impact seen with ozone modeling) due to a higher contribution of primary PM in those regions, while some regions showed decreases in estimated benefits as resolution increased due to a higher contribution of secondary PM. Given that changes in PM2.5 dominate the human

  17. Air quality resolution for health impact assessment: influence of regional characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Saari, R. K.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate how regional characteristics of population and background pollution might impact the selection of optimal air quality model resolution when calculating the human health impacts of changes to air quality. Using an approach consistent with air quality policy evaluation, we use a regional chemical transport model (CAMx) and a health benefit mapping program (BenMAP) to calculate the human health impacts associated with changes in ozone and fine particulate matter resulting from an emission reduction scenario. We evaluate this same scenario at 36, 12 and 4 km resolution for nine regions in the eastern US representing varied characteristics. We find that the human health benefits associated with changes in ozone concentrations are sensitive to resolution. This finding is especially strong in urban areas where we estimate that benefits calculated using coarse resolution results are on average two times greater than benefits calculated using finer scale results. In three urban areas we analyzed, results calculated using 36 km resolution modeling fell outside the uncertainty range of results calculated using finer scale modeling. In rural areas the influence of resolution is less pronounced with only an 8% increase in the estimated health impacts when using 36 km resolution over finer scales. In contrast, health benefits associated with changes in PM2.5 concentrations were not sensitive to resolution and did not follow a pattern based on any regional characteristics evaluated. The largest difference between the health impacts estimated using 36 km modeling results and either 12 or 4 km results was at most ±10% in any region. Several regions showed increases in estimated benefits as resolution increased (opposite the impact seen with ozone modeling), while some regions showed decreases in estimated benefits as resolution increased. In both cases, the dominant contribution was from secondary PM. Additionally, we found that the health impacts calculated using

  18. Influence of atomic vacancies on the dynamic characteristics of nanoresonators based on double walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic analysis of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with different boundary conditions has been performed using atomistic finite element method. The double walled carbon nanotube is modeled considering it as a space frame structure similar to a three dimensional beam. The elastic properties of beam element are calculated by considering mechanical characteristics of covalent bonds between the carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Spring elements are used to describe the interlayer interactions between the inner and outer tubes caused due to the van der Waals forces. The mass of each beam element is assumed as point mass at nodes coinciding with carbon atoms at inner and outer wall of DWCNT. It has been reported that atomic vacancies are formed during the manufacturing process in DWCNT which tend to migrate leading to a change in the mechanical characteristics of the same. Simulations have been carried out to visualize the behavior of such defective DWCNTs subjected to different boundary conditions and when used as mass sensing devices. The variation of such atomic vacancies in outer wall of Zigzag and Armchair DWCNT is performed along the length and the change in response is noted. Moreover, as CNTs have been used as mass sensors extensively, the present approach is focused to explore the use of zigzag and armchair DWCNT as sensing device with a mono-atomic vacancy in it. The results clearly state that the dynamic characteristics are greatly influenced by defects like vacancies in it. A higher frequency shift is observed when the vacancy is located away from the fixed end for both Armchair as well as zigzag type of CNTs. A higher frequency shift is reported for armchair CNT for a mass of 10-22 g which remains constant for 10-21 g and then decreases gradually. Comparison with the other experimental and theoretical studies exhibits good association which suggests that defective DWCNTs can further be explored for mass sensing. This investigation is helpful

  19. [Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Nitrate Pollution in Shallow Groundwater of Liujiang Basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Gu, Hong-biao; Chi, Bao-ming; Li, Hai-jun; Jiang, Hai-ning

    2016-05-15

    Taking the nitrate in shallow groundwater of Liujiang basin as the research object, a total of 215 groups of shallow groundwater samples were collected during the wet period in July 2014 and the drought period in April 2015 on the basis of groundwater pollution investigation. The characteristics of spatial and temporal variability and the account of nitrate pollution were analyzed based on the model of semivariogram, the geostatistics of ArcGIS and factor analysis, respectively. The results showed that the study region in the southeast was the main nitrate-polluted area, with concentrations of up to 30-120 mg · L⁻¹, in both wet and drought periods, while the nitrate-contaminated area in drought period was about 1. 4 times higher than that in wet period. The spatial distribution of nitrate was primarily influenced by human activities and the geological conditions, and secondarily by Eh, DO, pH and landform conditions. The nitrate concentration was less than 20 mg · L⁻¹ in north. Pollution in local middle area was rather serious, due to human activities and the loss of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural cultivation; the area to the south, which was confined by impervious boundary, was seriously contaminated, as indicated by the nitrate accumulation effects.

  20. Microbiological influenced corrosion resistance characteristics of a 304L-Cu stainless steel against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nan, Li; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue; Song, Xiu; Yang, Ke

    2015-03-01

    Cu-bearing antibacterial stainless steels have been gaining popularity in recent years due to their strong antibacterial performances. However, only a few studies were reported for their actual performances against microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). In this study, electrochemical methods and surface analytical techniques were applied to study the MIC resistance characteristics of a 304L-Cu stainless steel (SS) against Escherichia coli in comparison with 304L SS as control. Corrosion tests for specimens after a 21-day exposure to a Luria-Bertani (LB) culture medium with E. coli demonstrated that the 304L-Cu SS considerably reduced the maximum MIC pit depth and the specific weight loss compared with 304L SS (8.3μm and 0.2mg/cm(2) vs. 13.4μm and 0.6mg/cm(2)). Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion current density of the 304L-Cu SS was as much as 4 times lower than that of the 304L SS, indicating that the 304L-Cu SS is a better choice for applications in MIC-prone environments.

  1. INFLUENCE OF CONSOLIDATION CHARACTERISTICS ON CONE PENETRATION RESISTANCE AND LIQUEFACTION RESISTANCE IN SILTY SOILS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecemis, N.; Thevanayagam, S.

    2009-12-01

    A unique correlation between liquefaction resistance and penetration resistance is not possible to justify without considering the effects of hydraulic conductivity, k, compressibility, mv, and coefficient of consolidation, ch on cone penetration resistance (Thevanayagam and Martin 2002). Therefore, CPT liquefaction screening chart revised to take into account the consolidation characteristics on penetration resistance. Recently, it has been observed that k and ch magnitudes vary between sand and sand-silt mixtures even evaluated at the same liquefaction resistance. The combined effects of penetration rate, v, cone diameter, d, and ch also influences the cone penetration resistance. Silt content affects the liquefaction resistance as well. Several numerical simulations performed by Thevanayagam and Ecemis in 2008 to explore the transition from undrained to drained conditions by varying the non-dimensional parameter T(=vd/ch) with a range of coefficient of consolidation for a single soil type, Ottawa sand-silt mix. Numerical simulation suggested the drained and undrained limits for T are respectively around 0.01 and 10. Tests on circular foundations reported by Finnie and Randolph (1994) suggested the limits of 0.01 and 30. Tests with a cylindrical T-bar penetrometer suggested narrower limits of 0.1 and 10 (House et al. 2001). Finally, the correlation between T, normalized cone resistance and cyclic resistance to liquefaction is proposed and compared with the current liquefaction screening method by CPT (Fig.1). Fig.1: Proposed & Current Liquefaction Screening Method

  2. Characteristics and influence factors of pathologic transformation in the subclasses of class IV lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-jun; Cai, Guang-yan; Liu, Shu-wen; Tang, Li; Zhang, Xue-guang; Yang, Yang; Chen, Pu; Liu, Shu-xin; Ji, Jia-yao; Shi, Suo-zhu; Yin, Zhong; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2012-06-01

    The study explored the characteristics and correlation factors of transformation in subclasses of class IV lupus nephritis. Patients with class IV lupus nephritis were subjected to repeat biopsies after 6 months of induction treatment. Transformation rate between two subclasses, class IV-S and class IV-G, was compared. Influence Factors of transformation were evaluated. Class IV-G had more severe hypertension and higher score of immunofluorescence index, glomerular active lesions, tubular and vascular lesions. Class IV-S had a higher percentage of glomerular fibrinoid necrosis. Class IV-S appeared a higher rate of transformation to class II than class IV-G (57% vs. 27%). In each subclass, active lesion also showed a higher rate of transformation to class II than active/chronic lesion (IV-G: 41.2% vs. 12.5%; IV-S: 71.4% vs. 42.8%). Patients who maintained class IV had higher blood pressure, obvious proteinuria, declined kidney function, and lower C3 level. Immunosuppressive therapy, urine protein, and vascular lesions were independent risk factors for the pathologic transformation. The rate of transformation in class IV-S was higher than that in class IV-G. The transformation is most likely to benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. Urine protein and vascular lesions are correlated with the transformation in class IV lupus nephritis.

  3. The influence of serve characteristics on performance in men's and women's high-standard beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Buscà, Bernat; Moras, Gerard; Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The precise influence of serve type and serve ball speed on beach volleyball performance is unclear. We examined the relationship between serve type and speed and their effectiveness during the 2008 Men's and Women's Open World Tour Tournament. Three hundred and seventy-eight and 375 serves performed by men and women respectively from the main draw tournament were analysed. Serve speed was recorded using a radar gun. Two expert observers recorded serve speed, serve mode, serve effectiveness and rally outcome. There was no relationship between serve speed and its effectiveness for men (r = -0.047, P > 0.05) and for women (r = -0.048, P > 0.05). However, there was a relationship between serve ball speed and its effectiveness both for men and women, when speed was categorised into three groups. There was a better balance between negative and positive outcomes at medium speeds for men and at low and high speeds for women. There was a relationship between ranking and serve ball speed only for women and between ranking and type of serve for both genders. There was no relationship between rally outcome and serve effectiveness. The combination of high ball speed and jump serve is characteristic of high ranking women but not of men.

  4. [Analysis of photosynthetic characteristics and its influencing factors of medicinal plant Mirabilis himalaica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi-Qiang; Quan, Hong; Lan, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Lian-Qiang; Li, Hui-E

    2014-07-01

    To study photosynthetic characteristics and its influencing factors in leaves of medicinal plant Mirabilis himalaica, and provide an evidence for guiding artificial planting and improving the quantity. The light-response and diurnal photosynthesis course of leaves at the booting stages of 1-3 year old M. himalaica were measured with LI-6400 system. The Results showed that the light response curves were fitted well by non rectangle hyperbola equation (R2 > or = 0.98). The values of the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and light use efficiency of three-year old M. himalaica leaves were higher than those of 1-2 year old individuals. The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of 2-3 year old M. himalaica were typical double-peak curves determinately regulated by stomatal conductance. However, transpiration rate (Tr) of 1-3 year old plants leaves were single-peak curve, which was self-protection of harm reduction caused by the higher temperature at noontime. Correlation analysis showed that the changes between photosynthetic active radiation (PFD), air temperature (T ) and Pn, were significant positive related. Therefore, M. himalaica is a typical sun plant, which should be planted under the sufficient sunshine field and prolong the growing ages suitably in order to improve the yield.

  5. Chemically- and mechanically-mediated influences on the transport and mechanical characteristics of rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Min, K.-B.; Rutqvist, J.; Elsworth, D.

    2009-02-01

    A model is presented to represent changes in the mechanical and transport characteristics of fractured rock that result from coupled mechanical and chemical effects. The specific influence is the elevation of dissolution rates on contacting asperities, which results in a stress- and temperature-dependent permanent closure. A model representing this pressure-dissolution-like behavior is adapted to define the threshold and resulting response in terms of fundamental thermodynamic properties of a contacting fracture. These relations are incorporated in a stress-stiffening model of fracture closure to define the stress- and temperature-dependency of aperture loss and behavior during stress and temperature cycling. These models compare well with laboratory and field experiments, representing both decoupled isobaric and isothermal responses. The model was applied to explore the impact of these responses on heated structures in rock. The result showed a reduction in ultimate induced stresses over the case where chemical effects were not incorporated, with permanent reduction in final stresses after cooling to ambient conditions. Similarly, permeabilities may be lower than they were in the case where chemical effects were not considered, with a net reduction apparent even after cooling to ambient temperature. These heretofore-neglected effects may have a correspondingly significant impact on the performance of heated structures in rock, such as repositories for the containment of radioactive wastes.

  6. Influences of dissolved organic matter characteristics on trihalomethanes formation during chlorine disinfection of membrane bioreactor effluents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Peng, Bo; Zhang, Yuhang; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in MBR-treated municipal wastewater intended for reuse was fractionated through ultrafiltration and XAD-8 resin adsorption and characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy. To probe the influences of DOM characteristics on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation reactivity during chlorination, THMs yield and speciation of DOM fractions was investigated. It was found that chlorine reactivity of DOM decreased with the decrease of molecular weight (MW), and MW>30kDa fractions produced over 55% of total THMs in chlorinated MBR effluent. Hydrophobic organics had much higher THMs formation reactivity than hydrophilic substances. Particularly, hydrophobic acids exhibited the highest chlorine reactivity and contributed up to 71% of total THMs formation. Meanwhile, low-MW and hydrophilic DOM were susceptible to produce bromine-containing THMs. Of the fluorescent DOM in MBR effluent, aromatic moieties and humic acid-like had higher chlorine reactivity. Conclusively, macromolecular and hydrophobic organics containing aromatic moieties and humic acid-like must be removed to reduce THMs formation.

  7. Influence of emulsifiers on the characteristics of polyurethane structures used as drug carrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emulsifiers have a significant role in the emulsion polymerization by reducing the interfacial tension thus increasing the stability of colloidal dispersions of polymer nanostructures. This study evaluates the impact of four emulsifiers on the characteristics of polyurethane hollow structures used as drug delivery system. Results Polyurethane (PU) structures with high stability and sizes ranging from nano- to micro-scale were obtained by interfacial polyaddition combined with spontaneous emulsification. The pH of PU aqueous solutions (0.1% w/w) was slightly acidic, which is acceptable for products intended to be used on human skin. Agglomerated structures with irregular shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized structures have melting points between 245-265°C and reveal promising results in different evaluations (TEWL, mexametry) on murine skin. Conclusions In this study hollow PU structures of reduced noxiousness were synthesized, their size and stability being influenced by emulsifiers. Such structures could be used in the pharmaceutical field as future drug delivery systems. PMID:23575277

  8. Influence of meat exudates on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Joo, Seon-Tea; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the accumulated exudates released from pork loin of itself on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork during cold storage was investigated. Pork loins were divided into four groups (fresh pork with exudates, fresh pork without exudates, freeze-thawed pork with exudates and freeze-thawed pork without exudates) and stored at 1.0°C for 7 days. Exudate amount increased due to freeze-thawing and with storage, and most quality traits such as drip loss, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness, redness, and moisture content were affected by freeze-thawing (p<0.05). Freeze-thaw increased drip loss but decreased moisture content, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness and redness of meat (p<0.05). Microbial growth was solely affected by exudate removal and the removal of initial exudates decreased microbial growth (p<0.05). Exudates were positively correlated with total protein content and total plate count but negatively correlated with pH and cooking loss. Therefore, removing meat exudates and avoiding freeze can slow down the quality deterioration of pork during cold storage.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of lipoplexes influence cell uptake mechanisms and transfection efficacy.

    PubMed

    Resina, Sarah; Prevot, Paul; Thierry, Alain R

    2009-06-26

    Formulation of DNA/cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes) designed for nucleic acid delivery mostly results in positively charged particles which are thought to enter cells by endocytosis. We recently developed a lipoplex formulation called Neutraplex that allows preparation of both cationic and anionic stable complexes with similar lipid content and ultrastructure. To assess whether the global net charge could influence cell uptake and activity of the transported oligonucleotides (on), we prepared lipoplexes with positive and negative charges and compared: (i) their physicochemical properties by zeta potential analysis and dynamic light scattering, (ii) their cell uptake by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, and (iii) the biological activity of the transported ON using a splicing correction assay. We show that positively or negatively charged lipoplexes enter cells cells using both temperature-dependent and -independent uptake mechanisms. Specifically, positively charged lipoplexes predominantly use a temperature-dependent transport when cells are incubated OptiMEM medium. Anionic lipoplexes favour an energy-independent transport and show higher ON activity than cationic lipoplexes in presence of serum. However, lipoplexes with high positive global net charge and OptiMEM medium give the highest uptake and ON activity levels. These findings suggest that, in addition to endocytosis, lipoplexes may enter cell via a temperature-independent mechanism, which could be mediated by lipid mixing. Such characteristics might arise from the specific lipoplex ultrastructure and should be taken into consideration when developing lipoplexes designed for in vivo or ex vivo nucleic acid transfer.

  10. Influence of Acoustic Field Structure on Polarization Characteristics of Acousto-optic Interaction in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromets, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    Influence of acoustic field structure on polarization characteristics of acousto-optic interaction is investigated. It is shown that inhomogeneity of acoustic field and mechanism of ultrasound excitation causes changes in values of acousto-optic figure of merit for ordinary and extraordinary light beams in comparison with theoretic values. The theoretic values were derived under assumption that acoustic wave is homogeneous. Experimental analysis was carried out in acousto-optic cell based on lithium niobate crystal where the acoustic wave propagates at the angle 13 degrees to Z axis of the crystal. We used three different methods of ultrasound generation in the crystal: by means of external piezotransducer, by interdigital transducer and by two sets of electrodes placed on top of the crystal surface. In the latter case, the first pair of the electrodes was directed along X crystal axis, while the second pair of the electrodes was directed orthogonally to X crystal axis and the direction of ultrasound. Obtained values for diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary polarized optical beams were qualitatively different which may be caused by spatial inhomogeneity of the generated acoustic waves in the crystal. Structure of acoustic field generated by these sets of electrodes was examined by laser probing. We performed the analysis of the acoustic field intensity using acousto-optic method. A relation of diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary light waves was measured during each iteration of the laser probing.

  11. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  12. High-pressure processing of Gorgonzola cheese: influence on Listeria monocytogenes inactivation and on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carminati, D; Gatti, M; Bonvini, B; Neviani, E; Mucchetti, G

    2004-08-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the rind of Gorgonzola cheese is difficult to avoid. This contamination can easily occur as a consequence of handling during ripening. The aims of this study were to determine the efficiency of high-pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of L. monocytogenes on cheese rind and to evaluate the influence of HPP treatments on sensory characteristics. Gorgonzola cheese rinds, after removal, were inoculated (about 7.0 log CFU/g) with L. monocytogenes strains previously isolated from other Gorgonzola cheeses. The inoculated cheese rinds were processed with an HPP apparatus under conditions of pressure and time ranging from 400 to 700 MPa for 1 to 15 min. Pressures higher than 600 MPa for 10 min or 700 MPa for 5 min reduced L. monocytogenes more than 99%. A reduction higher than 99.999% was achieved pressurizing cheese rinds at 700 MPa for 15 min. Lower pressure or time treatments were less effective and varied in effectiveness with the cheese sample. Changes in sensory properties possibly induced by the HPP were evaluated on four different Gorgonzola cheeses. A panel of 18 members judged the treated and untreated cheeses in a triangle test. Only one of the four pressurized cheeses was evaluated as different from the untreated sample. HPP was effective in the reduction of L. monocytogenes on Gorgonzola cheese rinds without significantly changing its sensory properties. High-pressure technology is a useful tool to improve the safety of this type of cheese.

  13. Influence of Lubricant Additives on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Compressor parts under the Alternative Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hidehiro; Imai, Hachiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Ueki, Yutaka; Takizawa, Kikuo; Fukushima, Kiyoshi

    From the standpoint of lubricative deficit under the alternative refrigerant/lubricants coexistence, the influence of additives on friction and wear characteristics for compressor parts have been investigated by the wear tester reappeared on friction condition similarly to actual compressor. It has been shown that an ester type base oil containing TCP (tricresyl phosphate) as an extreme pressure agents indicates satisfactory lubrication because of its EP effect. However owning to the deterioration of base oil caused by a cresol which is a reactant of TCP, a hydrolysis inhibitor must be necessary. The results indicates that a hydrolysis inhibitor added to POE is able to not only prevent the base oil from deteriorating but also feed the strength into oil films. On the other hands, in such a case that TCP concentration added in an alkylbenzen type base oil is excess or wear track temperature is higher, wear amounts of compressor parts are increased on account of corrosion wear. The reactivity of TCP depends on wear track temperature and its concentration. Consequently, it is possible that EP effect of TCP has been considered in terms of its concentration and temperature to be appropriated.

  14. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aquagenic pruritus in polycythemia vera: characteristics and influence on quality of life in 441 patients.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Fabian P; Tauscher, Jan; Petrides, Petro E

    2013-08-01

    Aquagenic pruritus (AP) is a symptom typical for polycythemia vera, but very little is known about its exact frequency, characteristics, influence on quality of life, and proper treatment. Therefore, we investigated these aspects in a large cohort of German patients with polycythemia vera using a patient directed questionnaire. Our analysis revealed that 301 of 441 analyzed patients suffered from AP. In 64.8%, AP occurred on average 2.9 years prior to diagnosis of polycythemia vera. Only in 15.4% did this lead to a hematological investigation. AP occurs primarily on the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. Most patients complain about itching (71.8%), the remainder about tickling, stinging, or burning sensations. Forty-four patients (14.6%) classified the pruritus as "unbearable." Patients with AP reported reduced global health status and higher fatigue, pain, and dyspnea. Only 24% of patients received pruritus specific treatment for pruritus consisting mostly of histamine antagonists, which ameliorated symptoms in about half of the patients. In 5.6% of patients, polycythemia vera directed therapy (phlebotomy/cytoreduction) resolved the symptoms. In summary, AP is a serious symptom in patients with polycythemia vera, which until recently was difficult to treat. The advent of the novel JAK2 inhibitors, however, may open new ways for therapy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of governmental mitigation measures on contamination characteristics of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    Beijing, the capital of China, has become one of the most air-polluted cities due to its rapid economic growth. Weekly PM2.5 samples-collected continuously from 2007 to 2010-were used to study the contamination characteristics of atmospheric particles and effects of governmental mitigation measures especially since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. PM2.5 mass concentrations during the sampling period were reduced compared to the previous studies before 2005, although they were still too high in comparison with environmental standards of China and many other countries as well as WHO standards. Results of principle component analysis show that elements of primary anthropogenic origin had an obvious decline while elements mainly from the natural environment kept a relatively stable course. The governmental macro-control measures influenced both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, but they also led to some pollution peaks prior to implementation of the respective measures. Some element concentrations correlated to the restrictiveness of relative measures, especially during different traffic restrictions. The comparison with other countries and international standards shows that there is a long way to go in order to improve air quality in Beijing, and that governmental mitigation measures need to be continued and reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Influence of microcystin-LR on cell viability and surface characteristics of Pseudomonas putida].

    PubMed

    Deng, Ting-jin; Ye, Jin-shao; Peng, Hui; Liu, Zhi-chen; Liu, Ze-hua; Yin, Hua; Chen, Shuo-na

    2015-01-01

    In microcystin-LR (MC-LR) degradation system, the change in surface characteristics and cell viability of Pseudomonas putida was studied. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of MC-LR on P. putida and elucidate the toxicity of MC-LR on microorganisms. The result demonstrated that MC-LR enhanced the cytoplasmic membrane permeability, as well as affected the ion metabolism and protein release of P. putida. The soluble sugar and Na+, Cl-release increased with the rising concentration of MC-LR ranging from 0 mg x L(-1) to 2.0 mg x L(-1). Flow Cytometry Method(FCM) analysis revealed that MC-LR accelerated the death of P. putida, and the death rate increased with the ascending concentration of MC-LR. Compared with the control, the death rate on day 5 increased by nearly 30% when 2.5 mg x L(-1) MC-LR was added. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the cells were deformed under the toxicity of MC-LR. After 5-day exposure to 2.5 mg x L(-1) MC-LR, the majority of the cells were ruptured and the intracellular materials flew out. The cellular structure was severely damaged under this condition.

  18. Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circular-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, G. A.; Carleton, A.; Barlow, G. F.; Tahraouhi, A.; Krauss, T. F.; Shore, K. A.; Samuel, I. D. W.

    2005-07-01

    We explore the influence of grating characteristics on the lasing performance of polymer circular-grating distributed-feedback lasers. A range of circular-grating sizes and profiles were fabricated on a single silica substrate, which was coated with a thin film of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]. Variations in lasing threshold and surface-emitted slope efficiency were determined as a function of grating outer diameter and duty cycle. The experimental lasing results are compared with predictions from a theoretical analysis based on an adaptation of the transfer matrix method. We find that an outer diameter of at least 200μm is required to minimize the threshold and optimize the surface-emitted slope efficiency. A groove-to-period duty cycle of ˜25% gives the lowest lasing thresholds by optimizing the in-plane feedback. We also find that the structure of the polymer-air surface varies substantially with substrate duty cycle, which has implications for optimum device design.

  19. Adherence to hemodialysis dietary sodium recommendations: influence of patient characteristics, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers.

    PubMed

    Clark-Cutaia, Maya N; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A; Burke, Lora E; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-03-01

    To identify characteristics of hemodialysis patients most likely to experience difficulty adhering to sodium restrictions associated with their dietary regimen. Secondary analysis using baseline data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial examining the effects of a technology-supported behavioral intervention on dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients. Thirteen dialysis centers in southwestern Pennsylvania. We included 122 participants (61% women; 48% African American) aged 61 ± 14 years undergoing maintenance, intermittent hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease. Normalized dietary sodium intake, adjusted interdialytic weight gain, perceived problems, and self-efficacy for restricting dietary sodium. Younger participants were more likely to report problems managing their hemodialysis diet and low self-efficacy for restricting sodium intake. Consistent with these findings, younger participants had a higher median sodium intake and higher average adjusted interdialytic weight gain. Females reported more problems managing their diet. Race, time on dialysis, and perceived income adequacy did not seem to influence outcome measures. Our findings suggest that patients who are younger and female encounter more difficulty adhering to the hemodialysis regimen. Hence, there may be a need to individualize counseling and interventions for these individuals. Further investigation is needed to understand the independent effects of age and gender on adherence to hemodialysis dietary recommendations and perceived self-efficacy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adherence to Hemodialysis Dietary Sodium Recommendations: Influence of Patient Characteristics, Self-Efficacy and Perceived Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Cutaia, Maya N.; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Burke, Lora E.; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics of hemodialysis patients most likely to experience difficulty adhering to sodium restrictions associated with their dietary regimen. Design Secondary analysis using baseline data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial examining the effects of a technology-supported behavioral intervention on dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients. Setting 13 dialysis centers in southwestern Pennsylvania. Subjects 122 participants (61% women, 48% African American) aged 61 ± 14 years receiving maintenance, intermittent hemodialysis for end stage renal disease. Main outcome measure Normalized dietary sodium intake, adjusted interdialytic weight gain, perceived problems and self-efficacy for restricting dietary sodium. Results Younger participants were more likely to report problems managing their hemodialysis diet and low self-efficacy for restricting sodium intake. Consistent with these findings, younger participants had a higher median sodium intake and higher average adjusted interdialytic weight gain. Females reported more problems managing their diet. Race, time on dialysis and perceived income adequacy did not appear to influence outcome measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest patients who are younger and female encounter more difficulty adhering to the hemodialysis regimen. Hence, there may be a need to individualize counseling and interventions for these individuals. Further investigation is needed to understand the independent effects of age and gender on adherence to hemodialysis dietary recommendations and perceived self-efficacy. PMID:24462498

  1. Investigating the influence of effective parameters on molecular characteristics of bovine serum albumin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohiwal, S. S.; Satvekar, R. K.; Tiwari, A. P.; Raut, A. V.; Kumbhar, S. G.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The protein nanoparticles formulation is a challenging task as they are prone to undergo conformational transitions while processing which may affect bioavailability for bioactive compounds. Herein, a modified desolvation method is employed to prepare Bovine Serum Albumin nanoparticles, with controllable particle size ranging from 100 to 300 nm and low polydispersity index. The factors influencing the size and structure of BSA NPs viz. protein concentration, pH and the conditions for purification are well investigated. The structure of BSA NPs is altered due to processing, and may affect the effective binding ability with drugs and bioactive compounds. With that aims, investigations of molecular characteristics of BSA NPs are carried out in detail by using spectroscopic techniques. UV-visible absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared demonstrate the alteration in protein structure of BSA NPs whereas the FT-Raman spectroscopy investigates changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The conformational changes of BSA NPs are observed by change in fluorescence intensity and emission maximum wavelength of tryptophan residue by fluorescence spectroscopy. The field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopy micrographs confirm the size and semi-spherical morphology of the BSA NPs. The effect of concentration and pH on particle size distribution is studied by particle size analyzer.

  2. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Lipoplexes Influence Cell Uptake Mechanisms and Transfection Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Resina, Sarah; Prevot, Paul; Thierry, Alain R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Formulation of DNA/cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes) designed for nucleic acid delivery mostly results in positively charged particles which are thought to enter cells by endocytosis. We recently developed a lipoplex formulation called Neutraplex that allows preparation of both cationic and anionic stable complexes with similar lipid content and ultrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess whether the global net charge could influence cell uptake and activity of the transported oligonucleotides (ON), we prepared lipoplexes with positive and negative charges and compared: (i) their physicochemical properties by zeta potential analysis and dynamic light scattering, (ii) their cell uptake by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, and (iii) the biological activity of the transported ON using a splicing correction assay. We show that positively or negatively charged lipoplexes enter cells cells using both temperature-dependent and -independent uptake mechanisms. Specifically, positively charged lipoplexes predominantly use a temperature-dependent transport when cells are incubated OptiMEM medium. Anionic lipoplexes favour an energy-independent transport and show higher ON activity than cationic lipoplexes in presence of serum. However, lipoplexes with high positive global net charge and OptiMEM medium give the highest uptake and ON activity levels. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in addition to endocytosis, lipoplexes may enter cell via a temperature-independent mechanism, which could be mediated by lipid mixing. Such characteristics might arise from the specific lipoplex ultrastructure and should be taken into consideration when developing lipoplexes designed for in vivo or ex vivo nucleic acid transfer. PMID:19557145

  3. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen R; Vreeman, Vivian M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  4. Specific Image Characteristics Influence Attitudes about Chimpanzee Conservation and Use as Pets

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Stephen R.; Vreeman, Vivian M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species. PMID:21779372

  5. Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: Influence of urbanization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerhoff, P.; Anning, D.

    2000-01-01

    DOC concentration (p<0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet absorbance values at 254 nm were typically less than 2 m-1(milligram DOC per liter)-1 and lower than values found in most temperate-region rivers, but specific ultraviolet absorbance values increased during runoff events. Fluorescence measurements indicated that DOC in desert streams typically exhibit characteristics of autochthonous sources; however, DOC in unregulated upland rivers and desert streams experienced sudden shifts from autochthonous to allochthonous sources during runoff events. The urban water system (reservoir systems and wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.The influence of urbanization, becoming increasingly common in arid regions, on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water resources was studied. DOC concentration and composition, seasonal watershed runoff events, streamflow variations, water management practices, and urban infrastructure in several Arizona watersheds were monitored. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC levels, and unregulated perennial sites and lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Reservoir outflows and wastewater treatment plant effluent had higher and less variable DOC concentrations than inflows to reservoirs. UV absorbance values, fluorescence measurements, and other indicators suggest that urban water systems (reservoirs and wastewater treatment plants) affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.

  6. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  7. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  8. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT AND SORBENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DISTRIBUTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN OCTANOL-WATER AND SOIL-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorbent and solvent characteristics influencing sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated. Analysis of aqueous sorption data for several sorbents over a broad pH range suggested hydrophobic sorption of neutral PCP predominates at pH 7. At pH > 7, sorption of the penta...

  9. Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) emergence characteristics and influence on rice (O. sativa) yield at different planting dates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize th...

  10. Crowding at Cape Lookout National Seashore: an examination of the influence of visitor characteristics on encounter norms and perceived crowding

    Treesearch

    David Alan Graefe; Hans Vogelsong

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor recreation researchers have typically defined "crowding" as a negative evaluation of the social atmosphere of an area. According to normative theory, individuals have standards (norms) regarding the appropriateness of different levels and types of recreational use. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of visitor characteristics on...

  11. Influence of gap spacing on the characteristics of Trichel pulse generated in point-to-plane discharge gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Bo; He, Jinliang; Xu, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the specific characteristics of the Trichel pulse generated in wide point-to-plane discharge gaps are investigated and compared with those of the currents generated in narrow gaps. A set of empirical formulas are derived to describe the specific characteristics. The influence of the gap spacing both on the current characteristics and on the coefficients of the formulas is studied. Based on the experiment results, an improvement is made to the space charge calculation method proposed by Lama and Gallo [J. Appl. Phys. 45, 103-113 (1974)] and the calculation results are compared to the ones obtained with Lama and Gallo's original method. With the influence of the space charge considered, the modified method obtains more accurate results of the space charge accumulating in the gap and gives a more precise description of the motion of the space charge in the gap. Based on the calculation results, the influence of the space charge on the distribution of the electric field is examined and the influence of the gap spacing on the current characteristics is also studied.

  12. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT AND SORBENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DISTRIBUTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN OCTANOL-WATER AND SOIL-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorbent and solvent characteristics influencing sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated. Analysis of aqueous sorption data for several sorbents over a broad pH range suggested hydrophobic sorption of neutral PCP predominates at pH 7. At pH > 7, sorption of the penta...

  13. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  14. Adolescent Drug Use in Mexico and among Mexican American Adolescents in the United States: Environmental Influences and Individual Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Ortiz, Maria; Velazuez, Jorge A Villatoro; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Newcomb, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Compares cigarette, alcohol, and illegal drug use among high school students in Baja California Norte (BCN), Mexico with Mexican American students in Los Angeles (LA), California (N=516). Demographic variables, individual characteristics, and environmental influences were considered. Reports that more BCN students used alcohol and more LA students…

  15. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  16. Beyond Behavior: Multilevel Analysis of the Influence of Sociodemographics and School Characteristics on Students' Risk of Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Klingbeil, David A.; Van Norman, Ethan R.

    2013-01-01

    Minority disproportionality in school discipline outcomes continues to trouble practitioners and scholars. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of school policy enactment (e.g., retention rates, special education identification) on students' risk of suspension. The sample…

  17. Beyond Behavior: Multilevel Analysis of the Influence of Sociodemographics and School Characteristics on Students' Risk of Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Klingbeil, David A.; Van Norman, Ethan R.

    2013-01-01

    Minority disproportionality in school discipline outcomes continues to trouble practitioners and scholars. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of school policy enactment (e.g., retention rates, special education identification) on students' risk of suspension. The sample…

  18. Influence of selected water quality characteristics on the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin to Hyalella azteca

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a) water quality characteristics on lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin aqueous toxicity to Hyalella azteca using natural water from 12 ponds and lakes in Mississipp...

  19. Influence of gap spacing on the characteristics of Trichel pulse generated in point-to-plane discharge gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Xu, Yongsheng

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, the specific characteristics of the Trichel pulse generated in wide point-to-plane discharge gaps are investigated and compared with those of the currents generated in narrow gaps. A set of empirical formulas are derived to describe the specific characteristics. The influence of the gap spacing both on the current characteristics and on the coefficients of the formulas is studied. Based on the experiment results, an improvement is made to the space charge calculation method proposed by Lama and Gallo [J. Appl. Phys. 45, 103–113 (1974)] and the calculation results are compared to the ones obtained with Lama and Gallo's original method. With the influence of the space charge considered, the modified method obtains more accurate results of the space charge accumulating in the gap and gives a more precise description of the motion of the space charge in the gap. Based on the calculation results, the influence of the space charge on the distribution of the electric field is examined and the influence of the gap spacing on the current characteristics is also studied.

  20. INSTRUCT Coders' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jamesine

    The coding language INSTRUCT is a high-level programing language designed for programing computer-assisted instruction lessons. As it is presently implemented on the PDP-10 computer, a "lesson processor" transforms the INSTRUCT lessons into a numeric code that can be understood by a teaching program called INST. INST controls the…

  1. Analysis of regional albedo characteristics and its influence in the regional climate model REMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuschmann, S.; Jacob, D.

    2010-09-01

    The effects of land-use changes on climate have a high priority in climate impact researches. Nevertheless it is not trivial to integrate land-use changes in the Regional atmospherical climate Model REMO (Jacob 2001) so that characteristics of a typical land-use type can be created and therewith systematical effects can be analyzed. As in many regional dynamical climate models, REMO is calculating in the target resolution with parameters which are independent of land-use classes. Considering only one of these parameters, e.g. the albedo, the processing chain (Rechid et al. 2008) to construct the underlying model-albedo uses a number of assumptions which levels phase and amplitude of the albedo-cycle of a regional typical land cover. The albedo data product ALBEDOMAP (Fischer et al. 2006) of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on the ESA platform ENVISAT is used as comparative data set. The annual cycle of the ALBEDOMAP data exceeds the modeled variability of the annual albedo cycle permanently in some cases by a factor of ten. Results of REMO-sensitivity studies show, that even small changes in the albedo about one percent is influencing the simulation. Within this study the relevance of characteristically surface information concerning land-use change for fine resolutions in REMO were shown. Fischer, J. ; Preusker, R.; Muller, J.-P. & M. Zühlke (2007): ALBEDOMAP -Validation Report - ESA AO/1-4559/04/I-LG, Online-Publikation: http://www.brockmann-consult.de/albedomap/pdf/MERIS-AlbedoMap-Validation-1.0.pdf. Jacob, D. (2001): A note to the simulation of the annual and inter-annual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea drainage basin; Meteorol. Amtos. Phys., 77, 61-73, 2001. Rechid, D.; Raddatz, T. & D. Jacob (2008): Parameterization of snow-free land surface albedo as a function of vegetation phenology based on MODIS data and applied in climate modelling.; Theor. Appl. Climatol., DOI 10.1007/s00704-008-0003-y.

  2. The influence of surface characteristics on lapse rates and temperature profiles in areas of complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.; Pike, G.; Fower, D.; Schaefer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Temperatures near the ground are often decoupled from free-air equivalents, particularly in areas of complex relief and at high latitudes where cold air drainage occurs particularly when radiation balances become negative. This means that it is hard to predict spatial patterns of surface temperature in such regions. In this study several years of intensive field measurements in complex terrain in northern Finland (Kevo) and Sweden (Abisko) allow detailed examination of the interaction between land surface characteristics (including cryosphere), vegetation, and local/micro-climate in mountain basins. Temperature and vapour pressure were measured every 30 minutes for 5 years (2007-2012) at 60 sites at Kevo and for a winter season (September-June) at 52 sites in Abisko, ranging over 300/600 metres of elevation respectively. In Finland lapse rates vary considerably both seasonally and diurnally, the relative importance of seasonal and diurnal forcing changing throughout the year. The results show intense (up to +80 °C/km) and persistent inversion events during the winter months (NDJ) which are broken up by mechanical effects since there is no diurnal cycle. In the transition from winter into spring (FMA) these inversions still occur but increasing radiation imposes a diurnal pattern on their formation and destruction. As snow cover peaks in spring the interaction between surface albedo, land cover and radiation serves to amplify the diurnal cycle in lapse rates. Daytime lapse rates peak in spring because of an increase in albedo with elevation as dark trees give way to reflective snow. At night inversions rapidly reform. Summer lapse rates are modified (usually weakened) by the presence of open water at low elevations. In Abisko similar processes are shown to be at work, although since the valley system is more open and at a larger spatial scale, the range of lapse rate variability is slightly less and the influence of surface characteristics more subdued. Taken

  3. Surface characteristics of implants influence their bone integration after simultaneous placement of implant and GBR membrane.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luiz A; Fuchs-Wehrle, Anita M; Lang, Niklaus P; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Liberti, Edson; Pompeu, Eduardo; Todescan, José H

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of titanium surface characteristics on bone integration of implants, and to describe the pattern of peri-implant tissue healing after simultaneous implant placement and guided bone regeneration. In four healthy mongrel dogs mandibular premolars were extracted. Two weeks following full mouth prophylaxis and 4 months after extractions, simultaneous membrane and implant surgeries were performed. Efforts were made to produce bony defects with dimensions of 7 x 7 x 7 mm. Into these, 24 standard ITI implants (diameter = 4.1 mm; length = 8 mm) with either a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) or a machined surface (MS) were placed. Although implants were inserted 4 mm into cancellous bone, difficulties in achieving optimal primary stability were encountered. All dogs were maintained on a soft diet. Chlorhexidine rinses were performed three times a week. Full mouth prophylaxis was performed every 2 weeks. In the case of membrane exposure, the membranes were removed prematurely (4-6 or 14-15 weeks after surgery). Two dogs were sacrificed at 16 weeks and two at 24 weeks after surgery. Nondecalcified histologic sections were processed and histometric analyses were carried out. When membranes were removed after 4-6 weeks, a vertical bone growth (VB) of 45-61% of the original defect was noted. After membrane removal at 14-15 weeks, similar VB was observed. However, if membranes were left in situ for 24 weeks, VB was between 79% and 96%. In this group of sites, the VB was 66% at 16 weeks and 86% at 24 weeks. Osseointegration in the regenerated bone area ranged from 12% to 32% for the TPS and from 0.0% to 3.6% for the MS implants at 16 and 24 weeks combined. Osseointegration in the pristine host bone area ranged from 16% to 35% for the TPS and from 0.0% to 11% for the MS sites at 16 and 24 weeks. In conclusion, the fraction of implant-bone integration was much higher in the pristine bone compared to that in the regenerated bone

  4. Influence of salt marsh on bacterial activity in two estuaries with different hydrodynamic characteristics (Ria de Aveiro and Tagus Estuary).

    PubMed

    Santos, Luísa; Cunha, Angela; Silva, Helena; Caçador, Isabel; Dias, Joao M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2007-06-01

    The influence of salt marsh on estuarine bacterioplankton was investigated in two estuaries with different hydrodynamic characteristics (Ria de Aveiro and Tagus Estuary). In the Ria de Aveiro, bacteria in the flood water overlying the marsh were two times more abundant and five to six times more active than in the main channel. In the Tagus Estuary, bacterial abundance was similar in flooding and channel water, but bacterial activity was up to two times higher in the main channel. The two salt marshes have distinct influences on estuarine bacterioplankton abundance and activity. In the Ria de Aveiro, salt marsh enhanced estuarine bacterial communities, increasing their size and stimulating their activity. By contrast, the salt marsh in the Tagus Estuary does not seem to increase the bacterial abundance and production in the channel water. These distinct influences may be explained by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the salt marshes, which were confirmed by the hydrodynamic model implemented for both systems.

  5. [Influence of obesity on clinicopathological characteristics in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuan-yuan; Dai, Bo; Chang, Kun; Kong, Yun-yi; Gu, Cheng-yuan; Zhang, Gui-ming; Wan, Fang-ning; Wang, Hong-kai; Zhang, Hai-liang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the influence of anthropometric measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, on pathological characteristics in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. From January 2006 to March 2013, the 413 patients of prostate cancer who received radical prostatectomy (RP) and their clinical and pathological data had been collected. The median age for the entire cohort was 68 years, which ranged from 48 to 78 years. All patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer before surgery and the Gleason score ranged from 4 to 10 (median 7). Anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity including anterior abdominal fat, posterior abdominal fat and anteroposterior diameter were measured from the T2 weighted sagittal localization images of MRI scans and subcutaneous adipose tissue and the percentage of visceral adipose tissue were calculated. The patients' clinical and pathologic characteristics across BMI groups were compared used Student's t test for continuous variables or chi-squared test for categorical variables. Moreover, univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to address the influence of anthropometric measures of obesity on pathological outcomes. The BMI ranged from 14.2 to 34.0 kg/m(2) and the median value was 23.8 kg/m(2). The abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue ranged from 12.6 to 60.3 mm and the median value was 31.4 mm. The percentage of visceral adipose tissue ranged from 71.1% to 92.1% and the median value was 83.8%. In RP specimens, Gleason score ≥ 8 was observed in 141 patients (34.1%), pathological tumor stage was T3a in 69 patients (16.7%) and pathological tumor stage was T3b in 78 patients (18.9%). Positive surgical margin and lymph node involvement were observed in 71(17.2%) and 38(9.2%) patients, respectively. Although univariate analysis showed that BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was associated with pathological Gleason score ≥ 8 (OR = 1

  6. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  7. The genetic influences on oxycodone response characteristics in human experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Anne E; Sato, Hiroe; Nielsen, Lecia M; Staahl, Camilla; Droney, Joanne; Gretton, Sophy; Branford, Ruth; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Riley, Julia; Ross, Joy

    2015-08-01

    Human experimental pain studies are of value to study basic pain mechanisms under controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variation across selected mu-, kappa- and delta-opioid receptor genes (OPRM1, OPRK1and OPRD1, respectively) influenced analgesic response to oxycodone in healthy volunteers. Experimental multimodal, multitissue pain data from previously published studies carried out in Caucasian volunteers were used. Data on thermal skin pain tolerance threshold (PTT) (n = 37), muscle pressure PTT (n = 31), mechanical visceral PTT (n = 43) and thermal visceral PTT (n = 41) were included. Genetic associations with pain outcomes were explored. Nineteen opioid receptor genetic polymorphisms were included in this study. Variability in oxycodone response to skin heat was associated with OPRM1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs589046 (P < 0.0001) and rs563649 (P < 0.0001). Variability in oxycodone response to visceral pressure was associated with four OPRM1 SNPs: rs589046 (P = 0.015), rs1799971 (P = 0.045), rs9479757 (P = 0.009) and rs533586 (P = 0.046). OPRM1 SNPs were not associated with oxycodone visceral heat threshold, however, one OPRD1 rs419335 reached significance (P = 0.015). Another OPRD1 SNP rs2234918 (P = 0.041) was associated with muscle pressure. There were no associations with OPRK1 SNPs and oxycodone response for any of the pain modalities. Associations were found between analgesic effects of oxycodone and OPRM1 and OPRD1 SNPs; therefore, variation in opioid receptor genes may partly explain responder characteristics to oxycodone.

  8. [Characteristics of Adsorption Leaching and Influencing Factors of Dimethyl Phthalate in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Song, Jiao-yan; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fa

    2016-02-15

    The typical soil-purple soil in Three Gorges Reservoir was the tested soil, the characteristics of adsorption leaching of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in contaminated water by the soil, and the influencing factors in the process were conducted using soil column leaching experiment. The results showed that the parabolic equation was the best equation describing adsorption kinetics of DMP by soils. The concentration of DMP in the leaching solution had significant effect on the adsorption amounts of DMP. With the increasing concentration of DMP in the leaching solution, the adsorption capacities of DMP by purple soil increased linearly. The ionic strength and pH in leaching solution had significant effects on adsorption of DMP. On the whole, increasing of the ionic strength restrained the adsorption. The adsorption amounts at pH 5.0-7.0 were more than those under other pH condition. The addition of exogenous organic matter (OM) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. However, the adsorption amount was less than those with other addition amounts of exogenous OM when the addition of exogenous OM was too high (> or = 30 g x kg(-1)). The addition of surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (SDBS) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. The adsorption amount was maximal when the addition amount of SDBS was 50 mg x kg(-1). However, the adsorption amounts decreased with increasing addition amounts of SDBS although the adsorption amounts were still more than that of the control group, and the adsorption amount was almost equal to that of the control group when the addition amount of SDBS was 800 mg x kg(-1). Continuous leaching time affected the vertical distribution of DMP in the soil column. When the leaching time was shorter, the upper soil column adsorbed more DMP, while the DMP concentrations in upper and lower soil columns became similar with the extension of leaching time.

  9. Influence of soy fortification on microbial diversity during cassava fermentation and subsequent physicochemical characteristics of garri.

    PubMed

    Ahaotu, Ndidiamaka Nnenaya; Anyogu, Amarachukwu; Obioha, Promiselynda; Aririatu, Lawrence; Ibekwe, Vincent Ifeanyi; Oranusi, Solomon; Sutherland, Jane P; Ouoba, Labia Irene Ivette

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of the addition of soy products on the microbiology, nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of garri, a fermented cassava product. Malted soy flour (MSF) and soy protein (SP) were separately added (12% w/w) to cassava mash prior to controlled fermentation, while non-supplemented cassava mash served as a control. Identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and aerobic mesophilic bacteria was accomplished by repetitive sequence based (rep)-PCR analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory characterisation of control and soy-fortified garri was performed using conventional methods. rep-PCR allowed differentiation of 142 isolates into 41 groups corresponding to 6 species of LAB and 25 species of aerobic mesophiles. LAB isolates belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Weissella, Leuconostoc and Lactococcus with Leuconostoc mesenteroides being the dominant species in control and MSF-cassava while Weissella cibaria dominated SP-cassava fermentation. Aerobic mesophiles included Gram positive and negative bacteria including species of the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Serratia, Acinetobacter and Raoultella. Diversity of aerobic mesophiles varied between control, MSF- and SP- cassava mash. Protein content of soy-fortified garri increased from 0.73% to 10.17% and 10.05% in MSF and SP garri respectively with a significant decrease in total cyanide from 26 to 11 ppm. Results from physicochemical and organoleptic evaluation indicate that supplementation of cassava with soy products prior to fermentation can produce acceptable garri. Soy products can be considered a viable option for protein fortification of garri, a low protein food with the aim of combating malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of climate on landscape characteristics in safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Becker, J K; Lindborg, T; Thorne, M C

    2014-12-01

    In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine the erosional regime (which may also be conditioned by the vegetation characteristics adopted, based both on climatic and other considerations). However, geomorphological changes may be governed by regional rather than local considerations, e.g. alteration of river base levels, river capture and drainage network reorganisation, or the progression of an ice sheet or valley glacier across the site. The regional climate is in turn governed by the global climate. In this work, a commentary is presented on the types of climate models that can be used to develop projections of climate change for use in post-closure radiological impact assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes. These models include both Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity. The relevant outputs available from these models are identified and consideration is given to how these outputs may be used to inform projections of landscape development. Issues of spatial and temporal downscaling of climate model outputs to meet the requirements of local-scale landscape development modelling are also addressed. An example is given of how climate change and landscape development influence the radiological impact of radionuclides potentially released from the deep geological disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel that SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) proposes to construct at Forsmark, Sweden.

  11. The influence of seatback characteristics on cervical injury risk in severe rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Roger; Carter, Jarrod; Roberts, Verne; Myers, Barry

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the optimum seatback characteristics for the mitigation of serious and catastrophic neck injury during high-speed rear-end collisions remains a topic of continued investigation. Despite a number of prior research efforts, both field data and sled test studies have yet to define a single optimal seatback performance criterion. Further, recent developments in seatbacks have introduced new designs into the field that have not been compared to more traditional designs. Analysis of NASS data from 1980 to 1999 demonstrated that at changes in velocity (DeltaV) above 40 kph, rear-end collisions have a dramatically lower risk for catastrophic injury than frontal, near-side or far-side impacts. Unfortunately, owing to the small penetration of newer seatback designs in the automotive fleet, it is not possible to examine the influence of seatback design parameters on serious neck injury using these data alone. Accordingly, seven rear impact HYGE sled tests were conducted using a wide range of seat designs. Upper and lower neck load cells were used to measure neck forces and moments in restrained 50th male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). Additionally, the neck injury criteria (Nij) was computed. Unlike prior studies that have examined the standard seated ATD or the dramatically out-of-position ATD, these tests were conducted using an ATD seated in non-standard but typical driving position. The results of this study indicate that several descriptions of seatback behavior, such as quasi-static ultimate force are poor predictors of ATD neck loading. It also suggests that, for the severe crash studied, an optimum range of seatback stiffness exists, which appears to be in the mid-range of seatback stiffnesses available in current production vehicles. These data continue to illustrate the complex relationship of seatback design parameters to neck injury risk.

  12. Influence of alluvial cover and lithology on the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial bedrock channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sean P.; Rennie, Colin D.

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of research has focused on evaluating the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial channels containing proximate bedrock, mixed, and alluvial sections. Active orogens have been the focus of most empirical field-based studies with comparatively less focus on semi-alluvial bedrock channels located in other regions. In this study, we present an inventory of channel geometry data collected from semi-alluvial bedrock channels in Ontario and Québec, Canada, which are not subject to tectonic uplift. Data were sourced from a variety of physiographic settings, permitting evaluation of the influence of alluvial cover, lithology, and gradient on cross-sectional channel form. Our results show no substantial difference in channel width or scaling behaviour amongst bedrock, mixed, and alluvial channels included in our study, except for sedimentary bedrock channels virtually bare of alluvial cover that represent a uniquely wide, distinct subgroup. Channel gradient does not appear to exhibit any observable control on channel width amongst our study rivers, suggesting that sedimentary bedrock channels form a distinct subgroup because of lithology. Comparatively, the widths of our bedrock channels formed in igneous/metamorphic bedrock are comparable to the widths of mixed channels and alluvial channels for a given discharge and drainage area. Our findings also suggest that cross-sectional adjustment of sedimentary bedrock channels is achieved through lateral erosion of the channel banks and downward erosion of the channel bed, whereas cross-sectional adjustment of igneous/metamorphic bedrock is primarily achieved through downward erosion of the bed with limited lateral erosion of the banks.

  13. Influence of tobacco smoke on indoor PM 10 particulate matter characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; De Berardis, B.; Arrizza, L.; Granato, V.

    In this study we evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke on the physico-chemical characteristics of PM 10 in different environments: outdoors, a smoking room, the same room after a 7-day absence of smokers and in a smoke-free office. The latter office was close to the smoking room, separated by a corridor. The coarse (PM 10-2.1) and fine (PM 2.1) fractions of PM 10 collected in the monitored areas were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the elemental composition of the particulate and to identify the chemical state of atomic species detected. Four clusters of particles for both "fine" and "coarse" fractions were identified: carbonaceous particles, soil erosion particles, Ca-sulphates and metal compound particles. EDX spectra showed that a percentage of carbonaceous particles carried S, Si and metal traces. High-resolution XPS spectra of the C1s region showed a significant greater occurrence of the C-O/C-N functional group in the particulate fine fraction collected in the smoking room compared to that collected outdoors. The carbonaceous component of coarse fraction collected in the smoking room appeared dissimilar from the same component detected in the other areas. After the 7-day absence of smokers this component of the PM 10-2.1 fraction was similar to the corresponding coarse fraction collected at the outdoor location. The carbonaceous component of fine fraction collected in the smoking room, containing tobacco smoke products, such as organic carbon and nicotine, was traceable in the neighbouring areas, even several days after suspension of smoking activity.

  14. Do Biological and Bedsite Characteristics Influence Survival of Neonatal White-Tailed Deer?

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, M. Colter; Lashley, Marcus A.; Kilgo, John C.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover. PMID:25734333

  15. The influence of physical characteristics on the resting energy expenditure of youth: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Stephen D; McMurray, Robert G; Kim, Youngdeok; Willis, Erik A; Kang, Minsoo; McCurdy, Thomas

    2017-05-06

    To examine the literature on resting energy expenditure (REE) of youth and determine the influence of age, sex, BMI, and body composition on REE. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, NTIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Pascal databases for studies with data on resting metabolic rate, REE, resting oxygen uptake (or VO2 ) in healthy children, youth, or adolescents (age = 1-18 years). Over 200 publications were identified; sixty-one publications met criteria and were included in the meta-analyses, resulting in 142 study population estimates (totaling 5,397 youth) of REE. Pooled mean was 1414 kcal·day(-1) with a significant and moderate-to-high between-study heterogeneity [Q(140) = 7912.42, P < 0.001; I(2)  = 98.97%]. A significantly greater (P < 0.001) pooled mean kcal·day(-1) was estimated for studies with male participants (1519 kcal·day(-1) ) comparing to studies with female participants (1338 kcal·day(-1) ). Age, height, and body mass resulted in the highest R(2) of 86.4 for males and 83.9% for females. Fat free mass and body mass index (BMI) did not improve total R(2) . These data suggest that using a linear equation including age, height, and body mass to estimate REE based on kcal·day(-1) is more accurate than estimates based on body mass kcal·kg(-1) ·h(-1) . Further, if kcal·kg(-1) ·h(-1) is used, including a quadratic component for the physical characteristics improves the predictive ability of the equation. Regardless of the metric, separate equations should be used for each sex. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of informant characteristics on the reliability of family history interviews.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Kim H W; Derks, Eske M; Hendriks, Eva J E; Cahn, Wiepke

    2011-06-01

    Family history interviews are widely used in psychiatric research, as well as in genetic and twin studies, and provide a way to collect family history information quickly and economically. To obtain a valid assessment of family history, it is important to investigate which family member will be able to provide accurate information. Previous research shows that the validity of family history reporting can be influenced by characteristics of the informant, such as age, gender and personal history of psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a subject's position in a pedigree on the validity of data collection. Family history data on diabetes and psychiatric disorders were collected in three generations of 33 families by interviewing both an index subject (3rd generation) and his or her mother (2nd generation). Mothers were shown to report higher rates of diabetes and psychiatric disorder in the family compared to the index subjects. There was no significant difference in the disease rate reported by male and female index subject. Mothers who experienced a depressive episode indicated significantly more family members as having a psychiatric disorder than mothers who never experienced such an episode. This could be explained by the presence of informant bias, but may also result from the fact that depression is a heritable disorder and is therefore actually more prevalent in these families. Our findings suggest that family interview data should be collected by interviewing subjects who have a central position in the pedigree and can therefore provide information on his/her own generation, the previous and the next. In addition, psychiatric status of the informant should be carefully addressed.

  17. Urban influence on increasing ozone concentrations in a characteristic Mediterranean agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, M.; Lozano, A.; Hierro, J.; Valle, J. del; Mantilla, E.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in cities has been extensively studied due to the high population density potentially exposed to high levels of pollutants. The main problems in urban areas have been related to particulate matter (PM) and NO2. Less attention has been directed towards O3 because urban levels are generally lower than those recorded in rural areas. The implementation of air quality plans, together with technological improvements, have resulted in reductions of PM and NO2 levels in many European cities. In contrast, urban O3 levels have experimented increases which may respond to declining NOx emission trends. It is therefore necessary to intensify the study of urban O3 and its potential relation with NOx variations. In the agglomeration of Zaragoza (NE Spain), traffic circulation through the centre has dropped by 28.3% since 2008 due to several factors such as the implementation of a mobility plan, the completion of major construction projects and the economic crisis in Spain. The study of this case offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of reductions in NOx emissions on the levels of O3 in a characteristic Mediterranean city. This work analyses the variability and trends of ambient air levels of O3 and NOx in Zaragoza and the Ebro valley from 2007 to 2012. Results demonstrate that, although the main factor explaining O3 variability is still linked to meteorology, changes in NOx emissions strongly influence O3 variability and trends, mainly due to interaction with fresh NO. Specific analysis of the O3 "weekend effect" show a significant correlation (r2 = 0.81) between the drop of NO concentrations (associated to emissions) and the increment of O3 levels during weekends. Moreover, trend analyses reveal that the decline in NOx emissions in Zaragoza from 2007 to 2012 can be associated with significant increments in O3 levels.

  18. [Ecological Footprint Evolution Characteristics and Its Influencing Factors in China from 2000 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-rong; Cui, Shu-hong; Li, Ying-ming

    2016-02-15

    According to global average land productivities in 2000, this study calculated ecological footprint (EF) in China from 2000 to 2010, and analyzed its dynamic characteristics and socio-economic driving forces. The results showed that the total EF in China increased from 1.769 to 3.259 billion global hectares (gha) from 2000 to 2010, and its annual growth rate was 6.30%. Carbon Footprint was the fastest growth type of EF. It increased from 0.742 to 1.805 billion gha, and its annual growth rate was 9.29%. The net increase of cropland Footprint was also large in comparison to other types of Footprint. It increased from 0.678 to 0.891 billion gha. Per capita EF in China increased from 1.40 to 2.43 gha in this period. Although it was still below the world average level, it was far beyond per capita ecological carrying capacity in China, which led to serious ecological deficit and severe ecological crisis in China. The fast growth of per capita EF was the main driving force for the growth of total EF in China during the study period. Further, the growth of per capita EF was positively influenced by the growth of per capita consumption of products and severs, which was driven by economic growth and urbanization. Meanwhile, a large amount of exports of resource-intensive products in international trade was also an important driving force for EF growth. According to the evolution route of per capita EF in developed countries, along with China moving from middle-income to high-income country, per capita EF will maintain rapid growth, and ecological deficit in China will further exacerbate.

  19. Evidence that Life History Characteristics of Wild Birds Influence Infection and Exposure to Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%–96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age. PMID:23469210

  20. The influence of passenger flow on the topology characteristics of urban rail transit networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yingyue; Chen, Feng; Chen, Peiwen; Tan, Yurong

    2017-05-01

    Current researches on the network characteristics of metro networks are generally carried out on topology networks without passenger flows running on it, thus more complex features of the networks with ridership loaded on it cannot be captured. In this study, we incorporated the load of metro networks, passenger volume, into the exploration of network features. Thus, the network can be examined in the context of operation, which is the ultimate purpose of the existence of a metro network. To this end, section load was selected as an edge weight to demonstrate the influence of ridership on the network, and a weighted calculation method for complex network indicators and robustness were proposed to capture the unique behaviors of a metro network with passengers flowing in it. The proposed method was applied on Beijing Subway. Firstly, the passenger volume in terms of daily origin and destination matrix was extracted from exhausted transit smart card data. Using the established approach and the matrix as weighting, common indicators of complex network including clustering coefficient, betweenness and degree were calculated, and network robustness were evaluated under potential attacks. The results were further compared to that of unweighted networks, and it suggests indicators of the network with consideration of passenger volumes differ from that without ridership to some extent, and networks tend to be more vulnerable than that without load on it. The significance sequence for the stations can be changed. By introducing passenger flow weighting, actual operation status of the network can be reflected more accurately. It is beneficial to determine the crucial stations and make precautionary measures for the entire network’s operation security.

  1. Winter time chemical characteristics of aerosols over the Bay of Bengal: continental influence.

    PubMed

    Aryasree, S; Nair, Prabha R; Girach, I A; Jacob, Salu

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of Indian Space Research Organisation, ship-based aerosol sampling was carried out over the marine environment of Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the northern winter months of December 2008 to January 2009. About 101 aerosol samples were collected, covering the region from 3.4° to 21° N latitude and 76° to 98° E longitude-the largest area covered-including the south east (SE) BoB for the first time. These samples were subjected to gravimetric and chemical analysis and the total aerosol loading as well the mass concentration of the ionic species namely F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), NO2 (-), NO3 (-), PO4 (2-), SO4 (2-), NH4 (+), etc. and the metallic species, Na, Mg, Ca, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb were estimated for each sample. Based on the spatial distribution of individual chemical species, the air flow pattern, and airmass back trajectory analysis, the source characteristics of aerosols for different regions of BoB were identified. Significant level of continental pollution was noticed over BoB during winter. While transport of pollution from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) contributed to aerosols over north BoB, those over SE BoB were influenced by SE Asia. A quantitative study on the wind-induced production of sea salt aerosols and a case study on the species dependent effect of rainfall are also presented in this paper.

  2. Self-Esteem in Hearing-Impaired Children: The Influence of Communication, Education, and Audiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. Methods This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. Results HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. Conclusion HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Discussion Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential. PMID:24722329

  3. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  4. Self-esteem in hearing-impaired children: the influence of communication, education, and audiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P; Briaire, Jeroen J; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H M

    2014-01-01

    Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential.

  5. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Lashley, Marcus A; Kilgo, John C; Pollock, Kenneth H; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover.

  6. Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as tools in deep-water palaeoceanography: environmental influences on faunal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    Foraminiferal research lies at the border between geology and biology. Benthic foraminifera are a major component of marine communities, highly sensitive to environmental influences, and the most abundant benthic organisms preserved in the deep-sea fossil record. These characteristics make them important tools for reconstructing ancient oceans. Much of the recent work concerns the search for palaeoceanographic proxies, particularly for the key parameters of surface primary productivity and bottom-water oxygenation. At small spatial scales, organic flux and pore-water oxygen profiles are believed to control the depths at which species live within the sediment (their 'microhabitats'). Epifaunal/shallow infaunal species require oxygen and labile food and prefer relatively oligotrophic settings. Some deep infaunal species can tolerate anoxia and are closely linked to redox fronts within the sediment; they consume more refractory organic matter, and flourish in relatively eutrophic environments. Food and oxygen availability are also key factors at large (i.e. regional) spatial scales. Organic flux to the sea floor, and its seasonality, strongly influences faunal densities, species compositions and diversity parameters. Species tend to be associated with higher or lower flux rates and the annual flux range of 2-3 g Corg m-2 appears to mark an important faunal boundary. The oxygen requirements of benthic foraminifera are not well understood. It has been proposed that species distributions reflect oxygen concentrations up to fairly high values (3 ml l-1 or more). Other evidence suggests that oxygen only begins to affect community parameters at concentrations < 0.5 ml l-1. Different species clearly have different thresholds, however, creating species successions along oxygen gradients. Other factors such as sediment type, hydrostatic pressure and attributes of bottom-water masses (particularly carbonate undersaturation and current flow) influence foraminiferal distributions

  7. Influence of physicochemical characteristics and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Ávila, Marta; Garde, Sonia; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Iberian dry-cured hams of different physicochemical characteristics and the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600MPa on volatile compounds were investigated. According to the analysis of variance carried out on the levels of 122 volatile compounds, intramuscular fat content influenced the levels of 8 benzene compounds, 5 carboxylic acids, 2 ketones, 2 furanones, 1 alcohol, 1 aldehyde and 1 sulfur compound, salt concentration influenced the levels of 1 aldehyde and 1 ketone, salt-in-lean ratio had no effect on volatile compounds, and water activity influenced the levels of 3 sulfur compounds, 1 alcohol and 1 aldehyde. HPP-treated samples of Iberian ham had higher levels of 4 compounds and lower levels of 31 compounds than untreated samples. A higher influence of HPP treatment on volatile compounds than physicochemical characteristics was observed for Iberian ham. Therefore, HPP treatment conditions should be optimized in order to diminish its possible effect on Iberian ham odor and aroma characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of the influence of the rolling of moving part on the dynamic characteristics of OPU actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Jigang; Pan, Longfa; Ma, Jianshe; Shi, Hongwei

    2005-09-01

    As the executive part, the actuator of optical pick-up (OPU) accomplishes the servo action actually. The dynamic characteristics of the OPU actuator determine the precision of focusing and tracking servo system, so it will influence the reading performance of optical pick-up. As the density of optical storage increases, the OPU actuator has a high servo bandwidth for its focusing and tracking control to follow dynamic disturbances by high density and high rotational speed of disk. The dynamic response curve should be as smooth as possible in its linear area. In this paper, the influence of the rolling of moving part on the actuator's dynamic characteristics is studied. Because of some design reasons, the moving part of the actuator may roll in three dimensions during the working status. It's one of the most important factors to influence the dynamic characteristics of actuator. Firstly, the reason of rolling and the influence on dynamic characteristics are studied. In the design of actuator we should pay attention to three important points, which are the gravitational point, the equivalent driving force point and the equivalent sustained point. When the three points are not accordant during the moving action, the rolling occurs. The dynamic response curve will have some unexpected resonances at certain frequency area. This phenomenon is analyzed by kinetic method. Secondly, a model of the actuator is founded referring to an actual type of actuator. By finite element analysis software (ANSYS), the mechanical and magnetic simulation is performed. The special distributing of electromagnetic field is described and the driving force is analyzed. Thirdly, the dynamic characteristics of some actuators with rolling are tested. The experimental result is consistent with the simulation result. So the validity of this study is verified. At last, the possible methods to avoid rolling of moving part are introduced.

  9. Influence of crash pulse characteristics on injury risk in frontal impacts based on real-life crashes.

    PubMed

    Ydenius, Anders

    2010-10-01

    In single-vehicle car crashes with roadside objects, one way to achieve low acceleration is to allow long duration by making objects more flexible. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of long pulse duration on injury risk. The objectives were to study the influence of crash pulse characteristics on injury risk in frontal impacts and to study the correlation of these crash pulse characteristics, especially including crash pulse duration. Furthermore, the objective was to study crash pulse characteristics in crashes with various types of guardrails. To study the influence of crash pulse duration on injury risk, data from 448 real-life frontal collisions with recorded crash pulses were used and a subgroup of 37 guardrail crashes was analyzed. The inclusion criteria were repair cost and impact angle. Five hundred seventy-eight restrained occupants were included. Injury risk, correlation, and sensitivity analyses were made for the various crash pulse characteristics. It was found that the duration has a limited influence on injury risk. Change of velocity and mean and peak acceleration were found to influence injury risk and they were also well correlated. The correlation between mean acceleration and pulse duration was low. Crashes into cable barriers were found to have lower acceleration than crashes into w-beam and concrete barriers. The difference in mean acceleration between the most and less severe barrier crash was smallest in crashes with cable barriers. Long duration of the crash pulse does not lead to high injury risk as long as the mean and peak acceleration are low. In the design of cars and roadside objects the main design criteria should be acceleration and not delta V, due to the findings that long duration could be handled.

  10. Electrophysiological characteristics of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and its influence on ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Mu; Jiang, Weifeng; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    To explore the cardiac electrophysiological characteristics of cardiac hypertrophy and its influence on the occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Adult C57BL6 mice were randomly divided into a surgery group and a control group. Thoracic aortic constriction was performed on mice in the surgery group, and cardiac anatomical and ultrasonic evaluations were performed to confirm the success of the cardiac hypertrophy model 4 weeks after the operation. Using the Langendorff method of isolated heart perfusion, monophasic action potentials (MAPs) and the effective refractory period (ERP) at different parts of the heart (including the epi- and endo-myocardium of the left and right ventricles) were measured, and the induction rate of ventricular tachyarrhythmias was observed under programmed electrical stimulus (PES) and burst stimulus. Whole-cell patch-clamp was used to obtain the I-V characteristics of voltage-gated potassium channels in cardiomyocytes of different parts of the heart (including the epi- and endo-myocardium of the left and right ventricles) as well as the channels' properties of steady-state inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The ratio of heart weight to body weight and the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight in the surgery group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Ultrasonic evaluation revealed that both interventricular septal diameter (IVSD) and left ventricle posterior wall diameter (LVPWD) in the surgery group were significantly larger than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Under PES and burst stimuli, the induction rates of arrhythmias in the surgery group significantly increased, reaching 41.2% and 23.5%, respectively. Both the QT interval and action potential duration (APD) in the surgery group were significantly longer than in the control group (P<0.01), and the changes showed obvious spatial heterogeneity. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that the surgery group had

  11. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Juliana M T; Araújo, Raphaela G P; Melo, Fabrício F; Gonçalves, Caroline M; Chaves, Bárbara A; Silva, Breno M; Silva, Luciana D; Brandão, Silvana T; Secundino, Nágila F C; Norris, Douglas E; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-12-01

    Brazil reported the majority of the dengue cases in Americas during the last two decades, where the occurrence of human dengue cases is exclusively attributed to the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus). Nowadays, other recognized Dengue virus (DENV) vector in Asian countries, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), has been detected in more than half of the 5565 Brazilian municipalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of, and determine the Ae. albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a dengue-endemic risk city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State's capital. Aedes albopictus were collected across four consecutive DENV transmission seasons from 2010 to 2014. These mosquitoes were caught in three selected districts, which had been reported in the previous ten years as having high mosquito densities and an elevated concentration of human dengue cases during epidemic seasons. All field-caught Ae. albopictus was individually processed by real-time RT-PCR, to research the DENV presence. The third season (p<0.05) and the Pampulha district (p<0.05) had the highest proportions of field-caught Ae. albopictus, respectively. The second season had the highest proportion of DENV-infected field-caught females (p<0.05), but there was no difference among the proportions of DENV-infected Ae. albopictus when comparing the collection in the three districts (p=0.98). Minimum (p=0.004) and maximum (p<0.0001) temperature were correlated with the field-caught Ae. albopictus in four different periods and districts. In the generalized linear model of Poisson, the field-caught DENV-infected Ae. albopictus (p=0.005), East district (p=0.003), minimum temperature (p<0.0001) and relative humidity (p=0.001) remained associated with the total number of human dengue cases. Our study demonstrated that the number of field-caught DENV-infected Ae. albopictus was inversed correlated with the number of human dengue cases. Our study

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of drip waters: Influence on mineralogy of recent cave carbonate precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Richter, Detlev K.; Riechelmann, Dana FC; Terente, Mihai; Constantin, Silviu; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Speleothems are one of the most intensively explored archives of palaeoclimate variability in continental settings. Considerable advances with respect to climatic and cave forcing of drip characteristics and related speleothem proxy data have been made during the last decades. The parameters, however, that control speleothem mineralogy and its changes with time and space are still poorly understood. In order to shed light on processes influencing speleothem mineralogy, precipitation experiments of recent carbonate crystals on watch glasses and glass plates were performed in seven selected caves. These include three caves in Germany as well as Morocco and one cave in Romania, which are situated in both limestone and dolostone. Drip water sites of these caves were analysed for their fluid Mg/Ca molar ratio, pH, degree of saturation for calcite and aragonite and drip rates. Corresponding precipitates were analysed with respect to their mineralogy using a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results are found: High fluid Mg/Ca ratios are observed only for caves situated in dolostone, hence the hostrock lithology indirectly controls the carbonate mineralogy of speleothems. The precipitation of aragonite in place of calcite occurred only in dolostone caves and is bound to very specific conditions, which are: high fluid Mg/Ca ratios (≥ 0.5), high fluid pH (> 8.2) and low fluid saturation indices for calcite (< 0.8). These specific conditions are induced by slow drip rates of < 0.2 ml/min (often under more arid conditions), causing the precipitation of calcite / aragonite prior to reaching the stalagmite top. Due to this, fluid chemistry is altered, which in turn leads to changes in carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry on the stalagmite top. Interestingly, all of the above mentioned factors must act in a concerted manner. If this is not the case, calcite is the dominant phase. The threshold, where only aragonite precipitates is at fluid Mg

  13. Influence of tool speeds on dissimilar friction stir spot welding characteristics of bulk metallic glass/Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Jung, Yoon-Chul; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2012-08-01

    A small-scale joining technique of dissimilar friction stir spot welding (FSSW) between bulk metallic glass and Mg alloy sheet has been tried using an apparatus which was devised with a CNC milling machine to give a precise control of tool speeds. The influence of tool speeds on the joining characteristics during FSSW was investigated. As a result, it was found that the rotation speed and plunge speed of a tool during FSSW significantly influenced the welding performance of dissimilar FSSW between bulk metallic glasses and Mg alloy.

  14. Urban School Principals' Preferred Teacher Characteristics and How They Influence Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Monika Maria

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation uses sequential mixed methods analysis to examine what characteristics principals seek when hiring teachers and whether they match the perceived characteristics of the teachers who were recommended for hire. The sample included 56 principals on the initial survey and 34 principals responded to the questionnaire. Data analysis…

  15. Urban School Principals' Preferred Teacher Characteristics and How They Influence Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Monika Maria

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation uses sequential mixed methods analysis to examine what characteristics principals seek when hiring teachers and whether they match the perceived characteristics of the teachers who were recommended for hire. The sample included 56 principals on the initial survey and 34 principals responded to the questionnaire. Data analysis…

  16. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  17. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  18. The "Secret Seduction" of the Press? Aspects of Characteristics of PR Influencing Media Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Romy

    As yet, little research exists in Germany on the influence of public relations on news coverage, although for years American studies have shown that public relations widely determine media content. A study in Germany examined the qualities of news coverage as influenced by public relations efforts. Local media coverage (201 articles) in Munich…

  19. The Influence of Communicator Characteristics on the Nutrition Attitudes and Behavior of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1984-01-01

    School health educators can increase teaching effectiveness by emphasizing common interests with their students. High school students were studied to observe the influence of the communicator in a health program on nutrition. Results indicate that the greater the perceived similarities, the greater the influence of the communicator. Research…

  20. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

    2000-05-03

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

  1. Study on the influence of the electrode model on discharge characteristics in High-voltage Pulsed Deplugging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bingnan; Jing, Zhou; Liang, Zhao

    2017-05-01

    In the oil-field development, blocking caused by impurities leads to a decline in oil production. The high-voltage pulsed deplugging technology can be applied successfully in oil deplugging. One of the key problems in this technology is the influence of the electrode model on discharge characteristics. In this paper, the electrode structure was studied. Firstly, the influence of the electrode gap on electric-field intensity was studied by using ANSYS simulation. Secondly, a high-voltage pulsed discharge experiment system was built and the discharge characteristics were studied under different static pressure when the electrode gap varied. The results show that the larger the electrode gap, the lower the electric strength and the longer the time delay. Short breakdown time delay would make greater energy of impact waves and better blockage relieving effect.

  2. Influence of Powder Characteristics in Laser Direct Metal Deposition of SS316L for Metallic Parts Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisselier, Didier; Sankaré, Simon

    Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) is a rapid manufacturing technique, dedicated to new part construction or worn part repairing. The process depends on a various range of parameters and the powder characteristics are one of the main crucial parameters. The powder (size,…) has then a direct impact on an optimized process behavior and the mechanical properties of the manufactured component. This paper focuses on powder investigation, for a better understanding of its influence. The work was performed with different batches of stainless steel AISI316 that have been analyzed and characterized before processing. This paper discusses the results derived from the manufactured samples, highlights the influence of the main powders characteristics and demonstrates the flexibility of the process when the powders meet the specifications.

  3. The influence of electrode configuration on light emission profiles and electrical characteristics of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletić, Dejan; Puač, Nevena; Malović, Gordana; Đorđević, Antonije; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the influence of the type of electrodes, their dimensions and inter-electrode gap on the formation of a helium plasma jet. Plasma emission profiles are recorded by an ICCD camera simultaneously with volt–ampere characteristics for three different copper electrode configurations. The delivered power was up to 6.5 W, but it may be set and controlled to 0.1 W. This study shows how the electrode configuration shapes and controls temporal and spatial plasma development as well as electrical characteristics of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. It is shown that, in our system, the width of the grounded electrode has no significant influence on the formation and properties of pulsed atmospheric-pressure streamers (PAPS) outside the tube, while the width of the powered electrode is crucial in their formation.

  4. Local anaesthetics and additives for spinal anaesthesia--characteristics and factors influencing the spread and duration of the block.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Mikko; Rosenberg, Per H

    2003-09-01

    Different characteristics of patients and local anaesthetic formulations will influence the spread of spinal anaesthesia. The predictability of the spread of spinal anaesthesia can be improved by altering both baricity of the solution, and the position of the patient during the intrathecal local anaesthetic injection. The role of adrenaline and clonidine in prolonging the block and associated side effects is discussed. The role of opioids added to local anaesthetic solutions is discussed from a cost/benefit point of view.

  5. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  6. Influence of job characteristics and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of hospital foodservice employees.

    PubMed

    Sneed, J; Herman, C M

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among job characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and demographic variables for hospital foodservice employees. Questionnaires including 30 items on job characteristics, 15 items on organizational commitment, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items were administered to 45 supervisory and 172 nonsupervisory employees of 11 randomly selected hospitals. The reliability for the total instruments, using Cronbach's alpha, was 0.87 and 0.89, respectively, for the supervisory and nonsupervisory employee questionnaires. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction were related positively, with an r2 of 0.38. For supervisors, job characteristics related positively (p = .019) to organizational commitment, with variety being the only significant individual characteristic. For nonsupervisory employees, the model was also significant (p = .0001), with variety and feedback being the only significant individual characteristics. For all employees, there was a positive relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction, with variety and feedback being the significant individual characteristics. Age was the only demographic variable related to organizational commitment; older employees had higher commitment scores. Demographic variables were not related to job satisfaction. Supervisors had higher perceived variety, autonomy, feedback, dealing with others, and friendship opportunities scores and higher commitment and satisfaction scores than did nonsupervisory employees. The findings indicate that dietitians and foodservice managers may increase organizational commitment and job satisfaction by increasing the variety and feedback in employees' jobs.

  7. Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of an inclined quad-vortex range hood subject to influence from draft.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Lin, Jyun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The flow and spillage characteristics of an inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood subject to the influence of drafts from various directions were studied. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique was used to reveal the flow characteristics, and the tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) concentration detection method was used to indicate the quantitative values of the capture efficiency of the hood. It was found that the leakage mechanisms of the IQV range hood are closely related to the flow characteristics. A critical draft velocity of about 0.5 m/s and a critical face velocity of about 0.25 m/s for the IQV range hood were found. When the IQV range hood was influenced by a draft with a velocity larger than the critical draft velocity, the spillage of pollutants became significant and the pollutant spillage rate increased with increasing draft velocity. At draft velocities less than or equal to the critical value, no containment leakages induced by the turbulence diffusion, reverse flow, or boundary-layer separation were observed, and the capture efficiency was about 100%. The IQV range hood exhibited a high ability to resist the influences of lateral and frontal drafts. The capture efficiency of the IQV range hood operated at the suction flow rate 5 to 9 m(3)/min is higher than that of the conventional range hood operated at 11 to 15 m(3)/min.

  8. The defining characteristics of Web 2.0 and their potential influence in the online vaccination debate.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Holly O; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2012-05-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 has led to more and more Web-based resources demonstrating three defining characteristics: user participation, openness and network effects. This paper discusses these characteristics in the context of the online vaccination debate, explores how they structurally alter the way people might interact with vaccination information online, and describes ways in which such characteristics support particular tendencies in human decision making processes. Specifically, user participation supports the influence of narratives and personal accounts, openness shapes expectations for greater levels of detail and movement toward models of informed decision making, and network effects demonstrate the social nature of decision making, the influence of like-minded others and thus, the pitfalls of polarization in the online vaccination debate. Web 2.0 means that concerns about vaccination information online must expand beyond simply the possibility that people might access information of varying quality to incorporate a more comprehensive understanding of how people use current Web functionality, how such usage influences expectations about information sources and decision making processes, and the implications for communication strategies about vaccination.

  9. An official American Thoracic Society systematic review: Influence of psychosocial characteristics on workplace disability among workers with respiratory impairment.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher G; Harber, Philip; Haggerty, Margaret C

    2013-11-01

    Psychosocial characteristics likely play an important role in the severity of workplace disability for workers with a respiratory impairment. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to examine the impact of psychosocial characteristics on workplace disability among workers with a respiratory impairment. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations, we searched Medline and other published and unpublished sources using the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) search engines from January 1, 1990 through March 8, 2013 for quantitative studies that examined the association of psychosocial characteristics with workplace disability among workers with a respiratory impairment. We also searched related citations and the bibliographies of selected studies and relevant review articles. One investigator abstracted data about study design and quality, psychosocial characteristics, and outcome measures. Of 5,746 potentially relevant studies, 20 met eligibility criteria and were included. Studies reported heterogeneous outcomes among heterogeneous samples of workers that precluded a quantitative synthesis. In general, mental illness was associated with increased workplace disability among workers with respiratory impairments. Few studies adjusted for disease severity, so the independent association of psychosocial characteristics and workplace disability is unclear. Most studies were cross-sectional, so the direction of the association could not be determined. We found only one trial of targeted therapy for the psychosocial condition, which was not effective at reducing disability. Psychosocial characteristics likely influence workplace disability in workers with respiratory impairments. The impact of targeted therapies is unclear and warrants further study.

  10. Can longitudinal generalized estimating equation models distinguish network influence and homophily? An agent-based modeling approach to measurement characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sauser Zachrison, Kori; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Hutchins, Meghan; Lee, Joyce M

    2016-12-28

    Connected individuals (or nodes) in a network are more likely to be similar than two randomly selected nodes due to homophily and/or network influence. Distinguishing between these two influences is an important goal in network analysis, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses of longitudinal dyadic network data are an attractive approach. It is not known to what extent such regressions can accurately extract underlying data generating processes. Therefore our primary objective is to determine to what extent, and under what conditions, does the GEE-approach recreate the actual dynamics in an agent-based model. We generated simulated cohorts with pre-specified network characteristics and attachments in both static and dynamic networks, and we varied the presence of homophily and network influence. We then used statistical regression and examined the GEE model performance in each cohort to determine whether the model was able to detect the presence of homophily and network influence. In cohorts with both static and dynamic networks, we find that the GEE models have excellent sensitivity and reasonable specificity for determining the presence or absence of network influence, but little ability to distinguish whether or not homophily is present. The GEE models are a valuable tool to examine for the presence of network influence in longitudinal data, but are quite limited with respect to homophily.

  11. Influence of fabrication conditions on characteristics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for holographic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Cho, Sheng-Lung; Lin, June-Hua; Hsu, Ken Y.; Chi, Sien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of the fabrication conditions on holographic characteristics in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ:PMMA) bulk photopolymer. In our investigation, the PQ:PMMA bulk samples are fabricated by use of a two-step thermo-polymerization method. We firstly propose to monitor relative viscosity of the monomer solution during the sample preparation to obtain a reliable criterion for material fabrication. We then compare experimentally characteristics of 2-mm thick samples fabricated with different conditions for holographic memory. The results show that the conditions in the first step play a important rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA samples with good optical uniformity. In addition, the conditions in the second step play the rule for controlling the concentration of residual monomer and determine holographic characteristics. These results can provide a useful rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA photopolymers for further applications on volume holographic data storage.

  12. Influence of diet and salivary characteristics on the prevalence of dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Correr, Gisele Maria; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; Correa, Marcelo Alves; Campos, Edson Alves; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil; and determine if gender, dietary habit, and salivary characteristics (salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, and pH) influence the erosion. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 389 children. Data on dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, and medical backgrounds were obtained by a survey. The erosion index proposed by O'Sullivan was used. Whole-fresh-saliva was collected and data was submitted to statistical analysis. The prevalence of dental erosion was 26 percent. There was no significant difference in prevalence between boys and girls (P=.19). Labial surfaces were the most affected (58 percent) and enamel loss was the most prevalent type of dental erosion (65 percent). Overall, no significant difference was found among salivary characteristics and prevalence of erosion (salivary flow rate: P=.98; buffer capacity: P=.75; pH: P=.80). Most children presented good salivary characteristics. Results indicate that the main risk factors for erosion were usage of acidic drugs, consumption of soft drinks, and temperature of acid fruits. The prevalence of erosion in 12-year-old schoolchildren living in Piracicaba, SF, Brazil could be considered high. Extrinsic factors were related to erosion, while salivary characteristics seemed to have no influence on erosion.

  13. Influence of the characteristics of soil and fly ash on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of dioxins.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ayato; Miyawaki, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2006-11-01

    Several investigations on the extraction of dioxins from soil and fly ash with supercritical fluid have been reported; however, few of them describe the influence of components on the extraction. We extracted dioxins from eight samples with different values of organic carbon content and surface area with supercritical CO(2) at a temperature of 463 K, a pressure of 40 MPa, and using 10% toluene as an entrainer. We researched the influence of the characteristics of soil and fly ash on supercritical CO(2) extraction of dioxins. The results revealed that the extraction efficiencies of PCDD/DFs and PCBs were high for all soil samples, while that of fly ash samples decreased with the increase in organic carbon content and surface area. The extraction efficiencies of dioxins from four standard samples, activated carbon, humic acid, alumina, and florisil, were also examined. The results revealed that the extraction efficiencies were strongly influenced by activated carbon like components present in the samples.

  14. Influence of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Lara Guedes de; Pereira, Anabela; Chaves, Cláudia

    2017-08-28

    Evaluating the quality of life of Portuguese patients with schizophrenia and linking it to sociodemographic and clinical aspects. A quantitative cross-sectional study carried out with individuals affected by schizophrenia, living in the entire continental territory of Portugal, through application of a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire and the Quality of Life Scale short version (QLS7PT). Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed to evaluate the correlation between variables. The sample consisted of 282 participants. The results point to a better quality of life for individuals living in autonomous residences or with their parents, who are employed/students, who have had the disorder for less time and are younger, who have completed the 12th grade of schooling and who are not medicated with first-generation neuroleptics. The results indicate that some sociodemographic and clinical characteristics influence the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia and should be considered in the patient evaluation and in planning appropriate and effective strategies for their psychosocial rehabilitation. Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos indivíduos portugueses com esquizofrenia e relacioná-la com aspetos sociodemográficos e clínicos. Estudo quantitativo de natureza transversal realizado com portadores de esquizofrenia, residentes em todo o território continental de Portugal, tendo sido aplicado um questionário sociodemográfico e clínico e a Quality of Life Scale versão reduzida (QLS7PT). Foram realizados testes paramétricos e não paramétricos para avaliar a correlação entre as variáveis. A amostra foi constituída por 282 participantes. Apontam para uma melhor qualidade de vida os indivíduos que vivem em residências autônomas ou com os pais, empregados/estudantes, com transtorno há menos tempo e menor idade, com o 12º ano de escolaridade e não medicados com neurolépticos de primeira geração. Os resultados indicam que algumas

  15. Factors influencing characteristics of steam-flaked corn and utilization by finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Sindt, J J; Drouillard, J S; Montgomery, S P; Loe, E R

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to identify factors influencing steam-flaked corn (SFC) characteristics and feeding value. In Exp. 1, corn samples (n = 108) were tempered for 2 h using 6, 10, or 14% moisture containing 0 or 0.67 mL of surfactant/L. Samples were steamed for 20 or 40 min and flaked to 360, 335, or 310 g/L. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 2 x 2 x 3 factorial. No interactions existed in Exp. 1. Increasing tempering moisture linearly (P < 0.001) increased corn moisture after tempering, steaming, and flaking; however, SFC moisture was not increased (quadratic; P < 0.001) greatly by applying more than 10% water during tempering. The surfactant, steam time, and flake density had no effect (P = 0.16 to 0.93) on corn moisture after tempering, steaming, or flaking, but adding a surfactant during tempering decreased (P = 0.05) moisture loss after flaking. Starch availability was unaffected (P = 0.31 to 0.84) by tempering moisture concentration, tempering with a surfactant, or steam time but was increased (linear; P < 0.01) by decreasing flake density. Flake durability was increased by increasing tempering moisture (linear; P < 0.001), tempering with a surfactant (P = 0.04), increasing steam time (P < 0.001), and decreasing flake density (linear; P = 0.02). In Exp. 2, 89 heifers (initial BW = 350 kg) were fed 75% SFC-based diets for 108 d to determine the effects of SFC particle size on performance and carcass traits. Treatments were SFC that was mixed for 0 (4,667 microm) or 15 min (3,330 microm) before addition of other ingredients. Heifers fed 3,330-microm SFC tended (P = 0.13) to eat less DM, but ADG and G:F did not differ (P = 0.58 to 0.65) between treatments. Carcass traits did not differ, except that heifers fed 3,330-microm SFC had less (P = 0.008) KPH. In Exp. 3, 96 heifers (initial BW = 389 kg) were fed for 82 d diets containing 73% SFC that was either 18 or 36% moisture. Heifers fed 36% moisture SFC ate less DM (P = 0.02) and gained slower (P = 0

  16. School programs and characteristics and their influence on student BMI: findings from healthy passages.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Tracy K; Elliott, Marc N; Franzini, Luisa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Caughy, Margaret O; Gilliland, M Janice; Walls, Courtney E; Franklin, Frank A; Lowry, Richard; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the contribution of school contextual factors to individual student body mass index (BMI). We set out to determine if school characteristics/resources: (1) are associated with student BMI; (2) explain racial/ethnic disparities in student BMI; and (3) explain school-level differences in student BMI. Using gender-stratified multi-level modeling strategies we examined the association of school characteristics/resources and individual BMI in 4,387 5(th) graders in the Healthy Passages Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Additionally, we examined the association of race/ethnicity and individual BMI as well as the between-school variance in BMI before and after adding individual and school characteristics to test for attenuation. The school-level median household income, but not physical activity or nutrition resources, was inversely associated with female BMI (β = -0.12, CI: -0.21,-0.02). Neither school demographics nor physical activity/nutrition resources were predictive of individual BMI in males. In Black females, school characteristics attenuated the association of race/ethnicity and BMI. Individual student characteristics-not school characteristics/resources-reduced the between-school variation in BMI in males by nearly one-third and eliminated it in females. In this cohort of 5(th) graders, school SES was inversely associated with female BMI while school characteristics and resources largely explained Black/White disparities in female weight status. Between-school differences in average student weight status were largely explained by the composition of the student body not by school characteristics or programming.

  17. Influence of pulse line switch inductance on output characteristics of high-current nanosecond accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashchenko, A. I.; Vintizenko, I. I.

    2016-06-01

    Various types of high-current nanosecond accelerators are simulated numerically using an equivalent circuit representation. The influence of pulse forming line switch inductance on the amplitude and waveform of output voltage and current pulses is analyzed.

  18. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. Methods We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. Results We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents’ willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents’ characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. Conclusions These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies. PMID:24484640

  19. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Mehlkop, Guido; Graeff, Peter; Sauer, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents' willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents' characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies.

  20. [Influence of the Composition of the Initial Mixtures on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties and Spectral Characteristics of Composts].

    PubMed

    Song, Cai-hong; Li, Ming-xiao; Wei, Zi-min; Xi, Bei-dou; Zhao, Yue; Jia, Xuan; Liu, Ya-ru; Liu, Dong-ming

    2015-08-01

    In this work, biogas residues, the remnant of the anaerobic digestion, was used for composting with livestock manure as the co-substrate. It is important for improving the soil quality in China, because the negative influence of biogas residues being utilized directly as organic fertilizer (a mainstream way of disposing biogas residues in China) on the soil could be eliminated or mitigated via composting. The composition of composting substrate has a great influence on the composting process. To explore the influence of the composition of the initial mixtures on the physicochemical properties and spectroscopic characteristics of composts, fifteen co-composting of biogas residue, pig manure and chicken manure, with different material ratios, were carried out. Physicochemical and biological indicators were determined. Meanwhile, spectroscopic methods, such as UV-Vis, synchronous fluorescence and 3D-EEM spectra were used for identifying characteristic spectral parameters companied with FRI and PARAFAC. Therefore, spectroscopic characteristics of composts were characterized. The relationship between physicochemical properties of composts and the composition of the initial mixtures was established using CCA. Similarly, that between spectroscopic characteristics of composts and the composition of the initial mixtures was also established. The results showed that: physicochemical properties of composts exhibits a significant correlation with the composition of the initial mixtures. A significant correlation between spectroscopic characteristics of composts and the composition of the initial mixtures was also observed. In the two CCA, the former four axes account for 83.9% and 97.5% of the total sample variation. The influence of enviro nmental factors on physicochemical properties of composts was in the order of pig manure amount>chicken manure amount>biogas residue amount and that on spectroscopic characteristics of composts was in the order of biogas residue amount

  1. CHAracteristics of research studies that iNfluence practice: a GEneral survey of Canadian orthopaedic Surgeons (CHANGES): a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    de Sa, Darren; Thornley, Patrick; Evaniew, Nathan; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit; Ghert, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is increasingly being applied to inform clinical decision-making in orthopaedic surgery. Despite the promotion of EBM in Orthopaedic Surgery, the adoption of results from high quality clinical research seems highly unpredictable and does not appear to be driven strictly by randomized trial data. The objective of this study was to pilot a survey to determine if we could identify surgeon opinions on the characteristics of research studies that are perceived as being most likely to influence clinical decision-making among orthopaedic surgeons in Canada. A 28-question electronic survey was distributed to active members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) over a period of 11 weeks. The questionnaire sought to analyze the influence of both extrinsic and intrinsic characteristics of research studies and their potential to influence practice patterns. Extrinsic factors included the perceived journal quality and investigator profiles, economic impact, peer/patient/industry influence and individual surgeon residency/fellowship training experiences. Intrinsic factors included study design, sample size, and outcomes reported. Descriptive statistics are provided. Of the 109 members of the COA who opened the survey, 95 (87%) completed the survey in its entirety. The overall response rate was 11% (95/841). Surgeons achieved consensus on the influence of three key designs on their practices: 1) randomized controlled trials 94 (99%), 2) meta-analysis 83 (87%), and 3) systematic reviews 81 (85%). Sixty-seven percent of surgeons agreed that studies with sample sizes of 101-500 or more were more likely to influence clinical practice than smaller studies (n = <100). Factors other than design influencing adoption included 1) reputation of the investigators (99%) and 2) perceived quality of the journal (75%). Although study design and sample size (i.e. minimum of 100 patients) have some influence on clinical decision making, surgeon

  2. Influence of cat characteristics on Fel d 1 levels in the home.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Charlotte; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies investigating cat characteristics and cat allergen production focused on clinical experiments that quantified allergen from either the shaved skin or the fur of the animal; however, these studies did not address these experimental relationships in the home. To determine the relationships between cat characteristics and cat allergen isolated from household dust. Fel d 1 allergen levels in dust from homes participating in a population-based study of environmental effect on allergy development were analyzed using a standard monoclonal antibody-based assay. Cat characteristics were based on interviews conducted during home visits by study personnel. Households with any cats had higher geometric mean Fel d 1 levels than households without cats (32.88 vs 0.43; P < .01), and cat allergen levels increased with increasing numbers of cats in the home (P < .01). Length of cat hair, cat sex, reproductive status, and time spent indoors were analyzed; the only characteristic associated with higher levels of Fel d 1 was whether the cat had been neutered or spayed. Having cats in the home is significantly associated with increased Fel d 1 levels, and having more cats in the home is correlated with more cat allergen. Cat reproductive characteristics may be associated with measurable differences in cat allergen levels.

  3. Influence of Morphological Characteristics on Physical and Physiological Performances of Tunisian Elite Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. Methods A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Results Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Conclusions Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances. PMID:22942992

  4. Characteristics influencing weight reduction among veterans in the MOVE!® Program.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Jane T; Marion, Lucy N; Narsavage, Georgia L; Finnegan, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a common health problem for veterans. This study explored background and program characteristics associated with a 5% weight reduction for veterans enrolled in MOVE!(®), a weight management program. For data analysis, 404 veteran records were examined using logistic regression. Background characteristics included socio-demographic variables, comorbidity, body mass index, rurality, and Veterans Administration (VA) priority group. Program characteristics included the program type (group attendee or self-managed) as well as the number and type of provider contacts. Thirteen percent of participants achieved a 5% weight reduction. Age in years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04) and the number of group visits (OR = 1.05) were significant predictors for achieving a 5% weight reduction. Given the importance of weight reduction, health professionals should consider these significant predictors when planning weight-reduction programs for veterans.

  5. Innovative culture in long-term care settings: the influence of organizational characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nieboer, Anna P; Strating, Mathilde M H

    2012-01-01

    Innovative cultures have been reported to enhance the creation and implementation of new ideas and working methods in organizations. Although there is considerable research on the impact of organizational context on the innovativeness of organizations, the same is not the case for research on the organizational characteristics responsible for an innovative culture in (long-term) care settings. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that explain innovative culture in the (long-term) care sector. A large cross-sectional study in Dutch long-term care-nursing homes and/or elderly homes, care organizations for the handicapped, and long-term mental health care organizations-was conducted. A total of 432 managers and care professionals in 37 organizations participated. The Group Innovation Inventory was used to measure innovative culture in long-term care organizations. Structural characteristics of the organization were centralization and formalization, environmental dynamism and competitiveness, internal and external exchange of information, leadership style, commitment to quality improvement, and the organization's innovative strategy. The determinants of an innovative culture were estimated with a two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model. Multilevel regression models were used to account for the organizational clustering of individuals within the 37 care organizations. Environmental dynamism, job codification, formal external exchange of information, transformational leadership, commitment to quality, and an exploratory and exploitative innovation strategy were all significantly correlated with an innovative culture in the multivariate multilevel analysis; the other characteristics were not. The explained organizational- and individual-level variance was 52.5% and 49.2%, respectively. The results point to substantial differences in innovative cultures between and within care organizations that can, in part, be explained by

  6. Influence of immobilization strategies on biosensing response characteristics: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Saha, Shibu; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    The immobilization technique plays an important role in fabrication of a biosensor. NiO based cholesterol biosensor has been used to study the effect of various immobilization techniques on the biosensing response characteristics. The biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase on NiO thin films by three different immobilization techniques viz. physisorption, cross-linking and covalent binding. The study reveals a strong dependence of biosensing response on corresponding immobilization technique. The biosensor based on immobilization by covalent bonding shows superior response characteristics as compared to others owing to its zero length. The results highlight the significance of immobilization technique for biosensor fabrication.

  7. Laws of Influence of Structural Characteristics on the Strength and Crack Resistance of Aging Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhnik, S. B.; Usikova, G. I.

    2005-01-01

    The structural characteristics (the volume fraction, size, and shape of and the distance among hardening-phase particles) of aging alloys and steels, which define the behavior of the critical stress intensity factor during thermal hardening, are determined using the structural-mechanical approach we have developed. It is experimentally demonstrated for maraging steels that our approach is capable of proving the correlations of strength, plasticity, and crack- resistance with the structural characteristics, which were varied by changing the chemical composition of steel and thermokinetic aging conditions

  8. The influence of component design, bearing clearance and axial load on the squeaking characteristics of ceramic hip articulations.

    PubMed

    Hothan, Arne; Huber, Gerd; Weiss, Cornelius; Hoffmann, Norbert; Morlock, Michael

    2011-03-15

    Squeaking of hip replacements with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings has put the use of this material into question despite its superior wear behavior. Squeaking has been related to implant design. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of particular acetabular cup and femoral stem designs on the incidence of squeaking and its characteristics. The dynamic behavior of the stem, head and stem assembled with head was investigated by determining their eigenfrequencies using experimental and numerical modal analysis. Four different stem and three different cup designs were investigated. Operational system vibrations resulting in audible squeaking were reproduced in a hip simulator and related to the respective component eigenfrequencies. The applied joint load and bearing clearance were varied in the clinically relevant range. Stems with lower eigenfrequencies were related to lower squeaking frequencies and increased acoustic pressure (loudness), and therefore to a higher susceptibility to squeaking. Higher load increased the squeaking frequency, while the acoustic pressure remained unchanged. No influence of the clearance or the cup design was found. Stem design was found to have an important influence on squeaking characteristics and its incidence, confirming and explaining similar clinical observations. Cup design itself was found to have no major influence on the dynamic behavior of the system but plays an important indirect role in influencing the magnitude of friction: Squeaking only occurs if the friction in the joint articulation is sufficient to excite vibrations to audible magnitudes. If friction is low, no squeaking occurs with any of the designs investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of unilateral oscillation on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the mathematical modelling of the influence of forced vibrations of a surface element on one side of the airfoil on the shock-wave structure of transonic flow around. The influence of parameters of oscillations on the airfoil wave drag and the lift force were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated for constant maximum velocity amplitude, which is close in magnitude to the sound velocity in the oncoming flow, and for a wide range of frequencies. The additional lift force arising is shown.

  10. The influence of collagen fiber orientation and other histocompositional characteristics on the mechanical properties of equine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Dayton, Michael R; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2006-08-01

    This study examined relative influences of predominant collagen fiber orientation (CFO), mineralization (% ash), and other microstructural characteristics on the mechanical properties of equine cortical bone. Using strain-mode-specific (S-M-S) testing (compression testing of bone habitually loaded in compression; tension testing of bone habitually loaded in tension), the relative mechanical importance of CFO and other material characteristics were examined in equine third metacarpals (MC3s). This model was chosen since it had a consistent non-uniform strain distribution estimated by finite element analysis (FEA) near mid-diaphysis of a thoroughbred horse, net tension in the dorsal/lateral cortices and net compression in the palmar/medial cortices. Bone specimens from regions habitually loaded in tension or compression were: (1) tested to failure in both axial compression and tension in order to contrast S-M-S vs non-S-M-S behavior, and (2) analyzed for CFO, % ash, porosity, fractional area of secondary osteonal bone, osteon cross-sectional area, and population densities of secondary osteons and osteocyte lacunae. Multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that in S-M-S compression testing, CFO most strongly influenced total energy (pre-yield elastic energy plus post-yield plastic energy); in S-M-S tension testing CFO most strongly influenced post-yield energy and total energy. CFO was less important in explaining S-M-S elastic modulus, and yield and ultimate stress. Therefore, in S-M-S loading CFO appears to be important in influencing energy absorption, whereas the other characteristics have a more dominant influence in elastic modulus, pre-yield behavior and strength. These data generally support the hypothesis that differentially affecting S-M-S energy absorption may be an important consequence of regional histocompositional heterogeneity in the equine MC3. Data inconsistent with the hypothesis, including the lack of highly longitudinal collagen in the

  11. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  12. Influence of infrared stimulation on spectroscopy characteristics of co-planar grid CdZnTe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fjodorov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Loutchanski, A.

    2015-07-01

    It was previously found that illumination with monochromatic infrared (IR) light with wavelengths close to the absorption edge of the CdZnTe exert significant positive influence on the spectrometric characteristics of quasi-hemispherical CdZnTe detectors at room temperature. In this paper, preliminary results of IR stimulation on the spectrometric characteristics of coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors as well as results of further studies of planar and quasi-hemispherical detectors are presented. Coplanar-grid detectors of 10 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm from Redlen Technologies and commercial available IR LEDs with different wavelengths of 800-1000 nm were used in the experiments. Influence of intensity and direction of IR illumination on the detector's characteristics was studied. Analysis of signals shapes from the preamplifiers outputs at registration of alpha particles showed that IR illumination leads to a change in the shapes of these signals. This may indicate changes in electric fields distributions. An improvement in energy resolution at gamma-energy of 662 keV was observed with quasi-hemispherical and co-planar detectors at the certain levels of IR illumination intensity. The most noticeable effect of IR stimulation was observed with quasi-hemispherical detectors. It is due with optimization of charge collection conditions in the quasi-hemispherical detectors under IT stimulation. (authors)

  13. Characteristics of Abuse that Influence When Adults Molested as Children Seek Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    This study explored the relationship between characteristics of abuse and time before seeking treatment for adults molested as children. Those who sought early treatment were called early presenters; those who sought treatment later in life were called late presenters. Data were collected from intake interviews of 364 adults molested as children.…

  14. The Influence of Student Characteristics on the Use of Adaptive E-Learning Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics in a heterogeneous student group by collecting…

  15. Lake Characteristics Influencing Spawning Success of Muskellunge in Northern Wisconsin Lakes

    Treesearch

    Ashley J. Rust; James S. Diana; Terry L. Margenau; Clayton J. Edwards

    2002-01-01

    We determined the physical, chemical, biological, and land use characteristics that distinguish northern Wisconsin lakes with self-sustaining populations of muskellunge Esox masquinongy from lakes where stocking is required to maintain populations. Lakes that supported self-sustaining muskellunge populations were characterized by fewer shoreline...

  16. Riparian influences on the biophysical characteristics of seston in headwater streams.

    Treesearch

    Scott R. Elliott; Robert J. Naiman; Peter A. Bisson

    2004-01-01

    Suspended particles (seston) in streams are an important source of nutrition for many invertebrates, forming a strong trophic link between plant and animal production. In forested regions the management of riparian corridors may alter alloehthonous and autochthonous contributions to streams, ultimately changing the biophysical characteristics of seston. This article...

  17. Investigating the Influence of Professor Characteristics on Student Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Thorsten; Lowrie, Anthony; Brodowsky, Glen H.; Reppel, Alexander E.; Voss, Roediger; Chowdhury, Ilma Nur

    2012-01-01

    This research uses the Kano model of satisfaction to investigate professor characteristics that create student satisfaction as well as those attributes that can cause their dissatisfaction. Kano questionnaires were handed out to 104 undergraduate students at a university in the Southwest and to 147 undergraduate students at a university in the…

  18. The influence of organizational characteristics on employee solidarity in the long-term care sector.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-03-01

    This article is a report of a study that identifies organizational characteristics explaining employee solidarity in the long-term care sector. Employee solidarity reportedly improves organizations' effectiveness and efficiency. Although general research on solidarity in organizations is available, the impact of the organizational context on solidarity in long-term care settings is lacking. Cross-sectional survey. The study was carried out in Dutch long-term care. A total of 313 nurses, managers and other care professionals in 23 organizations were involved. Organizational characteristics studied were centralization, hierarchical culture, formal and informal exchange of information and leadership style. The study was carried out in 2009. Findings.  All organizational characteristics significantly correlated with employee solidarity in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analyses hierarchical culture, centralization, exchange of formal and informal information and transformational leadership appears to be important for solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in long-term care organizations, but not transactional and passive leadership styles. The study increased our knowledge of solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in the long-term care settings. Organizational characteristics that enhance solidarity are high levels of formal and informal information exchange, less hierarchical authority, decentralization and transformational leadership styles. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Investigating the Influence of Professor Characteristics on Student Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Thorsten; Lowrie, Anthony; Brodowsky, Glen H.; Reppel, Alexander E.; Voss, Roediger; Chowdhury, Ilma Nur

    2012-01-01

    This research uses the Kano model of satisfaction to investigate professor characteristics that create student satisfaction as well as those attributes that can cause their dissatisfaction. Kano questionnaires were handed out to 104 undergraduate students at a university in the Southwest and to 147 undergraduate students at a university in the…

  20. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  1. The influence of organizational characteristics on employee solidarity in the long-term care sector

    PubMed Central

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde MH; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-01-01

    Aim This article is a report of a study that identifies organizational characteristics explaining employee solidarity in the long-term care sector. Background Employee solidarity reportedly improves organizations’ effectiveness and efficiency. Although general research on solidarity in organizations is available, the impact of the organizational context on solidarity in long-term care settings is lacking. Design Cross-sectional survey. Method The study was carried out in Dutch long-term care. A total of 313 nurses, managers and other care professionals in 23 organizations were involved. Organizational characteristics studied were centralization, hierarchical culture, formal and informal exchange of information and leadership style. The study was carried out in 2009. Findings All organizational characteristics significantly correlated with employee solidarity in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analyses hierarchical culture, centralization, exchange of formal and informal information and transformational leadership appears to be important for solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in long-term care organizations, but not transactional and passive leadership styles. Conclusion The study increased our knowledge of solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in the long-term care settings. Organizational characteristics that enhance solidarity are high levels of formal and informal information exchange, less hierarchical authority, decentralization and transformational leadership styles. PMID:22551056

  2. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  3. Influence of stream characteristics and grazing intensity on stream temperatures in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    S.B. Maloney; A.R. Tiedemann; D.A. Higgins; T.M. Quigley; D.B. Marx

    1999-01-01

    Stream temperatures were measured during summer months, 1978 to 1984, at 12 forested watersheds near John Day, Oregon, to determine temperature characteristics and assess effects of three range management strategies of increasing intensity. Maximum temperatures in streams of the 12 watersheds ranged from 12.5 to 27.8 oC. Maximum stream temperatures on four watersheds...

  4. Teacher-Child Relationships in Prekindergarten: The Influences of Child and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koles, Bernadett; O'Connor, Erin; McCartney, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate child and teacher characteristics associated with closeness and conflict in prekindergarten teacher-child relationships. Child gender and temperament were significantly associated with closeness and conflict. Specifically, higher levels of shyness correlated with closer relationships for boys…

  5. The Influence of Student Characteristics on the Use of Adaptive E-Learning Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics in a heterogeneous student group by collecting…

  6. A Study of Characteristics Profiling At-Risk Students and Influences Impacting Their Rural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, Thomas L.; Peach, Larry E.

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of at-risk students and review certain circumstances that affect their decisions to leave or stay in school. Mail survey responses were collected from 272 students (out of a total of 300) in 15 rural Tennessee high schools. The subjects were identified by their guidance counselors as being…

  7. Organizational Characteristics Influencing Nursing Home Social Service Directors' Qualifications: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey V.

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to identify organizational characteristics associated with the amount of professional qualifications among a nationally representative sample of nursing home social service directors. A self-administered survey was sent to directors in 675 facilities randomly sampled from a federal database, excluding facilities with fewer…

  8. [Influence of human body target's spectral characteristics on visual range of low light level image intensifiers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ju; Yang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Tao, Yuan-Yaun

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on low light level (LLL) image intensifier's distance, based on the spectral characteristics of the night-sky radiation and the spectral reflective coefficients of common clothes, we established a equation of human body target's spectral reflective distribution, and analyzed the spectral reflective characteristics of different human targets wearing the clothes of different color and different material, and from the actual detection equation of LLL image intensifier distance, discussed the detection capability of LLL image intensifier for different human target. The study shows that the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on LLL image intensifier distance is mainly reflected in the average reflectivity rho(-) and the initial contrast of the target and the background C0. Reflective coefficient and spectral reflection intensity of cotton clothes are higher than polyester clothes, and detection capability of LLL image intensifier is stronger for the human target wearing cotton clothes. Experimental results show that the LLL image intensifiers have longer visual ranges for targets who wear cotton clothes than targets who wear same color but polyester clothes, and have longer visual ranges for targets who wear light-colored clothes than targets who wear dark-colored clothes. And in the full moon illumination conditions, LLL image intensifiers are more sensitive to the clothes' material.

  9. Analysis of patterns of patient compliance after an abnormal Pap smear result: the influence of demographic characteristics on patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Christine; Zhou, Ming K; Khamis, Harry J; Amesse, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine population characteristics that correlate to suboptimal follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Nonpregnant women, ages 21 to 65 years, with newly diagnosed abnormal cervical cytology result between January 2009 and January 2012 at an urban clinic were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective chart review. Cervical cytology data and demographic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, employment, marital and smoking status, health insurance and number of pregnancies were abstracted from electronic medical record. A log-linear model was used to determine which factors influenced patient compliance. Of the total of 206 women, 78 (37.9%) had optimal follow-up and 128 (62.1%) had suboptimal follow-up. The 3 variables that were statistically significant in influencing patient follow-up after adjusted analyses included severity of cytology result (p = .0013), ethnicity (p = .02), and employment status (p = .0159). The risk ratio for optimal follow-up for those with severe cytology result was 1.81; for the non-whites, 1.77; and for the employed, 1.53. Ethnicity, severity of cervical cytology result, and employment status play an important role in patient follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Detecting trends in our patient population that influence adherence to follow-up will help health care providers formulate strategies that target this problem.

  10. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples.

  11. The influence of forest stand and site characteristics on the composition of exotic dominated ambrosia beetle communities (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Muzika, R M

    2010-10-01

    Economic and biological consequences are associated with exotic ambrosia beetles and their fungal associates. Despite this, knowledge of ambrosia beetles and their ecological interactions remain poorly understood, especially in the oak-hickory forest region. We examined how forest stand and site characteristics influenced ambrosia beetle habitat use as evaluated by species richness and abundance of ambrosia beetles, both the native component and individual exotic species. We documented the species composition of the ambrosia beetle community, flight activity, and habitat use over a 2-yr period by placing flight traps in regenerating clearcuts and older oak-hickory forest stands differing in topographic aspect. The ambrosia beetle community consisted of 20 species with exotic ambrosia beetle species dominating the community. Similar percentages of exotic ambrosia beetles occurred among the four forest habitats despite differences in stand age and aspect. Stand characteristics, such as stand age and forest structure, influenced ambrosia beetle richness and the abundances of a few exotic ambrosia beetle species and the native ambrosia beetle component. Topographic aspect had little influence on ambrosia beetle abundance or species richness. Older forests typically have more host material than younger forests and our results may be related to the amount of dead wood present. Different forms of forest management may not alter the percent contribution of exotic ambrosia beetles to the ambrosia beetle community.

  12. Self-Other Agreement in Multisource Feedback: The Influence of Doctor and Rater Group Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Campbell, John L.; Richards, Suzanne H.; Wright, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Multisource feedback (MSF) ratings provided by patients and colleagues are often poorly correlated with doctors' self-assessments. Doctors' reactions to feedback depend on its agreement with their own perceptions, but factors influencing self-other agreement in doctors' MSF ratings have received little attention. We aimed to identify…

  13. Characteristics of Interactive Oral and Computer-Mediated Peer Group Talk and Its Influence on Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewett, Beth L.

    2000-01-01

    Details a functional and qualitative study of interactive oral and computer-mediated communication (CMC)-generated (Norton "Connect") peer response group talk and its influence on revision. Finds the interactive peer groups in both environments talked primarily about their writing; however, the talk had different qualities when students used…

  14. Influence of the initial pressure of polydisperse bubble media on characteristics of detonation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, A. I.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the initial pressure of polydisperse bubble media on the initiation conditions, structure, propagation velocity, and the pressure of detonation waves has been experimentally studied. It has been established that variations in the initial pressure of the bubble medium is an effective method of controlling the parameters of bubble detonation waves.

  15. Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The…

  16. Influence of demographic characteristics on production practices within the Ohio maple syrup industry

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Randall B. Heiligmann; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup production contributes approximately $5 million annually to Ohio's economy and provides supplemental nontimber forest product income for forestland owners. To better understand the factors that influence this important nontimber forest industry in Ohio, including producer heritage, producer age, sap collection methods, size of maple operation, and...

  17. Selective Influence of Circadian Modulation and Task Characteristics on Motor Imagery Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stephane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no…

  18. A Developmental Study of the Influence of Task Characteristics on Motor Overflow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addamo, Patricia K.; Farrow, Maree; Hoy, Kate E.; Bradshaw, John L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2009-01-01

    Motor overflow refers to involuntary movement or muscle activity that may coincide with voluntary movement. This study examined factors influencing motor overflow in 17 children (8-11 years), and 17 adults (18-35 years). Participants performed a finger pressing task by exerting either 33% or 66% of their maximal force output using their dominant…

  19. Influence of soil thickness on stand characteristics in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Andrew N. Gray; Harold S. J. Zald

    2007-01-01

    Soil thickness can be an important factor influencing vegetation, yet few spatially explicit studies have examined soil horizon thickness and vegetation composition in summer drought forests. We compared seismic and soil penetration measurements of combined A + C and Cr horizon thickness, soil moisture and temperature, and stand variables in a contiguous 4-ha mixed-...

  20. Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The…

  1. Cultural Factors in Decision-Making about Child Physical Abuse: Identifying Reporter Characteristics Influencing Reporting Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Pemberton, Joy R.; Terao, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined cultural factors that may influence child physical abuse reporting. Relevant cultural factors such as the respondents' ethnic identity and corporal punishment acceptability were investigated as proximal variables of ethnicity that affect child physical abuse reporting tendencies. Method: Participants consisted of 378…

  2. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  3. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  4. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  5. Selective Influence of Circadian Modulation and Task Characteristics on Motor Imagery Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stephane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no…

  6. COLD WATER PATCHES IN WARM STREAMS: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE INFLUENCE OF SHADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discrete coldwater patches within the surface waters of summer-warm streams afford potential thermal refuge for coldwater fishes during periods of heat stress. This analysis focused on reach-scale heterogeneity in water temperatures as influenced by local influx of cooler subsur...

  7. Long-term influence of normal variation in neonatal characteristics on human brain development

    PubMed Central

    Walhovd, Kristine B.; Fjell, Anders M.; Brown, Timothy T.; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Chung, Yoonho; Hagler, Donald J.; Roddey, J. Cooper; Erhart, Matthew; McCabe, Connor; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Darst, Burcu F.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Murray, Sarah S.; van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; McCabe, Connor; Chang, Linda; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Dale, Anders M.; Ernst, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Van Zijl, Peter; Kuperman, Joshua; Murray, Sarah; Bloss, Cinnamon; Schork, Nicholas J.; Appelbaum, Mark; Gamst, Anthony; Thompson, Wesley; Bartsch, Hauke; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Keating, Brian; Amaral, David; Sowell, Elizabeth; Kaufmann, Walter; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Casey, B.J.; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Rosen, Bruce; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Kennedy, David; Gruen, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    It is now recognized that a number of cognitive, behavioral, and mental health outcomes across the lifespan can be traced to fetal development. Although the direct mediation is unknown, the substantial variance in fetal growth, most commonly indexed by birth weight, may affect lifespan brain development. We investigated effects of normal variance in birth weight on MRI-derived measures of brain development in 628 healthy children, adolescents, and young adults in the large-scale multicenter Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics study. This heterogeneous sample was recruited through geographically dispersed sites in the United States. The influence of birth weight on cortical thickness, surface area, and striatal and total brain volumes was investigated, controlling for variance in age, sex, household income, and genetic ancestry factors. Birth weight was found to exert robust positive effects on regional cortical surface area in multiple regions as well as total brain and caudate volumes. These effects were continuous across birth weight ranges and ages and were not confined to subsets of the sample. The findings show that (i) aspects of later child and adolescent brain development are influenced at birth and (ii) relatively small differences in birth weight across groups and conditions typically compared in neuropsychiatric research (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders) may influence group differences observed in brain parameters of interest at a later stage in life. These findings should serve to increase our attention to early influences. PMID:23169628

  8. Self-Other Agreement in Multisource Feedback: The Influence of Doctor and Rater Group Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Campbell, John L.; Richards, Suzanne H.; Wright, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Multisource feedback (MSF) ratings provided by patients and colleagues are often poorly correlated with doctors' self-assessments. Doctors' reactions to feedback depend on its agreement with their own perceptions, but factors influencing self-other agreement in doctors' MSF ratings have received little attention. We aimed to identify…

  9. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  10. The Influence of Students' Loans Borrowers' Characteristics on Default Rate in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    The cost of students' loans defaulting has lead to a serious discussion among participants. Substantial attention has been made on the students' loans and its impact on higher education finances while researches on students' loans defaults have not been taken for more than a decade. Therefore this study examines the influence of student loans…

  11. Characteristics of the Human Host Have Little Influence on Which Local Schistosoma mansoni Populations Are Acquired

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Eliana A.; Azevedo, Theomira M.; Costa, Jackson M.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Blanton, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brazil remains the country in the Americas with the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis. A combination of control efforts and development, however, has sharply reduced its intensity and distribution. The acquisition of specific schistosome populations may be dependent on host characteristics such as sex, age, geography, work, habits and culture. How these and other host characteristics align with parasite subpopulations may guide approaches to improve control. Methodology A cohort of more than 90% of the residents in two rural communities in Brazil participated in an epidemiologic survey of demographic, socio-economic and behavioral characteristics. The variables sex, age, intensity of infection, socio-economic index, % lifetime spent on site, previous infection, and trips outside the district were used to group parasites infecting individuals. Schistosoma mansoni infection status was determined by examination of stools submitted on 3 different days. The aggregate of eggs collected from the whole stool was used to determine degree of population differentiation from allele frequencies for 15 microsatellites. Conclusions/Significance Infection prevalence was 41% for these communities, and the epidemiologic characteristics were similar to many of the endemic areas of Brazil and the world. Parasite population structuring was observed between the two communities (Jost's D 0.046, CI95% 0.042–0.051), although separated by only 8 km and connected by a highway. No structuring was observed when infected individuals were stratified by host's biologic, demographic or epidemiologic characteristics. Those most heavily infected best reflected the communities' overall parasite diversity. The lack of differentiation within villages suggests that individuals are likely to get infected at the same sites or that the same parasite multilocus genotypes can be found at most sites. The geographic structuring between villages and the lack of structuring by age of the host

  12. Influence of the physicochemical characteristics of pollutants on their uptake in moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Z.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Bryophytes are commonly used as biomonitors to estimate the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the tissue concentrations of these elements in moss do not always accurately reflect atmospheric levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether element uptake in moss is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the elements. Factor analysis was used to identify any patterns of covariance in the accumulation of elements in samples of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum collected from the surroundings of different factories and from control sites. The variation in the concentrations of elements was similar in moss from both types of sites and was related to the binding properties of the elements. This suggests that the physicochemical characteristics of the elements determine the uptake of metals and metalloids from the atmosphere. Therefore, in studies that use multiple correlations among elements as indicators of a common origin of contaminants, erroneous conclusions may be reached by overlooking the adsorption properties of the moss.

  13. The influence of job characteristics on job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Yeh, Ying-Chen; Lin, Wen-Hung

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between job characteristics and job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies in Taiwan. The structured questionnaires covered the items of job characteristics, job outcomes, and demographics of pharmacists, and were distributed between Feb 2004 and April 2004. Two hundred and ninety-eight pharmacists responded. Data were analyzed descriptively, and univariate analyses, factor analysis, and multiple regression analyses were used. It found the more enriched the job, the greater the job satisfaction and less intention to leave. And community pharmacists reported greater job enrichment and job satisfaction and less intention to leave than did hospital and clinic pharmacists. It suggests pharmacy managers could recognize the needs of pharmacists to redesign and enrich their work arrangements.

  14. Study on the influence of back blade shape on the wear characteristics of centrifugal slurry pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhou, S. P.; Li, S.

    2016-05-01

    CFX particle inhomogeneous model was introduced for the mechanism analysis of a centrifugal slurry pump which is equipped with back blades on impeller shrouds. Combining with the total efficiency correction, the simulation showed good prediction accuracy of external characteristics results compared with the experimental values. Vorticity and Q-Criterion were chosen as the variables to illustrate the abrasion morphology and wear mechanism by contrasting simulation result with worn impeller in engineering. The analysis showed that the large vorticity intensity areas are distributed at the edge of impeller shroud and intensively behind the back blades. Moreover, the vorticity scattered on suction surface of back blade shows the largest intensity. The contour of Q-Criterion demonstrated that the swirl scale in front cavity is obviously larger than that in back cavity. The distribution of vorticity on both front and back shrouds can reasonably explain the impeller wear characteristics. Finally, the forward curved back blade proved to be excellence performance in vorticity distribution.

  15. Safety in passenger ships: The influence of environmental design characteristics on people's perception of safety.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Markus; Mugge, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Although objective safety is a widely studied topic in ergonomics, subjective safety has received far less research attention. Nevertheless, most of human decision-making and behavior depends on how we perceive our environment. This study investigates the effects of various environmental design characteristics on people's safety perception in a passenger ship context. Five different environmental design characteristics were manipulated to increase the openness of the space or to create more clear navigation, resulting in 20 different cabin corridors for a passenger ship. Ninety-seven respondents were asked to rate these corridors on the perceived safety in an experiment. The results showed that people feel more safe when the corridors have a curved ceiling, when the walls do not have a split-level design, and when there is a view to the outside. Designers can use these insights when designing future environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental Study of the Influence of the Concentration of Organic Water-Coal Fuel Components on the Integral Ignition Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinina, K. Yu.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    To enlarge the power raw material base, the processes of stable initiation of combustion of drops of organic watercoal fuels have been investigated. For the main components, we used filter cakes (coal processing waste), anthracite, bituminous and brown coals of brands D and B2, water, and spent machine, turbine, and transformer oils. We have established the influence of concentrations of components on the minimum (limiting) ignition temperatures of organic water-coal fuels and the ignition delay times of drops of fuel components with initial sizes of 0.25-1.5 mm. Investigations were carried out for oxidizer temperatures of 600-1100 K and its velocities of 0.5-5 m/s characteristic of units, aggregates, and large and small power plants. We have determined the characteristic differences of organic water-coal fuel from water-coal fuel and the close laws of the investigated processes for these fuels.

  17. Influence of the chopped frequency of light on optical transport characteristics of human skin including at acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-qin; Xie, Shu-sen; Liu, Song-hao; Li, Hui; Wang, Yu-hua; Guo, Zhou-yi

    2007-11-01

    An experimental protocol was established for noninvasively measuring the optical transport characteristics of skin tissue along human meridian direction over body surface including at acupuncture points. The diffuse remittance for 658 nm light radiation along the pericardium meridian and non-meridian directions were measured respectively. The influence of the chopped frequency of light on the detected light signal was investigated. It is shown that the optical transport characteristics of skin tissue accords with the Beer's exponential attenuation law along the meridian including at acupuncture points and non-median directions. However there is an obvious difference between the propagations along the meridian direction and non-meridian direction (P<0.05). Furthermore, the chopped frequency can affect the detected signal. The diffuse remittance signal decreased with the chopped frequency's increase and it was different between the meridian and non-meridian directions. These findings are important and meaningful for interpreting the human meridian phenomena by biomedical optics.

  18. Influence of weather-affected material characteristics on appearance of freeze/thaw cycles in building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maděra, Jiří; Kočí, Václav; Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Jerman, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The possible appearance of freeze/thaw cycles in external wall made of selected building material is assessed within this paper. Main objective of the presented research is to investigate the influence of weather-affected material characteristics on that phenomenon. For this sake, the samples were exposed to long-term weathering while the material characteristics were determined in the beginning of the experiment and then after two and three years. The comparative simulations of coupled heat and moisture transport inside the wall when exposed to dynamic climatic conditions were subsequently performed using reference and weather affected data. The results revealed that hygric parameters of the material, in particular, got worse which led also to deterioration of hygrothermal performance of the studied construction. The time of wetness under the external surface was twice as high when weather-affected data had been assumed. The number of possible freeze/thaw cycles was higher as well.

  19. The influence of a thin gold film on the optical spectral characteristics of a porous anodic aluminum-oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, N. M.; Vasilkov, M. Yu.; Fedorov, F. S.

    2017-07-01

    We have experimentally studied how a thin mesostructured gold film, deposited onto one side of a porous anodic aluminum-oxide membrane, influences its optical spectral characteristics in a 200-900 nm wavelength range. It is established that the gold film only modifies the spectral characteristics of the composite membrane at light wavelengths above 500 nm. The presence of a thin gold film ensures the surface conductivity of membrane on a level of 3.4 × 106 Ω-1 m-1, retains optical transparency within 10-20%, leads to the appearance of anomalous dispersion in the long-wavelength part of the transmission spectrum, and reduces the bandgap width from 5.61 eV (in anodic aluminum oxide) to 4.51 eV (in the composite). The obtained anodic aluminum-oxide membranes with thin gold films can be used as transparent conducting electrodes in optoelectronic devices with large light transmitter/receiver active areas.

  20. Influence of carrier overflow on the forward-voltage characteristics of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Hyunsung; Shim, Jong-In; Shin, Dong-Soo; Kim, Kyu-Sang

    2014-11-10

    We investigate the influence of carrier overflow on the forward-voltage characteristics of the InGaN-based blue light-emitting-diode (LED) by comparing the temperature-dependent characteristics of the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency, the EL spectra, and the current-voltage relation over a wide range of temperature (50–300 K). Based on these experimental results, we demonstrate that the simple ohmic potential drop in the Shockley diode equation is not sufficient to explain the experimental data when the severe carrier overflow to the p-(Al)GaN layer induces the efficiency droop in the LED device. The anomalous relation between current and voltage at cryogenic temperatures is explained by the space-charge-limited current formed by the overflown electrons, rather than by the increase of a constant series resistance in the p-(Al)GaN layer.