Science.gov

Sample records for coder characteristics influence

  1. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  2. VLSI Universal Noiseless Coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi

    1989-01-01

    Proposed universal noiseless coder (UNC) compresses stream of data signals for efficient transmission in channel of limited bandwidth. Noiseless in sense original data completely recoverable from output code. System built as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, compressing data in real time at input rates as high as 24 Mb/s, and possibly faster, depending on specific design. Approach yields small, lightweight system operating reliably and consuming little power. Constructed as single, compact, low-power VLSI circuit chip. Design of VLSI circuit chip made specific to code algorithms. Entire UNC fabricated in single chip, worst-case power dissipation less than 1 W.

  3. Instruct coders' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, J.

    1971-01-01

    A manual designed both as an instructional manual for beginning coders and as a reference manual for the coding language INSTRUCT, is presented. The manual includes the major programs necessary to implement the teaching system and lists the limitation of current implementation. A detailed description is given of how to code a lesson, what buttons to push, and what utility programs to use. Suggestions for debugging coded lessons and the error messages that may be received during assembly or while running the lesson are given.

  4. Non-orthogonal subband/transform coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a simplified digital subband coder/decoder. In the present invention a signal is fed into a coder. The coder uses a non-orthogonal algorithm that is simply implemented in the coder hardware. The simple non-orthogonal design is then used in the implementation of the decoder to decode the signal.

  5. Statistical based MQ arithmetic coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noikaew, Nopphol; Chitsobhuk, Orachat

    2014-01-01

    Embedded block coding with optimized truncation (EBCOT) is a key algorithm in JPEG 2000 image compression system. Recently, the bit-plane coder architectures are capable of producing symbols at a higher rate than the capability of the existing MQ arithmetic coders. To solve this problem, a design of a multiple-symbol processor for statistical MQ coder architecture on FPGA is proposed. The proposed architecture takes advantage of simplicity of single-symbol architecture while integrates several techniques in order to increase the coding rate (more than one symbol per clock), reduce critical path, thus accelerate the coding speed. The repeated symbol statistics has been analyzed prior to the proposed architecture using lookahead technique. This allows the proposed architecture to support encoding rate of maximum 8 symbols per clock cycle without stalls and without excessively increasing the hardware cost. This helps to accelerate encoding process, which leads to greatly increase throughput. From the experiments, for lossy wavelet transform, the proposed architecture offers high throughput of at least 233.07 MCxD/S with effectively reducing the number of clock cycles more than 35.51%.

  6. Picture data compression coder using subband/transform coding with a Lempel-Ziv-based coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Digital data coders/decoders are used extensively in video transmission. A digitally encoded video signal is separated into subbands. Separating the video into subbands allows transmission at low data rates. Once the data is separated into these subbands it can be coded and then decoded by statistical coders such as the Lempel-Ziv based coder.

  7. Entropy coders for image compression based on binary forward classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hoon; Jeong, Jechang

    2000-12-01

    Entropy coders as a noiseless compression method are widely used as final step compression for images, and there have been many contributions to increase of entropy coder performance and to reduction of entropy coder complexity. In this paper, we propose some entropy coders based on the binary forward classification (BFC). The BFC requires overhead of classification but there is no change between the amount of input information and the total amount of classified output information, which we prove this property in this paper. And using the proved property, we propose entropy coders that are the BFC followed by Golomb-Rice coders (BFC+GR) and the BFC followed by arithmetic coders (BFC+A). The proposed entropy coders introduce negligible additional complexity due to the BFC. Simulation results also show better performance than other entropy coders that have similar complexity to the proposed coders.

  8. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  9. A fixed delay speech coder with variable length binary coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haoui, A.; Messerschmitt, D. G.

    The average bit rate of a vector quantizer (VQ) can be substantially decreased with variable-length (VL) binary coding with memory. To avoid the variable delay and buffer overflow problems associated with VL coding it is proposed to use an embedded coder in conjunction with the VL coder. Simulation results and listening tests indicate that the proposed fixed delay coder produces better quality speech at 16 Kbits/sec than ADPCM with a fixed second order predictor at 24 Kbits/sec and is less speaker dependent than standard VQ coders.

  10. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  11. Design of source coders and joint source/channel coders for noisy channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Rost, Martin C.; Michels, Alan

    1987-01-01

    A theory behind a proposed joint source/channel coding approach is developed and a variable rate design approach which provides substantial improvement over current joint source/channel coder designs is obtained. The Rice algorithm as applied to the output of the Gamma Ray Detector of the Mars Orbiter is evaluated. An alternative algorithm is obtained which outperforms the Rice both in terms of data compression and noisy channel performance. A high-fidelity low-rate image compression algorithm is developed which provides almost distortionless compression of high resolution images.

  12. Vector adaptive predictive coder for speech and audio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juin-Hwey (Inventor); Gersho, Allen (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A real-time vector adaptive predictive coder which approximates each vector of K speech samples by using each of M fixed vectors in a first codebook to excite a time-varying synthesis filter and picking the vector that minimizes distortion. Predictive analysis for each frame determines parameters used for computing from vectors in the first codebook zero-state response vectors that are stored at the same address (index) in a second codebook. Encoding of input speech vectors s.sub.n is then carried out using the second codebook. When the vector that minimizes distortion is found, its index is transmitted to a decoder which has a codebook identical to the first codebook of the decoder. There the index is used to read out a vector that is used to synthesize an output speech vector s.sub.n. The parameters used in the encoder are quantized, for example by using a table, and the indices are transmitted to the decoder where they are decoded to specify transfer characteristics of filters used in producing the vector s.sub.n from the receiver codebook vector selected by the vector index transmitted.

  13. Design and performance of an analysis-by-synthesis class of predictive speech coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Richard C.; Barnwell, Thomas P., III

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a broad class of analysis-by-synthesis linear predictive speech coders is quantified experimentally. The class of coders includes a number of well-known techniques as well as a very large number of speech coders which have not been named or studied. A general formulation for deriving the parametric representation used in all of the coders in the class is presented. A new coder, named the self-excited vocoder, is discussed because of its good performance with low complexity, and because of the insight this coder gives to analysis-by-synthesis coders in general. The results of a study comparing the performances of different members of this class are presented. The study takes the form of a series of formal subjective and objective speech quality tests performed on selected coders. The results of this study lead to some interesting and important observations concerning the controlling parameters for analysis-by-synthesis speech coders.

  14. Practical Qualitative Research Strategies: Training Interviewers and Coders.

    PubMed

    Goodell, L Suzanne; Stage, Virginia C; Cooke, Natalie K

    2016-09-01

    The increased emphasis on incorporating qualitative methodologies into nutrition education development and evaluation underscores the importance of using rigorous protocols to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. A 5-phase protocol for training qualitative research assistants (data collectors and coders) was developed as an approach to increase the consistency of the data produced. This training provides exposure to the core principles of qualitative research and then asks the research assistant to apply those principles through practice in a setting structured on critical reflection.

  15. Quick outlier-resilient entropy coder for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portell, Jordi; Villafranca, Alberto G.; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

    2010-07-01

    More than a decade has passed since the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) made its recommendation for lossless data compression. The CCSDS standard is commonly used for scientific missions because it is a general-purpose lossless compression technique with a low computational cost which results in acceptable compression ratios. At the core of this compression algorithm it is the Rice coding method. Its performance rapidly degrades in the presence of outliers, as the Rice coder is conceived for noiseless data following geometric distributions. To overcome this problem we present here a new entropy coder, the so-called Prediction Error Coder (PEC), as well as its fully adaptive version (FAPEC) which we show is a reliable alternative to the CCSDS standard. We show that PEC and FAPEC achieve high compression ratios even when a large amount of outliers are present in the data. This is done by testing our compressors with synthetic and real data, comparing the compression ratios and processor requirements with those obtained using the CCSDS standard.

  16. On the optimality of a universal noiseless coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Rice, Robert F.; Miller, Warner H.

    1993-01-01

    Rice developed a universal noiseless coding structure that provides efficient performance over an extremely broad range of source entropy. This is accomplished by adaptively selecting the best of several easily implemented variable length coding algorithms. Variations of such noiseless coders have been used in many NASA applications. Custom VLSI coder and decoder modules capable of processing over 50 million samples per second have been fabricated and tested. In this study, the first of the code options used in this module development is shown to be equivalent to a class of Huffman code under the Humblet condition, for source symbol sets having a Laplacian distribution. Except for the default option, other options are shown to be equivalent to the Huffman codes of a modified Laplacian symbol set, at specified symbol entropy values. Simulation results are obtained on actual aerial imagery over a wide entropy range, and they confirm the optimality of the scheme. Comparison with other known techniques are performed on several widely used images and the results further validate the coder's optimality.

  17. Vector excitation speech or audio coder for transmission or storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant (Inventor); Gersho, Allen (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vector excitation coder compresses vectors by using an optimum codebook designed off line, using an initial arbitrary codebook and a set of speech training vectors exploiting codevector sparsity (i.e., by making zero all but a selected number of samples of lowest amplitude in each of N codebook vectors). A fast-search method selects a number N.sub.c of good excitation vectors from the codebook, where N.sub.c is much smaller tha ORIGIN OF INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract, and is subject to the provisions of Public Law 96-517 (35 USC 202) under which the inventors were granted a request to retain title.

  18. Disparity in coding concordance: do physicians and coders agree?

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel P; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Awad

    2003-01-01

    Increasing demands for large-scale comparative analysis of health care costs has led to a similar demand for consistently classified data. Evidence-based medicine demands evidence that can be trusted. This study sought to assess managers' observed levels of agreement with physician code selections when classifying patient data. Using a non-sampled research design of both mailed and telephone surveys, we employ a nationwide cross-section of over 16,000 accredited US medical record managers. As a main outcome measure, we evaluate reported levels of agreement between physician and information manager code selections made when classifying patient data. Results indicate about 19 percent of respondents report that coder-physician classification disagreement occurred on more than 5 percent of all patient encounters. In some cases, disagreement occurred in 20 percent or more instances of code selection. This phenomenon shows significant variation across key demographic and market indicators. With the growing practice of measuring coded data quality as an outcome of health care financial performance, along with adoption of electronic classification and patient record systems, the accuracy of coded data is likely to remain uncertain in the absence of more consistent classification and coding practices. PMID:12908653

  19. Characteristics of Principal Leadership Influencing School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Norma J.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of principal leadership influencing school culture as viewed by stakeholders involved in the International Schools Group (ISG) in Saudi Arabia. A secondary purpose of this study is to inform ISG educational leaders about the perspectives of their respective stakeholder groups…

  20. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  1. Inter-Coder Agreement in One-to-Many Classification: Fuzzy Kappa.

    PubMed

    Kirilenko, Andrei P; Stepchenkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis involves classification of textual, visual, or audio data. The inter-coder agreement is estimated by making two or more coders to classify the same data units, with subsequent comparison of their results. The existing methods of agreement estimation, e.g., Cohen's kappa, require that coders place each unit of content into one and only one category (one-to-one coding) from the pre-established set of categories. However, in certain data domains (e.g., maps, photographs, databases of texts and images), this requirement seems overly restrictive. The restriction could be lifted, provided that there is a measure to calculate the inter-coder agreement in the one-to-many protocol. Building on the existing approaches to one-to-many coding in geography and biomedicine, such measure, fuzzy kappa, which is an extension of Cohen's kappa, is proposed. It is argued that the measure is especially compatible with data from certain domains, when holistic reasoning of human coders is utilized in order to describe the data and access the meaning of communication. PMID:26933956

  2. Inter-Coder Agreement in One-to-Many Classification: Fuzzy Kappa

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis involves classification of textual, visual, or audio data. The inter-coder agreement is estimated by making two or more coders to classify the same data units, with subsequent comparison of their results. The existing methods of agreement estimation, e.g., Cohen’s kappa, require that coders place each unit of content into one and only one category (one-to-one coding) from the pre-established set of categories. However, in certain data domains (e.g., maps, photographs, databases of texts and images), this requirement seems overly restrictive. The restriction could be lifted, provided that there is a measure to calculate the inter-coder agreement in the one-to-many protocol. Building on the existing approaches to one-to-many coding in geography and biomedicine, such measure, fuzzy kappa, which is an extension of Cohen’s kappa, is proposed. It is argued that the measure is especially compatible with data from certain domains, when holistic reasoning of human coders is utilized in order to describe the data and access the meaning of communication. PMID:26933956

  3. PatternCoder: A Programming Support Tool for Learning Binary Class Associations and Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.

    2009-01-01

    PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…

  4. On the optimality of code options for a universal noiseless coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Rice, Robert F.; Miller, Warner

    1991-01-01

    A universal noiseless coding structure was developed that provides efficient performance over an extremely broad range of source entropy. This is accomplished by adaptively selecting the best of several easily implemented variable length coding algorithms. Custom VLSI coder and decoder modules capable of processing over 20 million samples per second are currently under development. The first of the code options used in this module development is shown to be equivalent to a class of Huffman code under the Humblet condition, other options are shown to be equivalent to the Huffman codes of a modified Laplacian symbol set, at specified symbol entropy values. Simulation results are obtained on actual aerial imagery, and they confirm the optimality of the scheme. On sources having Gaussian or Poisson distributions, coder performance is also projected through analysis and simulation.

  5. A hardware architecture for a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsanan, Subramania; Cohen, Adam

    2005-03-01

    The H.264 video compression standard uses a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coder (CABAC) as an entropy coding mechanism. While the coder provides excellent compression efficiency, it is computationally demanding. On typical general-purpose processors, it can take up to hundreds of cycles to encode a single bit. In this paper, we propose an architecture for a CABAC encoder that can easily be incorporated into system-on-chip designs for H.264 compression. The CABAC is inherently serial and we divide the problem into several stages to derive a design that can provide a throughput of two cycles per encoded bit. The engine proposed is capable of handling binarization of the syntactical elements and provides the coded bit-stream via a first-in first-out buffer. The design is implemented on an Altera FPGA platform that can run at 50 MHz enabling a 25 Mbps encoding rate.

  6. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  7. An ODA-based coder/decoder for multimedia medical documents.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, V.; Navio, J.; Salvador, C. H.; Pulido, N.; Muñoz, A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dueñas, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the prototype of a coder/decoder based on the Open Document Architecture (ODA) standard for management of medical documents, as well as the working environment in which it has been developed. The prototype has been assessed in an X-Windows-equipped workstation with a relational database containing patient folders (text and still images) from the departmental information system of the liver transplantation unit. PMID:8130599

  8. A 4.8 kbps code-excited linear predictive coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremain, Thomas E.; Campbell, Joseph P., Jr.; Welch, Vanoy C.

    1988-01-01

    A secure voice system STU-3 capable of providing end-to-end secure voice communications (1984) was developed. The terminal for the new system will be built around the standard LPC-10 voice processor algorithm. The performance of the present STU-3 processor is considered to be good, its response to nonspeech sounds such as whistles, coughs and impulse-like noises may not be completely acceptable. Speech in noisy environments also causes problems with the LPC-10 voice algorithm. In addition, there is always a demand for something better. It is hoped that LPC-10's 2.4 kbps voice performance will be complemented with a very high quality speech coder operating at a higher data rate. This new coder is one of a number of candidate algorithms being considered for an upgraded version of the STU-3 in late 1989. The problems of designing a code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coder to provide very high quality speech at a 4.8 kbps data rate that can be implemented on today's hardware are considered.

  9. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…

  10. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  11. Design and Implementation of an In?Cache Archival Entropy Coder for the Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Senecal, J G

    2008-10-01

    The Sonoma sensor, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is an electro-optical (EO) sensor composed of a tiled arrangement of cameras, where each camera sends 20 megabytes (MB) of raw data per frame. Depending on the sensor configuration, each sensor image, in aggregate, can total up to 320 MB. I discuss here the design and implementation of a high-speed entropy coder utilizing the Lead-1 encoding method, intended to quickly and losslessly compress sensor data before it is written to storage. More sophisticated (and slower) compression techniques may be performed off-line. The coder, favoring speed over coding efficiency, is simple in principle and tiny in practice: the amount of allocated memory required by the coder can be as small as 26 bytes. On a 2.7 GHz PowerMac G5 this coder is capable of encoding sensor data at a rate of 163 megabytes per second. The overall compression rate is better than that of BZIP2, GZIP, and a range coder, and the total execution speed is superior.

  12. Channel Error Propagation In Predictor Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) Coders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Venkat; Rao, K. R.

    1980-11-01

    New adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM) coders with adaptive prediction are proposed and compared with existing non-adaptive DPCM coders, for processing composite National Television System Commission (NTSC) television signals. Comparisons are based on quantitative criteria as well as subjective evaluation of the processed still frames. The performance of the proposed predictors is shown to be independent of well-designed quantizers and better than existing predictors in such critical regions of the pictures as edges ind contours. Test data consists of four color images with varying levels of activity, color and detail. The adaptive predictors, however, are sensitive to channel errors. Propagation of transmission noise is dependent on the type of prediction and on location of noise i.e., whether in an uniform region or in an active region. The transmission error propagation for different predictors is investigated. By introducing leak in predictor output and/or predictor function it is shown that this propagation can be significantly reduced. The combination predictors not only attenuate and/or terminate the channel error propagation but also improve the predictor performance based on quantitative evaluation such as essential peak value and mean square error between the original and reconstructed images.

  13. Identity and environmentalism: the influence of community characteristics.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ann; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community characteristics on self-proclaimed environmentalism. We find that the composition of a community affects the likelihood that a person claims to be a strong environmentalist even after controlling for individual political leaning, socio-economic characteristics, and pro-environment behaviors. Individuals are more likely to claim to be strong environmentalists if they live in areas where a larger share of the population has post-graduate degrees, if they live in heavily Democratic areas, or if they live in heavily Republican areas. These community effects occur only when individuals are predisposed to take on an environmental identity. PMID:21280383

  14. Identity and environmentalism: the influence of community characteristics.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ann; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community characteristics on self-proclaimed environmentalism. We find that the composition of a community affects the likelihood that a person claims to be a strong environmentalist even after controlling for individual political leaning, socio-economic characteristics, and pro-environment behaviors. Individuals are more likely to claim to be strong environmentalists if they live in areas where a larger share of the population has post-graduate degrees, if they live in heavily Democratic areas, or if they live in heavily Republican areas. These community effects occur only when individuals are predisposed to take on an environmental identity.

  15. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher frequency of contacts and higher number of friends, as well as lower heterogeneity of the friendship network are related to more social trust, less stress, and a better health. Frequency of contact and number of friends, as well as more heterogeneity of the friendship network increase the chance of receiving help from friends. With the exception of receiving help from friends, these benefits are in turn related to higher levels of SWB. Only the frequency of meeting friends face-to-face has a remaining positive direct influence on SWB. PMID:22707845

  16. Influence of melt freezing characteristics on steam explosion energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Okkonen, T.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the freezing process of distinct melt particles interacting with water. Approximate time scales of freezing are estimated for some high-temperature melt materials that are of interest in experimental and reactor situations. Transient conduction calculations are performed to clarify the special freezing characteristics of oxidic melt materials (low conductivity) and binary melt mixtures (no definite freezing point). The transient calculations are compared with recent experiments indicating ``non-explosivity`` of Corium (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}). One potential explanation, based on the freezing characteristics of binary Corium mixture, is proposed for the experimental observations. The numerical results are generalized by discussing the scaling implications of the thermal conduction analysis and by defining different freezing categories. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the potential influence of melt freezing characteristics on steam explosion energetic.

  17. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  18. Influence of Different Diffuser Angle on Sedan's Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingjun; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Jian; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Zhiming

    The aerodynamic characteristics have a great influence on the fuel economics and the steering stability of a high speed vehicle. The underbody rear diffuser is one of important aerodynamic add-on devices. The parameters of the diffuser, including the diffuser angle, the number and the shape of separators, the shape of the end plate and etc, will affect the underbody flow and the wake. Here, just the influence of the diffuser angle was investigated without separator and the end plate. The method of Computational Fluid Dynamics was adopted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified sedan with a different diffuser angle respectively. The diffuser angle was set to 0°, 3°, 6°, 9.8° and 12° respectively. The diffuser angle of the original model is 9.8°. The conclusions were drawn that when the diffuser angle increases, the underbody flow and especially the wake change greatly and the pressure change correspondingly; as a result, the total aerodynamic drag coefficients of car first decrease and then increases, while the total aerodynamic lift coefficients decrease.

  19. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles.

  20. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; Fontijn-Tekamp, Anneke; van der Bilt, Andries

    2005-08-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subjects (age 42 +/- 12 years) by counting the number of chewing cycles needed to prepare food for swallowing. The influence of oral physiology on the swallowing threshold was determined by measuring salivary flow rate, maximum bite force and masticatory performance. We used about 10 cm(3) of bread, toast, melba toast, breakfast cake, peanuts and cheese to determine the influence on the swallowing threshold of various food characteristics, e.g. hardness, moisture and fat. Furthermore, we tested the effect of buttering the bread, toast, melba toast and breakfast cake on the swallowing threshold. Salivary flow rates were significantly and negatively correlated with the number of chewing cycles of melba toast and breakfast cake. Hence, subjects with more saliva needed less chewing cycles for these dry products. Maximum bite force and masticatory performance had an influence on the swallowing threshold for the hard products only (carrot and peanut). Although significant, the correlation coefficients were less than 0.28. Thus, the oral physiology parameters explained less than 10% of the variance in the swallowing threshold. We found significantly different numbers of chewing cycles for the various foods, ranging from 17 for cake to 63 for carrot. Hard and dry products needed more chewing cycles until swallowing. Buttering the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles needed before swallowing. This was especially true for the dry products cake, melba toast and toast. Hard and dry products require more chewing cycles and longer time in mouth until swallowing for sufficient breakdown to take place and for enough saliva to be added to form a coherent bolus safe for

  1. Some factors that influence semen characteristics in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Theau-Clément, M; Bolet, G; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study, based on a five-year-long experiment, was to analyse some of the factors that influence rabbit sperm production. A total of 174 bucks between 23 and 44 weeks of age from five successive groups were used for semen collection one day per week, two times, at a 15 min interval (ejaculates of rank 1 and 2), over a period of 21 weeks. Immediately after collection, pH, mass motility, volume and concentration were measured using classical methods, and a set of motility parameters were recorded by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. Between groups, the number of motile sperm per ejaculate, considered as a synthetic criterion combining both qualitative and quantitative aspects of semen characteristics, varied from simple to double (from 150 to 326×10(6)), reflecting the strong influence of uncontrolled environmental factors. Adult (37-43 weeks old) expressed a higher number of motile sperm/ejaculate than younger bucks (300 vs. 205×10(6)). In autumn the number of motile sperm/ejaculate was higher than in summer (287 vs. 188×10(6)). Sperm production was higher on average for the first ejaculate compared to the second one (270 vs. 167×10(6)). For several semen characteristics, the effect of the collector was significant but without any repercussion on sperm production. Bucks born to nulliparous or primiparous does had higher performances. This study highlights the high variability of rabbit semen characteristics and the multitude of factors involved, either controlled or uncontrolled. PMID:25862381

  2. A stimulus-dependent spike threshold is an optimal neural coder

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Douglas L.; Johnson, Erik C.; Ratnam, Rama

    2015-01-01

    A neural code based on sequences of spikes can consume a significant portion of the brain's energy budget. Thus, energy considerations would dictate that spiking activity be kept as low as possible. However, a high spike-rate improves the coding and representation of signals in spike trains, particularly in sensory systems. These are competing demands, and selective pressure has presumably worked to optimize coding by apportioning a minimum number of spikes so as to maximize coding fidelity. The mechanisms by which a neuron generates spikes while maintaining a fidelity criterion are not known. Here, we show that a signal-dependent neural threshold, similar to a dynamic or adapting threshold, optimizes the trade-off between spike generation (encoding) and fidelity (decoding). The threshold mimics a post-synaptic membrane (a low-pass filter) and serves as an internal decoder. Further, it sets the average firing rate (the energy constraint). The decoding process provides an internal copy of the coding error to the spike-generator which emits a spike when the error equals or exceeds a spike threshold. When optimized, the trade-off leads to a deterministic spike firing-rule that generates optimally timed spikes so as to maximize fidelity. The optimal coder is derived in closed-form in the limit of high spike-rates, when the signal can be approximated as a piece-wise constant signal. The predicted spike-times are close to those obtained experimentally in the primary electrosensory afferent neurons of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) and pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. We suggest that KCNQ/Kv7 channels (underlying the M-current) are good candidates for the decoder. They are widely coupled to metabolic processes and do not inactivate. We conclude that the neural threshold is optimized to generate an energy-efficient and high-fidelity neural code. PMID:26082710

  3. Influence of support conditions and temperature on the EMI characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancalie, A.; Sporea, D.; Malinowski, P.; Mieloszyk, M.; Opoka, S.; Wandowski, T.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    The present work reports results from an extensive set of measurements which has been performed in order to formulate standard method to remove temperature changes from impedance measurements. The other issue addressed here is the investigation of influence of boundary condition and temperature changes on electromechanical impedance measurement for structural member. Due to electromechanical coupling, changes in dynamic characteristics can be seen in electrical impedance of piezoelectric transducer. Two different systems have been used during this measurement process. System based on FBG sensors has been used for temperature changes measurement while PZT transducers mounted on the structure with impedance analyser were used for electrical parameters measurement. During research electrical impedance and resistance of piezoelectric transducer were measured in order to analyze changes in amplitude of peaks and the frequency shift of peaks due to temperature variations and different configurations of the beam.

  4. Influence of sample characteristics on probability of detection curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, P. E. Charles

    2014-02-01

    POD curves are typically constructed as statistical models of responses to known characteristics of the POD demonstration samples. MIL-HDBK-1823A provides some guidance in choosing the number of samples - viz. at least 40 targets for tests that provide a quantitative response (â) and 60 for binary responses (hit/miss) - but says little about the size range or how they should be placed within that range. Here we report on how the number of targets, their size range, and their distribution (uniform, skewed left or right) with respect to a true POD vs. size relationship influences the POD curve that is estimated from these targets. From the parameter estimates we compute confidence bounds to quantity statistical uncertainty. The work is for binary response data and is based on a novel simulation method for computing the confidence bounds which would prohibitively time-consuming using conventional Monte Carlo methods.

  5. Maternal characteristics influence response to DHA during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gould, J F; Anderson, A J; Yelland, L N; Gibson, R A; Makrides, M

    2016-05-01

    We explored the degree to which maternal and offspring outcomes resulting from consuming prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 800mg/day) in a clinical trial were influenced by maternal characteristics. Among non-smokers, women who received DHA had heavier babies (adjusted mean difference (MD)=99g 95% CI 45-153, p<0.01; interaction p=0.01) and fewer low birth weight babies than control women (adjusted relative risk=0.43 95% CI 0.25-0.74, p<0.01; interaction p=0.01). From women who had not completed further education, children in the DHA group had higher cognitive scores at 18 months compared with control children (adjusted MD=3.15 95% CI 0.93-5.37, p=0.01; interaction p<0.01). Conversely, the children of women who completed further education in the DHA group had lower language scores than control children (adjusted MD -2.82 95% CI -4.90 to -0.73, p=0.01; interaction p=0.04). Our results support the notion that responsiveness to prenatal DHA may depend on the characteristics of specific population subgroups. PMID:27154359

  6. Influence of Students' Characteristics and Feelings on Cognitive Achievement in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Theo; Hermans, Chris; Aarnoutse, Cor

    2008-01-01

    Whereas educational research has provided evidence that students' characteristics affect their performance, at this stage little is known about which characteristics influence their learning processes and achievement in religious education. This article looks into characteristics that influence students' cognitive achievement in religious…

  7. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  8. Island characteristics within wetlands influence waterbird nest success and abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either <1 km or >4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.

  9. Influence of habitat characteristics on shore-spawning kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.

  10. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  11. The Influence of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation on Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raemdonck, Isabel; Gijbels, David; van Groen, Willemijn

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of learning at work, we set out to examine the factors which influence workplace learning behaviour. The study investigated the influence of the job characteristics from Karasek's Job Demand Control Support model and the personal characteristic self-directed learning orientation on workplace learning. A total…

  12. Examining Instructional Leadership: A Study of School Culture and Teacher Quality Characteristics Influencing Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    First, to examine the influence of teacher input characteristics and teacher perceptions of school culture on student absences. Second, to examine the influence of teacher input characteristics and teacher perceptions of school culture on out-of-school suspensions. Data was obtained for the 2006-2007 school year from 23 urban public elementary…

  13. Influence of toxic endophyte-infected fescue on sperm characteristics and endocrine factors of yearling Brahman-influenced bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (mean age = 1.1 +/- 0.1 yr; mean BW = 478 +/- 34 kg) Brahman-influenced bulls were used to determine the influence of fescue type on sperm characteristics and serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and testosterone. Bulls were blocked by BW, scrotal circumference (SC), and pregrazing...

  14. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  15. Influence of Scholarships on STEM Teachers: Cluster Analysis and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Desjardins, Christopher David; Lawrenz, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers' perceptions about the influence of scholarship on their decision to teach and to teach in a high-needs school were examined using cluster analysis. Three hundred and four STEM scholars, who were currently teaching, and who received funding from 45 institutions located throughout…

  16. Conceptions, Characteristics and Content: How Journalists' Role Conceptions and the Characteristics of Media Organizations Influence the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Lori

    To examine how media content is influenced by journalists' role concepts and organizational characteristics, a study used data which was originally gathered from telephone interviews with 1,001 American journalists conducted between December 1982 and February 1983, and which served as the basis for "The American Journalist: A Portrait of U.S. News…

  17. The influence of surface waves on tidal turbine performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Benthem, M.; Luznik, L.; Flack, K.; Lust, E.

    2012-12-01

    Performance characteristics are presented for a 1/25th scale horizontal axis marine current turbine operating in calm conditions and in the presence of intermediate and deep water waves. The two-bladed turbine has radius of 0.4 m and a maximum blade pitch of 17°. The hydrofoil is a NACA63-618 which was selected to be Reynolds number independent in the operational range (ReC = 2 - 4 x 105). The experiments were performed in the 116 m towing tank at the United States Naval Academy at two depths 0.8D and 1.6D measured from the blade tip to the mean free surface. The performance characteristics without waves match expected results from blade-element-momentum theory. Results show that the average power coefficient is unaffected by the presence of waves, however, the phase averaged results indicate significant variation with wave phase.

  18. Reciprocal Influences of Personality and Job Characteristics Across Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    The present research uses an economically diverse, middle-aged sample to examine the concurrent and longitudinal interplay between personality and occupational experiences. Using the Five-Factor Model of personality and the Demand-Control Model of the occupational environment as guiding frameworks, participants (N = 722) reported on their personality, job characteristics, and occupational history; a subset (n = 297) made the same ratings approximately 10 years later. Measured concurrently, emotionally stable, extraverted, open, and conscientious participants reported jobs with greater decision-making latitude, whereas disagreeable participants had more physically demanding and dangerous jobs. Longitudinal cross-lagged analyses revealed that personality was associated with changes in decision latitude, hazardous working conditions, and physical demands. None of the job characteristics predicted change in personality at the factor level. Thus, personality shaped occupational experiences, but occupational experiences had minimal impact on personality. Support for the Five-Factor Theory perspective and implications for environmental approaches to personality development are discussed. PMID:20433619

  19. Polymerization Parameters Influencing the QCM Response Characteristics of BSA MIP

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Nam V. H.; Sussitz, Hermann F.; Lieberzeit, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Designing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for sensing proteins is still a somewhat empirical process due to the inherent complexity of protein imprinting. Based on Bovine Serum Albumin as a model analyte, we explored the influence of a range of experimental parameters on the final sensor responses. The optimized polymer contains 70% cross linker. Lower amounts lead to higher sensitivity, but also sensor response times substantially increase (to up to 10 h) at constant imprinting effect (signal ratio MIP/NIP on quartz crystal microbalance—QCM). However, by shifting the polymer properties to more hydrophilic by replacing methacrylic acid by acrylic acid, part of the decreased sensitivity can be recovered leading to appreciable sensor responses. Changing polymer morphology by bulk imprinting and nanoparticle approaches has much lower influence on sensitivity. PMID:25587416

  20. How Landscape Characteristics Influence Spatial Patterns of Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Zehe, E.; Blume, T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying transpiration in landscapes remains a challenging task. Especially bridging the gap between tree- or plot-scale measurements and information on the landscape scale which could be gathered from remote sensing, digital elevation models or forest inventories still poses considerable problems. These problems reach from errors associated with the measurements to the reliability of representing transpiration amounts by large-scale data. In this study we analyse spatial patterns of sap velocity to identify the importance of tree- or site-specific characteristics for transpiration at the landscape scale. We set up multiple linear regression models for a dataset of daily sap velocities for 61 trees at 24 locations in mixed beech and oak forests in a catchment in Luxemburg, recorded during the growing season of 2014. As predictors we use the tree-specific characteristics species, diameter and height and the site-specific characteristics basal area and number of stems for the respective stands as well as landscape attributes such as aspect, slope position and geology. Analysing the importance of these predictors could be useful for upscaling tree-based measurements to the landscape-scale based on data from digital elevation models, forest inventories or remote sensing. We also assess the temporal dynamics of the importance of tree- vs. site-specific predictors and link them to typical controls for sap flow such as atmospheric demand and soil moisture. First results indicate that site-specific predictors contribute considerably to the explained variance of the linear models. However, remotely sensed information explained very little of the variation in daily sap velocity patterns. Further analyses will quantify to which extent we can use the landscape-scale information from digital elevation models, geology and forest inventories to upscale tree-based transpiration estimates.

  1. Chemistry in interstellar space. [environment characteristics influencing reaction dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.

    1973-01-01

    The particular characteristics of chemistry in interstellar space are determined by the unique environmental conditions involved. Interstellar matter is present at extremely low densities. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are, therefore, to be expected. A relatively intense ultraviolet radiation is present in many regions. The temperatures are in the range from 5 to 200 K. Data concerning the inhibiting effect of small activation energies in interstellar clouds are presented in a table. A summary of measured activation energies or barrier heights for exothermic exchange reactions is also provided. Problems of molecule formation are discussed, taking into account gas phase reactions and surface catalyzed processes.

  2. Strong focusing influence on high gain FEL characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A.; Varfolomeev, A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of intrinsic alternating focusing in a linac-driven FEL with planar undulator is considered numerically. The analysis is done on the basis of TDA code for soft X-ray FEL with FD lattice implementing focusing of quadrupole and periodic sextupole type. The influence of the focusing (type and phase advance) on FEL performance and the reasons of difference in FEL performance for focusing of two kinds are analyzed. A possibility of some kind of beam conditioning for intrinsic focusing is discussed.

  3. Influence of technology on magnetic tape storage device characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gniewek, John J.; Vogel, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    There are available today many data storage devices that serve the diverse application requirements of the consumer, professional entertainment, and computer data processing industries. Storage technologies include semiconductors, several varieties of optical disk, optical tape, magnetic disk, and many varieties of magnetic tape. In some cases, devices are developed with specific characteristics to meet specification requirements. In other cases, an existing storage device is modified and adapted to a different application. For magnetic tape storage devices, examples of the former case are 3480/3490 and QIC device types developed for the high end and low end segments of the data processing industry respectively, VHS, Beta, and 8 mm formats developed for consumer video applications, and D-1, D-2, D-3 formats developed for professional video applications. Examples of modified and adapted devices include 4 mm, 8 mm, 12.7 mm and 19 mm computer data storage devices derived from consumer and professional audio and video applications. With the conversion of the consumer and professional entertainment industries from analog to digital storage and signal processing, there have been increasing references to the 'convergence' of the computer data processing and entertainment industry technologies. There has yet to be seen, however, any evidence of convergence of data storage device types. There are several reasons for this. The diversity of application requirements results in varying degrees of importance for each of the tape storage characteristics.

  4. Characteristics of leadership that influence clinical learning: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel; Cooke, Marie; Henderson, Amanda; Creedy, Debra K

    2011-11-01

    Leadership has been consistently implied in fostering clinical learning. However there is a lack of clarity about the form leadership should take. Limited quantitative research indicated a narrative approach to review literature from a broad perspective. A framework to guide the synthesis was developed to ensure a rigorous review process. Preliminary reading and review of papers using search terms nursing and leadership and clinical learning and learning culture narrowed the inclusion criteria to 245 papers published between 2000 and 2010. Given the diversity of the papers' focus, aim and context, a refined screening process justified the inclusion of twenty-six papers in the review. A critical appraisal of these peer-reviewed quantitative, qualitative and commentary papers identified factors/elements integral to effective leadership. Across the literature leadership was discussed in relation to two broad themes: influence of leadership on organisational learning and development and; influence of leadership on undergraduate clinical education. The factors central to leadership emerged as transformative principles, the role of the nurse unit/ward manager, collaboration and relationship building and role-modelling. The review has raised some suggestions for future research aimed at examining the impact of a leadership capacity building intervention that supports clinical learning.

  5. Individual Variation in Life History Characteristics Can Influence Extinction Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, H I

    2001-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  6. Exploring Factors of Media Characteristic Influencing Flow in Learning through Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Beomkyu; Baek, Youngkyun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out factors of media characteristic which are considered to influence flow in learning through virtual worlds. One hundred ninety eight elementary students who are eleven to twelve years old participated in this study. After the exploratory factor analysis, to extract media characteristics of virtual worlds, seventy-eight…

  7. The Influence of Perceived Characteristics of Management Development Programs on Employee Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardts, Joost C. A.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; Maurer, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Employees' perceptions of Management Development (MD) programs is the topic of this study. The purpose is to examine the influence of three important perceived characteristics of MD programs on relevant MD outcomes. The MD characteristics are: availability of role models, perceived control, and understanding the MD program. Outcomes are:…

  8. Characteristics of Principals Whom Teachers Perceive to Have Influenced Their Efficacy in Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Nancy Jean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover characteristics of principals whom teachers perceive to have influenced their sense of efficacy in classroom practices. Teachers shared their progression into becoming an efficacious practitioner and then associated the principal's interactions that inspired their efficacy. Common characteristics were…

  9. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  10. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a membrane oxygenator: modeling of pressure-flow characteristics and their influence on apparent viscosity.

    PubMed

    Okahara, S; Tsuji, T; Ninomiya, S; Miyamoto, S; Takahashi, H; Soh, Z; Sueda, T

    2015-09-01

    The viscosity obtained from pressure-flow characteristics of an oxygenator may help to detect factors that change oxygenator resistance. The objective of this study was to model pressure-flow characteristics of a membrane oxygenator with an integrated arterial filter and to quantify their influence on apparent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids. One Newtonian fluid (glycerin solution) and two non-Newtonian fluids (whole bovine blood and a human red blood cell suspension) were perfused through an oxygenator and their pressure-flow characteristics examined systematically. Four resistance parameters for the pressure gradient characteristics approximation equation were obtained by the least squares method from the relational expression of pressure-flow characteristics and viscosity. For all three fluids, a non-linear flow to pressure change was observed with a coefficient of determination of almost 1 by exponential approximation. The glycerin solution had a higher pressure gradient (10-70%) than the other fluids; the apparent viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluids was around 35% lower than the static one measured by a torsional oscillation viscometer. Overall, our study demonstrated that the influence on the apparent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids can be quantified by pressure gradient differences in a membrane oxygenator with an integrated arterial filter.

  11. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on human mobility [corrected].

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Arias, Juan Murillo; Barthelemy, Marc; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility has been traditionally studied using surveys that deliver snapshots of population displacement patterns. The growing accessibility to ICT information from portable digital media has recently opened the possibility of exploring human behavior at high spatio-temporal resolutions. Mobile phone records, geolocated tweets, check-ins from Foursquare or geotagged photos, have contributed to this purpose at different scales, from cities to countries, in different world areas. Many previous works lacked, however, details on the individuals' attributes such as age or gender. In this work, we analyze credit-card records from Barcelona and Madrid and by examining the geolocated credit-card transactions of individuals living in the two provinces, we find that the mobility patterns vary according to gender, age and occupation. Differences in distance traveled and travel purpose are observed between younger and older people, but, curiously, either between males and females of similar age. While mobility displays some generic features, here we show that sociodemographic characteristics play a relevant role and must be taken into account for mobility and epidemiological modelization.

  12. Burst Packet Loss Concealment Using Multiple Codebooks and Comfort Noise for CELP-Type Speech Coders in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Hong Kook; Jung, Min A; Lee, Seong Ro; Choi, Seung Ho

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a packet loss concealment (PLC) algorithm for CELP-type speech coders is proposed in order to improve the quality of decoded speech under burst packet loss conditions in a wireless sensor network. Conventional receiver-based PLC algorithms in the G.729 speech codec are usually based on speech correlation to reconstruct the decoded speech of lost frames by using parameter information obtained from the previous correctly received frames. However, this approach has difficulty in reconstructing voice onset signals since the parameters such as pitch, linear predictive coding coefficient, and adaptive/fixed codebooks of the previous frames are mostly related to silence frames. Thus, in order to reconstruct speech signals in the voice onset intervals, we propose a multiple codebook-based approach that includes a traditional adaptive codebook and a new random codebook composed of comfort noise. The proposed PLC algorithm is designed as a PLC algorithm for G.729 and its performance is then compared with that of the PLC algorithm currently employed in G.729 via a perceptual evaluation of speech quality, a waveform comparison, and a preference test under different random and burst packet loss conditions. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed PLC algorithm provides significantly better speech quality than the PLC algorithm employed in G.729 under all the test conditions. PMID:22163902

  13. Maternal characteristics and clinical diagnoses influence obstetrical outcomes in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Adisasmita, Asri; Smith, Carl V; El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; Deviany, Poppy Elvira; Ryon, Judith J; Kiely, Michele; Rogers-Bloch, Quail; Gipson, Reginald F

    2015-07-01

    This Indonesian study evaluates associations between near-miss status/death with maternal demographic, health care characteristics, and obstetrical complications, comparing results using retrospective and prospective data. The main outcome measures were obstetric conditions and socio-economic factors to predict near-miss/death. We abstracted all obstetric admissions (1,358 retrospective and 1,240 prospective) from two district hospitals in East Java, Indonesia between 4/1/2009 and 5/15/2010. Prospective data added socio-economic status, access to care and referral patterns. Reduced logistic models were constructed, and multivariate analyses used to assess association of risk variables to outcome. Using multivariate analysis, variables associated with risk of near-miss/death include postpartum hemorrhage (retrospective AOR 5.41, 95 % CI 2.64-11.08; prospective AOR 10.45, 95 % CI 5.59-19.52) and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia (retrospective AOR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.05-3.57; prospective AOR 3.26, 95 % CI 1.79-5.94). Associations with near-miss/death were seen for antepartum hemorrhage in retrospective data (AOR 9.34, 95 % CI 4.34-20.13), and prospectively for poverty (AOR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.33-3.54) and delivering outside the hospital (AOR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.08-3.82). Postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of near-miss/death in Indonesia. Poverty and delivery outside the hospital are significant risk factors. Prompt recognition of complications, timely referrals, standardized care protocols, prompt hospital triage, and structured provider education may reduce obstetric mortality and morbidity. Retrospective data were reliable, but prospective data provided valuable information about barriers to care and referral patterns.

  14. Filter Characteristics Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45−DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9–19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11–13 µm should be used to challenge the system. PMID:23626725

  15. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  16. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  17. Experimental Study on Influence of Distribution Line Support System on Flashover Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekioka, Shozo; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Miyazaki, Teru; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    This paper describes experimental results of flashover characteristics of medium-voltage insulators to support an insulated cable which is used in Japanese power distribution lines. The experimental study is targeted for direct lightning strokes to a shielding wire or top of a reinforced concrete pole in the distribution line. Lightning impulse voltage is applied to a metallic cross arm to represent the direct lightning stroke. 50% flashover voltage, voltage vs. flashover time characteristic and a photograph of the discharge are measured. This paper investigates the flashover characteristics of three types of cable support system such as suspension support, dead-end support and strain support. The flashover characteristics are dependent on the supporting system. Surface discharge on the insulated cable due to the flashover is observed, causes the discrepancy of the flashover characteristics. This paper presents constants in the integration method, which is a flashover model and can consider the influence of applied voltage waveform in order for accurate lightning surge analysis.

  18. The Influence of Personal Characteristics on Secondary School Teachers' Beliefs about School Guidance and Counselling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Egbochuku, ELizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated how personal characteristics of secondary school teachers influence their beliefs about their school guidance and counselling programs. Two hundred and sixteen senior secondary school teachers responded to the "Teachers Beliefs about School Guidance and Counselling Programs Inventory (TBSG &CI)". When teachers' opinion…

  19. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics.

  20. The Influence of Learner Characteristics on Satisfaction with Interactive Televised Courses in Florida Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Beverly L.; Kamata, Akihito; Smith, Kathleen Shea

    This report describes a pilot project designed to explore the influence of particular personality and demographic characteristics on community college student satisfaction with distance learning, specifically interactive telecommunications (ITV) courses. The study used the Telecourse Evaluation Questionnaire (TEQ) and the Sixteen Personality…

  1. Family and Religious Characteristics' Influence on Delinquency Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petts, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting…

  2. What Characteristics of College Students Influence Their Decisions to Select Online Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, John T.; Henneberry, Shida R.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to identify a wide range of characteristics of college students that may influence their decisions to select online courses. The motivation underlying this study is the realization that online courses are no longer exclusively being taken by non-traditional students (for undergraduates, that would be students age…

  3. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics. PMID:24355858

  4. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  5. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  6. Child and Family Characteristics Influencing Intervention Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Schultz, Beth

    2013-01-01

    A myriad of treatment options are available for children with autism spectrum disorders, yet little is understood regarding characteristics of parents (e.g., education) and children (e.g., severity of autism symptoms) that influence types and numbers of therapies utilized. Interviews from 70 caregivers were analyzed to determine potential…

  7. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  8. Relationship Influences on Exploration in Adulthood: The Characteristics and Function of a Secure Base

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Brooke C.; Thrush, Roxanne L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation advances theory and research regarding relationship influences on exploration in adulthood. This is accomplished by (a) identifying important characteristics of a secure base, (b) examining the influence of the presence/absence of these characteristics on exploration behavior in adulthood, and (c) identifying individual difference factors that are predictive of the provision and receipt of secure base support. In two sessions, married couples (N = 167) provided reports of relationship dynamics involving exploration, and they participated in an exploration activity that was videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that the three identified characteristics of a secure base (availability, non-interference, and encouragement) are strongly predictive of exploration behavior, and that the provision and receipt of these behaviors can be predicted by individual differences in attachment. Implications of results and contributions to existing literature are discussed. PMID:20053031

  9. Individual and coupled influences of AMO and ENSO on regional precipitation characteristics and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, Aneesh; Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the influences of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) on regional precipitation extremes and characteristics in the state of Florida is the focus of this study. Exhaustive evaluations of individual and combined influences of these oscillations using, descriptive indices-based assessment of statistically significant changes in rainfall characteristics, identification of spatially varying influences of oscillations on dry and wet spell transition states, antecedent precipitation prior to extreme events, intraevent temporal distribution of precipitation and changes in temporal occurrences of extremes including dry/wet cycles are carried out. Rain gage and gridded precipitation data analysis using parametric hypothesis tests confirm statistically significant changes in the precipitation characteristics from one phase to another of each oscillation and also in coupled phases. Spatially nonuniform and uniform influences of AMO and ENSO, respectively, on precipitation are evident. AMO influences vary in peninsular and continental parts of Florida and the warm (cool) phase of AMO contributes to increased precipitation extremes during wet (dry) season. The influence of ENSO is confined to dry season with El Niño (La Niña) contributing to increase (decrease) in extremes and total precipitation. Wetter antecedent conditions preceding daily extremes are dominant in AMO warm phase compared to the cool and are likely to impact design floods in the region. AMO influence on dry season precipitation extremes is noted for ENSO neutral years. The two oscillations in different phases modulate each other with seasonal and spatially varying impacts and implications on flood control and water supply in the region.

  10. Socioeconomic characteristics of enrollees appear to influence performance scores for medicare part D contractors.

    PubMed

    Young, Gary J; Rickles, Nathaniel M; Chou, Chia-Hung; Raver, Eli

    2014-01-01

    More than 150 private companies contract with the federal government to provide Part D prescription drug benefits to Medicare beneficiaries, either through stand-alone drug plans or as part of Medicare Advantage plans. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) evaluates these companies on a set of performance measures, including plan enrollees' medication adherence. We used 2012 data from CMS and data from the US Census Bureau to investigate whether these performance ratings are influenced by the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations. We found that some companies have a substantial advantage over others because of their enrollees' socioeconomic characteristics, with more than a third of the variation in adherence scores tied to these characteristics. CMS should seriously consider adjusting adherence scores to account for differences in the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations. PMID:24395946

  11. Influence of the Laminar Plasma Torch Construction on the Jet Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiuquan; Yu, Deping; Xiang, Yong; Yao, Jin; Miao, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    Based on two typical laminar plasma torches (LPT), i.e. a multi-electrode plasma torch (MEPT) with segmented anode structure and a two-electrode plasma torch (TEPT) with conventional structure, this paper studied the influence of the LPTs construction on the jet characteristics. Experiments were designed to measure their arc voltage, jet length, thermal efficiency and specific enthalpy using a home-made data acquisition system. With them, the jet characteristics of the two different LPTs were compared in detail. Results show that different plasma torch construction leads to distinctively different characteristics of the generated plasma jet. Based on the different jet characteristics, a plasma torch with appropriate construction could be used to meet the different application requirements. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51405315) and the Laboratory of Precision Manufacturing Technology, CAEP (No. KF15002)

  12. Influence of acoustic energy walk-off on acousto-optic diffraction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Balakshy, Vladimir I; Voloshin, Andrey S; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya

    2015-05-01

    Influence of acoustic beam energy walk-off on characteristics of Bragg diffraction of light is studied theoretically and experimentally by the example of a paratellurite single crystal. Two cases of isotropic and anisotropic light scattering are examined. Angular and frequency characteristics of acousto-optic interaction are calculated in wide ranges of Bragg angles and ultrasound frequencies by means of modified Raman-Nath equations. It is shown that the walk-off can substantially change the width of angular and frequency ranges, resulting in their narrowing or broadening subject to position of the operating point in the Bragg angle frequency characteristic. Coefficients of broadening are introduced for characterization of this effect. It is established that frequency dependences of the broadening coefficients are similar to the Bragg angle frequency characteristics. Experimental verification of the calculations is carried out with a paratellurite cell of 10.5° crystal cut. PMID:25708348

  13. Toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences: how task characteristics influence responses

    PubMed Central

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In research on Bayesian inferences, the specific tasks, with their narratives and characteristics, are typically seen as exchangeable vehicles that merely transport the structure of the problem to research participants. In the present paper, we explore whether, and possibly how, task characteristics that are usually ignored influence participants’ responses in these tasks. We focus on both quantitative dimensions of the tasks, such as their base rates, hit rates, and false-alarm rates, as well as qualitative characteristics, such as whether the task involves a norm violation or not, whether the stakes are high or low, and whether the focus is on the individual case or on the numbers. Using a data set of 19 different tasks presented to 500 different participants who provided a total of 1,773 responses, we analyze these responses in two ways: first, on the level of the numerical estimates themselves, and second, on the level of various response strategies, Bayesian and non-Bayesian, that might have produced the estimates. We identified various contingencies, and most of the task characteristics had an influence on participants’ responses. Typically, this influence has been stronger when the numerical information in the tasks was presented in terms of probabilities or percentages, compared to natural frequencies – and this effect cannot be fully explained by a higher proportion of Bayesian responses when natural frequencies were used. One characteristic that did not seem to influence participants’ response strategy was the numerical value of the Bayesian solution itself. Our exploratory study is a first step toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences, and highlights new avenues for future research. PMID:26300791

  14. The Influence of Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Treatment Counselor Characteristics on Client Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Pullen, Erin L.; Harp, Kathi L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Focus group data was collected from 28 substance abuse treatment counselors employed in rural and urban areas to examine their perceptions of factors influencing treatment outcomes. The influence of the counselor characteristics (i.e., education, experience, and recovery status) on client outcomes and geographic differences are explored. Focus group data was analyzed by three raters using line-by-line coding, focused coding, and memoing. This analytic approach revealed geographic differences in the counselors' perceptions of the effect of counselor education, experience, and recovery status on client outcomes. Recommendations for treatment planning and future research are provided. PMID:21927521

  15. Time-dependent behaviour of high performance concrete: influence of coarse aggregate characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makani, A.; Vidal, T.; Pons, G.; Escadeillas, G.

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of coarse aggregate characteristics on the time-dependent deformations of High Performances Concretes (HPC). Four concretes made using the same cement paste but incorporating different types of aggregate (rolled siliceous gravel, crushed granite, crushed limestone and crushed siliceous gravels) were studied in order to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage and creep. The results indicate that the aggregate type has a significant effect on creep and shrinkage deformations of HPC. An influence of the shape of aggregate on time-dependent deformations has also been observed. On the basis of these results, long-term behaviour seems to be correlated to the characteristics of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) strongly depending on the mineralogical nature and properties of aggregates. The experimental results are compared with the values calculated using the current Eurocode 2 model in order to assess the accuracy of the predictions.

  16. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  17. Adolescent first lapse following smoking cessation: situation characteristics, precipitants and proximal influences.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark G; Gwaltney, Chad J; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; Monti, Peter M; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Despite increased attention to adolescent smoking cessation, little is known about adolescent relapse following a quit attempt. To address this issue, the present study was designed to provide initial information regarding the characteristics of adolescent lapses to smoking following abstinence. Included in the present study were 204 adolescent participants in four independent smoking cessation trials. For the full sample, participants averaged 15.99 (1.27) years of age; 56% were female and 78% were white. Lapse characteristics and precipitants were assessed using the Adolescent Smoking Relapse Review. Three domains of the lapse experience were assessed: lapse situation characteristics, precipitants of use in the situation, and proximal influences (i.e., potential precipitants occurring on the same day, prior to the lapse situation). Participant reports indicated that the modal lapse situation occurred in the evening while socializing with friends at home. Urges or cravings and social pressure were commonly endorsed as occurring in lapse situations. The most frequently reported proximal influence was desire for a cigarette, followed by abstinence-violation cognitions (okay to smoke occasionally, wanted to see what it would be like) and negative emotions. The findings indicate that a broad range of factors appear to influence adolescent smoking lapse and commend the value of incorporating content relevant to managing social and affective cues, strategies for inhibiting the prepotent response to ask for a cigarette, addressing cognitions regarding the difficulty of not smoking (i.e., cessation expectancies) and combating perceptions of the ability to smoke occasionally.

  18. Influence of characteristics of micro-bubble clouds on backscatter lidar signal.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Rao, Jionghui; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-28

    Marine micro-bubbles are one of those important constituents that influence scattering characteristics of water column. Monte Carlo Based simulations show that a water entrained bubble cloud generate a characteristic backscatter of incident laser light [M. Xia, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 350 (2006)]. This characteristic can be used to detect and localize bubble clouds, leading to wide ranging applications, especially in optical remote sensing. This paper describes tests of an underwater lidar system applied to detecting cloud of micro-bubbles. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the system is capable of detecting bubbles ranging from diameter 10 microm approximately 200 microm, over a distance of 7-12 m from the detector. The dependence of the lidar return signal on size distribution of bubbles, concentration, thickness and location of bubble clouds is studied and compared with simulation results.

  19. Influence of characteristics of micro-bubble clouds on backscatter lidar signal.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Rao, Jionghui; Zhang, Wei

    2009-09-28

    Marine micro-bubbles are one of those important constituents that influence scattering characteristics of water column. Monte Carlo Based simulations show that a water entrained bubble cloud generate a characteristic backscatter of incident laser light [M. Xia, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 350 (2006)]. This characteristic can be used to detect and localize bubble clouds, leading to wide ranging applications, especially in optical remote sensing. This paper describes tests of an underwater lidar system applied to detecting cloud of micro-bubbles. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the system is capable of detecting bubbles ranging from diameter 10 microm approximately 200 microm, over a distance of 7-12 m from the detector. The dependence of the lidar return signal on size distribution of bubbles, concentration, thickness and location of bubble clouds is studied and compared with simulation results. PMID:19907564

  20. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  1. The influence of acceleration loading curve characteristics on traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Brien, Susan; Cusimano, Michael D; Marshall, Shawn

    2014-03-21

    To prevent brain trauma, understanding the mechanism of injury is essential. Once the mechanism of brain injury has been identified, prevention technologies could then be developed to aid in their prevention. The incidence of brain injury is linked to how the kinematics of a brain injury event affects the internal structures of the brain. As a result it is essential that an attempt be made to describe how the characteristics of the linear and rotational acceleration influence specific traumatic brain injury lesions. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the characteristics of linear and rotational acceleration pulses and how they account for the variance in predicting the outcome of TBI lesions, namely contusion, subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and epidural hematoma (EDH) using a principal components analysis (PCA). Monorail impacts were conducted which simulated falls which caused the TBI lesions. From these reconstructions, the characteristics of the linear and rotational acceleration were determined and used for a PCA analysis. The results indicated that peak resultant acceleration variables did not account for any of the variance in predicting TBI lesions. The majority of the variance was accounted for by duration of the resultant and component linear and rotational acceleration. In addition, the components of linear and rotational acceleration characteristics on the x, y, and z axes accounted for the majority of the remainder of the variance after duration.

  2. Influence of micronutrients on rheological characteristics and bread-making quality of flour.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M L; Leelavathi, K

    2008-03-01

    Studies were carried out to see the influence of different iron and calcium salts along with some vitamins on the rheological characteristics and bread-making quality of wheat flour. Fortification with iron (30-90 ppm) from different sources showed a marginal increase in water absorption (2%). Calcium ranging between 800 and 1,600 ppm did not show any influence on the mixing properties of the dough. Except for ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and calcium lactate, all other salts did not have any influence on the alveograph characteristics. The gelatinization temperature slightly increased by about 2-3 degrees C and the cold paste viscosity increased from 468 to 524 BU. Addition of micronutrient premix containing ferrous sulphate, calcium carbonate and vitamins such as thiamine (thiamine hydrochloride), riboflavin, niacin (nicotinic acid) and folic acid at different levels showed a marginal effect on the rheological parameters. There was no significant influence of micronutrient premix on the objective and subjective evaluation of the breads, except for the crumb colour. Fortification with the vitamin-mineral premix did not affect the theological parameters and bread-making quality of flour, even after storage. PMID:17852480

  3. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems. PMID:22799560

  4. Antibacterial Properties of Copper Nanoparticle Dispersions: Influence of Synthesis Conditions and Physicochemical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godymchuk, A.; Frolov, G.; Gusev, A.; Zakharova, O.; Yunda, E.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The production of bactericidal plasters, bandages and medicines with the inclusion of copper nanoparticles and copper ions may have a great potential in terms of their biomedical application. The work considers the influence of the synthesis conditions, size, aggregation status, and charge of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions as well as the type of microorganisms to the antibacterial properties of water suspensions of electroexplosive copper nanoparticles in the conditions in vitro in relation to strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Water dispersions of copper nanoparticles were shown to inhibit the growth of test cells for both G+ and G- microbacteria but the degree of such an influence strongly depended on the type of a test strain. The authors have demonstrated that use of deeply purified water and alcohol-containing stabilizers at the synthesis of nanoparticles via metals electric erosion in the liquid prevents the copper nanoparticles coagulation and significantly influences on their physicochemical characteristics and, consequently, antibacterial properties.

  5. CFD investigation of the influence of volute geometrical variations on hydrodynamic characteristics of circulator pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Denghao; Yuan, Shouqi; Ren, Yun; Mu, Jiegang; Yang, Youdong; Liu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Improper design of volute geometry can be the main cause that leads to unsteady pressure pulsation and radial force in pumps. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of volute geometrical parameters on hydrodynamic characteristics of pump and the mechanism. However, the existing studies are limited to investigate the influence of only one or two volute geometrical parameters each time, and a systematic study of the influence of the combinations of different volute geometrical parameters on the pump's hydrodynamic characteristics is missing. In this paper, a study on the understanding of the influence of volute geometrical variations on hydrodynamic characteristics of a high speed circulator pump by using computational fluid dynamics(CFD) technology is presented. Five main volute geometrical parameters D 3, A 8, α 0, φ 0 and R t are selected and 25 different volute configurations are generated by using design of experiments(DOE) method. The 3D unsteady flow numerical simulations, which are based on the SST k- w turbulence model and sliding mesh technique provided by CFX, are executed on the 25 different volute configurations. The hydraulic performance, pressure pulsation and unsteady radial force inside the pump at design condition are obtained and analyzed. It has been found that volute geometrical parameters D 3 and A 8 are major influence factors on hydrodynamic characteristics of the pump, while α 0, φ 0 and R t are minor influence factors. The minimum contribution from both D 3 and A 8 is 58% on head, and maximum contribution from both D 3 and A 8 is 90% on pressure pulsation. Regarding the pressure pulsation intensity, two peaks can be found. One is in the tongue area and the other is in the diffusor area. The contributions are around 60% from tongue and 25% from diffusor, respectively. The amplitude of pressure pulsation has a quadratic polynomial functional relationship with respect to D 3/ D 2 and A 8/ A 10, and fluctuating level of

  6. Demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students and factors influencing their career choice and institution of learning.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Carl Halladay, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This information is important as it will assist optometry institutions to formulate effective student recruitment strategies. To assess the demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students, the factors that influence their selection of optometry as a career and institution of learning. We conducted a cross sectional study among Ghanaian optometry students using a structured questionnaire to collect data on the demographic characteristics and factors that might influence their choice of optometry as a career as well as choice of institution of learning. Two hundred and eighty students from the two optometry training institutions in Ghana; University of Cape Coast (48.2%) and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (51.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 17 to 28 years with most being males (72.5%), and the majority (79%) being from urban areas. The main factors that influenced their career choice were job availability after graduation (90%) and desire to help other people (89.2%). Factors that influenced their institution choice were preference for an institution (36.8%) and proximity to home (24.4%). In the absence of adequate optometry jobs in the public health sector, women will remain marginalised specifically those in rural areas. This marginalisation is however, a reflection of a broader societal disadvantage for women. Greater effort needs to be made to recruit high school students from rural areas to study optometry and more institutions need to provide optometry instruction throughout the country.

  7. The Influence of Anthropometric Characteristics on Kinematic Parameters of Children's Sprinter's Running.

    PubMed

    Blažević, Iva; Babić, Vesna; Zagorac, Nebojša

    2015-07-01

    Children's sprinters running differs from the adults' one primarily in their motoric abilities, anthropometric characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as psychological and sociological characteristics. This research's aim was to examine the influence of anthropometric characteristics on kinematic parameters of children's sprinter's running. The sample of variables consisted of variables which determine anthropometric characteristics (14 anthropometric characteristics) and of 5 kinematic parameters'variables of sprinter's running. Kinematic parameters of sprinter's running in the phase of maximal speed have been collected by applying the Optojump technology (Microgate, Italy) and the sprinter's running times were measured every 5 meters on a 50 m lap. The results obtained from the multiple regression analysis between the group of anthropometric characteristics and the 50 m running results indicate that the percentage of fatty tissue is a statistically significant variable with boys, while the same variable with girls is near the limit of statistical significance. In the factor structure of anthropometric characteristics two factors have been set apart with boys and three with girls. The first factor set apart with both boys and girls is the factor of body voluminosity, the second factor with boys is the factor of longitudinal dimensionality, while with girls it is the factor of fatty tissue quantity. The factor of longitudinal dimensionality is the third girls' factor. For most variables a negative correlation has been determined with a higher percentage of fat or a higher quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue with both boys and girls. Boys having a lower quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue achieve better results in 50 m running, they have a shorter duration of contact with the pad, a longer duration of the flight phase and a longer step length when compared to boys with a higher quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue. Boys with a

  8. Landscape characteristics influence pond occupancy by frogs after accounting for detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.; Rochefort, L.

    2005-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that landscape attributes such as the amount and proximity of habitat are important for amphibian spatial patterns. This has produced a number of studies focusing on the effects of landscape characteristics on amphibian patterns of occurrence in patches or ponds, most of which conclude that the landscape is important. We identified two concerns associated with these studies: one deals with their applicability to other landscape types, as most have been conducted in agricultural landscapes; the other highlights the need to account for the probability of detection. We tested the hypothesis that landscape characteristics influence spatial patterns of amphibian occurrence at ponds after accounting for the probability of detection in little-studied peatland landscapes undergoing peat mining. We also illustrated the costs of not accounting for the probability of detection by comparing our results to conventional logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that frog occurrence increased with the percent cover of ponds within 100, 250, and 1000 m, as well as the amount of forest cover within 1000 m. However, forest cover at 250 m had a negative influence on frog presence at ponds. Not accounting for the probability of detection resulted in underestimating the influence of most variables on frog occurrence, whereas a few were overestimated. Regardless, we show that conventional logistic regression can lead to different conclusions than analyses accounting for detectability. Our study is consistent with the hypothesis that landscape characteristics are important in determining the spatial patterns of frog occurrence at ponds. We strongly recommend estimating the probability of detection in field surveys, as this will increase the quality and conservation potential of models derived from such data. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. The influence of travel time on breast cancer characteristics, receipt of primary therapy, and surveillance mammography.

    PubMed

    Onega, Tracy; Cook, Andrea; Kirlin, Beth; Shi, Xun; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Tuzzio, Leah; Buist, Diana S M

    2011-08-01

    Travel time has been shown to influence some aspects of cancer characteristics at diagnosis and care for women with breast cancer, but important gaps remain in our understanding of its impact. We examined the influence of travel time to the nearest radiology facility on breast cancer characteristics, treatment, and surveillance for women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. We included 1,012 women with invasive breast cancer (stages I and II) who had access to care within an integrated health care delivery system in western Washington State. The travel times to the nearest radiology facility were calculated for all the U.S. Census blocks within the study area and assigned to women based on residence at diagnosis. We collected cancer characteristics, primary and adjuvant therapies, and surveillance mammography for at least 2.5 years post diagnosis and used multivariable analyses to test the associations of travel time. The majority of women (68.6%) lived within 20 min of the nearest radiology facility, had stage I disease (72.7%), received breast conserving therapy (68.7%), and had annual surveillance mammography the first 2 years after treatment (73.7%). The travel time was not significantly associated with the stage or surveillance mammography after adjusting for covariates. Primary therapy was significantly related to travel time, with greater travel time (>30 min vs. ≤ 10 min) associated with a higher likelihood of mastectomy compared to breast conserving surgery (RR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01). The travel time was not associated with the stage at diagnosis or surveillance mammography receipt. The travel time does seem to influence the type of primary therapy among women with breast cancer, suggesting that women may prefer low frequency services, such as mastectomy, if geographic access to a radiology facility is limited.

  10. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products.

  11. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products. PMID:23733811

  12. Influence of artificial saliva compositions on tribological characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; Kolmas, Joanna; Jałbrzykowski, Marek; Olchowik, Rafał; Dąbrowski, Jan R

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of implant materials on the example of the Ti-6Al-4V (a-Ti) titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes were prepared on the basis of pyrophosphates and mucins dissolved in saline buffer. The results of the presented tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under research varied from each other, while much similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the human saliva environment and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. The microscopic observations of surfaces of the a-Ti samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear. Infrared microspectroscopy studies of surfaces of the a-Ti samples after friction revealed the presence of secondary lubricating films based on mucin found in the artificial saliva solutions.

  13. Axisymmetric electromagnetic field influence on the characteristic velocity of an arc-jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oggero, M.; Gennuso, D.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for determining the influence of an axisymmetric EM field on the characteristic velocity of an arc jet are presented. The experimental set up is briefly described. Tests were performed with rotation induced by the centrifugal and magnetic fields in the same sense. The fuels used were HE and N2 and the results are discussed. It is found that by variation of the induction, current, and arc jet strength, the behavior is determined essentially by the shape of the cathodic and anodic blobs on the electrodes together with their movement under the combined effect of the aerodynamic and magnetic fields. In view of the different characteristics of He and N2 in respect to the dissociation heat and ionization, it is expected that the regime of the arc jet when used with H2 fuel will be similar to that with He.

  14. Suicide in the City: Do Characteristics of Place Really Influence Risk?*

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Justin T.; Wadsworth, Tim; Rogers, Richard G.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article investigates the role of social context on individual suicide mortality with attention paid to the possibility that contextual effects are simply the sum of individual characteristics associated with suicide. Methods We use restricted data from the 1986–2006 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which include nearly one million records and 1,300 suicides, to examine the role of familial and socioeconomic context on adult suicide. Results Results show that adults living in cities with more socioeconomic disadvantage and fewer families living together have higher odds of suicidal death than adults living in less disadvantaged cities and cities with more families living together, respectively, after controlling for individual-level socioeconomic status, marital status, and family size. Conclusion The findings support classic sociological arguments that the risk of suicide is indeed influenced by the social milieu and cannot simply be explained by the aggregation of individual characteristics. PMID:26236047

  15. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  16. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  17. Influence of hot spot features on the initiation characteristics of heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Engelke, Ray

    2010-01-01

    To gain insights into the critical hot spot features influencing energetic materials initiation characteristics, well-defined micron-scale particles have been intentionally introduced into the homogeneous explosive nitromethane (NM). Two types of potential hot spot origins have been examined - shock impedance mismatches using solid silica beads, and porosity using hollow microballoons - as well as their sizes and inter-particle separations. Here, we present the results of several series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NM/particle mixtures with well-controlled shock inputs. Detailed insights into the nature of the reactive flow during the build-up to detonation have been obtained from the response of in-situ electromagnetic gauges, and the data have been used to establish Pop-plots (run-distance-to-detonation vs. shock input pressure) for the mixtures. Comparisons of sensitization effects and energy release characteristics relative to the initial shock front between the solid and hollow beads are presented.

  18. Influence of drug physicochemical characteristics on in vitro transdermal absorption of hydrophobic drug nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui-Sheng; Shen, Bao-de; Shen, Gang; Wang, Li-Qiang; Zheng, Juan; Li, Xiao-Rong; Min, Hong-Yan; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-Long

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the influence of drug physicochemical characteristics on in vitro transdermal absorption of hydrophobic drug nanosuspensions. Four drug nanosuspensions were produced by high-pressure homogenization technique, which were the same in stabilizer and similar in particle size. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystalline state of the nanocrystals did not change. In vitro permeation study demonstrated that the drug nanosuspensions have a higher rate of permeation that ranged from 1.69- to 3.74-fold compared to drug microsuspensions. Correlation analysis between drug physicochemical properties and Jss revealed that log P and pKa were factors that influenced the in vitro transdermal absorption of hydrophobic drug nanosuspensions, and drugs with a log P value around 3 and a higher pKa value (when pKa < pH+2) would gain higher Jss in this paper.

  19. Interpersonal Privacy Management in Distributed Collaboration: Situational Characteristics and Interpretive Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sameer; Kobsa, Alfred; John, Ajita; Brotman, Lynne S.; Seligmann, Doree

    To understand how collaborators reconcile the often conflicting needs of awareness and privacy, we studied a large software development project in a multinational corporation involving individuals at sites in the U.S. and India. We present a theoretical framework describing privacy management practices and their determinants that emerged from field visits, interviews, and questionnaire responses. The framework identifies five relevant situational characteristics: issue(s) under consideration, physical place(s) involved in interaction(s), temporal aspects, affordances and limitations presented by technology, and nature of relationships among parties. Each actor, in turn, interprets the situation based on several simultaneous influences: self, team, work site, organization, and cultural environment. This interpretation guides privacy management action(s). Past actions form a feedback loop refining and/or reinforcing the interpretive influences. The framework suggests that effective support for privacy management will require that designers follow a socio-technical approach incorporating a wider scope of situational and interpretive differences.

  20. Characteristic visuomotor influences on eye-movement patterns to faces and other high level stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Arizpe, Joseph M.; Walsh, Vincent; Baker, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Eye-movement patterns are often utilized in studies of visual perception as indices of the specific information extracted to efficiently process a given stimulus during a given task. Our prior work, however, revealed that not only the stimulus and task influence eye-movements, but that visuomotor (start position) factors also robustly and characteristically influence eye-movement patterns to faces (Arizpe et al., 2012). Here we manipulated lateral starting side and distance from the midline of face and line-symmetrical control (butterfly) stimuli in order to further investigate the nature and generality of such visuomotor influences. First we found that increasing starting distance from midline (4°, 8°, 12°, and 16° visual angle) strongly and proportionately increased the distance of the first ordinal fixation from midline. We did not find influences of starting distance on subsequent fixations, however, suggesting that eye-movement plans are not strongly affected by starting distance following an initial orienting fixation. Further, we replicated our prior effect of starting side (left, right) to induce a spatially contralateral tendency of fixations after the first ordinal fixation. However, we also established that these visuomotor influences did not depend upon the predictability of the location of the upcoming stimulus, and were present not only for face stimuli but also for our control stimulus category (butterflies). We found a correspondence in overall left-lateralized fixation tendency between faces and butterflies. Finally, for faces, we found a relationship between left starting side (right sided fixation pattern tendency) and increased recognition performance, which likely reflects a cortical right hemisphere (left visual hemifield) advantage for face perception. These results further indicate the importance of considering and controlling for visuomotor influences in the design, analysis, and interpretation of eye-movement studies. PMID:26283982

  1. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  2. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  3. Influence of the electrode system on the emission characteristics of a vacuum spark

    SciTech Connect

    Bashutin, O. A. Alkhimova, M. A.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Dodulad, E. I.; Savelov, A. S.; Sarantsev, S. A.

    2013-11-15

    The influence of the electrode system on the emission characteristics of a high-current low-inductance vacuum spark is investigated. It is shown that the structure and composition of the spark plasma radiating in the X-ray spectral range depend substantially on the geometry and relative position of the electrodes. A mechanism related to the effect of the initial distribution of the electric field in the electrode gap is proposed to explain such a dependence. The conditions in which the radiating plasma forms from the erosion products of one or both electrodes are determined.

  4. Investigation of acoustic beam reflection influence on the collinear acousto-optic interaction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mantsevich, S N

    2016-08-01

    Significant part of acousto-optic devices apply the acoustic beam reflection to arouse the desired type of acoustic mode propagating along the required direction in crystal. The influence of acoustic beam reflection process on the ultrasound field structure in the acousto-optic cell and the collinear acousto-optic diffraction characteristics is examined in this paper. The investigation is carried on the example of the collinear acousto-optic filter fabricated on the base of calcium molybdate crystal. It is shown that the reflection process changes the acoustic field structure and affects the acousto-optic filter transmission function shape and diffraction efficiency.

  5. Investigation of acoustic beam reflection influence on the collinear acousto-optic interaction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mantsevich, S N

    2016-08-01

    Significant part of acousto-optic devices apply the acoustic beam reflection to arouse the desired type of acoustic mode propagating along the required direction in crystal. The influence of acoustic beam reflection process on the ultrasound field structure in the acousto-optic cell and the collinear acousto-optic diffraction characteristics is examined in this paper. The investigation is carried on the example of the collinear acousto-optic filter fabricated on the base of calcium molybdate crystal. It is shown that the reflection process changes the acoustic field structure and affects the acousto-optic filter transmission function shape and diffraction efficiency. PMID:27153373

  6. Influence of landscape characteristics on retention of expandable radiocollars on young ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Swanson, Christopher C.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Sievers, Jaret D.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Kie, John G.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    One tool used for wildlife management is the deployment of radiocollars to gain knowledge of animal populations. Understanding the influence of individual factors (e.g., species, collar characteristics) and landscape characteristics (e.g., forested cover, shrubs, and fencing) on retention of expandable radiocollars for ungulates is important for obtaining empirical data on factors influencing ecology of young-of-the-year ungulates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 198 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, 142 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns, and 73 mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in South Dakota, Minnesota, and California, USA. We documented 72 (36.4%), 8 (5.6%), and 7 (9.6%) premature (2, SE = 0.1, n = 75) compared with areas where fawns shed collars (x = 3.24 km/km2, SE = 0.1, n = 56) prior to 270 days. Researchers of fawns should consider that radiocollars can be shed prematurely when estimating desired sample size to yield a suitable strength of inference about some natural process of interest.

  7. The influence of titania-zirconia-zirconium titanate nanotube characteristics on osteoblast cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Minagar, Sepideh; Li, Yuncang; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biomaterial surfaces and their influence on cell behavior provide insights concerning the design of surface physicochemical and topography properties of implant materials. Fabrication of biocompatible metal oxide nanotubes on metallic biomaterials, especially titanium alloys such as Ti50Zr via anodization, alters the surface chemistry as well as surface topography of the alloy. In this study, four groups of TiO2-ZrO2-ZrTiO4 nanotubes that exhibit diverse nanoscale dimensional characteristics (i.e. inner diameter Di, outer diameter Do and wall thicknesses Wt) were fabricated via anodization. The nanotubes were annealed and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and 3-D profilometry. The potential applied during anodization influenced the oxidation rate of titanium and zirconium, thereby resulting in different nanoscale characteristics for the nanotubes. The different oxidation and dissolution rates both led to changes in the surface roughness parameters. The in vitro cell response to the nanotubes with different nanoscale dimensional characteristics was assessed using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). The results of the MTS assay indicated that the nanotubes with inner diameter (Di)≈40nm exhibited the highest percentage of cell adhesion of 41.0%. This result can be compared to (i) 25.9% cell adhesion at Di≈59nm, (ii) 33.1% at Di≈64nm, and (iii) 33.5% at Di≈82nm. The nanotubes with Di≈59nm exhibited the greatest roughness parameter of Sa (mean roughness), leading to the lowest ability to interlock with SaOS2 cells.

  8. Maternal and infant characteristics influencing the anogenital distance and penile length in newborns.

    PubMed

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Jain, Viral G

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that maternal characteristics can affect reproductive health of offspring, possibly through pre-natal hormonal influence. Anogenital distance (AGD) is an anthropometric measure which is a sensitive reproductive endpoint of masculinisation. It provides a read-out of pre-natal androgen exposure and has been associated with several reproductive health outcomes in humans. We studied AGD and stretched penile length (SPL) in a large, racially homogenous sample of consecutive newborns to understand their association with maternal and infant characteristics. A prospective cross-sectional study involving measurement of AGD and SPL at birth was performed by a single trained observer. A total of 1077 newborns (553 males and 524 females) were included in final anthropometric analysis. The mean AGD of males was 2.56 ± 0.31 cm, and the mean AGD of females was 1.54 ± 0.17 cm. The mean SPL of males was 3.31 ± 0.38 cm. On multiple regression analysis, for both males and females, birthweight (β = 0.229, P < 0.001 and β = 0.135, P < 0.001, respectively) was modest but significant predictor for AGD. For SPL, only gestational age (β = 0.054, P < 0.001) was found to be statistically significant predictor. There was no significant association observed for gravidity, parity and maternal age with both AGD and SPL. Thus, no maternal characteristics (age, gravidity, parity) influence AGD or SPL in human infants.

  9. What type of general practice do patients prefer? Exploration of practice characteristics influencing patient satisfaction.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, R; Streatfield, J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practice is currently experiencing a large number of developments. Studies of patient satisfaction are required to guide the changes that many general practitioners are introducing. AIM: A study set out to examine the characteristics of general practices that influence patient satisfaction. METHOD: In 1991-92, a surgery satisfaction questionnaire of demonstrated reliability and validity was administered to 220 patients in each of 89 general practices. A further questionnaire completed by a member of practice staff collected information about practice characteristics including total list size, number, age and sex of practice partners, training status, fundholding status, presence of a practice manager and whether there was a personal list system. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were undertaken to identify those practice characteristics that influenced patient satisfaction. RESULTS: The mean of the response rates of patients completing questionnaires in each practice was 82%. An increasing total list size of patients registered with practices was associated with decreasing levels of general satisfaction and decreased satisfaction with accessibility, availability, continuity of care, medical care and premises. The presence of a personal list system was associated with increased levels of general satisfaction and increased satisfaction with accessibility, availability, continuity of care and medical care. Training practices were associated with decreased levels of general satisfaction and decreased satisfaction with availability and continuity of care. CONCLUSION: The patients of practices in this study preferred smaller practices, non-training practices and practices that had personal list systems. Practice organization should be reviewed in order to ensure that the trend towards larger practices that provide a wider range of services does not lead to a decline in patient satisfaction. General practitioners should have personal list systems

  10. Influence of increased static pressure in MHD-channel of hypervelocity wind tunnel on its characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Alfyorov, V.I.; Rudakova, A.P.; Rukavets, V.P.; Shcherbakov, G.I.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main weaknesses of available MHD gas acceleration wind tunnels which restricts their application for simulating vehicle re-entry flights and reproducing scramjet combustion chamber conditions is a relatively low static pressure in the channel (P{approximately}0.1 to 0.2 Atm). The possibility of increasing this pressure and the influence of the increased pressure on the MHD-accelerator characteristics are the subject of the present paper. It is shown that the main challenge is the necessity of increasing the total Lorentz force proportionally to the channel gas density at electrode current density not resulting in heat and electrical breakdown and the development of the side walls and interelectrode insulators designed for higher heat fluxes, q {approximately} 5 to 10 kw/cm{sup 2}. Some possible wall design versions are suggested. The influence of increased pressure is investigated using the Faraday - type MED channel at static pressures in the MHD channel from 0.2 to 1.0 Atm and total accelerating current I = 300 to 1,100 Amps when B=2.5T. Forty five electrodes are used in the MHD channel at maximum current density of 50 A/cm{sup 2}. The channel flow is calculated by applying the model of a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium. The influence of the increased pressure on electrodynamic (accelerator electrode voltages and currents, Hall voltage and current) and gasdynamic (distributions of static pressure, temperature, velocity, Mach numbers, etc., along the channel length) characteristics is evaluated. Some recommendations on the development of MHD channels for hypersonic wind tunnels designed for high pressure are suggested.

  11. Influence of Vegetation and Management Conditions of Forest Cathcments on Their Runoff Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamori, H.

    2007-12-01

    There is rising concern that devastation of planted conifer forests due to poor management might change runoff characteristics and provoke severer flood disasters in Japan. Planted conifer forests in Japan were planted from 1960s to 1970s as a countermeasure to building materials shortage. Domestic forestry products, however, lost out in the price competition with imported products after 1970s, so that forestry has stagnated in Japan, which causes the shortage of forestry workers to maintain planted forests. In this study, runoff variations for the same rainfall pattern observed at neighboring catchments with different conditions were compared so that influence of vegetation and management conditions of forest cathcments on their runoff characteristics was examined. Besides, a Long-and-Short Term (LST) model was calibrated for each of the objective catchments to know the difference in hydrological components as surface flow, subsurface flow, groundwater flow, infiltration and percolation. In three observation sites, eleven catchments were selected as objectives. The areas of the catchments vary from 0.17 to 36 ha. First, runoff characteristics between conifer and broadleaf forests was compared. The result clearly showed that total runoff depth and peak runoff for storm events were both larger in conifer forests than in the broadleaf catchments, and that total infiltration was smaller in conifer than in broadleaf catchments. The result supports the fact that natural forests are generally considered to have functions of water retention and flood control. Second, runoff characteristics between well and poorly managed planted conifer forests was compared. The result, however, did not show the clear difference. It was difficult to find correlation between forest management condition of catchments and total amount of each hydrological process during some storm events, so that the existence of forest management impact on runoff characteristics could not be identified only

  12. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    PubMed

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation. PMID:25769537

  13. The influence of farmer demographic characteristics on environmental behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rob J F

    2014-03-15

    Many agricultural studies have observed a relationship between farmer demographic characteristics and environmental behaviours. These relationships are frequently employed in the construction of models, the identification of farmer types, or as part of more descriptive analyses aimed at understanding farmers' environmental behaviour. However, they have also often been found to be inconsistent or contradictory. Although a considerable body of literature has built up around the subject area, research has a tendency to focus on factors such as the direction, strength and consistency of the relationship - leaving the issue of causality largely to speculation. This review addresses this gap by reviewing literature on 4 key demographic variables: age, experience, education, and gender for hypothesised causal links. Overall the review indicates that the issue of causality is a complex one. Inconsistent relationships can be attributed to the presence of multiple causal pathways, the role of scheme factors in determining which pathway is important, inadequately specified measurements of demographic characteristics, and the treatment of non-linear causalities as linear. In addition, all demographic characteristics were perceived to be influenced (to varying extents) by cultural-historical patterns leading to cohort effects or socialised differences in the relationship with environmental behaviour. The paper concludes that more work is required on the issue of causality. PMID:24508843

  14. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    PubMed

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  15. Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a reef-building coral

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Peters, Jason W.; Eggleston, David

    2016-01-01

    Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between reef sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and reef characteristics, with sounds at the loudest reef generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on coral settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with reef habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key coral species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species. PMID:27761342

  16. Maternal influences on egg and larval characteristics of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Geffen, A. J.; Nash, R. D. M.

    2007-07-01

    Maternal influences on various egg and larval characteristics were examined using plaice from the Irish Sea and Norwegian coastal waters. Thirty-nine batches of eggs were incubated during the spawning season of 2004 and 2005. Thirty-seven larvae from one batch were also monitored individually to examine the influence of egg size on larval size at hatching, yolk sac volume and growth at the individual level. The relationship between egg dry weight (EDW) and egg diameter (ED) differed between the fish from different origins. Egg size increased with maternal size and decreased with progression through spawning. Eggs from the Norwegian coast hatched on average two days earlier than eggs from the Irish Sea. This resulted in the larvae from the Norwegian coast hatching at a smaller size and with larger yolk sac volumes. Larger eggs gave rise to larvae with larger yolk sac volumes at hatching (independent of incubation period) both at the batch and individual level. Larval growth rate was influenced by larval hatching size and yolk sac volume with smaller larvae and larvae with larger yolk sacs having a greater growth rate between hatching and two weeks after hatching. The effects of egg size on larval plaice were present until the end of the yolk sac stage due to differences in the time taken to absorb the yolk sac. Neither hatching rate, age at first feeding nor larval survival was related to maternal size or egg dry weight.

  17. Experimental data to demonstrate the density influenced transport characteristics of stabilized iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, T. P.; Kanel, S. R.; Goswami, R. R.; Barnett, M. O.

    2008-12-01

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles (INP) are often used to treat various types of environmental contaminants. In this study, we synthesized a new class of iron nanoparticles and stabilized it using poly-acrylic acid (PAA). A two dimensional groundwater aquifer model was used to study the fate and transport of pristine INP and SINP (stabilized iron nano particles) under steady-state flow conditions. Transport data for a non-reactive tracer, INP, and SINP were collected under similar experimental conditions. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of PAA to stabilize INP. Furthermore, the transport data indicated that the S-INP plume will sink in a groundwater aquifer, indicating that small density gradients have significant influence on two-dimensional transport. This observation has enormous implication for designing field scale remediation systems that use iron nano particles. We used the variable-density groundwater model SEAWAT to model INP as a density driven tracer. The model results along with the experimental data show that the density influence transport controlled the migration patterns of SINP. Since the influence of density effects cannot be fully discerned using column experiments, two dimensional experiments are essential for fully understanding the transport characteristics of INP.

  18. Influence of electrode geometry on the high-field characteristics of photoconductive silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Madangarli, V.P.; Gradinaru, G.; Korony, G.; Sudarshan, T.S.; Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Patterson, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    A series of experiment were conducted to study the influence of electrode geometry on the prebreakdown (and breakdown) characteristics of high resistivity ({rho} > 30 k{Omega}-cm), p-type Si wafers under quasi-uniform and non-uniform electric field configurations. In the quasi-uniform field configuration, the 1mm thick Si wafer was mounted between the slots of two plane parallel stainless steel disc electrodes (parallel), while the non-uniform field was obtained by mounting the wafer between two pillar-type electrodes with a hemispherical tip (pillar). The main objective of the above investigation was to verify if the uniform field configuration under a parallel system has a positive influence by reducing the field enhancement at the contact region, as opposed to the definite field enhancement present in the case of the non-uniform pillar system. Also, it was proposed to study the effect of the contact profile on the field distribution over the wafer surface and hence its influence on the high-field performance of the Si wafers.

  19. The influence of catchment on chemical and biological characteristics of two freshwater tropical lakes of southern Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Verma, Anuya

    2004-01-01

    The effects of catchment characteristics on chemical and biological properties of two freshwater tropical lakes of Udaipur, Rajasthan were investigated. The study indicated that the catchment characteristics influence, in a major way, the water chemistry and dredging, could be an effective measure for the restoration of dryland lakes.

  20. Design Characteristics Influence Performance of Clinical Prediction Rules in Validation: A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jong-Wook; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Urreta, Iratxe; Burls, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new clinical prediction rules are derived and validated. But the design and reporting quality of clinical prediction research has been less than optimal. We aimed to assess whether design characteristics of validation studies were associated with the overestimation of clinical prediction rules’ performance. We also aimed to evaluate whether validation studies clearly reported important methodological characteristics. Methods Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of clinical prediction rule studies published between 2006 and 2010. Data were extracted from the eligible validation studies included in the systematic reviews. A meta-analytic meta-epidemiological approach was used to assess the influence of design characteristics on predictive performance. From each validation study, it was assessed whether 7 design and 7 reporting characteristics were properly described. Results A total of 287 validation studies of clinical prediction rule were collected from 15 systematic reviews (31 meta-analyses). Validation studies using case-control design produced a summary diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 2.2 times (95% CI: 1.2–4.3) larger than validation studies using cohort design and unclear design. When differential verification was used, the summary DOR was overestimated by twofold (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to complete, partial and unclear verification. The summary RDOR of validation studies with inadequate sample size was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to studies with adequate sample size. Study site, reliability, and clinical prediction rule was adequately described in 10.1%, 9.4%, and 7.0% of validation studies respectively. Conclusion Validation studies with design shortcomings may overestimate the performance of clinical prediction rules. The quality of reporting among studies validating clinical prediction rules needs to be improved. PMID:26730980

  1. Aircraft measurements of gases pollutants and particles during CAREBeijing-2008: distributions, characteristics and influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, T.; Yang, W.; Bai, Z.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, Y.; Yin, B.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous pollutants, including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particle number concentrations (5.6-560 nm and 0.47-30 μm), and meteorological parameters (T, RH, P) were conducted during the Program of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region (CAREBeijing) from 27 August through 13 October 2008. The data of total 18 flights (70 h flight time) from the ground to 2100 m were obtained by a Yun-12 aircraft in the southern surrounded areas of Beijing (38° N-40° N, 114° E-118° E). This measurement was to characterize the regional variation of air pollution during and after the Olympics of 2008, the impacts of different transport direction and possible influencing factors. Results suggested that four different groups of transport sources influenced the pollution level of pollutants with the consideration of the backward trajectory analysis, including: (1) the pollutant transport of the southern direction with higher pollutants level; (2) the cleaner long-range transport of the northern or northwestern direction with lower pollutants level; (3) the transport from the eastern direction with characteristics of sea sources, i.e. middle level of gases pollutants and higher particle concentration; (4) the transport of mixing directions, i.e. lower altitudes from the pollutant transport direction or local pollution but higher altitudes from the clean transport direction. Additionally, the relatively long-lived CO was shown to be a possible transport tracer of long-range transport of northwestern direction especially on the higher altitudes. Three factors influenced the size distribution of particles, i.e. air mass transport direction, ground source emissions and meteorological influences were also discussed.

  2. The Influence of Students' Pre-College Characteristics, High School Experiences, College Expectations, and Initial Enrollment Characteristics on Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the extent to which pre-college characteristics, high school experiences, college expectations, and initial enrollment characteristics were related to graduation from college. Data from admission applications, the "ACT Compass" survey, and initial enrollment measures for Fall 2004 and Fall 2005 first-time…

  3. Influence of Patient Characteristics on Success of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fravel, Michelle A.; Ernst, Michael E.; Weber, Cynthia A.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Carter, Barry L.; Bergus, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the influence of specific patient characteristics on the success of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Design Retrospective analysis. Setting University-affiliated family care center. Patients Five hundred thirty patients (mean age 52.7 yrs, range 14–90 yrs) who were undergoing ABPM between January 1, 2001, and July 1, 2007. Measurement and Main Results Specific patient characteristics were identified through an electronic medical record review and then examined for association with ABPM session success rate. These patient characteristics included age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), occupation, clinic blood pressure, travel distance to clinic, and presence of diabetes mellitus or renal disease. The percentage of valid readings obtained during an ABPM session was analyzed continuously (0–100%), whereas overall session success was analyzed dichotomously (0–79% or 80–100%). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the influence of patient characteristics on the percentage of valid readings and the overall likelihood of achieving a successful session. In the 530 patients, the average percentage of valid readings was 90%, and a successful ABPM session (≥ 80% valid readings) was obtained in 84.7% (449 patients). A diagnosis of diabetes was found to negatively predict ABPM session success (continuous variable analysis, p=0.019; dichotomous variable analysis, odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.87, p=0.019), as did renal disease (continuous variable analysis, p=0.006; dichotomous variable analysis, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.17–0.90, p=0.027) and increasing BMI (continuous variable analysis, p<0.001; dichotomous variable analysis, OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65–0.93, p=0.005). Renal disease and BMI remained significant predictors in adjusted analyses. Conclusion For most patients, ABPM was successful; however, elevated BMI and renal disease were associated with less

  4. Influence of the Regime of Flow of Particles from a Hydrocyclone on its Separation Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, O. V.; Andropova, A. O.; Agafontseva, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the presence of an air column in a hydrocyclone and the regime of flow of particles through its discharge orifices on the separation characteristics of the hydrocyclone was investigated. It was established that the flow of heavy particles through the lower discharge orifice of the hydrocyclone in the case where its upper discharge orifice is isolated from the atmosphere is larger than that in the case of free flow of particles to the atmosphere though both two orifices of the hydrocyclone. In the case where the lower discharge orifice of the hydrocyclone is isolated from the atmosphere, the involvement of light particles from the lower receiving bin into the reverse fluid flow in the axial zone of the hydrocyclone increases the resulting yield of particles through the upper discharge orifice of the hydrocyclone.

  5. Influence of source characteristics, chemicals, and flocculation on chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Dilli R; Riffat, Rumana; Murthy, Sudhir N; Peric, Marija R; Wilson, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    The overall objective of this research was to investigate various methods and parameters to increase the efficiency of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT). The performance of CEPT was evaluated based on its efficiency of removal of nonsettleable solids (NSS). Some of the source characteristics that influenced NSS concentration included influent total suspended solids, influent turbidity, and influent total chemical oxygen demand. A higher concentration of the influent constituents led to a higher NSS concentration, suggesting that NSS represented a somewhat fixed fraction or percent of these influent constituents. The specific particle surface area (SPSA) was found to correlate with percent NSS in the effluent. A higher SPSA is a result of smaller-sized nonsettleable colloidal particles, thus leading to an increase in percent NSS. In summary, there are several parameters that affect NSS, which could be used to control NSS to improve CEPT, as demonstrated by this study.

  6. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, A; Voundi Nkana, J C; Verloo, M G

    2001-05-01

    Wood industries and power plants generate enormous quantities of wood ash. Disposal in landfills has been for long a common method for removal. New regulations for conserving the environment have raised the costs of landfill disposal and added to the difficulties for acquiring new sites for disposal. Over a few decades a number of studies have been carried out on the utilization of wood ashes in agriculture and forestry as an alternative method for disposal. Because of their properties and their influence on soil chemistry the utilization of wood ashes is particularly suited for the fertility management of tropical acid soils and forest soils. This review principally focuses on ash from the wood industry and power plants and considers its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, its effect on soil properties, on the availability of nutrient elements and on the growth and chemical composition of crops and trees, as well as its impact on the environment. PMID:11272014

  7. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education. PMID:21305979

  8. Influence of Impactor Mass on the Damage Characteristics and Failure Strength of Laminated Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kemmerly, Heather L.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the effect of impactor mass on the low-speed impact response of laminated flat composite plates is presented. Dropped weight impact response, damage characteristics, and residual strengths of quasi-isotropic flat plates are presented for a range of energy levels by systematically varying the mass of the impactor. Measured contact forces and damage areas are also presented. The results indicate that the contact force and damage area are nonlinear functions of the impactor mass and vary considerably over the entire range of energy levels considered. The different damage levels induced in a plate specimen when impacted at a given energy level with impactors of different masses significantly influence its compressive residual strength. The results provide clear and consistent trends in contact force, damage area, and compression-after-impact strength when the data are expressed as a function of the impactor momentum.

  9. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  10. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  11. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  12. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of negative corona discharge in air

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Pengfei Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Chen, Shuiming

    2015-09-15

    Detailed negative corona discharge characteristics, such as the pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under various air humidities with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental result reveals that the pulse amplitude increases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency deceases as the air humidity increases. Empirical formulae are first established for the pulse amplitude and repetition frequency with the humidity factor taken into consideration. The effective ionization integral is calculated and a positive correlation is found between the integral and the pulse amplitude. Furthermore, a simplified negative-ion cloud model is built up to investigate the mechanism of the humidity's influence on negative corona discharge. Based on the theoretical analyses, the correlation between pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, and air humidity is well explained.

  13. Molecular Simulation studies of adsorption of polymers on non-planar surfaces: Influence of surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnan, Abishek; Shim, Anne; Frost, Aquil; Lewnard, John; Kuppa, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    Molecular simulations are employed to investigate the adsorption of freely rotating polymer chains adsorbing on to non-planar surfaces. Adsorption studies on planar surfaces have been studied extensively and fairly well understood. However, in reality, surfaces are non-planar and cannot be represented using smooth surface models. We investigate the effect of surface characteristics on adsorption via molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo molecular simulations in the NVT ensemble. Both regular (uniform) and irregular (self-affine) roughness parameters are studied. The adsorbed polymer chains are characterized by density and orientation profiles, adsorbed fraction and chain topologies. Our results elucidate the extent to which surface roughness influences adsorption, in competition with other factors such as chain length and monomer-surface interaction. We also demonstrate how both adsorption and desorption can be controlled solely by tuning surface inhomogeneities.

  14. [Study on influence of gamma-ray treatment on spectral characteristic of rapeseed].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Wang, Zun-Yi; He, Yong

    2008-11-01

    After being treated by gamma-ray, the spectral characteristic of rapeseed would be changed. Based on the principle, a rapid and nondestructive method by using visible and near infrared spectroscopy was proposed to discriminate rapeseeds (Brassica nupus) treated by different dosages of gamma-ray. Partial least square (PLS) method and BP neural network (BPNN) were applied to establish the discrimination model, and the influences of different pretreatment methods of original spectra data, data transformation methods of PIS principal components and the.selection of node number of hidden layers of BP neural network model on prediction precision were compared and discussed. In the experiment, 184 samples were treated by gamma-ray with 5 different dosages (50, 100, 150, 200 Gy, and the samples without gamma-ray treatment). Then spectra tests were performed on the 184 samples using a spectrophotometer (325-1 075 nm). One hundred thiry five samples were selected randomly for model calibration and the left 49 samples were used for prediction. As a result, the optimal model was established and the parameters of the model were shown as follows. The original spectra data were pretreated by smoothing media filter, multiplicative scatter correction and Savitzky-Golay derivatives, then 6 PLS principal components were selected by using partial least square method. After being transformed by using natural logarithm transformation method, the 6 PLS principal components were used as the input layer factors to establish the BP neural network model and the node number of hidden layers was selected as 4 or 9. The prediction precision of the optimal model to distinguish the untreated samples from gamma-ray treated samples was 100%. The precision of predicting the dosages of gamma-ray treatment of all samples achieved 85.71%. It can be concluded that the proposed method for estimating the influence of different gamma-ray dosages on the spectral characteristic of treated rapeseeds was

  15. The influence of visual characteristics of barriers on railway noise perception.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Luigi; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Di Gabriele, Maria

    2013-02-15

    Noise annoyance is considered as the main effect of noise, it is a complex and multifaceted psychological concept dealing with immediate behavioral and evaluative aspects. In the last decades the research has intensely investigated the correlation between noise exposure and noise annoyance, nevertheless recent studies confirm that non-auditory factors influence the noise perception of individuals. In particular audio-video interaction can play a fundamental role. Today Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) systems allow building laboratory test providing realistic experiences of the surrounding environment to detect more accurate information about the reactions of the local population. Regarding the interventions for environmental noise control the barriers represent the main solution; however some aspects related to their visual characteristic have to be further investigated. This paper presented a case study, where a sample of residents living close to a railway line assessed noise-related aspects for several barriers with different visual characteristics in an IVR laboratory test. In particular, three main factors were analyzed: the barrier type concerning the visibility of the noise source through the screen, the visual aspect of the barrier concerning some aesthetic issues and the noise level at the receiver concerning the acoustic performance of the barrier and the magnitude of the sound source. The main results of the ANOVA analysis showed that for transparent barriers Perceived Loudness and Noise Annoyance were judged lower than for opaque barriers; this difference increased as noise level increased. PMID:23314121

  16. Influence of pig farmer characteristics on improper use of veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiujuan; Wu, Linhai; Xie, Xuyan; Zhu, Dian; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Improper use of veterinary drugs by pig farmers may affect food safety and agro-ecological environment. This study analyzed the influence of pig farmer characteristics on the improper use of veterinary drugs in rural China. A multivariate ordered logistic model was applied to examine survey data from 654 pig farmers in Jiangsu Province, China. Results showed that poorly educated, older, male farmers with over 10 years of pig production experience on small- and medium-scale farms were most likely to engage in improper veterinary drug use. Furthermore, male farmers with over 10 years of pig production experience on small-scale farms were more likely to exhibit medium-risk improper use of veterinary drugs, while farmers on medium-scale farms with the same characteristics were more likely to exhibit high-risk improper use. It is concluded that poorly educated male farmers, especially from small- and medium-scale farms, with over 10 years of pig production experience, should be the key target of government classification, regulation, and supervision.

  17. Influence of cloth structure on operational characteristics of pulse-jet cleaned filter bags

    SciTech Connect

    Hindy, K.T.; Sievert, J.; Loeffler, F.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of the surface properties and the cloth structure of a filter medium on the operation of a filter bag was conducted using a pilot-scale testing device. The collection properties and the increase in the residual drop, as well as the mass of the residual dust embedded within the filter medium, were measured. Three filter media were investigated: a singed filter medium, a calendered filter medium, and one with a membrane-laminated surface. The experimental results obtained show that the operational characteristics of a filter bag is greatly influenced by the surface properties and the cloth structure of the filter medium. The calendered filter bag has an unfavorable operational quality concerning both the collection properties and the residual pressure drop. The hard thickening of the filter medium drives to the rapid clogging of the filter bag. In contrast, the other two filter media have favorable characteristics concerning the above two criteria. At the same time, it was found that after tests conducted for about 70 h each, the singed filter bag, compared with the membrane-laminated one, exhibits a lower residual pressure drop, although more particles are deposited inside. The lowest filtration cycle duration was recorded by the calendered medium, whereas the cleaning frequency by the other two media was nearly in the same range.

  18. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  19. Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in periphyton of Boreal Shield lakes: influence of watershed physiographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mélanie; Planas, Dolors; Mucci, Alfonso

    2006-02-15

    Little is known about Hg accumulation in littoral communities, especially in periphyton biofilm of unperturbed lakes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and establish relationships between total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in periphyton communities of Boreal lakes and watershed physiographic and lake morphometric characteristics. This study was carried out on 23 Boreal Canadian Shield lakes located between 47-50 degrees N and 73-77 degrees W. Periphyton was sampled on rocks, the dominant periphyton substrate in the littoral zone of these lakes. Periphyton algal biomass (Chla) ranged from 12 to 164 mg m(-2) whereas THg concentrations varied from 42 to 271 ng g(-1) DW and MeHg levels varied from 3 to 55 ng Hg g(-1) DW. Periphyton biomass was positively correlated to latitude, watershed wetland area and negatively correlated to watershed slope and depth of the lake. THg concentrations in periphyton were negatively correlated to watershed wetland area whereas MeHg concentrations were negatively correlated to latitude and positively correlated to watershed slope, dissolved sulfate concentration and the presence of beavers in the lake. This study confirms that periphyton can accumulate large amounts of Hg and the accumulation is strongly influenced by watershed characteristics and periphyton biomass. PMID:15894350

  20. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  1. Otoacoustic emissions in bushcricket ears: general characteristics and the influence of the neuroactive insecticide pymetrozine.

    PubMed

    Möckel, Doreen; Seyfarth, Ernst-August; Kössl, Manfred

    2011-02-01

    The tympanal organ of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata emits pronounced distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Their characteristics are comparable to those measured in other insects, such as locusts and moths, with the 2f1-f2 emission being the most prominent one. Yet the site of their generation is still unclear. The spatial separation between the sound receiving spiracle and the hearing organ in this species allows manipulations of the sensory cells without interfering with the acoustical measurements. We tried to interfere with the DPOAE generation by pharmacologically influencing the tympanal organ using the insecticide pymetrozine. The compound appears to act selectively on scolopidia, i.e., the mechanosensor type characteristically constituting tympanal organs. Pymetrozine solutions were applied as closely as possible to the scolopidia via a cuticle opening in the tibia, distally to the organ. Applications of pymetrozine at concentrations between 10(-3) and 10(-7) M to the tympanal organ led to a pronounced and irreversible decrease of the DPOAE amplitudes.

  2. Influence of drivers' comprehension of posted signs on their safety related characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-Madani, H

    2000-07-01

    The paper studies the relationship between drivers' understanding of posted signs in three of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and some of their safety related characteristics. These characteristics are driving experience, accident involvement, experience per accident, citations received in the last 3 years on speed limit violations, and seat belt usage. A total of 28 posted signs were investigated. These were categorized as warning and regulatory. To achieve the above goals a questionnaire, specially prepared to collect the necessary data, was distributed to over 6000 drivers in the three states. Over 2820 (47%) responded back. Comprehension of posted signs for drivers with high years of driving experience proved to be significantly better than those with lesser experience. However, the results revealed no significant influence on their accident involvements, even when the effect of age is incorporated; experience per accident ratios, or speed citations. Further, the seat belt usage is also found to increase with understanding of posted signs.

  3. Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in periphyton of Boreal Shield lakes: influence of watershed physiographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mélanie; Planas, Dolors; Mucci, Alfonso

    2006-02-15

    Little is known about Hg accumulation in littoral communities, especially in periphyton biofilm of unperturbed lakes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and establish relationships between total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in periphyton communities of Boreal lakes and watershed physiographic and lake morphometric characteristics. This study was carried out on 23 Boreal Canadian Shield lakes located between 47-50 degrees N and 73-77 degrees W. Periphyton was sampled on rocks, the dominant periphyton substrate in the littoral zone of these lakes. Periphyton algal biomass (Chla) ranged from 12 to 164 mg m(-2) whereas THg concentrations varied from 42 to 271 ng g(-1) DW and MeHg levels varied from 3 to 55 ng Hg g(-1) DW. Periphyton biomass was positively correlated to latitude, watershed wetland area and negatively correlated to watershed slope and depth of the lake. THg concentrations in periphyton were negatively correlated to watershed wetland area whereas MeHg concentrations were negatively correlated to latitude and positively correlated to watershed slope, dissolved sulfate concentration and the presence of beavers in the lake. This study confirms that periphyton can accumulate large amounts of Hg and the accumulation is strongly influenced by watershed characteristics and periphyton biomass.

  4. Influence of induced axial magnetic field on plasma dynamics and radiative characteristics of Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Osborne, G. C.; Shrestha, I.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Velikovich, A. L.; Rudakov, L. I.; Williamson, K. M.

    2011-10-15

    The influence of an induced axial magnetic field on plasma dynamics and radiative characteristics of Z pinches is investigated. An axial magnetic field was induced in a novel Z-pinch load: a double planar wire array with skewed wires (DPWAsk), which represents a planar wire array in an open magnetic configuration. The induced axial magnetic field suppressed magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities (with m = 0 and m = 1 instability modes) in the Z-pinch plasma. The influence of the initial axial magnetic field on the structure of the plasma column at stagnation was manifested through the formation of a more uniform plasma column compared to a standard double planar wire array (DPWA) load [V. L. Kantsyrev et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 030704 (2008)]. The DPWAsk load is characterized by suppression of MRT instabilities and by the formation of the sub-keV radiation pulse that occurs before the main x-ray peak. Gradients in plasma parameters along the cathode-anode gap were observed and analyzed for DPWAsk loads made from low atomic number Z (Al) and mid-Z (brass) wires.

  5. Sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins: Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Ruiz, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    The sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins and the influence of crossbreeding (pure Iberian - IB, Iberian female×Duroc male - IB×D and Duroc female×Iberian male - D×IB) and rearing system (outdoors fed on acorns and pasture - MON, indoors fed on concentrates high in oleic acid sunflower oil and supplemented with 250mg/kg of α-tocopherol acetate -HOVE- and indoors fed on control concentrates - CON) on sensory attributes were studied. Dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE pigs, which showed the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p<0.01), reached higher scores for brightness, marbling traits (intensity, size and shape) and juiciness, and lower for hardness, dryness and fibrousness than loins from crossbred pigs (IB×D-HOVE, IB×D-CON and D×IB-HOVE). In fact, IMF content was positively linked to juiciness and marbling attributes and negatively to dryness, hardness and fibrousness, which was also observed in the principal component analysis (PCA). Neither the crossbreeding nor the rearing system seemed to influence odour, flavour and taste features. The PCA evidenced that dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE batches gathered together and were placed near to marbling attributes, juiciness and IMF content.

  6. The Influence of topography on formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water in Shapotou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yanxia; Li, Xinrong; Hui, Rong; Zhao, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water for different topographic positions were observed using the PVC pipes manual weighing and CPM method in the typical mobile dunes fixed by straw checkerboard barriers in Shapotou. The results indicated that the formation amounts and duration of hygroscopic and condensate water show moderate spatial heterogeneity at the influence of topography. The formation amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at different aspects conform to the classical convection model, in which the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts are highest at hollow, and windward aspect gets more water than leeward aspect, the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different aspects are expressed as: hollow>Western-faced aspect>Northern-faced aspect>hilltop>Southern-faced aspect>Eastern-faced aspect. The hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different slope positions for every aspect are as follows: the foot of slope>middle slope>hilltop. A negatively linear correlation is got between slope angles and hygroscopic and condensate water amounts, hygroscopic and condensate water amounts decrease gradually along with the increase of slope angles, the amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at the vertical aspect are only half of horizontal aspect, which indicated topography were important influence factors for the formation of the hygroscopic and condensate water in arid area.

  7. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  8. Influence of cross-sectional discontinuity on the damping characteristics of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeongwon; Ahn, Sangkeun; Yoo, Ji Woo; Park, Junhong

    2016-09-01

    The geometry of a rectangular plate used in a structural application is an important design parameter that influences the vibrational response of the plate when it is subjected to an impact. In this study, the influence of a cross-sectional discontinuity on the vibration characteristics of viscoelastically supported plates was investigated. The discontinuity was induced at a specific location in the length-wise span. Experimental studies were performed to identify the effect of the discontinuity on the plate vibration response. The mode shapes and damping ratios of the plates with and without discontinuities in the cross-section were measured and compared. Forced vibration responses and modal properties were predicted using a numerical model. The variation in cross-sectional geometry was modeled to determine the changes in bending stiffness. The translational and rotational viscoelastic stiffnesses at the plate edges were used for modeling the vibration damping at the boundaries. This damping occurred at the contact surface between the plate and the fixtures. To investigate the effect of support stiffness on the vibration damping, flexural wave propagation analysis was performed with different boundary conditions. The ratio between the incident and reflected waves from the boundaries was predicted for flexural waves of different wavelengths. The predicted reflection ratios of the plate with and without the discontinuities were compared to the predicted loss factors using numerical analysis. The vibration energy dissipation at the viscoelastic supports was proportional to the measured modal damping.

  9. Child and family characteristics influencing intervention choices in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Schultz, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A myriad of treatment options are available for children with autism, yet little is understood regarding characteristics of parents (e.g., education) and children (e.g., severity of autism symptoms) that influence types and amounts of therapy utilization. Interviews from 70 families were analyzed to determine potential influences on utilization (e.g., start of first services, use of traditional services). Descriptive findings regarding therapy types were similar to national studies. However, only three of the variables predicted utilization of specific therapies: severity of sensory processing problems was associated with earlier initiation of services in general, and higher maternal and paternal education was associated with the use of dietary and/or vitamin therapy as well as with more types of services. No other variables had predictive value; thus, the amount and type of therapies received may be more related to diagnostic practices and/or to the affordances/constraints of service delivery and reimbursement systems at particular ages. PMID:24089593

  10. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods. PMID:20609376

  11. Lake and watershed characteristics rather than climate influence nutrient limitation in shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Sarian; Huszar, Vera L M; Mazzeo, Néstor; Scheffer, Marten; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Jeppesen, Erik

    2009-10-01

    Both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can limit primary production in shallow lakes, but it is still debated how the importance of N and P varies in time and space. We sampled 83 shallow lakes along a latitudinal gradient (5 degrees 55 degrees S) in South America and assessed the potential nutrient limitation using different methods including nutrient ratios in sediment, water, and seston, dissolved nutrient concentrations, and occurrence of N-fixing cyanobacteria. We found that local characteristics such as soil type and associated land use in the catchment, hydrology, and also the presence of abundant submerged macrophyte growth influenced N and P limitation. We found neither a consistent variation in nutrient limitation nor indications for a steady change in denitrification along the latitudinal gradient. Contrary to findings in other regions, we did not find a relationship between the occurrence of (N-fixing and non-N-fixing) cyanobacteria and the TN:TP ratio. We found N-fixing cyanobacteria (those with heterocysts) exclusively in lakes with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations of < 100 microg/L, but notably they were also often absent in lakes with low DIN concentrations. We argue that local factors such as land use and hydrology have a stronger influence on which nutrient is limiting than climate. Furthermore, our data show that in a wide range of climates N limitation does not necessarily lead to cyanobacterial dominance.

  12. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  13. Influence of patient characteristics on care time in patients hospitalized with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sugibayashi, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Yamauchi, Keita; Inagaki, Ataru; Ikegami, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Background In the current Japanese payment system for the treatment of psychiatric inpatients, the length of hospital stay and nurse staffing levels are key determinants of the amount of payment. These factors do not fully reflect the costs of care for each patient. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between patient characteristics and their care costs as measured by “care time” for patients with schizophrenia. Methods Patient characteristics and care time were investigated in 14,557 inpatients in 102 psychiatric hospitals in Japan. Of these 14,557 inpatients, data for 8,379 with schizophrenia were analyzed using a tree-based model. Results The factor exerting the greatest influence on care time was ”length of stay”, so subjects were divided into 2 groups, a “short stay group” with length of stay ≦104 days, and “long stay group” ≧105 days. Each group was further subdivided according to dependence with regard to “activities of daily living”, “psychomotor agitation”, “verbal abuse”, and “frequent demands/repetitive complaints”, which were critical variables affecting care time. The mean care time was shorter in the long-stay group; however, in some long-stay patients, the mean care time was considerably longer than that in patients in the short-stay group. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to construct a new payment system reflecting not only length of stay and nurse staffing levels, but also individual patient characteristics. PMID:25187720

  14. The influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on beef offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mohrhauser, D A; Taylor, A R; Underwood, K R; Pritchard, R H; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Blair, A D

    2015-02-01

    Research has suggested that maternal undernutrition may cause the development of a thrifty phenotype in the offspring, potentially resulting in greater adiposity and reduced muscle mass. These alterations in adipose and muscle development could have lasting impacts on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. However, limited research exists evaluating the impact of maternal energy status on these economically important traits of the offspring. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality. To alter maternal energy status, cows either grazed dormant, winter range (positive energy status [PES]) or were fed in a drylot at 80% of the energy requirements for BW maintenance (negative energy status [NES]) during a mean period of 102 ± 10.9 to 193 ± 10.9 d of gestation. Changes in BCS, BW, LM area (LMA), and 12th rib backfat were measured throughout midgestation. At the end of midgestation, cows in the NES group had a reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in BCS, BW, LMA, and 12th rib backfat when compared with PES dams. Cows and calves were managed similarly after midgestation through weaning and calves were managed and fed a common diet through the receiving, backgrounding, and finishing phases in the feedlot. Calves were harvested after 208 d in the feedlot, carcass characteristics were recorded, and strip loins were recovered for analysis of objective color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Maternal energy status had no influence on offspring HCW, dressing percent, LMA, percent KPH, marbling score, percent intramuscular fat, objective color, or WBSF (P > 0.10). Progeny of NES cows tended to have improvements in 12th rib backfat and USDA yield grade (P < 0.10). Greater ratio of marbling score to 12th rib fat thickness and ratio of percent intramuscular fat to 12th rib fat thickness (P < 0.05) were discovered in progeny from cows

  15. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Viviane de Souza; de Almeida, Vitor Rosa; Matos, João Batista; Vicentini, Tamiris Iara; van den Brand, Henry; Boleli, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C), control (37.5°C), or high (39°C) temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively) from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C) was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C) and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C). The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to increased

  16. Influence of seasonal canopy development on turbulent flow characteristics in a hedgerow vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence is the main driver of vegetation-atmosphere exchanges. Flow characteristics determine the transport of energy and matter between different layers of the canopy and the atmosphere, defining local microclimatic conditions and influencing physiological processes of the vegetation. Therefore, studying turbulent flow dynamics inside and above the canopy is crucial to correctly predict overall fluxes of matter and energy and to understand their nature. Numerous studies have already investigated the characteristics of canopy turbulence over a wide range of vegetation types, leading to a thorough description of canopy turbulence. However, only a few studies have investigated the influence of gradual canopy structural changes such as foliage density (on multi-day time scales) on turbulence field properties. We hypothesize that seasonal variations of foliage density play a crucial role modifying foliage drag and canopy roughness, determining the degree of coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere, and changing the profiles of turbulent moments. The aim of this study was to follow the continuous evolution of turbulent flow characteristics from leaf budbreak to fully developed foliage in a hedgerow vineyard in the North East of Italy. Synchronous measurements from a vertical profile of five sonic anemometers on a 5 m tower have been collected at 20 Hz from beginning of April to end of July 2015.Detailed measurements of Leaf Area Density (LAD) profile and canopy architecture were performed at regular intervals (ca. weekly) around the tower. The canopy bulk drag coefficient increased during the growing season, suggesting that the coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere increased with LAD. Vertical profiles of turbulent statistics showed to be highly correlated to local values of LAD. The penetration of momentum flux in the canopy decreased with the gradual increase of foliage. Most of the drag was exerted by the part of the canopy with denser foliage

  17. Influence of season on testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in Martina Franca jackasses.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Panzani, S; Contri, A; Bronzo, V; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2013-02-01

    with spring and autumn, and a lower curvilinear velocity compared with winter were found. No differences in amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness and linearity were observed neither between seasons nor in SS versus AW. Seminal pH did not show any seasonal difference; also sperm morphology did not show any significant difference during the whole year. This study demonstrated that under our climatic and management conditions Martina Franca donkey stallions do not show significant differences in testicular morphometric characteristics during the year, even if a certain seasonal influence exists on reaction time and some seminal parameters. Considering the variable temperature and photoperiod during the four seasons where the study was performed, this lack of substantial differences could be related to a characteristic of the Martina Franca breed.

  18. Influence of coupling parameter on current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high- Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2006-02-01

    We study the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors by numerical calculations and in framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches. The influence of the coupling parameter α on the current-voltage characteristics at fixed parameter β (β2 = 1/βc, where βc is McCumber parameter) and the influence of α on β-dependence of the current-voltage characteristics are investigated. We obtain the α-dependence of the branch's slopes and branch's endpoints. The presented results show new features of the coupling effect on the scheme of hysteresis jumps in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors.

  19. Watershed land use influences on river discharge and channel characteristics across northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galster, J. C.; Palmer, K.; Birrer, M.; Espinosa, S.; Pope, G. A.; Feng, H.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    River characteristics such as sediment size, channel dimensions, and discharges can be strongly controlled by watershed land use. This project investigated three watersheds in northern New Jersey with varying degrees of forested, agriculture, and urban land uses to determine the effects of land use on these rivers. The watersheds are the Flatbrook, the Wallkill, and the Rockaway rivers and are predominantly forested, forested/agricultural, and forested/urban respectively. Eight sites across these fourth and fifth-order watersheds were investigated including: 1) the grain size using the Wolman pebble count method, 2) channel dimensions (slope, width, depth) with a total station, and 3) channel stability using the rapid geomorphic assessment (RGA). Channel width changes from 1930 to present were determined using historic aerial photographs, and river discharge characteristics were compiled using custom software to determine the flashiness (as measured by the Reynolds-Baker Index) and the Baseflow Index. The three adjacent watersheds have minimal variations in potential confounding variables such as watershed slope, climate, and precipitation, allowing for the isolation of the effects of land use changes. While some of the general relationship between how land use changes affect rivers (e.g., urban streams typically have larger grain sizes and flashier discharges), studies such as this one are important in determining how rivers respond locally. Across the studied watersheds, forested land uses are positively associated with rapid geomorphic assessments scores, indicating the influence of upstream land use and the importance of vegetation. Forested land use is also associated with efficient discharges as measured by hydraulic radius, although there were not significant changes in channel width from 1930 to present. The flashiness of all rivers has increased over time while the baseflow index has decreased, which may be a climatic signal as opposed to being influenced

  20. Influence of metal oxides on the adsorption characteristics of PPy/metal oxides for Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the pure PPy and PPy/metal oxide composites including PPy/SiO2, PPy/Al2O3, and PPy/Fe3O4 as well as PPy coated commercial SiO2 and Al2O3 (PPy/SiO2(C) and PPy/Al2O3(C)) were successfully synthetized via chemical oxidative polymerization in acid aqueous medium to investigate the influence of metal oxides on adsorption capacity and their adsorption characteristics for Methylene Blue (MB). The composites were characterized by Zeta potential analysis, BET analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the metal oxides have great impact on textural properties, morphology, Zeta potential and PPy polymerization on their surface, further influence the adsorption capacity of their composites. The PPy/Al2O3(C) composite owns the highest specific surface area, rougher surface and most PPy content, and show the highest monolayer adsorption capacity reaching 134.77mg/g. In the adsorption characteristic studies, isotherm investigation shows an affinity order of PPy/metal oxides of PPy/Al2O3(C)>PPy/Al2O3>PPy/SiO2(C)>PPy/SiO2>PPy/Fe3O4>PPy, stating the affinity between PPy and MB was greatly improved by metal oxide, and Al2O3 owns high affinity for MB, followed by SiO2 and Fe3O4. Kinetic data of the composites selected (PPy/SiO2(C), PPy/Al2O3(C) and PPy/Fe3O4) were described more appropriately by the pseudo-second-order model, and the order of K2 is PPy/Al2O3>PPy/SiO2>PPy/Fe3O4, further showing a fast adsorption and good affinity of PPy/Al2O3(C) for MB. The regeneration method by HCl-elution and NaOH-activation was available, and the composites selected still owned good adsorption and desorption efficiency after six adsorption-desorption cycles.

  1. Influence of metal oxides on the adsorption characteristics of PPy/metal oxides for Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the pure PPy and PPy/metal oxide composites including PPy/SiO2, PPy/Al2O3, and PPy/Fe3O4 as well as PPy coated commercial SiO2 and Al2O3 (PPy/SiO2(C) and PPy/Al2O3(C)) were successfully synthetized via chemical oxidative polymerization in acid aqueous medium to investigate the influence of metal oxides on adsorption capacity and their adsorption characteristics for Methylene Blue (MB). The composites were characterized by Zeta potential analysis, BET analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the metal oxides have great impact on textural properties, morphology, Zeta potential and PPy polymerization on their surface, further influence the adsorption capacity of their composites. The PPy/Al2O3(C) composite owns the highest specific surface area, rougher surface and most PPy content, and show the highest monolayer adsorption capacity reaching 134.77mg/g. In the adsorption characteristic studies, isotherm investigation shows an affinity order of PPy/metal oxides of PPy/Al2O3(C)>PPy/Al2O3>PPy/SiO2(C)>PPy/SiO2>PPy/Fe3O4>PPy, stating the affinity between PPy and MB was greatly improved by metal oxide, and Al2O3 owns high affinity for MB, followed by SiO2 and Fe3O4. Kinetic data of the composites selected (PPy/SiO2(C), PPy/Al2O3(C) and PPy/Fe3O4) were described more appropriately by the pseudo-second-order model, and the order of K2 is PPy/Al2O3>PPy/SiO2>PPy/Fe3O4, further showing a fast adsorption and good affinity of PPy/Al2O3(C) for MB. The regeneration method by HCl-elution and NaOH-activation was available, and the composites selected still owned good adsorption and desorption efficiency after six adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:27149689

  2. Characteristics of Queensland physicians and the influence of rural exposure on practice location.

    PubMed

    Runge, C E; MacKenzie, A; Loos, C; Waller, M; Gabbett, M; Mills, R; Eley, D

    2016-08-01

    The Queensland branch of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) commissioned this study to update their workforce profile and examine rural practice. The present investigation aimed to describe characteristics of Queensland physicians and determine the influence of childhood and training locations on current rural practice. A cross-sectional online survey, conducted 4 July-4 November 2013, was administered to Fellows of The RACP, Queensland. Descriptive statistics report characteristics and logistic regression analyses identify associations and interactions. The outcome measure was current practice location using the Australian Standard Geographic Classification - Remoteness Area. Data were obtained for 633 physicians. Their average age was 49.5 years, a third was female and a quarter was in rural practice. Rural practice was associated with a rural childhood (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.89 (1.10, 3.27) P = 0.02) and any time spent as an intern (OR 4.07 (2.12, 7.82) P < 0.001) or registrar (OR 4.00 (2.21, 7.26) P < 0.001) in a rural location. Physicians with a rural childhood and rural training were most likely to be in rural practice. However, those who had a metropolitan childhood and a rural internship were approximately five times more likely to be working in rural practice than physicians with no rural exposure (OR 5.33 (1.61, 17.60) P < 0.01). The findings demonstrate the positive effect of rural vocational training on rural practice. A prospective study would determine if recent changes to the Basic Physician Training Pathway and the Basic Paediatric Training Network (more rural training than previous pathways) increases the rate of rural practice. PMID:27554000

  3. Characteristics of nitrogen loading and its influencing factors in several typical agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Meng, Cen; Li, Baozhen; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loading have been recognized to be critical for the maintenance and restoration of water quality in agricultural watersheds, in response to the spread of water eutrophication. This paper estimates N loading and investigates its influencing factors in ten small watersheds variously dominated by forest and agricultural land use types in the subtropics of China, over an observation period of 23-29 months. The results indicate that the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N were 0.83, 0.07, and 0.46 mg N L(-1) in the forest watersheds and 1.49-5.16, 0.21-3.23, and 0.99-1.30 mg N L(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, respectively. Such concentrations exceed the national criteria for nutrient pollution in surface waters considerably, suggesting severe stream pollution in the studied agricultural watersheds. The average annual TN loadings (ANL) were estimated to be 1,640.8 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, 63.3-86.1 % of which was composed of dissolved inorganic N (DIN; comprising NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N). The watershed with intensive livestock production (i.e., the maximum livestock density of 2.66 animal units (AU) ha(-1)) exhibited the highest ANL (2,928.7 kg N km(-2) year(-1)) related to N loss with effluent discharge. The results of correlation and principle component analysis suggest that livestock production was the dominant influencing factor for the TN and NH4 (+)-N loadings and that the percentages of cropland in watersheds can significantly increase the NO3 (-)-N loading in agricultural watersheds. Therefore, to restore and maintain water quality, animal production regulations and more careful planning of land use are necessary in the agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

  4. Characteristics of nitrogen loading and its influencing factors in several typical agricultural watersheds of subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Meng, Cen; Li, Baozhen; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loading have been recognized to be critical for the maintenance and restoration of water quality in agricultural watersheds, in response to the spread of water eutrophication. This paper estimates N loading and investigates its influencing factors in ten small watersheds variously dominated by forest and agricultural land use types in the subtropics of China, over an observation period of 23-29 months. The results indicate that the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N were 0.83, 0.07, and 0.46 mg N L(-1) in the forest watersheds and 1.49-5.16, 0.21-3.23, and 0.99-1.30 mg N L(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, respectively. Such concentrations exceed the national criteria for nutrient pollution in surface waters considerably, suggesting severe stream pollution in the studied agricultural watersheds. The average annual TN loadings (ANL) were estimated to be 1,640.8 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the agricultural watersheds, 63.3-86.1 % of which was composed of dissolved inorganic N (DIN; comprising NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N). The watershed with intensive livestock production (i.e., the maximum livestock density of 2.66 animal units (AU) ha(-1)) exhibited the highest ANL (2,928.7 kg N km(-2) year(-1)) related to N loss with effluent discharge. The results of correlation and principle component analysis suggest that livestock production was the dominant influencing factor for the TN and NH4 (+)-N loadings and that the percentages of cropland in watersheds can significantly increase the NO3 (-)-N loading in agricultural watersheds. Therefore, to restore and maintain water quality, animal production regulations and more careful planning of land use are necessary in the agricultural watersheds of subtropical China. PMID:25172462

  5. The Influence of the Material of the Transformer Core on Characteristics of the Selected DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Krzysztof; Zarębski, Janusz

    In the paper the influence of the ferromagnetic material used for the construction of the core of the impulse-transformer on the characteristics of a half-bridge converter is considered. The investigated network is described and some results of measurements are shown. On the basis of the obtained characteristics of the investigated converters some suggestions for the designers of such circuits are formulated.

  6. A Packet Loss Concealment Algorithm Robust to Burst Packet Loss Using Multiple Codebooks and Comfort Noise for CELP-Type Speech Coders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Hong Kook; Jung, Min A.; Lee, Seong Ro; Choi, Seung Ho

    In this paper, a packet loss concealment (PLC) algorithm for CELP-type speech coders is proposed to improve the quality of decoded speech under burst packet loss. A conventional PLC algorithm is usually based on speech correlation to reconstruct decoded speech of lost frames by using the information on the parameters obtained from the previous frames that are assumed to be correctly received. However, this approach is apt to fail to reconstruct voice onset signals since the parameters such as pitch, LPC coefficient, and adaptive/fixed codebooks of the previous frames are almost related to silence frames. Thus, in order to reconstruct speech signals in the voice onset intervals, we propose a multiple codebook based approach which includes a traditional adaptive codebook and a new random codebook composed of comfort noise. The proposed PLC algorithm is designed as a PLC algorithm for G.729 and its performance is then compared with that of the PLC algorithm employed in G.729 by means of perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ), a waveform comparison, and an A-B preference test under different random and burst packet loss conditions. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed PLC algorithm provides significantly better speech quality than the PLC of G.729, especially under burst packet loss and voice onset conditions.

  7. Influence of a Passivated Nanodimensional Aluminum Powder on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Combustion of Metal Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, M. V.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of various nanodimensional metal powders on the linear combustion rate of metal compositions is analyzed. It is demonstrated that passivation of nanoaluminum with glycine not only provides its physical and chemical compatibility with other components of a high-energy material and its subsequent physical and chemical stability, but also does not influence the main integral combustion characteristic that opens possibilities for its application as a fuel in high-energy compositions.

  8. Influence of atomic vacancies on the dynamic characteristics of nanoresonators based on double walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic analysis of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with different boundary conditions has been performed using atomistic finite element method. The double walled carbon nanotube is modeled considering it as a space frame structure similar to a three dimensional beam. The elastic properties of beam element are calculated by considering mechanical characteristics of covalent bonds between the carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Spring elements are used to describe the interlayer interactions between the inner and outer tubes caused due to the van der Waals forces. The mass of each beam element is assumed as point mass at nodes coinciding with carbon atoms at inner and outer wall of DWCNT. It has been reported that atomic vacancies are formed during the manufacturing process in DWCNT which tend to migrate leading to a change in the mechanical characteristics of the same. Simulations have been carried out to visualize the behavior of such defective DWCNTs subjected to different boundary conditions and when used as mass sensing devices. The variation of such atomic vacancies in outer wall of Zigzag and Armchair DWCNT is performed along the length and the change in response is noted. Moreover, as CNTs have been used as mass sensors extensively, the present approach is focused to explore the use of zigzag and armchair DWCNT as sensing device with a mono-atomic vacancy in it. The results clearly state that the dynamic characteristics are greatly influenced by defects like vacancies in it. A higher frequency shift is observed when the vacancy is located away from the fixed end for both Armchair as well as zigzag type of CNTs. A higher frequency shift is reported for armchair CNT for a mass of 10-22 g which remains constant for 10-21 g and then decreases gradually. Comparison with the other experimental and theoretical studies exhibits good association which suggests that defective DWCNTs can further be explored for mass sensing. This investigation is helpful

  9. Analysis of geometric characteristics of GGBS particles and their influences on cement properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Huiwen; Shui Zhonghe; Lin Zongshou

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the geometric characteristics of different ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), including particle size distribution (PSD), shape and their influences on cement properties. Samples of GGBS with different PSDs are prepared using in three processing approaches, a ball mill, an airflow mill and a vibromill. The morphology of GGBS and the PSD is studied, respectively, with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser particle analyzer (LPA). The results indicate that the PSD of GGBS processed by an airflow mill is concentrated on a narrow range, whereas the size of GGBS made by a ball mill are distributed in a large range. The morphology of GGBS processed by a vibromill is mostly spherical and its surface is very smooth. The results also show that when GGBS has a similar surface area, the strengths of cement mortar, in which 50% cement is replaced by GGBS, are related to PSD of the GGBS. The early strength of sample containing GGBS processed by a ball mill is higher than that by an airflow mill, whereas the long-term strength of this mix is lower. When 0.05% ZS grinding assistant agent is added into the ball mill, the output of the ball mill increases by 18%, the fluidity of mortar containing GGBS is greatly improved and the fluidity ratio reaches to 106. Strengths of the mortars, consisting of 50% cement and 50% GGBS with and without grinding assistant agent, are similar.

  10. [Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Nitrate Pollution in Shallow Groundwater of Liujiang Basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Gu, Hong-biao; Chi, Bao-ming; Li, Hai-jun; Jiang, Hai-ning

    2016-05-15

    Taking the nitrate in shallow groundwater of Liujiang basin as the research object, a total of 215 groups of shallow groundwater samples were collected during the wet period in July 2014 and the drought period in April 2015 on the basis of groundwater pollution investigation. The characteristics of spatial and temporal variability and the account of nitrate pollution were analyzed based on the model of semivariogram, the geostatistics of ArcGIS and factor analysis, respectively. The results showed that the study region in the southeast was the main nitrate-polluted area, with concentrations of up to 30-120 mg · L⁻¹, in both wet and drought periods, while the nitrate-contaminated area in drought period was about 1. 4 times higher than that in wet period. The spatial distribution of nitrate was primarily influenced by human activities and the geological conditions, and secondarily by Eh, DO, pH and landform conditions. The nitrate concentration was less than 20 mg · L⁻¹ in north. Pollution in local middle area was rather serious, due to human activities and the loss of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural cultivation; the area to the south, which was confined by impervious boundary, was seriously contaminated, as indicated by the nitrate accumulation effects.

  11. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C S B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites. PMID:26852384

  12. Ag85A DNA Vaccine Delivery by Nanoparticles: Influence of the Formulation Characteristics on Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Poecheim, Johanna; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas; Borchard, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The influence of DNA vaccine formulations on immune responses in combination with adjuvants was investigated with the aim to increase cell-mediated immunity against plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A. Different ratios of pDNA with cationic trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and physicochemical characteristics (size, zeta potential, loading efficiency and pDNA release profile) applied in vitro for cellular uptake studies and in vivo, to determine the dose-dependent effects of pDNA on immune responses. A selected pDNA/TMC nanoparticle formulation was optimized by the incorporation of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as an immunostimulatory agent. Cellular uptake investigations in vitro showed saturation to a maximum level upon the increase in the pDNA/TMC nanoparticle ratio, correlating with increasing Th1-related antibody responses up to a definite pDNA dose applied. Moreover, TMC nanoparticles induced clear polarization towards a Th1 response, indicated by IgG2c/IgG1 ratios above unity and enhanced numbers of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T-cells in the spleen. Remarkably, the incorporation of MDP in TMC nanoparticles provoked a significant additional increase in T-cell-mediated responses induced by pDNA. In conclusion, pDNA-loaded TMC nanoparticles are capable of provoking strong Th1-type cellular and humoral immune responses, with the potential to be further optimized by the incorporation of MDP. PMID:27626449

  13. Educational attainment of Norwegian men: influence of parental and early individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Petter; Gravseth, Hans M; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2009-11-01

    The life course perspective in social inequalities in health research has resulted in an increased interest in status attainment processes. Adult status is commonly measured as occupational class, income level or educational attainment, and the latter was applied in this study. The study objective was to estimate the relative contribution of parental and early individual characteristics on educational attainment. The study population comprised all males born in Norway in 1967-1971, and alive at age 28 years (n=160,914). Data on social and biological variables were compiled from birth onwards in several national registers. Information on educational attainment at age 28 years was derived from Statistics Norway. Mean years of education was 12.62 years (SD 2.24). Educational attainment was strongly associated with general ability score at age 18 years and parental educational attainment. Parental income had more limited influence; all other early factors had only marginal effect. Path analysis results suggest that the direct effect of general ability was of the same size as the combined direct and indirect effect of parental education and income. The results suggest that status attainment in this young male population is mainly dependent on general ability and parental education level.

  14. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen R; Vreeman, Vivian M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  15. The influence of governmental mitigation measures on contamination characteristics of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    Beijing, the capital of China, has become one of the most air-polluted cities due to its rapid economic growth. Weekly PM2.5 samples-collected continuously from 2007 to 2010-were used to study the contamination characteristics of atmospheric particles and effects of governmental mitigation measures especially since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. PM2.5 mass concentrations during the sampling period were reduced compared to the previous studies before 2005, although they were still too high in comparison with environmental standards of China and many other countries as well as WHO standards. Results of principle component analysis show that elements of primary anthropogenic origin had an obvious decline while elements mainly from the natural environment kept a relatively stable course. The governmental macro-control measures influenced both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, but they also led to some pollution peaks prior to implementation of the respective measures. Some element concentrations correlated to the restrictiveness of relative measures, especially during different traffic restrictions. The comparison with other countries and international standards shows that there is a long way to go in order to improve air quality in Beijing, and that governmental mitigation measures need to be continued and reinforced. PMID:24887192

  16. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  17. The influence of oxidation properties on the electron emission characteristics of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wang, Wenjiang; Wei, Haicheng

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the influence of oxidation properties such as oxygen content and its distribution gradient on the electron emission characteristics of porous silicon (PS) emitters, emitters with PS thickness of 8 μm, 5 μm, and 3 μm were prepared and then oxidized by electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and ECO-RTO (rapid thermal oxidation) to get different oxidation properties. The experimental results indicated that the emission current density, efficiency, and stability of the PS emitters are mainly determined by oxidation properties. The higher oxygen content and the smaller oxygen distribution gradient in the PS layer, the larger emission current density and efficiency we noted. The most favorable results occurred for the PS emitter with the smallest oxygen distribution gradient and the highest level of oxygen content, with an emission current density of 212.25 μA/cm2 and efficiency of 59.21‰. Additionally, it also demonstrates that thick PS layer benefits to the emission stability due to its longer electron acceleration tunnel. The FN fitting plots indicated that the effective emission areas of PS emitters can be enlarged and electron emission thresholds is decreased because of the higher oxygen content and smaller distribution gradient, which were approved by the optical micrographs of top electrode of PS emitters before and after electron emission.

  18. The influence of governmental mitigation measures on contamination characteristics of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    Beijing, the capital of China, has become one of the most air-polluted cities due to its rapid economic growth. Weekly PM2.5 samples-collected continuously from 2007 to 2010-were used to study the contamination characteristics of atmospheric particles and effects of governmental mitigation measures especially since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. PM2.5 mass concentrations during the sampling period were reduced compared to the previous studies before 2005, although they were still too high in comparison with environmental standards of China and many other countries as well as WHO standards. Results of principle component analysis show that elements of primary anthropogenic origin had an obvious decline while elements mainly from the natural environment kept a relatively stable course. The governmental macro-control measures influenced both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, but they also led to some pollution peaks prior to implementation of the respective measures. Some element concentrations correlated to the restrictiveness of relative measures, especially during different traffic restrictions. The comparison with other countries and international standards shows that there is a long way to go in order to improve air quality in Beijing, and that governmental mitigation measures need to be continued and reinforced.

  19. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Lipoplexes Influence Cell Uptake Mechanisms and Transfection Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Resina, Sarah; Prevot, Paul; Thierry, Alain R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Formulation of DNA/cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes) designed for nucleic acid delivery mostly results in positively charged particles which are thought to enter cells by endocytosis. We recently developed a lipoplex formulation called Neutraplex that allows preparation of both cationic and anionic stable complexes with similar lipid content and ultrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess whether the global net charge could influence cell uptake and activity of the transported oligonucleotides (ON), we prepared lipoplexes with positive and negative charges and compared: (i) their physicochemical properties by zeta potential analysis and dynamic light scattering, (ii) their cell uptake by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, and (iii) the biological activity of the transported ON using a splicing correction assay. We show that positively or negatively charged lipoplexes enter cells cells using both temperature-dependent and -independent uptake mechanisms. Specifically, positively charged lipoplexes predominantly use a temperature-dependent transport when cells are incubated OptiMEM medium. Anionic lipoplexes favour an energy-independent transport and show higher ON activity than cationic lipoplexes in presence of serum. However, lipoplexes with high positive global net charge and OptiMEM medium give the highest uptake and ON activity levels. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in addition to endocytosis, lipoplexes may enter cell via a temperature-independent mechanism, which could be mediated by lipid mixing. Such characteristics might arise from the specific lipoplex ultrastructure and should be taken into consideration when developing lipoplexes designed for in vivo or ex vivo nucleic acid transfer. PMID:19557145

  20. Influence of Acoustic Field Structure on Polarization Characteristics of Acousto-optic Interaction in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromets, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    Influence of acoustic field structure on polarization characteristics of acousto-optic interaction is investigated. It is shown that inhomogeneity of acoustic field and mechanism of ultrasound excitation causes changes in values of acousto-optic figure of merit for ordinary and extraordinary light beams in comparison with theoretic values. The theoretic values were derived under assumption that acoustic wave is homogeneous. Experimental analysis was carried out in acousto-optic cell based on lithium niobate crystal where the acoustic wave propagates at the angle 13 degrees to Z axis of the crystal. We used three different methods of ultrasound generation in the crystal: by means of external piezotransducer, by interdigital transducer and by two sets of electrodes placed on top of the crystal surface. In the latter case, the first pair of the electrodes was directed along X crystal axis, while the second pair of the electrodes was directed orthogonally to X crystal axis and the direction of ultrasound. Obtained values for diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary polarized optical beams were qualitatively different which may be caused by spatial inhomogeneity of the generated acoustic waves in the crystal. Structure of acoustic field generated by these sets of electrodes was examined by laser probing. We performed the analysis of the acoustic field intensity using acousto-optic method. A relation of diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary light waves was measured during each iteration of the laser probing.

  1. Uptake characteristics of liposomes by rat alveolar macrophages: influence of particle size and surface mannose modification.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Tanino, Tomoharu; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The influence of particle size and surface mannose modification on the uptake of liposomes by alveolar macrophages (AMs) was investigated in-vitro and in-vivo. Non-modified liposomes of five different particle sizes (100, 200, 400, 1000 and 2000 nm) and mannosylated liposomes with 4-aminophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (particle size 1000 nm) were prepared, and the uptake characteristics by rat AMs in-vitro and in-vivo were examined. The uptake of non-modified liposomes by rat AMs in-vitro increased with an increase in particle size over the range of 100-1000 nm, and became constant at over 1000 nm. The uptake of non-modified liposomes by AMs after pulmonary administration to rats in-vivo increased with an increase in particle size in the range 100-2000 nm. The uptake of mannosylated liposomes (particle size 1000 nm) by rat AMs both in-vitro and in-vivo was significantly greater than that of non-modified liposomes (particle size 1000 nm). The results indicate that the uptake of liposomes by rat AMs is dependent on particle size and is increased by surface mannose modification.

  2. [Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Nitrate Pollution in Shallow Groundwater of Liujiang Basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Gu, Hong-biao; Chi, Bao-ming; Li, Hai-jun; Jiang, Hai-ning

    2016-05-15

    Taking the nitrate in shallow groundwater of Liujiang basin as the research object, a total of 215 groups of shallow groundwater samples were collected during the wet period in July 2014 and the drought period in April 2015 on the basis of groundwater pollution investigation. The characteristics of spatial and temporal variability and the account of nitrate pollution were analyzed based on the model of semivariogram, the geostatistics of ArcGIS and factor analysis, respectively. The results showed that the study region in the southeast was the main nitrate-polluted area, with concentrations of up to 30-120 mg · L⁻¹, in both wet and drought periods, while the nitrate-contaminated area in drought period was about 1. 4 times higher than that in wet period. The spatial distribution of nitrate was primarily influenced by human activities and the geological conditions, and secondarily by Eh, DO, pH and landform conditions. The nitrate concentration was less than 20 mg · L⁻¹ in north. Pollution in local middle area was rather serious, due to human activities and the loss of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural cultivation; the area to the south, which was confined by impervious boundary, was seriously contaminated, as indicated by the nitrate accumulation effects. PMID:27506022

  3. Change of deformation characteristics and dislocation substructure of nonferrous metals under influence of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagulyaev, D. V.; Konovalov, S. V.; Shlyarov, V. V.; Anuchina, E. A.; Komissarova, I. A.; Gromov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    The objects of the study were polycrystalline copper of M00b grade and commercially pure titanium BT1-0. Microindentation was carried out on the samples of titanium BT1-0 in the initial state, immediately after magnetic field exposure of 0.4 T and after certain time intervals. The defect substructure of cooper samples M00b, subjected to loading to failure in the creep mode under the influence of magnetic field of 0.35 T and without it, was investigated by the methods of electron diffraction microscopy. It was revealed that the effect of magnetic field exposure on commercially pure titanium BT1-0 leads to the decrease in microhardness with the subsequent stabilization during the time that depends on the processing parameters. And the effect of the magnetic field exposure on copper during the process of creeping results in the redistribution of dislocation substructure types. Also, there are changes in quantitative characteristics of dislocation substructures.

  4. Investigating the influence of effective parameters on molecular characteristics of bovine serum albumin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohiwal, S. S.; Satvekar, R. K.; Tiwari, A. P.; Raut, A. V.; Kumbhar, S. G.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The protein nanoparticles formulation is a challenging task as they are prone to undergo conformational transitions while processing which may affect bioavailability for bioactive compounds. Herein, a modified desolvation method is employed to prepare Bovine Serum Albumin nanoparticles, with controllable particle size ranging from 100 to 300 nm and low polydispersity index. The factors influencing the size and structure of BSA NPs viz. protein concentration, pH and the conditions for purification are well investigated. The structure of BSA NPs is altered due to processing, and may affect the effective binding ability with drugs and bioactive compounds. With that aims, investigations of molecular characteristics of BSA NPs are carried out in detail by using spectroscopic techniques. UV-visible absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared demonstrate the alteration in protein structure of BSA NPs whereas the FT-Raman spectroscopy investigates changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The conformational changes of BSA NPs are observed by change in fluorescence intensity and emission maximum wavelength of tryptophan residue by fluorescence spectroscopy. The field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopy micrographs confirm the size and semi-spherical morphology of the BSA NPs. The effect of concentration and pH on particle size distribution is studied by particle size analyzer.

  5. Influence of emissive layer thickness on electrical characteristics of polyfluorene copolymer based polymer light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Gopikrishna, P.; Singh, A.; Dey, A.; Iyer, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with a device configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFONPN01 [Poly [2,7-(9,9’-dioctylfluorene)-co-N-phenyl-1,8-naphthalimide (99:01)]/LiF/Al have been fabricated by varying the emissive layer (EML) thickness (40/65/80/130 nm) and the influence of EML thickness on the electrical characteristics of PLED has been studied. PLED can be modelled as a simple combination of resistors and capacitors. The impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the devices with different EML thickness had different values of parallel resistance (RP) and the parallel capacitance (CP). The impedance of the devices is found to increase with increasing EML thickness resulting in an increase in the driving voltage. The device with an emissive layer thickness of 80nm, spin coated from a solution of concentration 15 mg/mL is found to give the best device performance with a maximum brightness value of 5226 cd/m2.

  6. Microbiological influenced corrosion resistance characteristics of a 304L-Cu stainless steel against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nan, Li; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue; Song, Xiu; Yang, Ke

    2015-03-01

    Cu-bearing antibacterial stainless steels have been gaining popularity in recent years due to their strong antibacterial performances. However, only a few studies were reported for their actual performances against microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). In this study, electrochemical methods and surface analytical techniques were applied to study the MIC resistance characteristics of a 304L-Cu stainless steel (SS) against Escherichia coli in comparison with 304L SS as control. Corrosion tests for specimens after a 21-day exposure to a Luria-Bertani (LB) culture medium with E. coli demonstrated that the 304L-Cu SS considerably reduced the maximum MIC pit depth and the specific weight loss compared with 304L SS (8.3μm and 0.2mg/cm(2) vs. 13.4μm and 0.6mg/cm(2)). Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion current density of the 304L-Cu SS was as much as 4 times lower than that of the 304L SS, indicating that the 304L-Cu SS is a better choice for applications in MIC-prone environments.

  7. INFLUENCE OF CONSOLIDATION CHARACTERISTICS ON CONE PENETRATION RESISTANCE AND LIQUEFACTION RESISTANCE IN SILTY SOILS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecemis, N.; Thevanayagam, S.

    2009-12-01

    A unique correlation between liquefaction resistance and penetration resistance is not possible to justify without considering the effects of hydraulic conductivity, k, compressibility, mv, and coefficient of consolidation, ch on cone penetration resistance (Thevanayagam and Martin 2002). Therefore, CPT liquefaction screening chart revised to take into account the consolidation characteristics on penetration resistance. Recently, it has been observed that k and ch magnitudes vary between sand and sand-silt mixtures even evaluated at the same liquefaction resistance. The combined effects of penetration rate, v, cone diameter, d, and ch also influences the cone penetration resistance. Silt content affects the liquefaction resistance as well. Several numerical simulations performed by Thevanayagam and Ecemis in 2008 to explore the transition from undrained to drained conditions by varying the non-dimensional parameter T(=vd/ch) with a range of coefficient of consolidation for a single soil type, Ottawa sand-silt mix. Numerical simulation suggested the drained and undrained limits for T are respectively around 0.01 and 10. Tests on circular foundations reported by Finnie and Randolph (1994) suggested the limits of 0.01 and 30. Tests with a cylindrical T-bar penetrometer suggested narrower limits of 0.1 and 10 (House et al. 2001). Finally, the correlation between T, normalized cone resistance and cyclic resistance to liquefaction is proposed and compared with the current liquefaction screening method by CPT (Fig.1). Fig.1: Proposed & Current Liquefaction Screening Method

  8. Ag85A DNA Vaccine Delivery by Nanoparticles: Influence of the Formulation Characteristics on Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Poecheim, Johanna; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas; Borchard, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The influence of DNA vaccine formulations on immune responses in combination with adjuvants was investigated with the aim to increase cell-mediated immunity against plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A. Different ratios of pDNA with cationic trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and physicochemical characteristics (size, zeta potential, loading efficiency and pDNA release profile) applied in vitro for cellular uptake studies and in vivo, to determine the dose-dependent effects of pDNA on immune responses. A selected pDNA/TMC nanoparticle formulation was optimized by the incorporation of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as an immunostimulatory agent. Cellular uptake investigations in vitro showed saturation to a maximum level upon the increase in the pDNA/TMC nanoparticle ratio, correlating with increasing Th1-related antibody responses up to a definite pDNA dose applied. Moreover, TMC nanoparticles induced clear polarization towards a Th1 response, indicated by IgG2c/IgG1 ratios above unity and enhanced numbers of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T-cells in the spleen. Remarkably, the incorporation of MDP in TMC nanoparticles provoked a significant additional increase in T-cell-mediated responses induced by pDNA. In conclusion, pDNA-loaded TMC nanoparticles are capable of provoking strong Th1-type cellular and humoral immune responses, with the potential to be further optimized by the incorporation of MDP. PMID:27626449

  9. Influence of gap spacing on the characteristics of Trichel pulse generated in point-to-plane discharge gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Xu, Yongsheng

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, the specific characteristics of the Trichel pulse generated in wide point-to-plane discharge gaps are investigated and compared with those of the currents generated in narrow gaps. A set of empirical formulas are derived to describe the specific characteristics. The influence of the gap spacing both on the current characteristics and on the coefficients of the formulas is studied. Based on the experiment results, an improvement is made to the space charge calculation method proposed by Lama and Gallo [J. Appl. Phys. 45, 103–113 (1974)] and the calculation results are compared to the ones obtained with Lama and Gallo's original method. With the influence of the space charge considered, the modified method obtains more accurate results of the space charge accumulating in the gap and gives a more precise description of the motion of the space charge in the gap. Based on the calculation results, the influence of the space charge on the distribution of the electric field is examined and the influence of the gap spacing on the current characteristics is also studied.

  10. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  11. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT AND SORBENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DISTRIBUTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN OCTANOL-WATER AND SOIL-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorbent and solvent characteristics influencing sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated. Analysis of aqueous sorption data for several sorbents over a broad pH range suggested hydrophobic sorption of neutral PCP predominates at pH 7. At pH > 7, sorption of the penta...

  12. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  13. Beyond Behavior: Multilevel Analysis of the Influence of Sociodemographics and School Characteristics on Students' Risk of Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Klingbeil, David A.; Van Norman, Ethan R.

    2013-01-01

    Minority disproportionality in school discipline outcomes continues to trouble practitioners and scholars. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of school policy enactment (e.g., retention rates, special education identification) on students' risk of suspension. The sample…

  14. Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: Influence of urbanization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerhoff, P.; Anning, D.

    2000-01-01

    DOC concentration (p<0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet absorbance values at 254 nm were typically less than 2 m-1(milligram DOC per liter)-1 and lower than values found in most temperate-region rivers, but specific ultraviolet absorbance values increased during runoff events. Fluorescence measurements indicated that DOC in desert streams typically exhibit characteristics of autochthonous sources; however, DOC in unregulated upland rivers and desert streams experienced sudden shifts from autochthonous to allochthonous sources during runoff events. The urban water system (reservoir systems and wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.The influence of urbanization, becoming increasingly common in arid regions, on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water resources was studied. DOC concentration and composition, seasonal watershed runoff events, streamflow variations, water management practices, and urban infrastructure in several Arizona watersheds were monitored. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC levels, and unregulated perennial sites and lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Reservoir outflows and wastewater treatment plant effluent had higher and less variable DOC concentrations than inflows to reservoirs. UV absorbance values, fluorescence measurements, and other indicators suggest that urban water systems (reservoirs and wastewater treatment plants) affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.

  15. The influence of surface characteristics on lapse rates and temperature profiles in areas of complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.; Pike, G.; Fower, D.; Schaefer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Temperatures near the ground are often decoupled from free-air equivalents, particularly in areas of complex relief and at high latitudes where cold air drainage occurs particularly when radiation balances become negative. This means that it is hard to predict spatial patterns of surface temperature in such regions. In this study several years of intensive field measurements in complex terrain in northern Finland (Kevo) and Sweden (Abisko) allow detailed examination of the interaction between land surface characteristics (including cryosphere), vegetation, and local/micro-climate in mountain basins. Temperature and vapour pressure were measured every 30 minutes for 5 years (2007-2012) at 60 sites at Kevo and for a winter season (September-June) at 52 sites in Abisko, ranging over 300/600 metres of elevation respectively. In Finland lapse rates vary considerably both seasonally and diurnally, the relative importance of seasonal and diurnal forcing changing throughout the year. The results show intense (up to +80 °C/km) and persistent inversion events during the winter months (NDJ) which are broken up by mechanical effects since there is no diurnal cycle. In the transition from winter into spring (FMA) these inversions still occur but increasing radiation imposes a diurnal pattern on their formation and destruction. As snow cover peaks in spring the interaction between surface albedo, land cover and radiation serves to amplify the diurnal cycle in lapse rates. Daytime lapse rates peak in spring because of an increase in albedo with elevation as dark trees give way to reflective snow. At night inversions rapidly reform. Summer lapse rates are modified (usually weakened) by the presence of open water at low elevations. In Abisko similar processes are shown to be at work, although since the valley system is more open and at a larger spatial scale, the range of lapse rate variability is slightly less and the influence of surface characteristics more subdued. Taken

  16. The genetic influences on oxycodone response characteristics in human experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Anne E; Sato, Hiroe; Nielsen, Lecia M; Staahl, Camilla; Droney, Joanne; Gretton, Sophy; Branford, Ruth; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Riley, Julia; Ross, Joy

    2015-08-01

    Human experimental pain studies are of value to study basic pain mechanisms under controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variation across selected mu-, kappa- and delta-opioid receptor genes (OPRM1, OPRK1and OPRD1, respectively) influenced analgesic response to oxycodone in healthy volunteers. Experimental multimodal, multitissue pain data from previously published studies carried out in Caucasian volunteers were used. Data on thermal skin pain tolerance threshold (PTT) (n = 37), muscle pressure PTT (n = 31), mechanical visceral PTT (n = 43) and thermal visceral PTT (n = 41) were included. Genetic associations with pain outcomes were explored. Nineteen opioid receptor genetic polymorphisms were included in this study. Variability in oxycodone response to skin heat was associated with OPRM1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs589046 (P < 0.0001) and rs563649 (P < 0.0001). Variability in oxycodone response to visceral pressure was associated with four OPRM1 SNPs: rs589046 (P = 0.015), rs1799971 (P = 0.045), rs9479757 (P = 0.009) and rs533586 (P = 0.046). OPRM1 SNPs were not associated with oxycodone visceral heat threshold, however, one OPRD1 rs419335 reached significance (P = 0.015). Another OPRD1 SNP rs2234918 (P = 0.041) was associated with muscle pressure. There were no associations with OPRK1 SNPs and oxycodone response for any of the pain modalities. Associations were found between analgesic effects of oxycodone and OPRM1 and OPRD1 SNPs; therefore, variation in opioid receptor genes may partly explain responder characteristics to oxycodone.

  17. Influence of samarium impurity on spectral characteristics of calcium iodide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosad, S. S.; Novosad, I. S.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of a SmBr3 impurity on optical absorption spectra and x-ray-, photo-, and thermally stimulated luminescence of CaI2 scintillator was studied in the temperature range 90-295 K. Activation of CaI2 from the melt by SmBr3 caused absorption bands related to 4 f 6 → 4 f 55 d electronic transitions in Sm2+ to appear in the spectra. Excitation and emission spectra of CaI2:SmBr3 (0.01 mol%) were represented mainly by bands characteristic of the matrix. The photoluminescence spectrum at 90 K upon optical excitation of the crystal in the impurity absorption region (λex = 280 nm) was approximated by individual Gaussian bands with maxima near 345, 395, 430, 470, 500, and 520 nm. The photoluminescence spectrum of CaI2:SmBr3 (0.5 mol%) at 295 K with excitation by radiation from an LGI-21 nitrogen laser (λex = 337.1 nm) was represented mainly by a band at 465 nm. The intensity of this band weakened, its maximum shifted to 470 nm, luminescence in the 520 nm region increased, and weak emission with a maximum near 585 nm was also observed upon lowering the crystal temperature to 90 K. Doping CaI2 with the Sm impurity decreased the yield and changed the spectral composition of its x-ray-luminescence. CaI2:SmBr3 stored a small light sum in shallow trapping levels upon x-ray excitation at 90 K. The nature of the emission and trapping centers in the investigated crystals was discussed.

  18. Winter time chemical characteristics of aerosols over the Bay of Bengal: continental influence.

    PubMed

    Aryasree, S; Nair, Prabha R; Girach, I A; Jacob, Salu

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of Indian Space Research Organisation, ship-based aerosol sampling was carried out over the marine environment of Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the northern winter months of December 2008 to January 2009. About 101 aerosol samples were collected, covering the region from 3.4° to 21° N latitude and 76° to 98° E longitude-the largest area covered-including the south east (SE) BoB for the first time. These samples were subjected to gravimetric and chemical analysis and the total aerosol loading as well the mass concentration of the ionic species namely F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), NO2 (-), NO3 (-), PO4 (2-), SO4 (2-), NH4 (+), etc. and the metallic species, Na, Mg, Ca, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb were estimated for each sample. Based on the spatial distribution of individual chemical species, the air flow pattern, and airmass back trajectory analysis, the source characteristics of aerosols for different regions of BoB were identified. Significant level of continental pollution was noticed over BoB during winter. While transport of pollution from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) contributed to aerosols over north BoB, those over SE BoB were influenced by SE Asia. A quantitative study on the wind-induced production of sea salt aerosols and a case study on the species dependent effect of rainfall are also presented in this paper. PMID:25994269

  19. Sensitivity of the eyes to airborne irritant stimuli: influence of individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, S; Pedersen, O F; Mølhave, L

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure trigeminal sensitivity of the eyes to irritative exposures and to examine the influence of individual characteristics, e.g., gender, age, and smoking, on this sensitivity. During an experimental study, 158 of 2,025 randomly selected volunteers were examined for sensory irritation threshold in the eyes to carbon dioxide (CO2). Eyes were exposed to progressive concentrations of CO2 (10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 ml/l), until the subject claimed a distinct irritation. Each exposure level lasted 2 min. A special exposure mask system was used for eyes-only exposure. No significant dependence of gender or smoking was found, but subjects who were less than 40 y of age were more sensitive than were the elderly subjects. Subjects who reported frequent "sick building syndrome" irritation symptoms had lower thresholds (i.e., higher sensitivity). The CO2 threshold was related to skin irritation sensitivity, i.e., response to lactic acid smeared on the cheek, and there were indications that occupational stress was associated with low thresholds. Studies of irritation to n-decane indicate that the CO2 threshold may be an important factor in the prediction of individual sensitivity to irritation from airborne pollutants. The CO2 threshold of the eyes may be of value in the evaluation of hypersensitivity to indoor air pollution. Furthermore, the threshold may be used to assess important relationships between the different trigeminal innervated areas, e.g., skin and eyes. Finally, the method has the advantage of avoiding interference from olfactory stimulation. PMID:1540002

  20. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Lashley, Marcus A; Kilgo, John C; Pollock, Kenneth H; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover.

  1. Influence of tobacco smoke on indoor PM 10 particulate matter characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; De Berardis, B.; Arrizza, L.; Granato, V.

    In this study we evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke on the physico-chemical characteristics of PM 10 in different environments: outdoors, a smoking room, the same room after a 7-day absence of smokers and in a smoke-free office. The latter office was close to the smoking room, separated by a corridor. The coarse (PM 10-2.1) and fine (PM 2.1) fractions of PM 10 collected in the monitored areas were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the elemental composition of the particulate and to identify the chemical state of atomic species detected. Four clusters of particles for both "fine" and "coarse" fractions were identified: carbonaceous particles, soil erosion particles, Ca-sulphates and metal compound particles. EDX spectra showed that a percentage of carbonaceous particles carried S, Si and metal traces. High-resolution XPS spectra of the C1s region showed a significant greater occurrence of the C-O/C-N functional group in the particulate fine fraction collected in the smoking room compared to that collected outdoors. The carbonaceous component of coarse fraction collected in the smoking room appeared dissimilar from the same component detected in the other areas. After the 7-day absence of smokers this component of the PM 10-2.1 fraction was similar to the corresponding coarse fraction collected at the outdoor location. The carbonaceous component of fine fraction collected in the smoking room, containing tobacco smoke products, such as organic carbon and nicotine, was traceable in the neighbouring areas, even several days after suspension of smoking activity.

  2. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age. PMID:23469210

  3. [Ecological Footprint Evolution Characteristics and Its Influencing Factors in China from 2000 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-rong; Cui, Shu-hong; Li, Ying-ming

    2016-02-15

    According to global average land productivities in 2000, this study calculated ecological footprint (EF) in China from 2000 to 2010, and analyzed its dynamic characteristics and socio-economic driving forces. The results showed that the total EF in China increased from 1.769 to 3.259 billion global hectares (gha) from 2000 to 2010, and its annual growth rate was 6.30%. Carbon Footprint was the fastest growth type of EF. It increased from 0.742 to 1.805 billion gha, and its annual growth rate was 9.29%. The net increase of cropland Footprint was also large in comparison to other types of Footprint. It increased from 0.678 to 0.891 billion gha. Per capita EF in China increased from 1.40 to 2.43 gha in this period. Although it was still below the world average level, it was far beyond per capita ecological carrying capacity in China, which led to serious ecological deficit and severe ecological crisis in China. The fast growth of per capita EF was the main driving force for the growth of total EF in China during the study period. Further, the growth of per capita EF was positively influenced by the growth of per capita consumption of products and severs, which was driven by economic growth and urbanization. Meanwhile, a large amount of exports of resource-intensive products in international trade was also an important driving force for EF growth. According to the evolution route of per capita EF in developed countries, along with China moving from middle-income to high-income country, per capita EF will maintain rapid growth, and ecological deficit in China will further exacerbate.

  4. [Characteristics of Adsorption Leaching and Influencing Factors of Dimethyl Phthalate in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Song, Jiao-yan; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fa

    2016-02-15

    The typical soil-purple soil in Three Gorges Reservoir was the tested soil, the characteristics of adsorption leaching of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in contaminated water by the soil, and the influencing factors in the process were conducted using soil column leaching experiment. The results showed that the parabolic equation was the best equation describing adsorption kinetics of DMP by soils. The concentration of DMP in the leaching solution had significant effect on the adsorption amounts of DMP. With the increasing concentration of DMP in the leaching solution, the adsorption capacities of DMP by purple soil increased linearly. The ionic strength and pH in leaching solution had significant effects on adsorption of DMP. On the whole, increasing of the ionic strength restrained the adsorption. The adsorption amounts at pH 5.0-7.0 were more than those under other pH condition. The addition of exogenous organic matter (OM) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. However, the adsorption amount was less than those with other addition amounts of exogenous OM when the addition of exogenous OM was too high (> or = 30 g x kg(-1)). The addition of surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (SDBS) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. The adsorption amount was maximal when the addition amount of SDBS was 50 mg x kg(-1). However, the adsorption amounts decreased with increasing addition amounts of SDBS although the adsorption amounts were still more than that of the control group, and the adsorption amount was almost equal to that of the control group when the addition amount of SDBS was 800 mg x kg(-1). Continuous leaching time affected the vertical distribution of DMP in the soil column. When the leaching time was shorter, the upper soil column adsorbed more DMP, while the DMP concentrations in upper and lower soil columns became similar with the extension of leaching time.

  5. The influence of seatback characteristics on cervical injury risk in severe rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Roger; Carter, Jarrod; Roberts, Verne; Myers, Barry

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the optimum seatback characteristics for the mitigation of serious and catastrophic neck injury during high-speed rear-end collisions remains a topic of continued investigation. Despite a number of prior research efforts, both field data and sled test studies have yet to define a single optimal seatback performance criterion. Further, recent developments in seatbacks have introduced new designs into the field that have not been compared to more traditional designs. Analysis of NASS data from 1980 to 1999 demonstrated that at changes in velocity (DeltaV) above 40 kph, rear-end collisions have a dramatically lower risk for catastrophic injury than frontal, near-side or far-side impacts. Unfortunately, owing to the small penetration of newer seatback designs in the automotive fleet, it is not possible to examine the influence of seatback design parameters on serious neck injury using these data alone. Accordingly, seven rear impact HYGE sled tests were conducted using a wide range of seat designs. Upper and lower neck load cells were used to measure neck forces and moments in restrained 50th male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). Additionally, the neck injury criteria (Nij) was computed. Unlike prior studies that have examined the standard seated ATD or the dramatically out-of-position ATD, these tests were conducted using an ATD seated in non-standard but typical driving position. The results of this study indicate that several descriptions of seatback behavior, such as quasi-static ultimate force are poor predictors of ATD neck loading. It also suggests that, for the severe crash studied, an optimum range of seatback stiffness exists, which appears to be in the mid-range of seatback stiffnesses available in current production vehicles. These data continue to illustrate the complex relationship of seatback design parameters to neck injury risk.

  6. Do Biological and Bedsite Characteristics Influence Survival of Neonatal White-Tailed Deer?

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, M. Colter; Lashley, Marcus A.; Kilgo, John C.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover. PMID:25734333

  7. Influence of climate on landscape characteristics in safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Becker, J K; Lindborg, T; Thorne, M C

    2014-12-01

    In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine the erosional regime (which may also be conditioned by the vegetation characteristics adopted, based both on climatic and other considerations). However, geomorphological changes may be governed by regional rather than local considerations, e.g. alteration of river base levels, river capture and drainage network reorganisation, or the progression of an ice sheet or valley glacier across the site. The regional climate is in turn governed by the global climate. In this work, a commentary is presented on the types of climate models that can be used to develop projections of climate change for use in post-closure radiological impact assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes. These models include both Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity. The relevant outputs available from these models are identified and consideration is given to how these outputs may be used to inform projections of landscape development. Issues of spatial and temporal downscaling of climate model outputs to meet the requirements of local-scale landscape development modelling are also addressed. An example is given of how climate change and landscape development influence the radiological impact of radionuclides potentially released from the deep geological disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel that SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) proposes to construct at Forsmark, Sweden.

  8. [Ecological Footprint Evolution Characteristics and Its Influencing Factors in China from 2000 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-rong; Cui, Shu-hong; Li, Ying-ming

    2016-02-15

    According to global average land productivities in 2000, this study calculated ecological footprint (EF) in China from 2000 to 2010, and analyzed its dynamic characteristics and socio-economic driving forces. The results showed that the total EF in China increased from 1.769 to 3.259 billion global hectares (gha) from 2000 to 2010, and its annual growth rate was 6.30%. Carbon Footprint was the fastest growth type of EF. It increased from 0.742 to 1.805 billion gha, and its annual growth rate was 9.29%. The net increase of cropland Footprint was also large in comparison to other types of Footprint. It increased from 0.678 to 0.891 billion gha. Per capita EF in China increased from 1.40 to 2.43 gha in this period. Although it was still below the world average level, it was far beyond per capita ecological carrying capacity in China, which led to serious ecological deficit and severe ecological crisis in China. The fast growth of per capita EF was the main driving force for the growth of total EF in China during the study period. Further, the growth of per capita EF was positively influenced by the growth of per capita consumption of products and severs, which was driven by economic growth and urbanization. Meanwhile, a large amount of exports of resource-intensive products in international trade was also an important driving force for EF growth. According to the evolution route of per capita EF in developed countries, along with China moving from middle-income to high-income country, per capita EF will maintain rapid growth, and ecological deficit in China will further exacerbate. PMID:27363126

  9. Influence of climate on landscape characteristics in safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Becker, J K; Lindborg, T; Thorne, M C

    2014-12-01

    In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine the erosional regime (which may also be conditioned by the vegetation characteristics adopted, based both on climatic and other considerations). However, geomorphological changes may be governed by regional rather than local considerations, e.g. alteration of river base levels, river capture and drainage network reorganisation, or the progression of an ice sheet or valley glacier across the site. The regional climate is in turn governed by the global climate. In this work, a commentary is presented on the types of climate models that can be used to develop projections of climate change for use in post-closure radiological impact assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes. These models include both Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity. The relevant outputs available from these models are identified and consideration is given to how these outputs may be used to inform projections of landscape development. Issues of spatial and temporal downscaling of climate model outputs to meet the requirements of local-scale landscape development modelling are also addressed. An example is given of how climate change and landscape development influence the radiological impact of radionuclides potentially released from the deep geological disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel that SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) proposes to construct at Forsmark, Sweden. PMID:25255485

  10. [Characteristics of Adsorption Leaching and Influencing Factors of Dimethyl Phthalate in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Song, Jiao-yan; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fa

    2016-02-15

    The typical soil-purple soil in Three Gorges Reservoir was the tested soil, the characteristics of adsorption leaching of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in contaminated water by the soil, and the influencing factors in the process were conducted using soil column leaching experiment. The results showed that the parabolic equation was the best equation describing adsorption kinetics of DMP by soils. The concentration of DMP in the leaching solution had significant effect on the adsorption amounts of DMP. With the increasing concentration of DMP in the leaching solution, the adsorption capacities of DMP by purple soil increased linearly. The ionic strength and pH in leaching solution had significant effects on adsorption of DMP. On the whole, increasing of the ionic strength restrained the adsorption. The adsorption amounts at pH 5.0-7.0 were more than those under other pH condition. The addition of exogenous organic matter (OM) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. However, the adsorption amount was less than those with other addition amounts of exogenous OM when the addition of exogenous OM was too high (> or = 30 g x kg(-1)). The addition of surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (SDBS) in purple soil increased the adsorption amount of DMP by purple soil. The adsorption amount was maximal when the addition amount of SDBS was 50 mg x kg(-1). However, the adsorption amounts decreased with increasing addition amounts of SDBS although the adsorption amounts were still more than that of the control group, and the adsorption amount was almost equal to that of the control group when the addition amount of SDBS was 800 mg x kg(-1). Continuous leaching time affected the vertical distribution of DMP in the soil column. When the leaching time was shorter, the upper soil column adsorbed more DMP, while the DMP concentrations in upper and lower soil columns became similar with the extension of leaching time. PMID:27363166

  11. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  12. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Lashley, Marcus A; Kilgo, John C; Pollock, Kenneth H; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth). Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249) and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64%) and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%). Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833) was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover. PMID:25734333

  13. Youth characteristics and contextual variables influencing physical activity in young adolescents of parents with premature coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Harrell, Joanne S; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2003-06-01

    This study examined influences on physical activity of young adolescents whose parents have premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Consistent with Bronfenbrenner's theory, the influences examined were personal characteristics of the subjects and selected contextual variables (peers, family, and community). Subjects were 113 youths, aged 11 to 14, 53% boys, 73% Caucasian, all with parents with premature CHD. Children were most likely to be active if their fathers were active, and those living in the coastal region were less likely to be active than other children. Peer influence interacted with both pubertal status and geographic region in its effect on children's activity. Children were more active when they had active peers only when the youth were midpubertal or when they were in the coastal region. Results emphasize the importance of nursing interventions to influence behaviors of these vulnerable children.

  14. Influence of social and behavioural characteristics of users on their evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort in shopping malls.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale subjective survey was conducted in six shopping malls in Harbin City, China, to determine the influence of social and behavioural characteristics of users on their evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort. The analysis of social characteristics shows that evaluation of subjective loudness is influenced by income and occupation, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.40 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Meanwhile, evaluation of acoustic comfort evaluation is influenced by income, education level, and occupation, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.60 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The effect of gender and age on evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort is statistically insignificant. The effects of occupation are mainly caused by the differences in income and education level, in which the effects of income are greater than that of education level. In terms of behavioural characteristics, evaluation of subjective loudness is influenced by the reason for visit, frequency of visit, and length of stay, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.40 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Evaluation of acoustic comfort is influenced by the reason for visit to the site, the frequency of visit, length of stay, and also season of visit, with correlation coefficients of 0.10 to 0.30 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In particular, users who are waiting for someone show lower evaluation of acoustic comfort, whereas users who go to shopping malls more than once a month show higher evaluation of acoustic comfort. On the contrary, the influence of the period of visit and the accompanying persons are found insignificant.

  15. The influence of the nature of a nanoparticle and polymer matrix on the morphological characteristics of polymeric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valueva, S. V.; Kipper, A. I.; Borovikova, L. N.; Matveeva, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    Comparative studies of the morphological characteristics of selenium- and platinum-containing nanostructures were performed by molecular optics methods. The nanostructures were based on an ionogenic polymeric stabilizer, poly-N,N,N,N-trimethylmethacryloyloxyethylammonium methyl sulfate, and a non-ionogenic polymeric stabilizer, oxyethylcellulose. Studies were performed in aqueous solutions at a fixed ratio between components. The adsorption of a considerable number of polymer macromolecules on nanoparticles with the formation of superhigh-molecular-weight nanostructures with shapes close to spherical was observed for all the nanosystems studied. The thermodynamic state of nanosystems was characterized. Certain morphological characteristics of nanostructures were substantially influenced by the nature of both nanoparticles and polymer matrix.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of drip waters: Influence on mineralogy of recent cave carbonate precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Richter, Detlev K.; Riechelmann, Dana FC; Terente, Mihai; Constantin, Silviu; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Speleothems are one of the most intensively explored archives of palaeoclimate variability in continental settings. Considerable advances with respect to climatic and cave forcing of drip characteristics and related speleothem proxy data have been made during the last decades. The parameters, however, that control speleothem mineralogy and its changes with time and space are still poorly understood. In order to shed light on processes influencing speleothem mineralogy, precipitation experiments of recent carbonate crystals on watch glasses and glass plates were performed in seven selected caves. These include three caves in Germany as well as Morocco and one cave in Romania, which are situated in both limestone and dolostone. Drip water sites of these caves were analysed for their fluid Mg/Ca molar ratio, pH, degree of saturation for calcite and aragonite and drip rates. Corresponding precipitates were analysed with respect to their mineralogy using a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results are found: High fluid Mg/Ca ratios are observed only for caves situated in dolostone, hence the hostrock lithology indirectly controls the carbonate mineralogy of speleothems. The precipitation of aragonite in place of calcite occurred only in dolostone caves and is bound to very specific conditions, which are: high fluid Mg/Ca ratios (≥ 0.5), high fluid pH (> 8.2) and low fluid saturation indices for calcite (< 0.8). These specific conditions are induced by slow drip rates of < 0.2 ml/min (often under more arid conditions), causing the precipitation of calcite / aragonite prior to reaching the stalagmite top. Due to this, fluid chemistry is altered, which in turn leads to changes in carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry on the stalagmite top. Interestingly, all of the above mentioned factors must act in a concerted manner. If this is not the case, calcite is the dominant phase. The threshold, where only aragonite precipitates is at fluid Mg

  17. Influence of pumping schemes on the characteristics of self-similar pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jiayu; Xu, Tiantian; Guo, Yubin; Wang, Ke; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Self-similar pulses are one of the domestic and international research hotspots in the field of nonlinear fiber optics because it can suppress optical wave breaking at high energies. The influence of pumping schemes on the characteristics of self-similar pulses in a passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser is theoretically investigated. The temporal profile and optical spectrum of self-similar pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers of different pumping schemes are obtained in the simulation. This study focuses on analyzing the influence of gain bandwidth of gain fiber on the pulse duration, peak power, and single-pulse energy of self-similar pulses.

  18. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  19. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

    2000-05-03

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

  20. The "Secret Seduction" of the Press? Aspects of Characteristics of PR Influencing Media Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Romy

    As yet, little research exists in Germany on the influence of public relations on news coverage, although for years American studies have shown that public relations widely determine media content. A study in Germany examined the qualities of news coverage as influenced by public relations efforts. Local media coverage (201 articles) in Munich…

  1. A Surgery Oral Examination: Interrater Agreement and the Influence of Rater Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchard, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study measured interrater reliability among 140 United States and Canadian surgery exam raters and the influences of age, years in practice, and experience as an examiner on individual scores. Results indicate three aspects of examinee performance influenced scores: verbal style, dress, and content of answers. No rater characteristic…

  2. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  3. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  4. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  5. Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of an inclined quad-vortex range hood subject to influence from draft.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Lin, Jyun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The flow and spillage characteristics of an inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood subject to the influence of drafts from various directions were studied. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique was used to reveal the flow characteristics, and the tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) concentration detection method was used to indicate the quantitative values of the capture efficiency of the hood. It was found that the leakage mechanisms of the IQV range hood are closely related to the flow characteristics. A critical draft velocity of about 0.5 m/s and a critical face velocity of about 0.25 m/s for the IQV range hood were found. When the IQV range hood was influenced by a draft with a velocity larger than the critical draft velocity, the spillage of pollutants became significant and the pollutant spillage rate increased with increasing draft velocity. At draft velocities less than or equal to the critical value, no containment leakages induced by the turbulence diffusion, reverse flow, or boundary-layer separation were observed, and the capture efficiency was about 100%. The IQV range hood exhibited a high ability to resist the influences of lateral and frontal drafts. The capture efficiency of the IQV range hood operated at the suction flow rate 5 to 9 m(3)/min is higher than that of the conventional range hood operated at 11 to 15 m(3)/min. PMID:25436893

  6. The defining characteristics of Web 2.0 and their potential influence in the online vaccination debate.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Holly O; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2012-05-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 has led to more and more Web-based resources demonstrating three defining characteristics: user participation, openness and network effects. This paper discusses these characteristics in the context of the online vaccination debate, explores how they structurally alter the way people might interact with vaccination information online, and describes ways in which such characteristics support particular tendencies in human decision making processes. Specifically, user participation supports the influence of narratives and personal accounts, openness shapes expectations for greater levels of detail and movement toward models of informed decision making, and network effects demonstrate the social nature of decision making, the influence of like-minded others and thus, the pitfalls of polarization in the online vaccination debate. Web 2.0 means that concerns about vaccination information online must expand beyond simply the possibility that people might access information of varying quality to incorporate a more comprehensive understanding of how people use current Web functionality, how such usage influences expectations about information sources and decision making processes, and the implications for communication strategies about vaccination.

  7. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs. PMID:27433685

  8. Influence of the cathode surface conditions on V-A characteristics in low-pressure nitrogen discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocić, S.; Škoro, N.; Marić, D.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate and analyse the influence of cathode surface inhomogeneities on the breakdown, volt-ampere (V-A) characteristics and the spatial structure of the low-pressure non-equilibrium discharges. The idea for this work came from the need to explain the non-typical V-A characteristics (positive slope of the characteristics in low-current regime of the discharge) that we observed in a parallel-plate, dc discharge in nitrogen. It was found that the cathode was locally conditioned by the discharge that operated in the constricted glow regime. Spatial inhomogeneity of the cathode surface strongly affected the subsequent operation in the breakdown-Townsend regime where discharge is supposed to be uniform.

  9. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs.

  10. [Influence of the Composition of the Initial Mixtures on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties and Spectral Characteristics of Composts].

    PubMed

    Song, Cai-hong; Li, Ming-xiao; Wei, Zi-min; Xi, Bei-dou; Zhao, Yue; Jia, Xuan; Liu, Ya-ru; Liu, Dong-ming

    2015-08-01

    In this work, biogas residues, the remnant of the anaerobic digestion, was used for composting with livestock manure as the co-substrate. It is important for improving the soil quality in China, because the negative influence of biogas residues being utilized directly as organic fertilizer (a mainstream way of disposing biogas residues in China) on the soil could be eliminated or mitigated via composting. The composition of composting substrate has a great influence on the composting process. To explore the influence of the composition of the initial mixtures on the physicochemical properties and spectroscopic characteristics of composts, fifteen co-composting of biogas residue, pig manure and chicken manure, with different material ratios, were carried out. Physicochemical and biological indicators were determined. Meanwhile, spectroscopic methods, such as UV-Vis, synchronous fluorescence and 3D-EEM spectra were used for identifying characteristic spectral parameters companied with FRI and PARAFAC. Therefore, spectroscopic characteristics of composts were characterized. The relationship between physicochemical properties of composts and the composition of the initial mixtures was established using CCA. Similarly, that between spectroscopic characteristics of composts and the composition of the initial mixtures was also established. The results showed that: physicochemical properties of composts exhibits a significant correlation with the composition of the initial mixtures. A significant correlation between spectroscopic characteristics of composts and the composition of the initial mixtures was also observed. In the two CCA, the former four axes account for 83.9% and 97.5% of the total sample variation. The influence of enviro nmental factors on physicochemical properties of composts was in the order of pig manure amount>chicken manure amount>biogas residue amount and that on spectroscopic characteristics of composts was in the order of biogas residue amount

  11. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. Methods We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. Results We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents’ willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents’ characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. Conclusions These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies. PMID:24484640

  12. Influence of basin-scale physical variables on life history characteristics of cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Liss, W.J.; Larson, Gary L.; Bartlein, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Individual spawning populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri differ in life history characteristics associated with broad spatial and temporal environmental patterns, but relationships between specific life history characteristics of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and physical aspects of the environment are poorly understood. We examined basin-scale physical characteristics of tributary drainages and subbasins of Yellowstone Lake in relation to timing (peak and duration) of lacustrinea??adfluvial Yellowstone cutthroat trout spawning migrations and mean length of cutthroat trout spawners in 27 tributaries to the lake. Stream drainages varied along gradients that can be described by mean aspect, mean elevation, and drainage and stream size. Approximately two-thirds of the variation in the timing of the peak of the annual cutthroat trout spawning migrations and average length of spawners was explained by third-order polynomial regressions with mean aspect and basin area as predictor variables. Because most cutthroat trout ascend tributaries soon after peak runoff, it appears that the influence of basin-scale physical variables on the date of the migration peak is manifested by the pattern of stream discharge. Spawner length does not seem to be a direct function of stream size in the Yellowstone Lake watershed, and aspect of the tributary basin seems to have a greater influence on the body length of cutthroat trout spawners than does stream size. Mechanisms that explain how the interaction of basin-scale physical variables influence spawner length were not investigated directly; however, we found evidence of distinct aggregations of cutthroat trout that are related to physical and limnological characteristics of the lake subbasins, and there is some indication that lake residence may be related to tributary location.

  13. Influence of Morphological Characteristics on Physical and Physiological Performances of Tunisian Elite Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. Methods A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Results Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Conclusions Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances. PMID:22942992

  14. Characteristics influencing weight reduction among veterans in the MOVE!® Program.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Jane T; Marion, Lucy N; Narsavage, Georgia L; Finnegan, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a common health problem for veterans. This study explored background and program characteristics associated with a 5% weight reduction for veterans enrolled in MOVE!(®), a weight management program. For data analysis, 404 veteran records were examined using logistic regression. Background characteristics included socio-demographic variables, comorbidity, body mass index, rurality, and Veterans Administration (VA) priority group. Program characteristics included the program type (group attendee or self-managed) as well as the number and type of provider contacts. Thirteen percent of participants achieved a 5% weight reduction. Age in years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04) and the number of group visits (OR = 1.05) were significant predictors for achieving a 5% weight reduction. Given the importance of weight reduction, health professionals should consider these significant predictors when planning weight-reduction programs for veterans.

  15. Influence of processed sugarcane bagasse on the microbial, nutritional, rheological and quality characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, A V; Mahadevamma, S; Begum, Khyrunnisa; Sudha, M L

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse, a dietary fiber-rich by-product of the sugar industry (70-75%) and having negligible protein and fat content, was treated with acid, alkali and steaming to reduce the microbial load. Steaming was effective in making the bagasse microbiologically safe. The processed bagasse (5-15%) was used in the rheological studies and in the preparation of soft dough biscuits. Glucose (hexose), arabinose and xylose (pentose) were present, whereas rhamnose, mannose and galctose were not traced in all of the bagasse samples. Farinograph characteristics of wheat flour-bagasse blends showed that the mixing profile weakened with addition of bagasse. Processed bagasse also affected the pasting characteristics indicating starch dilution on incorporation of bagasse, as indicated by sensory characteristics. Biscuits prepared from steamed bagasse (10%) along with additives were highly acceptable. Results indicated that high-fiber biscuits can be prepared by replacing wheat flour with steamed bagasse at a 10% level.

  16. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; García, C; Muriel, E; Andrés, A I; Ventanas, J

    2002-08-01

    The influence of different sensory attributes on the acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that juiciness and several flavour traits were the major attributes positively influencing acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham, whereas yellowness of the fat, dryness and fibrousness showed a negative influence. Using stepwise multivariate regression, juiciness and flavour intensity were the two traits that better explained the acceptability of dry-cured ham, the linear model obtained showing a regression coefficient of 0.526. The regression coefficient of acceptability with juiciness and flavour intensity was higher using a piecewise linear regression model (R(2)=0.759) showing, therefore, a discontinuous relationship between these variables. However, results on product acceptability have been obtained using trained panellists and it might be possible that the use of a consumer panel would change these conclusions.

  17. Influence of immobilization strategies on biosensing response characteristics: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Saha, Shibu; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    The immobilization technique plays an important role in fabrication of a biosensor. NiO based cholesterol biosensor has been used to study the effect of various immobilization techniques on the biosensing response characteristics. The biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase on NiO thin films by three different immobilization techniques viz. physisorption, cross-linking and covalent binding. The study reveals a strong dependence of biosensing response on corresponding immobilization technique. The biosensor based on immobilization by covalent bonding shows superior response characteristics as compared to others owing to its zero length. The results highlight the significance of immobilization technique for biosensor fabrication.

  18. Influence of surface roughness on the polarimetric characteristics of a wire-grid grating polarizer.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hojeong; Joon Yoon, Soon; Kim, Donghyun

    2008-10-20

    The influence of surface roughness on the polarimetric performance of a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) is numerically investigated using rigorous coupled-wave analysis over 100 random surface realizations. Surface roughness is modeled with a Gaussian surface, represented by two independent parameters: surface height deviation and correlation length of a profile. The results show that WGP performance can suffer from significant degradation as well as increased deviation with surface roughness, although the extent varies with specific parameters. The influence of roughness was also examined with respect to grating period as a WGP parameter and incident light properties, such as wavelength and angle.

  19. Influence of unilateral oscillation on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the mathematical modelling of the influence of forced vibrations of a surface element on one side of the airfoil on the shock-wave structure of transonic flow around. The influence of parameters of oscillations on the airfoil wave drag and the lift force were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated for constant maximum velocity amplitude, which is close in magnitude to the sound velocity in the oncoming flow, and for a wide range of frequencies. The additional lift force arising is shown.

  20. The Influence of the Physical Environment and Sociodemographic Characteristics on Children's Mode of Travel to and From School

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul; Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer; He, Meizi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether certain characteristics of the social and physical environment influence a child's mode of travel between home and school. Methods. Students aged 11 to 13 years from 21 schools throughout London, Ontario, answered questions from a travel behavior survey. A geographic information system linked survey responses for 614 students who lived within 1 mile of school to data on social and physical characteristics of environments around the home and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the influence of environmental factors on mode of travel (motorized vs “active”) to and from school. Results. Over 62% of students walked or biked to school, and 72% from school to home. The likelihood of walking or biking to school was positively associated with shorter trips, male gender, higher land use mix, and presence of street trees. Active travel from school to home was also associated with lower residential densities and lower neighborhood incomes. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that active travel is associated with environmental characteristics and suggest that school planners should consider these factors when siting schools in order to promote increased physical activity among students. PMID:19106422

  1. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  2. Influence of the preparation method on the surface characteristics and activity of boron-nitride-supported noble metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Postole, Georgeta; Gervasini, Antonella; Guimon, Claude; Auroux, Aline; Bonnetot, Bernard

    2006-06-29

    In this article, we report how variations in the preparation method of boron-nitride-supported noble metal catalysts may influence the surface characteristics of the active phase and consequently the potential applications as catalysts for oxidation reactions. The deposition and the dispersion of the active phase are strongly influenced by the preparation process and in particular by the protic or aprotic solvent used as the dispersing phase; in this study, benzene, glyme, water, tetrahydrofuran, diglyme, 2-propanol, and glycol have been investigated. Characterization techniques, such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, have been used to study the influence of the choice of a solvent phase on the particle size and dispersion of the metal deposited on the BN support. The modifications undergone by the support during the deposition of palladium in different solvents have also been studied. Through the use of the same deposition procedure, different noble metal coatings (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) have been prepared. The acidic and redox characteristics of the resulting samples were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction and adsorption microcalorimetry. The catalytic performances of these materials were tested in the total oxidation of methane in lean conditions (excess oxygen and presence of water). PMID:16800586

  3. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples. PMID:26497816

  4. The Influence of Program Structure and Learner Characteristics on Teacher Training Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan Mansfield; Dietrich, Amy P.

    This paper reports on research developed from a more comprehensive study of five teacher training programs at a large urban Southern university. During the initial study characteristics were observed in special education and Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) cohorts which differed from those of students in the three traditional programs. The…

  5. Organizational Characteristics Influencing Nursing Home Social Service Directors' Qualifications: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey V.

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to identify organizational characteristics associated with the amount of professional qualifications among a nationally representative sample of nursing home social service directors. A self-administered survey was sent to directors in 675 facilities randomly sampled from a federal database, excluding facilities with fewer…

  6. The Influence of Student Characteristics on the Use of Adaptive E-Learning Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics in a heterogeneous student group by collecting…

  7. The influence of organizational characteristics on employee solidarity in the long-term care sector

    PubMed Central

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde MH; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-01-01

    Aim This article is a report of a study that identifies organizational characteristics explaining employee solidarity in the long-term care sector. Background Employee solidarity reportedly improves organizations’ effectiveness and efficiency. Although general research on solidarity in organizations is available, the impact of the organizational context on solidarity in long-term care settings is lacking. Design Cross-sectional survey. Method The study was carried out in Dutch long-term care. A total of 313 nurses, managers and other care professionals in 23 organizations were involved. Organizational characteristics studied were centralization, hierarchical culture, formal and informal exchange of information and leadership style. The study was carried out in 2009. Findings All organizational characteristics significantly correlated with employee solidarity in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analyses hierarchical culture, centralization, exchange of formal and informal information and transformational leadership appears to be important for solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in long-term care organizations, but not transactional and passive leadership styles. Conclusion The study increased our knowledge of solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in the long-term care settings. Organizational characteristics that enhance solidarity are high levels of formal and informal information exchange, less hierarchical authority, decentralization and transformational leadership styles. PMID:22551056

  8. The influence of club-head kinematics on early ball flight characteristics in the golf drive.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Matthew; Mills, Peter; Alderson, Jacqueline; Elliott, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Despite many coaching and biomechanical texts describing how the kinematics of the club-head at impact lead to distance and accuracy of the ball flight, there is limited quantitative evidence supporting these assertions. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationships between club-head kinematics and subsequent early ball flight characteristics during the golf drive. An opto-reflective system operating at 400 Hz was used to capture the swings of 21 male golfers using their own drivers. The 3D displacement data permitted the calculation of club-head kinematics at impact, as well as subsequent early ball flight characteristics. Using regression analyses, club-head kinematics at impact (velocity, orientation, path, and centeredness) were used to explain the variability in five dependent variables of early ball flight characteristics (resultant velocity, launch angle, side angle, back spin, and side spin). The results of the study indicated that club-head kinematics at impact explained a significant proportion of early ball flight characteristics (adjusted r2 = 0.71-0.82), even when generalized across individual clubs.

  9. What Clinical Characteristics of Children with Autism Influence Their Inclusion in Regular Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yianni-Coudurier, C.; Darrou, C.; Lenoir, P.; Verrecchia, B.; Assouline, B.; Ledesert, B.; Michelon, C.; Pry, R.; Aussilloux, C.; Baghdadli, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study took place in the context of recent legislation enacted in several countries--including France--and aimed at promoting inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities. It focuses on young children with autism and examines the links between the children's characteristics and their weekly hours of regular-classroom…

  10. Influence of School Organizational Characteristics on the Outcomes of a School Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Hebert, David; deMoor, Carl; Hearn, Marsha Davis; Resnicow, Ken

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the impact of school organizational characteristics on outcomes of a teacher health behavior change program. Organizational, dietary, and psychologic data from intervention and control schools indicated that teachers at intervention schools with high organizational climate, organizational health, and job satisfaction reported better…

  11. Teacher-Child Relationships in Prekindergarten: The Influences of Child and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koles, Bernadett; O'Connor, Erin; McCartney, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate child and teacher characteristics associated with closeness and conflict in prekindergarten teacher-child relationships. Child gender and temperament were significantly associated with closeness and conflict. Specifically, higher levels of shyness correlated with closer relationships for boys…

  12. [Influence of human body target's spectral characteristics on visual range of low light level image intensifiers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ju; Yang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Tao, Yuan-Yaun

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on low light level (LLL) image intensifier's distance, based on the spectral characteristics of the night-sky radiation and the spectral reflective coefficients of common clothes, we established a equation of human body target's spectral reflective distribution, and analyzed the spectral reflective characteristics of different human targets wearing the clothes of different color and different material, and from the actual detection equation of LLL image intensifier distance, discussed the detection capability of LLL image intensifier for different human target. The study shows that the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on LLL image intensifier distance is mainly reflected in the average reflectivity rho(-) and the initial contrast of the target and the background C0. Reflective coefficient and spectral reflection intensity of cotton clothes are higher than polyester clothes, and detection capability of LLL image intensifier is stronger for the human target wearing cotton clothes. Experimental results show that the LLL image intensifiers have longer visual ranges for targets who wear cotton clothes than targets who wear same color but polyester clothes, and have longer visual ranges for targets who wear light-colored clothes than targets who wear dark-colored clothes. And in the full moon illumination conditions, LLL image intensifiers are more sensitive to the clothes' material.

  13. Genetic backgrounds and redox conditions influence morphological characteristics and cell differentiation of osteoclasts in mice.

    PubMed

    Narahara, Shun; Matsushima, Haruna; Sakai, Eiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2012-04-01

    Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated giant cells and are formed by the fusion of mononuclear progenitors of monocyte/macrophage lineage. It is known that macrophages derived from different genetic backgrounds exhibit quite distinct characteristics of immune responses. However, it is unknown whether OCLs from different genetic backgrounds show distinct characteristics. In this study, we showed that bone-marrow macrophages (BMMs) derived from C57BL/6, BALB/c and ddY mice exhibited considerably distinct morphological characteristics and cell differentiation into OCLs. The differentiation of BMMs into OCLs was comparatively quicker in the C57BL/6 and ddY mice, while that of BALB/c mice was rather slow. Morphologically, ddY OCLs showed a giant cell with a round shape, C57BL/6 OCLs were of a moderate size with many protrusions and BALB/c OCLs had the smallest size with fewer nuclei. The intracellular signaling of differentiation and expression levels of marker proteins of OCLs were different in the respective strains. Treatment of BMMs from the three different strains with the reducing agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or with the oxidation agent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced changes in the shape and sizes of the cells and caused distinct patterns of cell differentiation and survival. Thus, genetic backgrounds and redox conditions regulate the morphological characteristics and cell differentiation of OCLs.

  14. Influence of terahertz laser radiation on the spectral characteristics and functional properties of albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, O. P.; Fedorov, V. I.; Nemova, E. F.; Pogodin, A. S.

    2009-10-01

    The exposure of albumin (transport protein of blood serum) to laser radiation with a frequency of 3.6 THz resulted in a change in the intensity of characteristic bands in UV absorption spectra and in circular dichroism spectra. These changes depend on the exposure duration and the laser radiation power and indicate conformational changes in protein molecules.

  15. The Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Preference for Models of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Paige McGinty

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to uncover relationships between the personal characteristics of teachers and their preferences for models of teaching. A purposeful sample included 12 elementary instructors of heterogeneous classes with a cluster of gifted students in urban school districts within Southern California, all of who were participants in a…

  16. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  17. A Developmental Study of the Influence of Task Characteristics on Motor Overflow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addamo, Patricia K.; Farrow, Maree; Hoy, Kate E.; Bradshaw, John L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2009-01-01

    Motor overflow refers to involuntary movement or muscle activity that may coincide with voluntary movement. This study examined factors influencing motor overflow in 17 children (8-11 years), and 17 adults (18-35 years). Participants performed a finger pressing task by exerting either 33% or 66% of their maximal force output using their dominant…

  18. The Influence of Students' Loans Borrowers' Characteristics on Default Rate in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    The cost of students' loans defaulting has lead to a serious discussion among participants. Substantial attention has been made on the students' loans and its impact on higher education finances while researches on students' loans defaults have not been taken for more than a decade. Therefore this study examines the influence of student loans…

  19. COLD WATER PATCHES IN WARM STREAMS: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE INFLUENCE OF SHADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discrete coldwater patches within the surface waters of summer-warm streams afford potential thermal refuge for coldwater fishes during periods of heat stress. This analysis focused on reach-scale heterogeneity in water temperatures as influenced by local influx of cooler subsur...

  20. Selective Influence of Circadian Modulation and Task Characteristics on Motor Imagery Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stephane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no…

  1. Long-term influence of normal variation in neonatal characteristics on human brain development

    PubMed Central

    Walhovd, Kristine B.; Fjell, Anders M.; Brown, Timothy T.; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Chung, Yoonho; Hagler, Donald J.; Roddey, J. Cooper; Erhart, Matthew; McCabe, Connor; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Darst, Burcu F.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Murray, Sarah S.; van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; McCabe, Connor; Chang, Linda; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Dale, Anders M.; Ernst, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Van Zijl, Peter; Kuperman, Joshua; Murray, Sarah; Bloss, Cinnamon; Schork, Nicholas J.; Appelbaum, Mark; Gamst, Anthony; Thompson, Wesley; Bartsch, Hauke; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Keating, Brian; Amaral, David; Sowell, Elizabeth; Kaufmann, Walter; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Casey, B.J.; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Rosen, Bruce; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Kennedy, David; Gruen, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    It is now recognized that a number of cognitive, behavioral, and mental health outcomes across the lifespan can be traced to fetal development. Although the direct mediation is unknown, the substantial variance in fetal growth, most commonly indexed by birth weight, may affect lifespan brain development. We investigated effects of normal variance in birth weight on MRI-derived measures of brain development in 628 healthy children, adolescents, and young adults in the large-scale multicenter Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics study. This heterogeneous sample was recruited through geographically dispersed sites in the United States. The influence of birth weight on cortical thickness, surface area, and striatal and total brain volumes was investigated, controlling for variance in age, sex, household income, and genetic ancestry factors. Birth weight was found to exert robust positive effects on regional cortical surface area in multiple regions as well as total brain and caudate volumes. These effects were continuous across birth weight ranges and ages and were not confined to subsets of the sample. The findings show that (i) aspects of later child and adolescent brain development are influenced at birth and (ii) relatively small differences in birth weight across groups and conditions typically compared in neuropsychiatric research (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders) may influence group differences observed in brain parameters of interest at a later stage in life. These findings should serve to increase our attention to early influences. PMID:23169628

  2. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  3. Self-Other Agreement in Multisource Feedback: The Influence of Doctor and Rater Group Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Campbell, John L.; Richards, Suzanne H.; Wright, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Multisource feedback (MSF) ratings provided by patients and colleagues are often poorly correlated with doctors' self-assessments. Doctors' reactions to feedback depend on its agreement with their own perceptions, but factors influencing self-other agreement in doctors' MSF ratings have received little attention. We aimed to identify…

  4. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  5. Characteristics of the Human Host Have Little Influence on Which Local Schistosoma mansoni Populations Are Acquired

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Eliana A.; Azevedo, Theomira M.; Costa, Jackson M.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Blanton, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brazil remains the country in the Americas with the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis. A combination of control efforts and development, however, has sharply reduced its intensity and distribution. The acquisition of specific schistosome populations may be dependent on host characteristics such as sex, age, geography, work, habits and culture. How these and other host characteristics align with parasite subpopulations may guide approaches to improve control. Methodology A cohort of more than 90% of the residents in two rural communities in Brazil participated in an epidemiologic survey of demographic, socio-economic and behavioral characteristics. The variables sex, age, intensity of infection, socio-economic index, % lifetime spent on site, previous infection, and trips outside the district were used to group parasites infecting individuals. Schistosoma mansoni infection status was determined by examination of stools submitted on 3 different days. The aggregate of eggs collected from the whole stool was used to determine degree of population differentiation from allele frequencies for 15 microsatellites. Conclusions/Significance Infection prevalence was 41% for these communities, and the epidemiologic characteristics were similar to many of the endemic areas of Brazil and the world. Parasite population structuring was observed between the two communities (Jost's D 0.046, CI95% 0.042–0.051), although separated by only 8 km and connected by a highway. No structuring was observed when infected individuals were stratified by host's biologic, demographic or epidemiologic characteristics. Those most heavily infected best reflected the communities' overall parasite diversity. The lack of differentiation within villages suggests that individuals are likely to get infected at the same sites or that the same parasite multilocus genotypes can be found at most sites. The geographic structuring between villages and the lack of structuring by age of the host

  6. Influence of the chopped frequency of light on optical transport characteristics of human skin including at acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-qin; Xie, Shu-sen; Liu, Song-hao; Li, Hui; Wang, Yu-hua; Guo, Zhou-yi

    2007-11-01

    An experimental protocol was established for noninvasively measuring the optical transport characteristics of skin tissue along human meridian direction over body surface including at acupuncture points. The diffuse remittance for 658 nm light radiation along the pericardium meridian and non-meridian directions were measured respectively. The influence of the chopped frequency of light on the detected light signal was investigated. It is shown that the optical transport characteristics of skin tissue accords with the Beer's exponential attenuation law along the meridian including at acupuncture points and non-median directions. However there is an obvious difference between the propagations along the meridian direction and non-meridian direction (P<0.05). Furthermore, the chopped frequency can affect the detected signal. The diffuse remittance signal decreased with the chopped frequency's increase and it was different between the meridian and non-meridian directions. These findings are important and meaningful for interpreting the human meridian phenomena by biomedical optics.

  7. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Daijiro E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de; Kunstmann, Jens; Zörgiebel, Felix; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  8. Influence of feedstock chemical composition on product formation and characteristics derived from the hydrothermal carbonization of mixed feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaowei; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-08-01

    As the exploration of the carbonization of mixed feedstocks continues, there is a distinct need to understand how feedstock chemical composition and structural complexity influence the composition of generated products. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the carbonization of pure compounds, mixtures of the pure compounds, and complex feedstocks comprised of the pure compounds (e.g., paper, wood). Results indicate that feedstock properties do influence carbonization product properties. Carbonization product characteristics were predicted using results from the carbonization of the pure compounds and indicate that recovered solids energy contents are more accurately predicted than solid yields and the carbon mass in each phase, while predictions associated with solids surface functional groups are more difficult to predict using this linear approach. To more accurately predict carbonization products, it may be necessary to account for feedstock structure and/or additional feedstock properties. PMID:24907571

  9. Dark and illuminated characteristics of photovoltaic solar modules. Part II: Influence of light electrical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraket, Jean; Salame, Chafic; Aillerie, Michel

    2016-07-01

    The main idea is to study the effect of reverse stress current on solar cells under illuminated conditions. More specifically, the characteristics (I-V), and parameters were studiedin dark and illuminated conditions at room temperature for several common periods of time. For the numerical analysis of this work, a double exponential model is used. The changes in characteristics, which are caused from the effect of a reverse current introduced for different stress levels, simulated the effect of accumulated extreme reverse currents that can occur in the solar cells and modules as result of shading and other different reasons. The paper originally contributes to the research on the adverse effects of reverse currents on the normal functioning of cells and solar modules.

  10. Influence of passive smoking on basic anthropometric characteristics and respiratory function in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Goić-Barisić, Ivana; Bradarić, Anteo; Erceg, Marko; Barisić, Igor; Foretić, Nikola; Pavlov, Neven; Tocilj, Jadranka

    2006-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the maintenance difference in basic anthropometric characteristics and to outline the dynamics of respiratory function change in youngsters athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) and athletes not exposed to passive smoking in their families (NPS). High and weight were determined as basis anthropometric characteristics. Measured parameters for respiratory function were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% forced vital capacity (MEF 50) and forced expiratory flow at 25% forced vital capacity (MEF 25). Significant statistical differences in separate spirometric variable were found in three variables (FEV1, MEF50, and MEF25) for group older youngsters. Analysis of variance showed statistical differences between athletes unexposed to passive smoking (NPS) and athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) in even four spirometric variables (VC, FEV1, MEF50 and MEF25).

  11. Influence of the physicochemical characteristics of pollutants on their uptake in moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Z.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Bryophytes are commonly used as biomonitors to estimate the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the tissue concentrations of these elements in moss do not always accurately reflect atmospheric levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether element uptake in moss is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the elements. Factor analysis was used to identify any patterns of covariance in the accumulation of elements in samples of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum collected from the surroundings of different factories and from control sites. The variation in the concentrations of elements was similar in moss from both types of sites and was related to the binding properties of the elements. This suggests that the physicochemical characteristics of the elements determine the uptake of metals and metalloids from the atmosphere. Therefore, in studies that use multiple correlations among elements as indicators of a common origin of contaminants, erroneous conclusions may be reached by overlooking the adsorption properties of the moss.

  12. Study on the influence of back blade shape on the wear characteristics of centrifugal slurry pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhou, S. P.; Li, S.

    2016-05-01

    CFX particle inhomogeneous model was introduced for the mechanism analysis of a centrifugal slurry pump which is equipped with back blades on impeller shrouds. Combining with the total efficiency correction, the simulation showed good prediction accuracy of external characteristics results compared with the experimental values. Vorticity and Q-Criterion were chosen as the variables to illustrate the abrasion morphology and wear mechanism by contrasting simulation result with worn impeller in engineering. The analysis showed that the large vorticity intensity areas are distributed at the edge of impeller shroud and intensively behind the back blades. Moreover, the vorticity scattered on suction surface of back blade shows the largest intensity. The contour of Q-Criterion demonstrated that the swirl scale in front cavity is obviously larger than that in back cavity. The distribution of vorticity on both front and back shrouds can reasonably explain the impeller wear characteristics. Finally, the forward curved back blade proved to be excellence performance in vorticity distribution.

  13. Influence of the MgO barrier thickness on the lifetime characteristics of magnetic tunnelling junctions for sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conca, A.; Casper, F.; Paul, J.; Lehndorff, R.; Jakob, G.; Kläui, M.; Hillebrands, B.; Leven, B.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic tunnelling junctions increasingly enter the market for magnetic sensor applications. Thus, technological parameters such as the lifetime characteristics become more and more important. Here, an analysis of the lifetime characteristics of magnetic tunnelling junctions using the Weibull statistical distribution for CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB junctions is presented. The Weibull distribution is governed by two parameters, the characteristic lifetime η of the population and the shape parameter β, which gives information about the presence of an infant mortality. The suitability of the Weibull distribution is demonstrated for the description of dielectric breakdown processes in MgO-based tunnelling junctions at different voltages. A study of the dependence of the characteristic lifetime extrapolated to the low voltage regime, and the β parameter on the nominal barrier thickness and the resistance  ×  area product of the MgO barrier is shown. The influence of the RF deposition power for the MgO barrier and an annealing step on the Weibull parameters is also discussed.

  14. Flow-Field Characteristics of High-Temperature Annular Buoyant Jets and Their Development Laws Influenced by Ventilation System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaping; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qiuhan

    2013-01-01

    The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and velocity field characteristics with different pressures at the exhaust hood inlet. The results showed that when the ratio of outer diameter to inner diameter of the annulus was smaller than 5/2, the flow-field characteristics had significant difference compared to circular buoyant jets with the same outer diameter. For similar diameter ratios, reattachment in this paper occurred further downstream in contrast to previous study. Besides, the development laws of volumetric flow rate and cross-section diameter were given with different initial parameters. In addition, through analyzing air distribution characteristics under the coupling effect of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and ventilation system, it could be found that the position where maximum axial velocity occurred was changing gradually when the pressure at the exhaust hood inlet changed from 0 Pa to −5 Pa. PMID:24000278

  15. Influence of gas bubbles on nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the oil film of a tilting pad bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopenko, N. Ya.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of a comparatively low volume concentration of gas microbubbles contained in oil on nonlinear characteristics describing the behavior of an oil film in the guide gap of a hydrodynamic tilting pad bearing under action of a low-frequency harmonic force is analyzed using a numerical dynamic model of a collar-oil film-pad system. It is shown that bubbles in the oil greatly affect the efficiency of the tilting pad bearing. Results of oil-film-dynamics investigations reported previously (including those of the present author) are generalized.

  16. Influence of Ge nanocrystals and radiation defects on C- V characteristics in Si-MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Shai; Shlimak, Issai; Chelly, Avraham; Zalevsky, Zeev; Lu, Tiecheng

    2009-12-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures containing 74Ge nanocrystals (NC-Ge) imbedded inside the SiO 2 layer were studied for their capacitance characterization. Ge atoms were introduced by implantation of 74Ge + ions with energy of 150 keV into relatively thick (∼640 nm) amorphous SiO 2 films. The experimental characterization included room temperature measurements of capacitance-voltage ( C- V) dependences at high frequencies (100 kHz and 1 MHz). Four groups of MOS structures have been studied: The 1st-“Initial” samples, without Ge atoms (before ion implantation). The 2nd-“implanted” samples, after Ge + ion implantation but before annealing, with randomly distributed Ge atoms within the struggle layer. The 3rd-samples after formation of Ge nanocrystals by means of annealing at 800 °C (“NC-Ge” samples), and the 4th-“final” samples: NC-Ge samples that were subjected by an intensive neutron irradiation in a research nuclear reactor with the integral dose up to 10 20 neutrons/cm 2 followed by the annealing of radiation damage. It is shown that in “initial” samples, the C- V characteristics have a step-like form or “S-shape”, which is typical for MOS structures in the case of high frequency. However, in “implanted” and “NC-Ge” samples, C- V characteristics have “U-shape” despite the high frequency operation. In addition, “NC-Ge” samples exhibit a large hysteresis which may indicate charge trapping at the NC-Ge. Combination of the “U-shape” and hysteresis characteristics allows us to suggest a novel 4-digits memory retention unit. “Final” samples indicate destruction of the observed peculiarities of C- V characteristics and recurrence to the C- V curve of “initial” samples.

  17. Influences of Models on the Unsteady Pressure Characteristics of the NASA National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; DeMoss, Joshua; Goodliff, Scott; Bailey, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Pressure fluctuations have been measured over the course of several tests in the National Transonic Facility to study unsteady phenomenon both with and without the influence of a model. Broadband spectral analysis will be used to characterize the length scales of the tunnel. Special attention will be given to the large-scale, low frequency data that influences the Mach number and force and moment variability. This paper will also discuss the significance of the vorticity and sound fields that can be related to the Common Research Model and will also highlight the comparisons to an empty tunnel configuration. The effectiveness of vortex generators placed at the interface of the test section and wind tunnel diffuser showed promise in reducing the empty tunnel unsteadiness, however, the vortex generators were ineffective in the presence of a model.

  18. Comparative analysis of influence of gamma radiation on programmable memory characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lončar, Boris; Kočinac, Saša

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the reliability of erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) components subjected to the influence of gamma radiation. This problem is of considerable significance for both military industry and space technology. We present total dose results for the NM27C512 8F85 EPROM and M24128 - B W BN 5 T P EEPROM components. There is evidence that EPROM components radioactive reliability is better than that of EEPROM components. Furthermore, the changes EPROM's undergoes are reversible, so that after erasing process and reprogramming all EPROM components are fully functional. On the other hand, EEPROM's changes are irreversible and when subjected to the influence of gamma radiation, all EEPROM components become permanently nonfunctional. The obtained results are analyzed and explained via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layers.

  19. The influence of imitated microgravity on the amyloplast structure, the composition and characteristics of potato minituber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, Ye. L.; Schnyukova, Ye. I.

    The influence of imitated microgravity (clinorotation, 2 rev/min) of long-term duration on the structural-functional organization of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minituber cells is studied. An essential influence on 45-day minituber size, on the content and composition of starch, on the solubility of starch in water and on the structure of amyloplasts in the storage parenchyma of potato minitubers is detected. The appearance of a fraction of "gigantic" amyloplasts in starch-storage parenchyma is observed during horizontal clinorotation of long-term duration. The correlation between the decrease of content amylose and the inhibition of starch solubility in water is detected under long-term clinorotation. The results point to some changes of the carbohydrate metabolism of potato storage organs under the effect of microgravity imitation.

  20. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  1. Influence of uncertainty and excitation amplitude on the vibration characteristics of rubber isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqian, Chen; Zhanpeng, Shen; Qinshu, He; Qiang, Du; Xin'en, Liu

    2016-09-01

    Rubber isolators are widely used in engineering structures, which often exhibit some nonlinearity and uncertainty properties subjected to different environment exciting. In order to study the nonlinear characteristic and uncertainty of a rubber isolator system, the sin-sweep vibration tests with different base exciting level are carried out firstly. Then a single freedom degree mass-spring-damper model is introduced to simplify the rubber isolator system. In the theory model, the spring and the damper are represented by polynomial functions of the relative displacement. The coefficients in the functions are identified by the test data, while the uncertainties of the coefficients are quantified by the principal components analysis (PCA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The major resonant frequencies and the damping ratios of the isolation system are calculated according to the theory model, the amplitude-frequency nonlinear characteristics are simulated by Runge-Kutta numerical method. The simulation results agree well with the experimental results, which indicate that the nonlinear model and the uncertainty quantifying results are feasible to predict the vibration characteristic and uncertainty of the isolation systems.

  2. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers.

  3. Influence of person- and situation-specific characteristics on collision avoidance behavior in human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Alexander G; Willacker, Lina; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Glasauer, Stefan; Krüger, Melanie

    2016-09-01

    In everyday situations, pedestrians deploy successful strategies to avoid collisions with other persons crossing their paths. In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate to what extent personal or situational characteristics affect role attribution and contribution to successful collision avoidance in human locomotion. Pairs of subjects walked at their natural speed from a start to a goal point. Walking paths were defined in such a way that subjects would collide halfway on their trajectory, if they did not actively avoid colliding by speed or path adjustments. In the first experiment, we investigated whether crossing order, path, and speed adjustments correlate with subject-specific parameters, such as gender, height, and personality traits. It is interesting that individuals' collision avoidance behavior was not correlated with any of these factors. In the second experiment, initial walking speed and heading were used to predict the crossing order. It was found that these 2 parameters are sufficient to estimate future role attribution with 95% confidence already 2.5 m before the crossing; that is, even before any collision avoidance behavior is initiated. In sum, this suggests that collision avoidance strategies in human locomotion are based on situational rather than on personal characteristics. These situational characteristics result in role attributions, which are highly predictable within and across pairs of pedestrians, whereby the role-dependent contribution of the pedestrian giving way is of greater relevance for successful collision avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Expectations in culturally unfamiliar music: influences of proximal and distal cues and timbral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine J; Tardieu, Julien; Dunbar-Hall, Peter; Best, Catherine T; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Listeners' musical perception is influenced by cues that can be stored in short-term memory (e.g., within the same musical piece) or long-term memory (e.g., based on one's own musical culture). The present study tested how these cues (referred to as, respectively, proximal and distal cues) influence the perception of music from an unfamiliar culture. Western listeners who were naïve to Gamelan music judged completeness and coherence for newly constructed melodies in the Balinese gamelan tradition. In these melodies, we manipulated the final tone with three possibilities: the original gong tone, an in-scale tone replacement or an out-of-scale tone replacement. We also manipulated the musical timbre employed in Gamelan pieces. We hypothesized that novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and that this might be influenced by the more unfamiliar timbre created by Gamelan "sister" instruments whose harmonics beat with the harmonics of the other instrument, creating a timbrally "shimmering" sound. The results showed: (1) out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than original gong and in-scale endings; (2) for melodies played with "sister" instruments, in-scale endings were judged as less complete than original endings. Furthermore, melodies using the original scale tones were judged more coherent than melodies containing few or multiple tone replacements; melodies played on single instruments were judged more coherent than the same melodies played on sister instruments. Additionally, there is some indication of within-session statistical learning, with expectations for the initially-novel materials developing during the course of the experiment. The data suggest the influence of both distal cues (e.g., previously unfamiliar timbres) and proximal cues (within the same sequence and over the experimental session) on the perception of melodies from other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tunings and scale systems. PMID

  5. [Characteristics and influencing factors of air pollution in and out of the highway toll gates].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Jun; Chen, Ke-Liang; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Leng, Guang-Yi

    2007-08-01

    During June and July 2003, CO, NO2, THC and PM10 were sampled at the four highway toll gates in Chongqing. Air temperature, air pressure, wind velocity and traffic flow were also monitored simultaneously. The relation between air pollution parameters and influencing factors was analyzed by applying the methods of bivariate correlation and partial correlation. As shown in the monitoring result, the outdoor average concentrations of CO and PM10 exceed indoor ones, but NO2 and THC are reverse. The average concentrations of CO and NO2 at the toll gates don't exceed the indoor and outdoor air quality standards except for the toll gate in Chongqing and Chayuan. One-hour average concentrations of outdoor and indoor THC are 7.728 mg/m3 and 7.216 mg/m3 respectively, and exceed ten times of the indoor air quality standard. One-hour average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM10 change acutely respectively, and the their maximum concentrations are 0.631 mg/m3 and 0.217 mg/m3 which exceed indoor air quality standard and the second class of ambient air quality standard. Polluting state of Chongqing toll is the worst among the four sampled tolls, and three indexes are bigger than others. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants have correlativity. Correlations of CO, PM10 and NO2 are significant at the 0.01 level respectively, and correlations between indoor and outdoor THC are significant at the 0.05 level. In the influencing factors analysis, traffic flow is significantly correlative with NO2, THC and PM10 (p < 0.01 or 0.01 < p < 0.05), and not significantly correlative with CO (p > 0.01). Air pressure and ambient temperature are predominating factors which influencing the concentration variation, and wind speed is a minor meteorological factor influencing the fluctuations of the data. PMID:17926422

  6. Expectations in culturally unfamiliar music: influences of proximal and distal cues and timbral characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Tardieu, Julien; Dunbar-Hall, Peter; Best, Catherine T.; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Listeners' musical perception is influenced by cues that can be stored in short-term memory (e.g., within the same musical piece) or long-term memory (e.g., based on one's own musical culture). The present study tested how these cues (referred to as, respectively, proximal and distal cues) influence the perception of music from an unfamiliar culture. Western listeners who were naïve to Gamelan music judged completeness and coherence for newly constructed melodies in the Balinese gamelan tradition. In these melodies, we manipulated the final tone with three possibilities: the original gong tone, an in-scale tone replacement or an out-of-scale tone replacement. We also manipulated the musical timbre employed in Gamelan pieces. We hypothesized that novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and that this might be influenced by the more unfamiliar timbre created by Gamelan “sister” instruments whose harmonics beat with the harmonics of the other instrument, creating a timbrally “shimmering” sound. The results showed: (1) out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than original gong and in-scale endings; (2) for melodies played with “sister” instruments, in-scale endings were judged as less complete than original endings. Furthermore, melodies using the original scale tones were judged more coherent than melodies containing few or multiple tone replacements; melodies played on single instruments were judged more coherent than the same melodies played on sister instruments. Additionally, there is some indication of within-session statistical learning, with expectations for the initially-novel materials developing during the course of the experiment. The data suggest the influence of both distal cues (e.g., previously unfamiliar timbres) and proximal cues (within the same sequence and over the experimental session) on the perception of melodies from other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tunings and scale systems

  7. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  8. Indicators of Walking Speed in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relative Influence of Articular, Psychosocial, and Body Composition Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Amanda L; Amigues, Isabelle; Kramer, Henry R; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Giles, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the contributions from and interactions between articular swelling and damage, psychosocial factors, and body composition characteristics on walking speed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods RA patients underwent the timed 400 meter long-corridor walk. Demographics, self-reported levels of depressive symptoms and fatigue, RA characteristics, and body composition [using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal and thigh computed tomography (CT)] were assessed and their associations with walking speed explored. Results A total of 132 RA patients had data for the 400 meter walk, among whom 107 (81%) completed the full 400 meters. Significant multivariable indicators of slower walking speed were older age, higher depression scores, higher reported pain and fatigue, higher swollen and replaced joint counts, higher cumulative prednisone exposure, non-treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and worse body composition. These features accounted for 60% of the modeled variability in walking speed. Among specific articular features, slower walking speed was primarily correlated with large/medium lower-extremity joint involvement. However, these articular features accounted for only 21% of the explainable variability in walking speed. Having any relevant articular characteristics was associated with a 20% lower walking speed among those with worse body composition (p<0.001) compared with only a 6% lower speed among those with better body composition (p-value for interaction=0.010). Conclusions Psychosocial factors and body composition are potentially reversible contributors to walking speed in RA. Relative to articular disease activity and damage, non-articular indicators were collectively more potent indicators of an individual's mobility limitations. PMID:25155859

  9. Postprandial glycaemic response: how is it influenced by characteristics of cereal products?

    PubMed

    Meynier, Alexandra; Goux, Aurélie; Atkinson, Fiona; Brack, Olivier; Vinoy, Sophie

    2015-06-28

    Cereal products exhibit a wide range of glycaemic indexes (GI), but the interaction of their different nutrients and starch digestibility on blood glucose response is not well known. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate how cereal product characteristics can contribute to GI and insulinaemic index and to the parameters describing glycaemic or insulinaemic responses (incremental AUC, maximum concentration and Δpeak). Moreover, interactions between the different cereal products characteristics and glycaemic response parameters were assessed for the first time. Relationships between the cereal products characteristics and the glycaemic response were analysed by partial least square regressions, followed by modelling. A database including 190 cereal products tested by the usual GI methodology was used. The model on glycaemic responses showed that slowly digestible starch (SDS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and fat and fibres, and several interactions involving them, significantly explain GI by 53 % and Δpeak of glycaemia by 60 %. Fat and fibres had important contributions to glycaemic response at low and medium SDS contents in cereal products, but this effect disappears at high SDS levels. We showed also for the first time that glycaemic response parameters are dependent on interactions between starch digestibility (interaction between SDS and RDS) and nutritional composition (interaction between fat and fibres) of the cereal products. We also demonstrated the non-linear effect of fat and fibres (significant effect of their quadratic terms). Hence, optimising both the formula and the manufacturing process of cereal products can improve glucose metabolism, which is recognised as strongly influential on human health.

  10. The influence of professional status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics in elite soccer referees.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the posterior muscles of the hip and thigh and lower-body power to discriminate between professional status in full-time and part-time professional soccer referees. Seven full-time (mean ± SE: age = 36 ± 2 years; mass = 82 ± 4 kg; and height = 179 ± 3 cm) and 9 part-time (age = 34 ± 2 years; mass = 84 ± 2 kg; and height = 181 ± 2 cm) professional soccer referees performed 2 isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the posterior muscles of the hip and thigh. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) were calculated from a torque-time curve that was recorded during each MVC. Lower-body power output was assessed through a vertical jump test. Results indicated that the rapid torque characteristics were greater in the full-time compared with the part-time referees for absolute RTD (p = 0.011) and relative RTD at 1/2 (p = 0.022) and 2/3 (p = 0.033) of the normalized torque-time curve. However, no differences were observed for PT (p = 0.660) or peak power (Pmax, p = 0.149) between groups. These findings suggest that rapid torque characteristics of the posterior muscles of the hip and thigh may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between full-time and part-time professional soccer referees. Strength and conditioning coaches may use these findings to help identify professional soccer referees with high explosive strength-related capacities and possibly overall refereeing ability.

  11. The Influence of Aerosols and Environmental Moisture on the Characteristics of Supercellular and Multicellular Deep Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, L. D.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms leading to differences between low-precipitation (LP) and classic (CL) supercell storm structure are not well understood, due in part to the small number of observational and modeling studies of LPs that have been reported in the literature. Though LPs and CLs sometimes occur within close proximity, CLs are found under a wider range of environmental conditions. LPs usually form near the dryline or in the high plains of the U.S., and they are typically isolated or upwind relative to surrounding deep convection. Since high aerosol concentrations and dry layers are more likely in these environments, the goal of this research is to investigate the sensitivity of deep convective characteristics, including LP and classic supercells as well as neighboring convection, both to changes in the background aerosol concentrations and environmental moisture profile. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), configured as a high-resolution cloud-resolving model, was used to achieve this goal. Simulated convection was initiated with a warm thermal perturbation, and subsequent deep convection was simulated under a range of aerosol concentrations and moisture profiles. In the control simulation, which utilized a clean aerosol background and a moist profile, the initial convection splits into a right-mover that becomes a strong and steady classic supercell, and a left-mover that evolves into a multicellular cluster. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that the right-mover becomes an LP supercell under both clean and polluted aerosol concentrations when elevated dry layers are present in the moisture profile. Precipitation characteristics of the left-moving cluster are sensitive both to the aerosol concentrations and the moisture profile. The relative control of aerosols and dry layers on the precipitation characteristics, microphysical processes, and thermodynamics including cold pool forcing, of different dynamically controlled convective storm types within the same

  12. The influence of infant characteristics and attention to social cues on early vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Caitlin F; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-10-01

    Individual differences in early language development are related to a number of infant characteristics and skills, including temperament traits, cognitive ability, and social cognition. The current study aimed to assess the complex mechanisms underlying these relations by evaluating the ability to use social cues in a word-learning context along with temperament, cognitive ability, and expressive vocabulary in 71 18-month-old infants. A moderated mediation analysis indicated that infants' nonverbal cognitive ability affects their early vocabulary through its effect on their ability to use social cues, but only in infants with low nonverbal cognitive ability. Implications for both typical and atypical development are discussed.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of helium adsorbents. Influence of the heat removal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbachenko, R. I.; Grigor'ev, V. N.

    2008-06-01

    The static and dynamic characteristics of the adsorbent SKN-1K at 4.2K are investigated under conditions corresponding to the working conditions of adsorption pumps in dilution refrigerators. It is shown that gluing this adsorbent to the cooled surface leads to a substantial lowering of the pressure in the pump in the dynamic regime. On the basis of experimental data for the glued and free adsorbent an estimate is made of the hydrodynamic contribution to the pressure due to the resistance of the pores of the adsorbent. This estimate falls within the error of measurement.

  14. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  15. Influence of annular magnet on discharge characteristics in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Li Liuhe; Wang Zhuo; Lu Qiuyuan; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Pang Enjing; Dun Dandan; He Fushun; Li Fen

    2011-01-10

    A permanent annular magnet positioned at the grounded anode alters the discharge characteristics in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation (EGD-PIII). The nonuniform magnetic field increases the electron path length and confines electron motion due to the magnetic mirror effect and electron-neutral collisions thus occur more frequently. The plasma potential and ion density measured by a Langmuir probe corroborate that ionization is improved near the grounded anode. This hybrid magnetic field EGD-PIII method is suitable for implantation of gases with low ionization rates.

  16. The influence of microwave irradiation power on current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mans, M.; Scherbel, J.; Seidel, P.

    2007-02-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of a micrometre bridge of intrinsic Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation are studied. The collective switching of the group of four junctions splits up as the AC signal amplitude is gradually increased. The switching current of the remaining group of junctions is increased with increasing radiation power. We consider that microwave irradiation injects an additional quasiparticle current into the Josephson junction array. We use ideas of breakdown of quasineutrality and quasiparticle charge imbalance in the superconducting layers and explain the experimental results by the competition between the 'current effect' and the effect of suppression of the switching current by irradiation.

  17. Influence of the Parameters of a Random Medium on the Characteristics of Transient Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnovsky, A. Yu.; Lysenko, A. P.; Shevtsov, B. M.

    2003-03-01

    Based on the invariant imbedding method, we study numerically the statistical characteristics of the kernel of the backscattering operator in the case of normal incidence of a plane wave on a one-dimensional random medium with strong fluctuation intensities and various correlation radii of the irregularities. The local reflection coefficient of the medium is modelled by a centered Gaussian process with an exponential correlation function. The first eight one-point cumulants and the correlation functions of delta-pulse reflection are considered and the fluctuation phenomena are analyzed. The transition to the diffusion scattering regime is studded, and the numerical results are compared with the known analytical solutions.

  18. The Influence of Leaf Angle and Leaf Surface Characteristics on the Process of Rainfall Interception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, C.; Ginebra, R.; Webb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Individual choice in plant selection for household landscaping influences differences in runoff from urban watersheds because the variation in plant canopy architecture results in rainfall interception differences. Understanding the variables that influence rainfall interception and understanding the mechanism of rainfall interception are important concepts for sustainable watershed management. The broad objective of this study was to explore the influence of leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle on the mechanism and process of rainfall interception and raindrop impaction on leaf surfaces of common tree species from the semi-arid regions of the western United States. Leaf hydrophobicity is determined by the cohesive forces of the water molecules among themselves and the adhesive forces that result from the molecular interactions between the water droplet and the leaf surface. Water droplet retention is a measure of how easily a water droplet drains off a leaf surface. The specific hypotheses examined were 1) larger raindrops falling on leaf surfaces will deflect the leaf to an angle greater than the water droplet retention angle; 2) an increased leaf angle, whether from natural position or deflection due to droplet impact and retention, reduces interception from raindrop impaction on hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces; and 3) increased droplet size and frequency decrease rainfall interception more significantly in the hydrophilic case. These hypotheses were addressed in a laboratory experiment by 1) measuring leaf hydrophobicity and water droplet retention using a goniometer with a tilting base; 2) measuring leaf traits such as leaf area, leaf surface roughness, trichome density, and specific storage capacity; 3) examining raindrop splash on leaf surfaces with varying leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle with a raindrop generator and high-speed video camera; and 4) modeling the impact of raindrop splash on leaf

  19. Influence of asthma on quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Dudvarski, Zoran; Djukic, Vojko; Janosevic, Ljiljana; Tomanovic, Nada; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have evidenced that nasal polyposis (NP) may lead to significant limitations in physical, emotional and social aspects of life of the affected patients. The study is aimed to investigate the influence of asthma on quality of life (QoL), intensity of symptoms, endoscopic and computerized tomography (CT) sinus findings in patients with NP. The cross-sectional study included 88 adult patients with NP out of whom 35 (39.8 %) were asthmatic while 53 (60.2 %) were non-asthmatic. QoL is assessed based on Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire, while symptom intensity was presented using visual analogue scale (VAS). The objective finding is presented as endoscopic and CT score. Comparison of individual symptom intensity, total score and major symptom score failed to evidence any statistically significant difference between the groups. Minor symptom score which include intensity of headache, fetor ex ore, fatigue/malaise, dental pain, cough, pressure/fullness in the ears and fever was higher in the group with asthma (p < 0.05). Comparison of scores according to SF-36 domains, as well as summary scores for physical and mental health did not reveal statistically significant difference between the observed groups. Mean value of the endoscopic score in the group with asthma was 8.57 ± 2.22, being 8.38 ± 1.93 in the group without asthma (p > 0.05). Mean value of the CT score in the groups with and without asthma was 20.37 ± 4.34 and 17.47 ± 4.75, respectively (p < 0.01). Asthma has no influence on QoL and endoscopic findings of patients with NP, however it influences minor symptom score and CT findings. PMID:23135235

  20. The Influence of the Diameter Ratio on the Characteristics Diagram of the Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, B.; Pflueger, F.; Weinig, F.

    1948-01-01

    With the further development of axial blowers into highly loaded flow machines, the influence of the diameter ratio upon air output and efficiency gains in significance. Clarification of this matter is important for single-stage axial compressors, and is of still greater importance for multistage ones, and particularly for aircraft power plants. Tests with a single-stage axial blower gave a decrease in the attainable maximum pressure coefficient and optimum efficiency as the diameter ratio increased. The decrease must be ascribed chiefly to the guide surface of the hub and housing between the blades increasing with the diameter ratio.

  1. Emission centers in ZnMoO4: Influence of growth conditions and decay characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassky, D.; Nagirnyi, V.; Vielhauer, S.; Mägi, H.; Nasonov, S. G.; Shlegel, V. N.; Belsky, A.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of growth conditions and doping with tungsten on the luminescent properties of ZnMoO4 is studied. An enhancement of luminescence intensity in crystals grown from the melt with Mo excess was detected and the origin of the effect is discussed. Time-resolved spectroscopy of ZnMoO4 allowed to separate two emission bands at 480 and 560 nm, which are attributed to excitons self-trapped at two different types of regular MoO4 complexes.

  2. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the fifth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania.

  3. The influence of tyre characteristics on measures of rolling performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sets out to assess the effect of five different models of mountain bike tyre on rolling performance over hard-pack mud. Independent characteristics included total weight, volume, tread surface area and tread depth. One male cyclist performed multiple (30) trials of a deceleration field test to assess reliability. Further tests performed on a separate occasion included multiple (15) trials of the deceleration test and six fixed power output hill climb tests for each tyre. The deceleration test proved to be reliable as a means of assessing rolling performance via differences in initial and final speed (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.52%). Overall differences between tyre performance for both deceleration test (P = 0.014) and hill climb (P = 0.032) were found, enabling significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049) models to be generated, allowing tyre performance prediction based on tyre characteristics. The ideal tyre for rolling and climbing performance on hard-pack surfaces would be to decrease tyre weight by way of reductions in tread surface area and tread depth while keeping volume high.

  4. Influence of surface defects in ZnO thin films on its biosensing response characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Shibu; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-09-15

    Highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering under varying processing pressure (20-50 mT) in a reactive gas mixture of argon and oxygen were studied for biosensing application. The as-deposited ZnO thin films were in a state of compressive stress having defects related to interstitial Zn and antisite oxygen. Glucose oxidase has been chosen as the model enzyme in the present study and was immobilized on the surface of ZnO thin films deposited on indium tin oxide coated Corning Glass substrate. The studies reveal a correlation between the biosensing characteristic and the presence of defects in the ZnO films. The ZnO films deposited under high pressure (50 mT) are found to be more sensitive for biosensing application due to availability of more surface area for effective immobilization of biomolecules and exhibits a suitable microenvironment with good electron transfer characteristic. The obtained results highlight the importance of desired microstate besides availability of suitable native defects in the ZnO thin film for exhibiting enhanced biosensing response.

  5. Influence of volunteer and project characteristics on data quality of biological surveys.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Eva; Specht, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Volunteer involvement in biological surveys is becoming common in conservation and ecology, prompting questions on the quality of data collected in such surveys. In a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we examined the characteristics of volunteers (e.g., age, prior knowledge) and projects (e.g., systematic vs. opportunistic monitoring schemes) that affect data quality with regards to standardization of sampling, accuracy and precision of data collection, spatial and temporal representation of data, and sample size. Most studies (70%, n = 71) focused on the act of data collection. The majority of assessments of volunteer characteristics (58%, n = 93) examined the effect of prior knowledge and experience on quality of the data collected, often by comparing volunteers with experts or professionals, who were usually assumed to collect higher quality data. However, when both groups' data were compared with the same accuracy standard, professional data were more accurate in only 4 of 7 cases. The few studies that measured precision of volunteer and professional data did not conclusively show that professional data were less variable than volunteer data. To improve data quality, studies recommended changes to survey protocols, volunteer training, statistical analyses, and project structure (e.g., volunteer recruitment and retention). PMID:25800171

  6. Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human-hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (<10 725), we find that every nation experiences some form of vulnerability. Institutional vulnerability is experienced most commonly, occurring in 44 nations, and 23 countries suffer deficiencies in all four categories. Of these highly vulnerable countries, Jordan is the most vulnerable, reporting the greatest number of characteristics (5 of 19) at critical vulnerability levels, with Yemen and Djibouti nearly as vulnerable. Surprising similarities in vulnerability were also found among geographically disparate nations such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Guatemala. Determining shared patterns of freshwater vulnerability provides insights into why water supply vulnerabilities are manifested in human-water systems at the national scale.

  7. Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater.

    PubMed

    Meliker, Jaymie R; Slotnick, Melissa J; Avruskin, Gillian A; Haack, Sheridan K; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2009-02-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 microg/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization and subsequent transport in groundwater are equivocal. Recent evidence has begun to suggest that groundwater recharge and characteristics of well construction may affect arsenic mobilization and transport. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between dissolved arsenic concentrations, reported groundwater recharge rates, well construction characteristics, and geology in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is more prevalent in bedrock wells that are cased in proximity to the bedrock-unconsolidated interface; no other factors were associated with arsenic contamination in water drawn from bedrock or unconsolidated aquifers. Conditions appropriate for arsenic mobilization may be found along the bedrock-unconsolidated interface, including changes in reduction/oxidation potential and enhanced biogeochemical activity because of differences between geologic strata. These results are valuable for understanding arsenic mobilization and guiding well construction practices in southeastern Michigan, and may also provide insights for other regions faced with groundwater arsenic contamination.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Breast as Influenced by the Methods of Mechanical Processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various marination processes on the quality characteristics of chicken breast prepared with chicken feet gelatin and wheat fiber. The chicken feet gelatin was swollen with hydrochloric solution (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.31±0.02) and dehydrated by freeze-drying. The composition (w/w) of the marinade was water (10%), soy sauce (12%), phosphate (0.3%), wheat fiber (1.5%), and chicken feet gelatin (1.5%). Three samples of chicken breast were manufactured with Tumbler (only tumbler), Tenderizer (tenderizer and tumbler), and Injector (injector and tumbler). The water content of the Injector sample was significantly higher than those of the Tumbler and Tenderizer samples (p<0.05). During heating, the lightness of all chicken breasts increased and the redness decreased. The tumbling and cooking yield of the Injector sample were significantly higher than those of the Tumbler and Tenderizer samples (p<0.05). The shear force of the Tenderizer sample was significantly lower than that of the Tumbler and Injector samples (p<0.05). No significant differences, except for color, were observed in the sensory analysis of the samples. Thus, the proper selection of mechanical processing is important to improve the quality characteristics of marinated chicken breast, considering the types of final products. PMID:26761806

  9. Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meliker, J.R.; Slotnick, M.J.; Avruskin, G.A.; Haack, S.K.; Nriagu, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 ??g/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization and subsequent transport in groundwater are equivocal. Recent evidence has begun to suggest that groundwater recharge and characteristics of well construction may affect arsenic mobilization and transport. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between dissolved arsenic concentrations, reported groundwater recharge rates, well construction characteristics, and geology in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is more prevalent in bedrock wells that are cased in proximity to the bedrock-unconsolidated interface; no other factors were associated with arsenic contamination in water drawn from bedrock or unconsolidated aquifers. Conditions appropriate for arsenic mobilization may be found along the bedrock-unconsolidated interface, including changes in reduction/oxidation potential and enhanced biogeochemical activity because of differences between geologic strata. These results are valuable for understanding arsenic mobilization and guiding well construction practices in southeastern Michigan, and may also provide insights for other regions faced with groundwater arsenic contamination. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  10. Influence of volunteer and project characteristics on data quality of biological surveys.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Eva; Specht, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Volunteer involvement in biological surveys is becoming common in conservation and ecology, prompting questions on the quality of data collected in such surveys. In a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we examined the characteristics of volunteers (e.g., age, prior knowledge) and projects (e.g., systematic vs. opportunistic monitoring schemes) that affect data quality with regards to standardization of sampling, accuracy and precision of data collection, spatial and temporal representation of data, and sample size. Most studies (70%, n = 71) focused on the act of data collection. The majority of assessments of volunteer characteristics (58%, n = 93) examined the effect of prior knowledge and experience on quality of the data collected, often by comparing volunteers with experts or professionals, who were usually assumed to collect higher quality data. However, when both groups' data were compared with the same accuracy standard, professional data were more accurate in only 4 of 7 cases. The few studies that measured precision of volunteer and professional data did not conclusively show that professional data were less variable than volunteer data. To improve data quality, studies recommended changes to survey protocols, volunteer training, statistical analyses, and project structure (e.g., volunteer recruitment and retention).

  11. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  12. Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Breast as Influenced by the Methods of Mechanical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various marination processes on the quality characteristics of chicken breast prepared with chicken feet gelatin and wheat fiber. The chicken feet gelatin was swollen with hydrochloric solution (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.31±0.02) and dehydrated by freeze-drying. The composition (w/w) of the marinade was water (10%), soy sauce (12%), phosphate (0.3%), wheat fiber (1.5%), and chicken feet gelatin (1.5%). Three samples of chicken breast were manufactured with Tumbler (only tumbler), Tenderizer (tenderizer and tumbler), and Injector (injector and tumbler). The water content of the Injector sample was significantly higher than those of the Tumbler and Tenderizer samples (p<0.05). During heating, the lightness of all chicken breasts increased and the redness decreased. The tumbling and cooking yield of the Injector sample were significantly higher than those of the Tumbler and Tenderizer samples (p<0.05). The shear force of the Tenderizer sample was significantly lower than that of the Tumbler and Injector samples (p<0.05). No significant differences, except for color, were observed in the sensory analysis of the samples. Thus, the proper selection of mechanical processing is important to improve the quality characteristics of marinated chicken breast, considering the types of final products. PMID:26761806

  13. Experimental study on the characteristics of ventilated cavitation around an underwater navigating body influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, ChenXing; Li, FengChen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new control strategy for turbulent drag reduction involving ventilated cavitation is proposed. The configurational and hydrodynamic characteristics of ventilated cavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were experimentally studied in water tunnel. The test model was fixed in the water tunnel by a strut in the aft-part. Aqueous solutions of CTAC/NaSal (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride/sodium salicylate) with weight concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 ppm (part per million), respectively, were injected into the ventilated air cavity from the edge of the cavitator with accurate control by an injection pump. The cavity configurations were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the test model were measured by a six-component balance. Experimental results show that, within the presently tested cases, the lengths of cavity influenced by drag-reducing solution are smaller than normal condition (ventilated cavity) in water, but the asymmetry of the cavity is improved. The drag resisted by the test model is reduced dramatically (the maximum drag reduction can reach to 80%) and the re-entrant jet is more complex after the CTAC solution is injected into the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitating asymmetry and further drag reduction.

  14. Characteristics of aquatic bacterial community and the influencing factors in an urban river.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Bo; Yuan, Ruiqiang; Li, Chuangqiong; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria play a critical role in environmental and ecological processes in river ecosystems. We studied the bacterial community in the Ganjiang River, a major tributary of the Yangtze River, as it flowed through Nanchang, the largest city in the Ganjiang River basin. Water was sampled at five sites monthly during the wet season, and the bacterial community was characterized using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. A total of 811 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed for all samples, ranging from 321 to 519 for each sample. The bacterial communities were maintained by a core of OTUs that persisted longitudinally and monthly. Actinobacteria (41.17% of total sequences) and Proteobacteria (31.80%) were the dominant phyla, while Firmicutes (mostly genus Lactococcus) became most abundant during flooding. Temperature and flow rate, rather than water chemistry, were the main factors influencing the bacterial community in river water. Temperature was the best individual parameter explaining the variations in OTU abundance, while flow rate was the best individual parameter explaining the variations in phylum abundance. Except for Proteobacteria, the relative abundance of bacterial phyla did not differ significantly between sites, and the degrees of influence of urban landscape on the bacterial community were estimated to be 17%-34%.

  15. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  16. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  17. Influence of Habitat and Intrinsic Characteristics on Survival of Neonatal Pronghorn.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of the influence of habitat (e.g., composition, patch size) and intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass) factors on survival of neonatal pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a prerequisite to successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and the role of population models in adaptive species management. Nevertheless, few studies have presented empirical data quantifying the influence of habitat variables on survival of neonatal pronghorn. During 2002-2005, we captured and radiocollared 116 neonates across two sites in western South Dakota. We documented 31 deaths during our study, of which coyote (Canis latrans) predation (n = 15) was the leading cause of mortality. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonatal survival. We generated a priori models that we grouped into habitat and intrinsic effects. The highest-ranking model indicated that neonate mortality was best explained by site, percent grassland, and open water habitat; 90-day survival (0.80; 90% CI = 0.71-0.88) declined 23% when grassland and water increased from 80.1 to 92.3% and 0.36 to 0.40%, respectively, across 50% natal home ranges. Further, our results indicated that grassland patch size and shrub density were important predictors of neonate survival; neonate survival declined 17% when shrub density declined from 5.0 to 2.5 patches per 100 ha. Excluding the site covariates, intrinsic factors (i.e., sex, age, birth mass, year, parturition date) were not important predictors of survival of neonatal pronghorns. Further, neonatal survival may depend on available land cover and interspersion of habitats. We have demonstrated that maintaining minimum and maximum thresholds for habitat factors (e.g., percentages of grassland and open water patches, density of shrub patches) throughout natal home ranges will in turn, ensure relatively high (>0.50) neonatal survival rates, especially

  18. Influence of Habitat and Intrinsic Characteristics on Survival of Neonatal Pronghorn

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of the influence of habitat (e.g., composition, patch size) and intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass) factors on survival of neonatal pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a prerequisite to successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and the role of population models in adaptive species management. Nevertheless, few studies have presented empirical data quantifying the influence of habitat variables on survival of neonatal pronghorn. During 2002–2005, we captured and radiocollared 116 neonates across two sites in western South Dakota. We documented 31 deaths during our study, of which coyote (Canis latrans) predation (n = 15) was the leading cause of mortality. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonatal survival. We generated a priori models that we grouped into habitat and intrinsic effects. The highest-ranking model indicated that neonate mortality was best explained by site, percent grassland, and open water habitat; 90-day survival (0.80; 90% CI = 0.71–0.88) declined 23% when grassland and water increased from 80.1 to 92.3% and 0.36 to 0.40%, respectively, across 50% natal home ranges. Further, our results indicated that grassland patch size and shrub density were important predictors of neonate survival; neonate survival declined 17% when shrub density declined from 5.0 to 2.5 patches per 100 ha. Excluding the site covariates, intrinsic factors (i.e., sex, age, birth mass, year, parturition date) were not important predictors of survival of neonatal pronghorns. Further, neonatal survival may depend on available land cover and interspersion of habitats. We have demonstrated that maintaining minimum and maximum thresholds for habitat factors (e.g., percentages of grassland and open water patches, density of shrub patches) throughout natal home ranges will in turn, ensure relatively high (>0.50) neonatal survival rates

  19. Influence of habitat and intrinsic characteristics on survival of neonatal pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of the influence of habitat (e.g., composition, patch size) and intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass) factors on survival of neonatal pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a prerequisite to successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and the role of population models in adaptive species management. Nevertheless, few studies have presented empirical data quantifying the influence of habitat variables on survival of neonatal pronghorn. During 2002–2005, we captured and radiocollared 116 neonates across two sites in western South Dakota. We documented 31 deaths during our study, of which coyote (Canis latrans) predation (n = 15) was the leading cause of mortality. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonatal survival. We generated a priori models that we grouped into habitat and intrinsic effects. The highest-ranking model indicated that neonate mortality was best explained by site, percent grassland, and open water habitat; 90-day survival (0.80; 90% CI = 0.71–0.88) declined 23% when grassland and water increased from 80.1 to 92.3% and 0.36 to 0.40%, respectively, across 50% natal home ranges. Further, our results indicated that grassland patch size and shrub density were important predictors of neonate survival; neonate survival declined 17% when shrub density declined from 5.0 to 2.5 patches per 100 ha. Excluding the site covariates, intrinsic factors (i.e., sex, age, birth mass, year, parturition date) were not important predictors of survival of neonatal pronghorns. Further, neonatal survival may depend on available land cover and interspersion of habitats. We have demonstrated that maintaining minimum and maximum thresholds for habitat factors (e.g., percentages of grassland and open water patches, density of shrub patches) throughout natal home ranges will in turn, ensure relatively high (>0.50) neonatal survival rates

  20. Influence of Habitat and Intrinsic Characteristics on Survival of Neonatal Pronghorn.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of the influence of habitat (e.g., composition, patch size) and intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass) factors on survival of neonatal pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a prerequisite to successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and the role of population models in adaptive species management. Nevertheless, few studies have presented empirical data quantifying the influence of habitat variables on survival of neonatal pronghorn. During 2002-2005, we captured and radiocollared 116 neonates across two sites in western South Dakota. We documented 31 deaths during our study, of which coyote (Canis latrans) predation (n = 15) was the leading cause of mortality. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonatal survival. We generated a priori models that we grouped into habitat and intrinsic effects. The highest-ranking model indicated that neonate mortality was best explained by site, percent grassland, and open water habitat; 90-day survival (0.80; 90% CI = 0.71-0.88) declined 23% when grassland and water increased from 80.1 to 92.3% and 0.36 to 0.40%, respectively, across 50% natal home ranges. Further, our results indicated that grassland patch size and shrub density were important predictors of neonate survival; neonate survival declined 17% when shrub density declined from 5.0 to 2.5 patches per 100 ha. Excluding the site covariates, intrinsic factors (i.e., sex, age, birth mass, year, parturition date) were not important predictors of survival of neonatal pronghorns. Further, neonatal survival may depend on available land cover and interspersion of habitats. We have demonstrated that maintaining minimum and maximum thresholds for habitat factors (e.g., percentages of grassland and open water patches, density of shrub patches) throughout natal home ranges will in turn, ensure relatively high (>0.50) neonatal survival rates, especially

  1. Differentiation of the causal characteristics and influences of virtual reality and the effects on learning at a science exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Arlene

    Within the context of the informal science center, exhibits are the main interface for public learning. Essential to the success of a science center is how well exhibits model effective strategies for learning. Virtual Reality (VR) technology with its flexible, adaptive, multimedia, and immersive-learning capabilities is emerging for use by science centers in exhibits; however, research on learning in virtual environments at exhibits is scarce. To support the future development of VR science exhibits it is critical to investigate VR's pedagogical value and effects on science learning. Research investigated the Smoke & Mirrors VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, California. Inquiry focused on the interplay between elements of the exhibit's design, assessing the separate and interactive effects of visual imagery, moving images, sound, narration, and interactive tools to differentiate the causal characteristics and influences that enhanced and detracted from learning. Case study methodology was employed utilizing visitor observations and interviews with 14 participants. Findings indicated that realistic visual elements with text were the primary sources of content learning; however, positive results were limited to only a few participants. High cognitive load due to interactive tools; instructional design; and movement of visual images were found to be significant detracting characteristics of participant learning. Other characteristics and influences of VR were also found that directly effected learning. Research results will inform the forthcoming design of a new VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center and to the design and development of future VR exhibits at informal science centers. A prior brief mixed-methods evaluation of Smoke & Mirrors was conducted in 2003, contributing background to the study and its future implications and strategies.

  2. Detectability in Audio-Visual Surveys of Tropical Rainforest Birds: The Influence of Species, Weather and Habitat Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Alexander S.; Marques, Tiago A.; Shoo, Luke P.; Williams, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Indices of relative abundance do not control for variation in detectability, which can bias density estimates such that ecological processes are difficult to infer. Distance sampling methods can be used to correct for detectability, but in rainforest, where dense vegetation and diverse assemblages complicate sampling, information is lacking about factors affecting their application. Rare species present an additional challenge, as data may be too sparse to fit detection functions. We present analyses of distance sampling data collected for a diverse tropical rainforest bird assemblage across broad elevational and latitudinal gradients in North Queensland, Australia. Using audio and visual detections, we assessed the influence of various factors on Effective Strip Width (ESW), an intuitively useful parameter, since it can be used to calculate an estimate of density from count data. Body size and species exerted the most important influence on ESW, with larger species detectable over greater distances than smaller species. Secondarily, wet weather and high shrub density decreased ESW for most species. ESW for several species also differed between summer and winter, possibly due to seasonal differences in calling behavior. Distance sampling proved logistically intensive in these environments, but large differences in ESW between species confirmed the need to correct for detection probability to obtain accurate density estimates. Our results suggest an evidence-based approach to controlling for factors influencing detectability, and avenues for further work including modeling detectability as a function of species characteristics such as body size and call characteristics. Such models may be useful in developing a calibration for non-distance sampling data and for estimating detectability of rare species. PMID:26110433

  3. Detectability in Audio-Visual Surveys of Tropical Rainforest Birds: The Influence of Species, Weather and Habitat Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander S; Marques, Tiago A; Shoo, Luke P; Williams, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Indices of relative abundance do not control for variation in detectability, which can bias density estimates such that ecological processes are difficult to infer. Distance sampling methods can be used to correct for detectability, but in rainforest, where dense vegetation and diverse assemblages complicate sampling, information is lacking about factors affecting their application. Rare species present an additional challenge, as data may be too sparse to fit detection functions. We present analyses of distance sampling data collected for a diverse tropical rainforest bird assemblage across broad elevational and latitudinal gradients in North Queensland, Australia. Using audio and visual detections, we assessed the influence of various factors on Effective Strip Width (ESW), an intuitively useful parameter, since it can be used to calculate an estimate of density from count data. Body size and species exerted the most important influence on ESW, with larger species detectable over greater distances than smaller species. Secondarily, wet weather and high shrub density decreased ESW for most species. ESW for several species also differed between summer and winter, possibly due to seasonal differences in calling behavior. Distance sampling proved logistically intensive in these environments, but large differences in ESW between species confirmed the need to correct for detection probability to obtain accurate density estimates. Our results suggest an evidence-based approach to controlling for factors influencing detectability, and avenues for further work including modeling detectability as a function of species characteristics such as body size and call characteristics. Such models may be useful in developing a calibration for non-distance sampling data and for estimating detectability of rare species.

  4. Calculated characteristics of radio-frequency plasma display panel cells including the influence of xenon metastables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchford, L. C.; Kang, J.; Punset, C.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    Although alternating-current plasma display panels (ac PDPs) are now produced by several companies, improvements are still necessary. In particular, the overall efficiency of the discharge in the standard configuration is low, on the order of 1 lm/W i.e., about 0.5% of the power dissipated in the discharge is transformed into useful visible photons. One way to substantially improve the efficiency of PDPs is to use radio-frequency (rf) excitation because, when compared to ac PDPs, less of the electrical energy input is dissipated by ions in the sheath and relatively more power is deposited in excitation of the xenon, which produces the ultraviolet photons used to excite the phosphors. In this article, we show calculated discharge characteristics for typical rf PDP conditions and pay particular attention to the role of the xenon metastable atoms in the ionization balance. Our discussion is limited to the sustaining regime, the "on-state," of a PDP cell.

  5. [Transformation of patient-derived tumor xenografts into lymphomas: characteristics, influence factors and precautions].

    PubMed

    Zou, Jianling; Gao, Jing; Shen, Lin

    2016-07-01

    The patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) model is an animal model established by directly engrafting fresh tumor tissue of patients into immunodeficiency mice after surgery or biopsy, which plays an important role in the study of tumor biology. However, the transformation of PDX into lymphoma limits the application of this model. The characters of this transformation include that epithelial tumors origin, predorminance of B-cell lymphomas, lost of architectural feature of primary tumor, absence of epithelial tumor markers, and CD45 and CD20 expression. That were characteristics of human B lymphocytes, and possible infection of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV). The biology of primary tumor, EBV infection, inflammation infiltration in primary tumors and the host immune status are the main related factors in this transformation. Therefore, selective xenograft by the detection of EBV infection and inflammation infiltration in primary tumors may be effective methods to prevent lymphomagenesis.

  6. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  7. The influence of substrates rates on the germination characteristic of a soil seed bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; He, M. X.; Li, H. Y.; Meng, W. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Soil seed bank (SSB) is considered as an important way of vegetation restoration, it can fleetly achieved vegetation diversification and the course of succession when the topsoil mixed with planting substrates. In this paper, a greenhouse germination method was used to explore the effect on germination characteristic of soil seed bank by adding different inorganic substrates, such as activated carbon, perlite and vermiculite. The results showed that perlite and vermiculite can effectively promote the germination of soil seed bank, but also significantly promote Shannon-Wiener diversity index. When vermiculite mixed with the topsoil in 40%, the germination effect of soil seed bank was more obviously than other groups; at this time, the density of soil seed bank reached 6 X 105 plants/m2 , Shannon Wiener diversity index reached 1.4354. Therefore, it was more conducive to improve the soil seed bank density and species diversity by adding 40% vermiculite in the topsoil.

  8. Influences of carrier diffusion and radial mode field pattern on high speed characteristics for microring lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun

    2014-04-21

    High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3 dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15 μm, which accords with the simulation results.

  9. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  10. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  11. Landscape characteristics and livestock presence influence common ravens: Relevance to greater sage-grouse conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Howe, Kristy; Gustafson, K. Ben; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) population abundance in the sagebrush steppe of the American West has increased threefold during the previous four decades, largely as a result of unintended resource subsidies from human land-use practices. This is concerning because ravens frequently depredate nests of species of conservation concern, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse). Grazing by livestock in sagebrush ecosystems is common practice on most public lands, but associations between livestock and ravens are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify the effects of livestock on raven occurrence while accounting for landscape characteristics within human-altered sagebrush steppe habitat, particularly in areas occupied by breeding sage-grouse. Using data from southeastern Idaho collected during spring and summer across 3 yr, we modeled raven occurrence as a function of the presence of livestock while accounting for multiple landscape covariates, including land cover features, topographical features, and proximity to sage-grouse lek sites (breeding grounds), as well as site-level anthropogenic features. While accounting for landscape characteristics, we found that the odds of raven occurrence increased 45.8% in areas where livestock were present. In addition, ravens selected areas near sage-grouse leks, with the odds of occurrence decreasing 8.9% for every 1-km distance, increase away from the lek. We did not find an association between livestock use and distance to lek. We also found that ravens selected sites with relatively lower elevation containing increased amounts of cropland, wet meadow, and urbanization. Limiting raven access to key anthropogenic subsidies and spatially segregating livestock from sage-grouse breeding areas would likely reduce exposure of predatory ravens to sage-grouse nests and chicks.

  12. Influences on the diet quality of preschool children: importance of maternal psychological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Megan; Inskip, Hazel; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that maternal psychological profiles relate to children’s quality of diet. Design Cross-sectional study. Mothers provided information on their health-related psychological factors and aspects of their child’s mealtime environment. Children’s diet quality was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire from which weekly intakes of foods and a diet z-score was calculated. A high score described children with a better quality diet. Cluster analysis was performed to assess grouping of mothers based on psychological factors. Mealtime characteristics, describing how often children ate whilst sitting at a table or in front of the television, their frequency of take-away food consumption, maternal covert control and food security, and children’s quality of diet were examined, according to mothers cluster membership. Subjects 324 mother-child pairs, in the Southampton Initiative for Health. Children were aged between 2-5 years. Setting Hampshire, UK. Results Two main clusters were identified. Mothers in cluster one had significantly higher scores for all psychological factors than mothers in cluster two (all P<0.001). Clusters were termed ‘more resilient’ and ‘less resilient’ respectively. Children of mothers in the less resilient cluster ate meals sitting at a table less often (p=0.03) and watched more television (p=0.01). These children had significantly poorer quality diets (β −0.61, 95% CI −0.82, −0.40, p=<0.001). This association was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for confounding factors, that included maternal education and home/mealtime characteristics (p=0.006). Conclusion This study suggests that mothers should be offered psychological support as part of interventions to improve children’s quality of diet. PMID:25409750

  13. Influence of Environment and Mitochondrial Heritage on the Ecological Characteristics of Fish in a Hybrid Zone

    PubMed Central

    Stolzenberg, Nicolas; Nguyen The, Bénédicte; Salducci, Marie Dominique; Cavalli, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Background Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction) arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. Methodology/Principal Findings A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002) and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids) were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie). Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. Conclusions/Significance Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation. PMID:19536286

  14. Influence of air abrasion tips and operation modes on enamel-cutting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peruchi, Cláudia; Santos-Pinto, Ary; Dias, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Carolina Mascarenhas; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of air abrasion tips and system operation modes on enamel cutting. Methods: Forty bovine teeth were abraded with the air abrasion system Mach 4.1 for 10 and 15 seconds, employing conventional and sonic tips of 0.45-mm inner diameter and a 90° angle, and 27.5-μm aluminum oxide at 5.51 bar air pressure in continuous and pulsed modes. The width and depth of the resulting cuts were measured in SEM. Results: The multivariate analysis of variances revealed that, compared to the sonic tip, the conventional tip produced shallower cuts independent of the operation mode and the application period. Conclusions: The cutting patterns observed in this study suggest that the pulsed mode produced deeper cuts when both the conventional and sonic tips were used, and that the sonic tip cut more dental tissue than the conventional one. PMID:23408157

  15. Influence on grip of knife handle surface characteristics and wearing protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Claudon, Laurent

    2006-11-01

    Ten subjects were asked to apply maximum torques on knife handles with either their bare hand or their hand wearing a Kevlar fibre protective glove. Four knife handles (2 roughnesses, 2 hardnesses) were tested. Surface electromyograms of 6 upper limb and shoulder muscles were recorded and subject opinions on both knife handle hardness and friction in the hand were also assessed. The results revealed the significant influence of wearing gloves (p<0.0001), knife type (p<0.0005) and handle hardness (p<0.005) on the applied torque. Wearing Kevlar fibre gloves greatly increased the torque independently of the other two parameters. Under the bare hand condition, a 90 degrees ShA slightly rough handle provided the greatest torque. Subject opinion agreed with the observed effects on recorded torque values except for the hardness factor, for which a preference for the 70 degrees ShA value over the 90 degrees ShA value emerged.

  16. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1995-02-28

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. Work during the eighteenth quarter has focused on severe oxidation of coal by thermal and chemical treatment, and on investigating the partition of metal ions between such strongly oxidized coal samples and aqueous solutions. This partitioning behavior is being followed to obtain further information on the chemistry of the coal surfaces after different oxidation treatments, for example, whether partition occurs by an ion-exchange mechanism, or whether the surface is capable of changing the oxidation state of metallic species, with concurrent surface or bulk precipitation.

  17. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1991-09-24

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the fourth quarter, characterization and oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition, standard test methods for characterizing pyrite-bearing materials were studied. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Influence of recirculation on Y-Q characteristic curve of hydrodynamic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klas, Roman; Pochylý, František; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Contribution is focused on discussion of different design modifications of the volute, impeller and rotor-stator cavity in case of very low specific speed pump with recirculation channels. Amount of the liquid flowing through the recirculation channels has significant effect on delivery height, stability of the head curve and hydraulic efficiency. Analysis of these effects is based on the evaluation of the dissipated power in different internal parts of the pump and for different flow rates. It has already been proved in our previous research that volute has substantial impact on stability of the head curve. It is apparent that similar effect can also be attributed to distribution and shape of the recirculation channels. This fact is connected with the inflow into the channels and with magnitude of the flow rate through the recirculation channels. Influence of mentioned parameters on recirculation is discussed in present paper.

  19. Selective influence of circadian modulation and task characteristics on motor imagery time.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no effect of circadian rhythm in the complex, short or long walking conditions. We concluded that motor imagery time is modulated during the course of the day, but the effect of task difficulty is stronger than circadian modulation in altering the temporal congruence between physical practice and MI performance. Practical applications in motor learning and rehabilitation are discussed.

  20. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  1. Individual variation in life history characteristics can influence extinction risk (vol 144, pg 61, 2001) Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2009-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  2. Influence of sediment characteristics on the composition of soft-sediment intertidal communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jessica R.; Sigel, Bryan J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic infaunal communities are important components of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between the structure of these communities and characteristics of the habitat in which they live is becoming progressively more important as coastal systems face increasing stress from anthropogenic impacts and changes in climate. To examine how sediment characteristics and infaunal community composition were related along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, we sampled intertidal infaunal communities at seven sites covering common habitat types at a regional scale. Across 69 samples, the communities clustered into four distinct groups on the basis of faunal composition. Nearly 70% of the variation in the composition of the communities was explained by salinity, median grain size, and total organic content. Our results suggest that at a regional level coarse habitat characteristics are able to explain a large amount of the variation among sites in infaunal community structure. By examining the relationships between infaunal communities and their sedimentary habitats, we take a necessary first step that will allow the exploration of how changes in habitat and community composition influence higher trophic levels and ecosystem scale processes. PMID:26157603

  3. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis.

  4. Clinical status in adolescents: is its impact on oral health-related quality of life influenced by psychological characteristics?

    PubMed

    Foster Page, Lyndie A; Thomson, W Murray; Ukra, Ali; Baker, Sarah R

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine, using structural equation modelling, the relationships among clinical characteristics (such as caries experience and malocclusion), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and psychological characteristics (mental health, self-esteem, somatisation, and social perception of body image) in adolescents in New Zealand. Adolescents were examined for malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and for dental caries. Among the 353 (58.8%) 12- and 13-yr-old adolescents who took part in this cross-sectional study, the overall mean ± SD decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (DMFS) value was 1.6 ± 3.0, with slightly more than 50% of being caries-free; the mean ± SD DAI was 31.5 ± 7.6, with one-quarter of subjects having a 'handicapping' malocclusion. The structural equation modelling analysis showed that the structural model was a good fit to the data. As hypothesized, the DAI score significantly predicted OHRQoL. There was no direct relationship between caries experience (DMFS) and OHRQoL, but there was an indirect effect of DMFS on OHRQoL mediated through psychological characteristics. The amount of OHRQoL variance accounted for in the model was substantial, at 62%. It appears that investigating OHRQoL in adolescents is not straightforward; while malocclusion directly affects OHRQoL, the influence of dental caries experience is less direct.

  5. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis. PMID:27376858

  6. Initial conditions influence the characteristics of ballistic contractions in the ankle dorsiflexors.

    PubMed

    Richartz, Chris; Lévénez, Morgan; Boucart, Julien; Duchateau, Jacques

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of different initial conditions on a subsequent fast (ballistic) isometric contraction of the ankle dorsiflexor muscles. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) of dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscles were recorded during ballistic contractions performed without any pre-activation (BAL) and in ballistic contractions preceded by a sustained submaximal contraction (20% MVC) that was followed either by a rapid voluntary relaxation of the agonist muscle (VRBAL) or by a rapid antagonist (reversal) contraction (ARBAL). In the latter condition, three different antagonist torque levels were compared (25, 50 and 75% MVC). The results showed that the mean average rate of torque development was significantly (P < 0.001) greater for the ARBAL condition (968.5 ± 183.9% MVC/s) compared with the VRBAL (509.3 ± 78.7% MVC/s) and BAL (461.8 ± 79.9% MVC/s) conditions. Furthermore, the mean value recorded for VRBAL was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than for BAL condition. The faster increases in torque during the VRBAL and ARBAL conditions were associated with a greater agonist EMG activity. Compared with VRBAL, performance during the ARBAL condition was improved by a greater level of antagonist coactivation and, in some trials, by the presence of a silent EMG period between the end of the antagonist activation and the onset of the agonist ballistic contraction. Together, these results indicate that the initial conditions can have a substantial influence on the rate of torque development during ballistic contractions performed in isometric conditions.

  7. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types. PMID:27404279

  8. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types. PMID:27404279

  9. Influence of carbon structure and mineral association of coals on their combustion characteristics for pulverized coal injection (PCI) application

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Al-Omari, Y.; Sahajwalla, V.; French, D.

    2006-06-15

    The influence of carbon structure and mineral matter of three pulverized coals on their char characteristics including reactivity was studied under a range of combustion conditions in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric (TGA) furnace for PCI application. Physical and chemical properties of coals and their combustion derivatives were characterized by automated reflectogram. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and BET N{sub 2} adsorption. The QEMSCAN{asterisk} technique was used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of minerals of discrete coal particles. The TGA char reactivity was related to the proportion of coal particles displaying strong association of calcium/sulfur phases with carbon matrix to highlight the catalytic influence of minerals on char reactivity at low temperatures. The study suggested that during DTF combustion tests at 1200{sup o}C, char reaction rates might have been catalyzed by coal minerals, particularly due to illite and its association with carbon. Under the same combustion conditions, most of the coal minerals did not transform significantly to slag phases. Coal burnout was found to improve significantly in a combustion temperature range of 1200 to 1500{sup o}C. The improvement of coal burnout with temperature appeared to be influenced by coal properties, particularly as a function of the chemical nature of minerals, as well as the degree of associations with other minerals. The study implies that coals with similar mineral compositions might not necessarily reflect similar combustion behavior due to the differences in their associations with other phases.

  10. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types.

  11. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types.

  12. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional

  13. How the basin characteristics influence the climate change impact on flood frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    Extreme hydrological events are increasing in magnitude and decision-makers expect reliable information on future climate scenarios as a basis for adaption strategies. In this context, identification of measures requires the estimates of changes in the frequency and magnitude of floods. For this purpose, global circulation models (GCMs) may address the matter by providing the climate change scenarios that are used as input for hydrological models. However, for small/medium catchments (<1000 km2) the spatial resolution of GCMs climate scenarios is inadequate for forcing a hydrological model and downscaling techniques are required, e.g. statistical based on bias correction, or dynamical, using regional climate models (RCMs) which are initialized by GCMs. Therefore, the downscaled future time series, reflecting an established scenarios, are used as input in the rainfall-runoff modeling to simulate the hydrological response to climate forcing. Each step in this chain introduces, however, uncertainty mainly for the too many variables involved in the hydrological processes and the reliability of climate change impact studies might be poor. Therefore, the issue could be overcome by capturing the most important hydrological processes that affect the change rather than identify the magnitudes of changes. Based on that, this study addresses the hydrological sensitivity of catchment to climate changes as a function of the soil, land use and topographic characteristic by a procedure based on: 1) downscaling several GCMs climate scenarios using approach, the Quantile Mapping statistics approach in this case; 2) generating long-term hourly time series of rainfall, temperature and discharge through stochastic weather generators and used to initialize a continuous rainfall-runoff model; 3) assessing the changing of frequency of annual maxima rainfall and discharge for the future period. For assessing how the hydrological sensitivity may depends on geomorphological characteristics

  14. Which Morphological Characteristics Are Most Influenced by the Host Matrix in Downy Mildews? A Case Study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  15. Which morphological characteristics are most influenced by the host matrix in downy mildews? A case study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

    PubMed

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  16. Influence of bamboo shoot powder fortification on physico-chemical, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Monisha; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Sit, Nandan; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-10-01

    Bamboo shoot has attracted significant research and a commercial interest due to its many health-promoting bioactive compounds as well as its effectiveness in decreasing blood pressure, cholesterol and increasing appetite. As availability of fresh shoot is limited due to its seasonality there is need of incorporation of nutrients of shoot to any common food product which is easily available throughout year. Shoots of Bambusa balcooa variety were taken and edible parts were separated. Slices of shoot were boiled, dried, powdered, sieved, analysed for nutritional status and used for biscuit making. Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was added in 0 % (control), 5, 10, and 15 % level in dry ingredients by replacing wheat flour and other ingredients were kept constant. Dough prepared are firstly analysed for basic characteristics. Then biscuits were prepared and analyzed for moisture, water activity, protein, fiber, fat, ash, phenolics, antioxidant activity, dimension, hardness, color and sensory acceptability. Variations were observed for fiber, antioxidant activity and phenolics from 1.08 to 1.97 %, 3.50 to 17.85 % and 0.45 to 4.19 mg/100 g respectively. Results showed that up to 10 % fortification level the biscuits were acceptable with improved functional and neutraceutical properties compared to the control.

  17. Influence of horizontally curved roadway section characteristics on motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency.

    PubMed

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Li, Xiaolong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency on horizontally curved roadway sections in Washington State using police-reported crash data linked with roadway data and augmented with barrier presence information. Data included 4915 horizontal curved roadway sections with 252 of these sections experiencing 329 motorcycle-to-barrier crashes between 2002 and 2011. Negative binomial regression was used to predict motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency using horizontal curvature and other roadway characteristics. Based on the model results, the strongest predictor of crash frequency was found to be curve radius. This supports a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure placement criterion based, at the very least, on horizontal curve radius. With respect to the existing horizontal curve criterion of 820 feet or less, curves meeting this criterion were found to increase motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency rate by a factor of 10 compared to curves not meeting this criterion. Other statistically significant predictors were curve length, traffic volume and the location of adjacent curves. Assuming curves of identical radius, the model results suggest that longer curves, those with higher traffic volume, and those that have no adjacent curved sections within 300 feet of either curve end would likely be better candidates for a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure.

  18. Influence of patterning fluctuation on read/write characteristics in discrete track and bit patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Miura, Kenji; Muraoka, Hiroaki; Aoi, Hajime; Wood, Roger; Salo, Michael; Ikeda, Yoshihiro

    The read/write characteristics of non-patterned media (NPM), discrete track media (DTM), and bit patterned media (BPM) are examined by modeling the magnetization distribution of NPM and patterning fluctuation of DTM. By comparing spin-stand measurement with calculation, the magnetization distribution of NPM was well characterized with a new Voronoi cell magnetic cluster model, in which the cluster size at the track edge, < Dedge>, was larger than that at the track center, < Dcenter> by a factor of two. Based on an analysis of patterning fluctuations seen in SEM images of DTM, line-edge roughness (LER) was modeled as a long-wavelength center-line roughness (CLR) plus a short-wavelength line-width roughness (LWR). It was confirmed that the standard deviation of the patterning fluctuation was much smaller than that of the magnetic fluctuation for NPM. This allowed DTM to achieve higher off-track performance than NPM. By examining the 747 curves, it was revealed that DTM could have an advantage in track-density of up to approximately 25% assuming patterning fluctuations can be well controlled at high track density. In BPM, fabricating accurate dots is essential. The relationship between dot defect rate and patterning fluctuation was examined, and the maximum allowable standard deviation of LER was derived as 2 nm for achieving 1 Tbspi.

  19. The influence of short-term exposure to tropical sunlight on boar seminal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbunike, G. N.; Dede, T. I.

    1980-06-01

    The seminal characteristics of 4 Large White boars exposed to direct tropical sunlight 45 min daily for three days were compared to those of their mates that were maintained under shade in the barn. During the period of exposure, both respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased significantly by 276.84 and 5.13% respectively in the exposed over the unexposed boars, thus indicating a high degree of hyperthermia. Although libido, as judged from the reaction time, was unaffected, the ejaculation time appeared to be longer for the stressed than unstressed animals. Gel mass, semen volume and pH appeared to be stable inspite of the treatment, unlike sperm motility and concentration which deteriorated. Also, the dehydrogenase activity of the semen was inferior in the stressed animals. Sperm output per ejaculate dropped drastically only in the week following exposure from 58.22 to 28.42 billion sperm as compared to corresponding values of 54.83 and 47.87 by the unexposed boars. Similarly, the frequency of sperm abnormality was higher in the stressed boars in this period after which the animals appeared to have recovered.

  20. Influence of surface charge, binding site residues and glycosylation on Thielavia terrestris cutinase biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shirke, Abhijit N; Basore, Danielle; Holton, Samantha; Su, An; Baugh, Evan; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Makhatadze, George; Bystroff, Christopher; Gross, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Cutinases are esterases of industrial importance for applications in recycling and surface modification of polyesters. The cutinase from Thielavia terrestris (TtC) is distinct in terms of its ability to retain its stability and activity in acidic pH. Stability and activity in acidic pHs are desirable for esterases as the pH of the reaction tends to go down with the generation of acid. The pH stability and activity are governed by the charged state of the residues involved in catalysis or in substrate binding. In this study, we performed the detailed structural and biochemical characterization of TtC coupled with surface charge analysis to understand its acidic tolerance. The stability of TtC in acidic pH was rationalized by evaluating the contribution of charge interactions to the Gibbs free energy of unfolding at varying pHs. The activity of TtC was found to be limited by substrate binding affinity, which is a function of the surface charge. Additionally, the presence of glycosylation affects the biochemical characteristics of TtC owing to steric interactions with residues involved in substrate binding. PMID:26758295

  1. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species.

  2. Quantitative trait loci influencing chemical and sensory characteristics of eating quality in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A

    1996-02-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876

  3. Mechanism of influence water vapor on combustion characteristics of propane-air mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sachovskii, A. V.; Kozar, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of an experimental study of the effect of water vapor at the flame temperature. Propane-butane mixture with air is burning on a modified Bunsen burner. Steam temperature was varied from 180 to 260 degrees. Combustion parameters changed by steam temperature and its proportion in the mixture with the fuel. The fuel-air mixture is burned in the excess air ratio of 0.1. It has been established that the injection of steam changes the characteristics of combustion fuel-air mixture and increase the combustion temperature. The concentration of CO in the combustion products is substantially reduced. Raising the temperature in the combustion zone is associated with increased enthalpy of the fuel by the added steam enthalpy. Reducing the concentration of CO is caused by decrease in the average temperature in the combustion zone by applying steam. Concentration of active hydrogen radicals and oxygen increases in the combustion zone. That has a positive effect on the process of combustion.

  4. Influence of origin and extraction method on argan oil physico-chemical characteristics and composition.

    PubMed

    Hilali, Miloudi; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soulhi, Abd El Aziz; Hachimi, Larbi; Guillaume, Dominique

    2005-03-23

    Twenty one samples of argan oil of different geographical origin (Tidzi, Tamanar, Benaiznassen, Ait mzal, Ait Baha, Ighrem, Aoulouz) and/or prepared following a different process (traditional, mechanical, or industrial) were collected and their physico-chemical properties analyzed. Sample acidity was found between 0.14 and 1.40%, unsaponifiable matter between 0.34 and 0.79%, saponification value between 180.0 and 199.6, highest peroxide index was 5.72 meq/kg, refractive index (20 degrees C) between 1.4644 and 1.4705, and UV absorption at 270 nm between 0.228 and 0.605. This study, carried out on randomly selected samples, clearly demonstrates that press extraction does not alter either the chemical composition of argan oil or its physico-chemical characteristics. It also demonstrates that press extraction respects the critical factors reported for traditionally prepared oils and necessary to obtain a beneficial effect on human health (a specific fatty acid balance and high tocopherol and sterol levels). In addition, this study should be useful for the establishment of a national quality standard.

  5. Influence of propane additives on the detonation characteristics of H2-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanbing; Bauer, Pascal; Zitoun, Ratiba

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen is more and more considered as a potential fuel for propulsion applications. However, due to its low ignition energy and wide flammability limits, H2-air mixtures raise a concern in terms of safety. This aspect can be partly solved by adding an alkane to these mixtures, which plays the role of an inhibitor. The present paper provides data on such binary fuel-air mixtures where various amounts of propane are added to hydrogen. The behavior of the corresponding mixtures, in terms of detonation characteristics and other fundamental properties, such as the cell size of the detonation front and induction delay, are presented and discussed for a series of equivalence ratios and propane addition. The experimental detonation velocity is in good agreement with calculated theoretical Chapman-Jouguet values. Based on soot tracks records, the cell size λ is measured, whereas the induction length L i is derived from data using a GRI-Mech kinetic mechanism. These data allow providing a value of the coefficient K = λ/L i .

  6. The influence of word characteristics on the vocabulary of children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Kyung; Storkel, Holly L; Lee, Jaehoon; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of phonotactic probability, word length, word frequency, and neighborhood density on the words known by children with cochlear implants (CIs) varying in vocabulary outcomes in a retrospective analysis of a subset of data from a longitudinal study of hearing loss. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to examine the effects of these word characteristics at 3 time points: preimplant, postimplant, and longitudinal follow-up. Results showed a robust effect of neighborhood density across group and time, whereas the effect of frequency varied by time. Significant effects of phonotactic probability or word length were not detected. Taken together, these findings suggest that children with CIs may be able to use spoken language structure in a manner similar to their normal hearing counterparts, despite the differences in the quality of the input. The differences in the effects of phonotactic probability and word length imply a difficulty in initiating word learning and limited working memory ability in children with CIs.

  7. Influence of addition of alkali metal compounds to calcium carbonate on desulfurization characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Ichiro; Saito, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Takahiro

    1999-07-01

    Limestone is currently supplied as a desulfurizer into bubbling and circulating fluidized bed coal combustors since both combustors are operated at the temperature ranged from 1,073 to 1,173 K, where limestone can be calcined and sulfurized optimally. In the practical boilers, however, the limestone particles are fed to the combustor excessively since the utilization efficiency of CaO produced by the calcination of limestone is low. On the other hand, many kinds of sea-shell are clarified as one of industrial wastes, and also consist of CaCO{sub 3} similar to limestone. Therefore it would be possible for wasted sea-shell to be applied to one of the desulfurizers. In this case the CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of the shell is fixed and recycled naturally in obedience to the ecological law. From this viewpoint, desulfurization characteristics of wasted sea shell have been already studied fundamentally by using a thermobalance as compared with the results obtained by limestone. The results obtained by this study are summarized as follows. (1) The desulfurization activity for wasted sea-shell is much higher than that for limestone. (2) Even if the alkali metal compounds are partially removed from the sea shell, the desulfurization efficiency does not change. (3) The desulfurization activity can be enhanced by adding alkali metal compounds to limestone. Sodium compounds are more effective on the desulfurization efficiency than potassium compounds. Sodium chloride is the best agent among them.

  8. Influence of study design in receiver operating characteristics studies: sequential versus independent reading.

    PubMed

    Schalekamp, Steven; van Ginneken, Bram; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-04-01

    Observer studies to assess new image processing devices or computer-aided diagnosis techniques are often performed, but little is known about the effect of the study design on observer performance results. We investigated the effect of the sequential and independent reading design on observer study results with respect to reader performance and their statistical power. For this we performed an observer study for the detection of lung nodules with bone-suppressed images (BSIs) compared with original chest radiographs. In a fully crossed observer study, eight observers assessed a series of 300 radiographs four times, including one assessment of the original radiograph with sequential BSI and two independent reading sessions with BSI. Observer performance was compared using multireader multicase receiver operating characteristics. No significant difference between the effect of BSI in the sequential and the independent reading sessions could be found ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]). Compared with the original radiographs, increased performance with BSI was significant in the sequential and one of the independent reading sessions ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), and nonsignificant in the other independent reading session ([Formula: see text]). A strong increase of uncorrelated variance components was found in the independent reading sessions, masking the ability to demonstrate differences in observer performance across modalities. Therefore, the sequential reading design is the preferred design because it is less burdensome and has more statistical power.

  9. Rheology, fatty acid profile and storage characteristics of cookies as influenced by flax seed (Linum usitatissimum).

    PubMed

    Rajiv, Jyotsna; Indrani, Dasappa; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2012-10-01

    Flaxseed is a versatile functional ingredient owing to its unique nutrient profile. Studies on the effect of substitution of roasted and ground flaxseed (RGF) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% level on the wheat flour dough properties showed that amylograph peak viscosity, farinograph dough stability, extensograph resistance to extension and extensibility values decreased with the increase in the substitution of RGF from 0-20%. The cookie baking test showed a marginal decrease in spread ratio but beyond substitution of 15% RGF the texture and flavour of the cookies was adversely affected. The data on storage characteristics of control and cookies with 15% RGF showed no significant change with respect to acidity of extracted fat and peroxide values due to storage of cookies upto 90 days in metallised polyester pouches at ambient conditions. The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid profile indicated that the control cookies contained negligible linolenic acid and the flaxseed cookies contained 4.75 to 5.31% of linolenic acid which showed a marginal decrease over storage. Hence flaxseed could be used as a source of omega-3-fatty acid.

  10. Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Influence of bamboo shoot powder fortification on physico-chemical, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Monisha; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Sit, Nandan; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-10-01

    Bamboo shoot has attracted significant research and a commercial interest due to its many health-promoting bioactive compounds as well as its effectiveness in decreasing blood pressure, cholesterol and increasing appetite. As availability of fresh shoot is limited due to its seasonality there is need of incorporation of nutrients of shoot to any common food product which is easily available throughout year. Shoots of Bambusa balcooa variety were taken and edible parts were separated. Slices of shoot were boiled, dried, powdered, sieved, analysed for nutritional status and used for biscuit making. Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was added in 0 % (control), 5, 10, and 15 % level in dry ingredients by replacing wheat flour and other ingredients were kept constant. Dough prepared are firstly analysed for basic characteristics. Then biscuits were prepared and analyzed for moisture, water activity, protein, fiber, fat, ash, phenolics, antioxidant activity, dimension, hardness, color and sensory acceptability. Variations were observed for fiber, antioxidant activity and phenolics from 1.08 to 1.97 %, 3.50 to 17.85 % and 0.45 to 4.19 mg/100 g respectively. Results showed that up to 10 % fortification level the biscuits were acceptable with improved functional and neutraceutical properties compared to the control. PMID:26396424

  12. Oviposition by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: influence of congeners and of oviposition site characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Connell, Sheila M

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the oviposition behavior of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In particular we examined whether small-scale site characteristics and the presence of conspecifics or congeners altered oviposition by these mosquitoes. Various combinations of females of the two species were allowed to oviposit inside cages among either vegetation (potted plants) or structural components (wood and concrete blocks). Numbers of eggs deposited per female were compared between species, sides, and treatments. Most significant differences between treatments and species involved differences between single species and mixed species treatments. Ae. aegypti deposited more eggs/female in the vegetation side than in the structure side whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti females had higher frequency of skip oviposition than Ae. albopictus. An average of 63% of the containers in the two-species treatments contained eggs of both species, with more frequent joint occurrences observed in the treatment with three females of each species than in the treatments with one of each. Our results point to the existence of various interactions between gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females at or near the oviposition sites but further experimental work is necessary to fully characterize the interactions and their specific mechanisms.

  13. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andrew C.; Hann, Mark; Ashcroft, Daren M.

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England. Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS) statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations. Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin. PMID:25126140

  14. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  15. Influence of bacterial dynamics upon the final characteristics of model Portuguese traditional cheeses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia I; Graça, João A; Ogando, Natacha S; Gomes, Ana M P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The microbiological profile in raw milk cheeses is typically characterized by a multitude of microbial groups, with interactions among them throughout ripening that are not fully understood to date. Incidence of undesired microorganisms in raw cheesemaking milk, as is the case of either spoilage or even pathogenic ones, is a common trait in Portuguese traditional cheeses. Hence, they will likely contribute to the physicochemical changes occurring therein and, consequently, to the characteristics of the final product. In order to gain insight into their role, model cheese systems, manufactured as far as possible according to artisanal practices (except that the initial microbial load and biodiversity were controlled), were experimentally tested. Single contaminants, or a consortium thereof, were inoculated at two levels in sterilized raw ewe's milk, and duly combined with inocula containing one or two lactic acid bacteria normally found in those traditional cheeses. The physicochemical composition, organic acid profile, and evolution of both protein breakdown and rheology were monitored throughout a 60 d-ripening period. Modifications brought about within the cheese matrix as a result of microbial metabolism, especially those arising from the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and unwanted microorganisms, included the enhanced release of peptides and free amino acids, which in turn led to higher viscoelastic moduli. The final model cheeses could be well discriminated, based on the impact of the various inocula considered upon the levels of organic acids. Conversely, proteolysis and viscoelastic properties appeared to be essentially independent of the initial microflora.

  16. Influence of frequency on the characteristics of VHF capacitively coupled plasmas in a 300 mm chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, G. A.; Barnat, E. V.; Miller, P. A.; Paterson, A.; Holland, J.; Lill, T.

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of VHF capacitively coupled plasmas produced in a modified Applied Materials chamber. The chamber had a 14-inch diameter upper electrode (source) that was driven at 10 to 160 MHz and a 300 mm diameter electrostatic chuck with a ceramic process kit that was driven at 13.56 MHz (bias). Diagnostics employed include a microwave interferometer to measure the line-integrated electron density, a hairpin microwave resonator to measure the spatially resolved electron density, absorption spectroscopy to determine the argon metastable temperature and density, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to determine the spatial distribution of the excited species, and spatially resolved optical emission. We found that for constant source rf power, the electron density increased with rf frequency. The argon 1s5 metastable temperature was slightly above room temperature (300 - 400K), significantly cooler than our previous measurements in inductively coupled plasmas. The metastable density was not a strong function of source frequency or rf power. The metastable spatial distribution was always peaked in the center of the chamber and had a weak dependence on frequency. Scaling of the plasma parameters with frequency, power and pressure, and implications to energy deposition models will be discussed. This work was supported by Applied Materials and Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: Influence of salt content and processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Andrés, A I; Cava, R; Ventanas, J; Thovar, V; Ruiz, J

    2004-09-01

    Sensory characteristics of Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles from 24 dry-cured Iberian hams were assessed. Hams were salted with different amounts of salt (6% and 3% w/w) and then ripened at different temperature conditions (traditional processing vs. modified processing). Hams manufactured using modified processing showed higher scores for dryness (P<0.05), hardness (P<0.05) and rancid flavour (P<0.001) in the Semimembranosus muscle than those processed in a traditional way. The Biceps femoris muscle of hams salted with 6% of salt was drier (P<0.05), harder (P<0.05) and more fibrous (P<0.01) than in hams salted with 3% salt. Salty taste was more intense in the Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris from hams with a higher level of salt (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). A more intense rancidity in hams ripened in modified processing could affect the overall aroma. A decrease in salt content produces less salty hams, but the changes in texture traits should be also considered.

  18. Characteristics and Gel Properties of Gelatin from Goat Skin as Influenced by Alkaline-pretreatment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mad-Ali, Sulaiman; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics and properties of gelatin from goat skin pretreated with NaOH solutions (0.50 and 0.75 M) for various times (1 to 4 days) were investigated. All gelatins contained α-chains as the predominant component, followed by β-chain. Gelling and melting temperatures of those gelatins were 23.02°C to 24.16°C and 33.07°C to 34.51°C, respectively. Gel strength of gelatins increased as NaOH concentration and pretreatment time increased (p<0.05). Pretreatment for a longer time yielded gelatin with a decrease in L*-value but an increase in b*-value. Pretreatment of goat skin using 0.75 M NaOH for 2 days rendered the highest yield (15.95%, wet weight basis) as well as high gel strength (222.42 g), which was higher than bovine gelatin (199.15 g). Gelatin obtained had the imino acid content of 226 residues/1,000 residues and the gelatin gel had a fine and ordered structure. Therefore, goat skin gelatin could be used as a potential replacer of commercial gelatin. PMID:26954127

  19. Roadside bear viewing opportunities in Yellowstone National Park: characteristics, trends, and influence of whitebark pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for viewing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) from roadways in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have increased in recent years. Unlike the panhandling bears common prior to the 1970s, current viewing usually involves bears feeding on natural foods. We define roadside bear viewing opportunities that cause traffic congestion as ‘‘bear-jams.’’ We investigated characteristics of bear-jams and their frequency relative to whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) cone production, an important fall food for bears, during 1990–2004. We observed a difference in diel distribution of bear-jams between species (x2=70.609, 4 df, P<0.001) with the occurrence of grizzly bear-jams being more crepuscular. We found evidence for decreasing distances between bears and roadways and increasing durations of bears-jams. The annual proportion of bear-jams for both species occurring after the week of 13–19 August were 3–4 times higher during poor cone crop years than good. We suggest that native foods found in road corridors may be especially important to some individual bears during years exhibiting poor whitebark pine crops. We discuss management implications of threats to whitebark pine and increasing habituation of bears to people.

  20. Oviposition by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: influence of congeners and of oviposition site characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Connell, Sheila M

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the oviposition behavior of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In particular we examined whether small-scale site characteristics and the presence of conspecifics or congeners altered oviposition by these mosquitoes. Various combinations of females of the two species were allowed to oviposit inside cages among either vegetation (potted plants) or structural components (wood and concrete blocks). Numbers of eggs deposited per female were compared between species, sides, and treatments. Most significant differences between treatments and species involved differences between single species and mixed species treatments. Ae. aegypti deposited more eggs/female in the vegetation side than in the structure side whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti females had higher frequency of skip oviposition than Ae. albopictus. An average of 63% of the containers in the two-species treatments contained eggs of both species, with more frequent joint occurrences observed in the treatment with three females of each species than in the treatments with one of each. Our results point to the existence of various interactions between gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females at or near the oviposition sites but further experimental work is necessary to fully characterize the interactions and their specific mechanisms. PMID:24820572

  1. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  2. Vehicle and driving characteristics that influence in-cabin particle number concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J; Fruin, Scott A

    2011-10-15

    In-transit microenvironments experience elevated levels of vehicle-related pollutants such as ultrafine particles. However, in-vehicle particle number concentrations are frequently lower than on-road concentrations due to particle losses inside vehicles. Particle concentration reduction occurs due to a complicated interplay between a vehicle's air-exchange rate (AER), which determines particle influx rate, and particle losses due to surfaces and the in-cabin air filter. Accurate determination of inside-to-outside particle concentration ratios is best made under realistic aerodynamic and AER conditions because these ratios and AER are determined by vehicle speed and ventilation preference, in addition to vehicle characteristics such as age. In this study, 6 vehicles were tested at 76 combinations of driving speeds, ventilation conditions (i.e., outside air or recirculation), and fan settings. Under recirculation conditions, particle number attenuation (number reduction for 10-1000 nm particles) averaged 0.83 ± 0.13 and was strongly negatively correlated with increasing AER, which in turn depended on speed and the age of the vehicle. Under outside air conditions, attenuation averaged 0.33 ± 0.10 and primarily decreased at higher fan settings that increased AER. In general, in-cabin particle number reductions did not vary strongly with particle size, and cabin filters exhibited low removal efficiencies. PMID:21928803

  3. Influence of silicon dioxide capping layers on pore characteristics in nanocrystalline silicon membranes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chengzhu; Striemer, Christopher C; Gaborski, Thomas R; McGrath, James L; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2015-02-01

    Porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) membranes are a new class of membrane material with promising applications in biological separations. Pores are formed in a silicon film sandwiched between nm thick silicon dioxide layers during rapid thermal annealing. Controlling pore size is critical in the size-dependent separation applications. In this work, we systematically studied the influence of the silicon dioxide capping layers on pnc-Si membranes. Even a single nm thick top oxide layer is enough to switch from agglomeration to pore formation after annealing. Both the pore size and porosity increase with the thickness of the top oxide, but quickly reach a plateau after 10 nm of oxide. The bottom oxide layer acts as a barrier layer to prevent the a-Si film from undergoing homo-epitaxial growth during annealing. Both the pore size and porosity decrease as the thickness of the bottom oxide layer increases to 100 nm. The decrease of the pore size and porosity is correlated with the increased roughness of the bottom oxide layer, which hinders nanocrystal nucleation and nanopore formation.

  4. Role of Alternative Fuels on Particulate Matter (PM) Characteristics and Influence of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Mohammed A; Herreros, Jose M; Martos, Francisco J; Tsolakis, Athanasios

    2015-10-01

    The influence of a platinum:palladium (Pt:Pd)-based diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions morphology and structure from the combustion of alternative fuels (including alcohol-diesel blends and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel) was studied. PM size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particulate spectrometer (SMPS), and the PM morphology and microstructure (including size distribution, fractal geometry, and number of primary particles) was obtained using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that the DOC does not modify the size or the microstructural parameters of the primary particulates that make up the soot agglomerates. The PM reduction seen in the DOC is due to the trapping effect, and oxidation of the PM's volatile components. The DOC performance in reducing gaseous (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (HCs)) and PM emissions at low exhaust temperatures was improved from the combustion of alternative fuels due to the reduced level of engine-out pollutants.

  5. Organic contaminant release from melting snow. 2. Influence of snow pack and melt characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Muradi, Ibrahim; Wania, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Large reservoirs of organic contaminants in seasonal snowpack can be released in short pulses during spring snowmelt, potentially impacting the receiving ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using artificial snow spiked with organic target substances were conducted to investigate the behavior of six organic contaminants with widely variable distribution properties in melting snow. Whereas the influence of a chemical's equilibrium phase partitioning on the elution behavior is explored in a companion paper, we discuss here the impact of snow properties and melt features, including the snowpack depth, the temperature at the interface between soil and snow, the meltwater content the internal ice surface area, and the existence of distinct snow layers. Water-soluble organic substances are released in high concentrations at the beginning of a melt period when a deep and aged snowpack undergoes intense melting. Warm ground can cause notable melting at the snow bottom leading to a delayed and dampened concentration peak. Hydraulic barriers in layered snow packs cause preferential meltwater flow which also mitigates the early contaminant flush. Hydrophobic organic pollutants that are associated with particles accumulate near the snow surface and are released at the end of melting. Dirt cones at the surface of a dense snowpack enhance this enrichment. The findings of this laboratory study will aid in the understanding of the behavior of organic pollutants during the melting of more complex, natural snow covers.

  6. Do Hospital Characteristics Influence Cancer-Specific Survival for Early Stage Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    David, Elizabeth A; Chen, Yingjia; Cooke, David T; Perry, Andrew; Canter, Robert J; Cress, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of oncologic outcomes is of paramount importance in the care of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to evaluate the relationship of hospital volume for lobectomy on cancer-specific survival in NSCLC patients treated in California, as well as the influence of Committee on Cancer (CoC) accreditation. Methods The California Cancer Registry was queried from 2004–2011 for cases of Stage I NSCLC and 8,345 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was used to determine prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. Results 7,587 patients were treated surgically. CoC accreditation was not significant for cancer-specific survival, but treatment in high volume centers was associated with longer survival when compared to low and medium volume centers (HR 1.77, 1.474–2.141 and HR 1.23, 1.058–1.438). Conclusions These data suggest that surgical treatment in high volume hospitals is associated with longer cancer-specific survival for early-stage NSCLC, but that CoC accreditation is not. PMID:26193801

  7. Influence on disease spread dynamics of herd characteristics in a structured livestock industry.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Tom; Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2012-06-01

    Studies of between-herd contacts may provide important insight to disease transmission dynamics. By comparing the result from models with different levels of detail in the description of animal movement, we studied how factors influence the final epidemic size as well as the dynamic behaviour of an outbreak. We investigated the effect of contact heterogeneity of pig herds in Sweden due to herd size, between-herd distance and production type. Our comparative study suggests that the production-type structure is the most influential factor. Hence, our results imply that production type is the most important factor to obtain valid data for and include when modelling and analysing this system. The study also revealed that all included factors reduce the final epidemic size and also have yet more diverse effects on initial rate of disease spread. This implies that a large set of factors ought to be included to assess relevant predictions when modelling disease spread between herds. Furthermore, our results show that a more detailed model changes predictions regarding the variability in the outbreak dynamics and conclude that this is an important factor to consider in risk assessment.

  8. Behavioral and neurobiological characteristics influencing social hierarchy formation in female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Riddick, N V; Czoty, P W; Gage, H D; Kaplan, J R; Nader, S H; Icenhower, M; Pierre, P J; Bennett, A; Garg, P K; Garg, S; Nader, M A

    2009-02-18

    Socially housed monkeys have been used as a model to study human diseases. The present study examined behavioral, physiological and neurochemical measures as predictors of social rank in 16 experimentally naïve, individually housed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The two behavioral measures examined were novel object reactivity (NOR), as determined by latency to touch an opaque acrylic box placed in the home cage, and locomotor activity assessed in a novel open-field apparatus. Serum cortisol concentrations were evaluated three times per week for four consecutive weeks, and stress reactivity was assessed on one occasion by evaluating the cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) following dexamethasone suppression. Measures of serotonin (5-HT) function included whole blood 5-HT (WBS) concentrations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and brain 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability obtained using positron emission tomography (PET). After baseline measures were obtained, monkeys were assigned to four social groups of four monkeys per group. The two measures that correlated with eventual social rank were CSF 5-HIAA concentrations, which were significantly higher in the animals who eventually became subordinate, and latency to touch the novel object, which was significantly lower in eventual subordinate monkeys. Measures of 5-HT function did not change as a consequence of social rank. These data suggest that levels of central 5-HIAA and measures of novel object reactivity may be trait markers that influence eventual social rank in female macaques. PMID:19059311

  9. Influence of salt content and processing time on sensory characteristics of cooked "lacón".

    PubMed

    Purriños, Laura; Bermúdez, Roberto; Temperán, Sara; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-04-01

    The influence of salt content and processing time on the sensory properties of cooked "lacón" were determined. "Lacón" is a traditional dry-cured and ripened meat product made in the north-west of Spain from the fore leg of the pig, following a similar process to that of dry-cured ham. Six batches of "lacón" were salted with different amounts of salt (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)) and ripened during two times (56 and 84 days of dry-ripening). Cured odour in all batches studied, red colour and rancid odour in MS and HS batches, flavour intensity in MS batch and fat yellowness, rancid flavour and hardness in the HS batch were significantly different with respect to the time of processing. Appearance, odour, flavour and texture were not significantly affected by the salt content (P>0.05). However, the saltiness score showed significant differences with respect to the salt levels in all studied batches (56 and 84 days of process). The principal component analysis showed that physicochemical traits were the most important ones concerning the quality of dry-cured "lacón" and offered a good separation of the mean samples according to the dry ripening days and salt level. PMID:21168978

  10. Interaction of triprolidine hydrochloride with serum albumins: thermodynamic and binding characteristics, and influence of site probes.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, B; Hegde, Ashwini H; Kalanur, Shankara S; Katrahalli, Umesha; Seetharamappa, J

    2011-04-01

    The interaction between triprolidine hydrochloride (TRP) to serum albumins viz. bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results revealed the static quenching mechanism in the interaction of TRP with protein. The number of binding sites close to unity for both TRP-BSA and TRP-HSA indicated the presence of single class of binding site for the drug in protein. The binding constant values of TRP-BSA and TRP-HSA were observed to be 4.75 ± 0.018 × 10(3) and 2.42 ± 0.024 × 10(4)M(-1) at 294 K, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces played the major role in the binding of TRP to proteins. The distance of separation between the serum albumin and TRP was obtained from the Förster's theory of non-radioactive energy transfer. The metal ions viz., K(+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) were found to influence the binding of the drug to protein. Displacement experiments indicated the binding of TRP to Sudlow's site I on both BSA and HSA. The CD, 3D fluorescence spectra and FT-IR spectral results revealed the changes in the secondary structure of protein upon interaction with TRP.

  11. Flow Scales of Influence on the Settling Velocities of Particles with Varying Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Corrine N.; Merchant, Wilmot; Jendrassak, Marek; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Gurka, Roi; Hackett, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle image velocimetry and 2D particle tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles’ trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4–123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investigated turbulence conditions. The smallest particles’ normalized settling velocities exhibited the most consistent trends when plotted versus the Kolmogorov-based Stokes numbers suggesting that the dissipative scales influence their dynamics. In contrast, the mid-sized particles were better characterized with a Stokes number based on the integral time scale. The largest particles were largely unaffected by the flow conditions. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), the flow pattern scales are compared to particle trajectory curvature to complement results obtained through dimensional analysis using Stokes numbers. The smallest particles are found to have trajectories with curvatures of similar scale as the small flow scales (higher POD modes) whilst mid-sized particle trajectories had curvatures that were similar to the larger flow patterns (lower POD modes). The curvature trajectories of the largest particles did not correspond to any particular flow pattern scale suggesting that their trajectories were more random. These results provide experimental evidence of the “fast tracking” theory of settling velocity enhancement in turbulence and demonstrate that particles align themselves with flow scales in proportion to their size. PMID:27513958

  12. Flow Scales of Influence on the Settling Velocities of Particles with Varying Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Corrine N; Merchant, Wilmot; Jendrassak, Marek; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Gurka, Roi; Hackett, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle image velocimetry and 2D particle tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles' trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4-123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investigated turbulence conditions. The smallest particles' normalized settling velocities exhibited the most consistent trends when plotted versus the Kolmogorov-based Stokes numbers suggesting that the dissipative scales influence their dynamics. In contrast, the mid-sized particles were better characterized with a Stokes number based on the integral time scale. The largest particles were largely unaffected by the flow conditions. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), the flow pattern scales are compared to particle trajectory curvature to complement results obtained through dimensional analysis using Stokes numbers. The smallest particles are found to have trajectories with curvatures of similar scale as the small flow scales (higher POD modes) whilst mid-sized particle trajectories had curvatures that were similar to the larger flow patterns (lower POD modes). The curvature trajectories of the largest particles did not correspond to any particular flow pattern scale suggesting that their trajectories were more random. These results provide experimental evidence of the "fast tracking" theory of settling velocity enhancement in turbulence and demonstrate that particles align themselves with flow scales in proportion to their size. PMID:27513958

  13. Role of Alternative Fuels on Particulate Matter (PM) Characteristics and Influence of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Mohammed A; Herreros, Jose M; Martos, Francisco J; Tsolakis, Athanasios

    2015-10-01

    The influence of a platinum:palladium (Pt:Pd)-based diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions morphology and structure from the combustion of alternative fuels (including alcohol-diesel blends and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel) was studied. PM size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particulate spectrometer (SMPS), and the PM morphology and microstructure (including size distribution, fractal geometry, and number of primary particles) was obtained using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that the DOC does not modify the size or the microstructural parameters of the primary particulates that make up the soot agglomerates. The PM reduction seen in the DOC is due to the trapping effect, and oxidation of the PM's volatile components. The DOC performance in reducing gaseous (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (HCs)) and PM emissions at low exhaust temperatures was improved from the combustion of alternative fuels due to the reduced level of engine-out pollutants. PMID:26332642

  14. Does the liposuction method influence the phenotypic characteristic of human adipose-derived stem cells?

    PubMed Central

    Bajek, Anna; Gurtowska, Natalia; Gackowska, Lidia; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszałek, Andrzej; Januszewski, Rafał; Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) possess a high differentiation and proliferation potential. However, the phenotypic characterization of ASCs is still difficult. Until now, there is no extensive analysis of ASCs markers depending on different liposuction methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse 242 surface markers and determine the differences in the phenotypic pattern between ASCs obtained during mechanical and ultrasound-assisted liposuction. ASCs were isolated from healthy donors, due to mechanical and ultrasound-assisted liposuction and cultured in standard medium to the second passage. Differentiation potential and markers expression was evaluated to confirm the mesenchymal nature of cells. Then, the BD LyoplateTM Human Cell Surface Marker Screening Panel was used. Results shown that both population of ASCs are characterized by high expression of markers specific for ASCs: cluster of differentiation (CD)9, CD10, CD34, CD44, CD49d, CD54, CD55, CD59, CD71 and low expression of CD11a, CD11c and CD144. Moreover, we have noticed significant differences in antigen expression in 58 markers from the 242 studied. Presented study shows for the first time that different liposuction methods are not a significant factor which can influence the expression of human ASCs surface markers. PMID:26182374

  15. [Variation characteristic in soil respiration of apple orchard and its biotic and abiotic influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Liu, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Ru-Jian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the orchard variability of soil respiration and the response of soil respiration to its influencing factors is helpful for a deep understanding about the effects of converting cropland to apple orchard. A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station. Soil respiration, soil temperature, soil moisture and roots biomasses were periodically measured in a mature apple orchard during 2011 and 2012. Soil respiration decreased as the distance from the trunk increased. The cumulative soil respiration in the 0.5 m-distance from the trunk was 20% and 31% higher than that in the 2 m-distance from the trunk, respectively in 2011 and 2012. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was relatively lower in the 2 m-distance than that in the 0. 5 m-distance in both years. Soil temperature and soil moisture were slightly higher in the 2 m-distance, but there was no significant difference between the 2 m-distance and the 0. 5 m-distance. Soil respiration and soil temperature showed a significant exponential relationship, but there was no positive correlation between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature changes can explain seasonal variation of soil respiration well, but it could not explain its spatial variability. Root density was an important factor for the spatial variability of soil respiration and Q15. Variation of soil respiration coefficient was 23% -31%. Therefore, the distance from the trunk should be considered when estimating orchards soil respiration.

  16. Influence of pulse duration on the plasma characteristics in high-power pulsed magnetron discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinidis, S.; Dauchot, J.P.; Ganciu, M.; Ricard, A.; Hecq, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-power pulsed magnetron discharges have drawn an increasing interest as an approach to produce highly ionized metallic vapor. In this paper we propose to study how the plasma composition and the deposition rate are influenced by the pulse duration. The plasma is studied by time-resolved optical emission and absorption spectroscopies and the deposition rate is controlled thanks to a quartz microbalance. The pulse length is varied between 2.5 and 20 {mu}s at 2 and 10 mTorr in pure argon. The sputtered material is titanium. For a constant discharge power, the deposition rate increases as the pulse length decreases. With 5 {mu}s pulse, for an average power of 300 W, the deposition rate is {approx}70% of the deposition rate obtained in direct current magnetron sputtering at the same power. The increase of deposition rate can be related to the sputtering regime. For long pulses, self-sputtering seems to occur as demonstrated by time-resolved optical emission diagnostic of the discharge. In contrary, the metallic vapor ionization rate, as determined by absorption measurements, diminishes as the pulses are shortened. Nevertheless, the ionization rate is in the range of 50% for 5 {mu}s pulses while it lies below 10% in the case of a classical continuous magnetron discharge.

  17. Organic contaminant release from melting snow. 2. Influence of snow pack and melt characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Muradi, Ibrahim; Wania, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Large reservoirs of organic contaminants in seasonal snowpack can be released in short pulses during spring snowmelt, potentially impacting the receiving ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using artificial snow spiked with organic target substances were conducted to investigate the behavior of six organic contaminants with widely variable distribution properties in melting snow. Whereas the influence of a chemical's equilibrium phase partitioning on the elution behavior is explored in a companion paper, we discuss here the impact of snow properties and melt features, including the snowpack depth, the temperature at the interface between soil and snow, the meltwater content the internal ice surface area, and the existence of distinct snow layers. Water-soluble organic substances are released in high concentrations at the beginning of a melt period when a deep and aged snowpack undergoes intense melting. Warm ground can cause notable melting at the snow bottom leading to a delayed and dampened concentration peak. Hydraulic barriers in layered snow packs cause preferential meltwater flow which also mitigates the early contaminant flush. Hydrophobic organic pollutants that are associated with particles accumulate near the snow surface and are released at the end of melting. Dirt cones at the surface of a dense snowpack enhance this enrichment. The findings of this laboratory study will aid in the understanding of the behavior of organic pollutants during the melting of more complex, natural snow covers. PMID:19244999

  18. Influence of cell surface characteristics on adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the biomaterial hydroxylapatite.

    PubMed

    White, Jane S; Walker, Graeme M

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the physicochemical properties of biomaterials on microbial cell adhesion is well known, with the extent of adhesion depending on hydrophobicity, surface charge, specific functional groups and acid-base properties. Regarding yeasts, the effect of cell surfaces is often overlooked, despite the fact that generalisations may not be made between closely related strains. The current investigation compared adhesion of three industrially relevant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (M-type, NCYC 1681 and ALY, strains used in production of Scotch whisky, ale and lager, respectively) to the biomaterial hydroxylapatite (HAP). Adhesion of the whisky yeast was greatest, followed by the ale strain, while adhesion of the lager strain was approximately 10-times less. According to microbial adhesion to solvents (MATS) analysis, the ale strain was hydrophobic while the whisky and lager strains were moderately hydrophilic. This contrasted with analyses of water contact angles where all strains were characterised as hydrophilic. All yeast strains were electron donating, with low electron accepting potential, as indicated by both surface energy and MATS analysis. Overall, there was a linear correlation between adhesion to HAP and the overall surface free energy of the yeasts. This is the first time that the relationship between yeast cell surface energy and adherence to a biomaterial has been described.

  19. Soil characteristics more strongly influence soil bacterial communities than land-use type.

    PubMed

    Kuramae, Eiko E; Yergeau, Etienne; Wong, Lina C; Pijl, Agata S; van Veen, Johannes A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the factors driving the structure of bacterial communities in soil, we applied real-time PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses, and phylogenetic microarray approaches targeting the 16S rRNA gene across a range of different land usages in the Netherlands. We observed that the main differences in the bacterial communities were not related to land-use type, but rather to soil factors. An exception was the bacterial community of pine forest soils (PFS), which was clearly different from all other sites. PFS had lowest bacterial abundance, lowest numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), lowest soil pH, and highest C : N ratios. C : N ratio strongly influenced bacterial community structure and was the main factor separating PFS from other fields. For the sites other than PFS, phosphate was the most important factor explaining the differences in bacterial communities across fields. Firmicutes were the most dominant group in almost all fields, except in PFS and deciduous forest soils (DFS). In PFS, Alphaproteobacteria was most represented, while in DFS, Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were both highly represented. Interestingly, Bacillii and Clostridium OTUs correlated with pH and phosphate, which might explain their high abundance across many of the Dutch soils. Numerous bacterial groups were highly correlated with specific soil factors, suggesting that they might be useful as indicators of soil status.

  20. Influence of Physiochemical and watershed characteristics on mercury concentration in walleye, Sander vitreus, M.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, Cari-Ann; Chipps, Steven R.; Stone, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentration has been documented in a variety of fish and is a growing concern for human consumption. Here, we explore the influence of physiochemical and watershed attributes on mercury concentration in walleye (Sander vitreus, M.) from natural, glacial lakes in South Dakota. Regression analysis showed that water quality attributes were poor predictors of walleye mercury concentration (R2 = 0.57, p = 0.13). In contrast, models based on watershed features (e.g., lake level changes, watershed slope, agricultural land, wetlands) and local habitat features (i.e., substrate composition, maximum lake depth) explained 81% (p = 0.001) and 80% (p = 0.002) of the variation in walleye mercury concentration. Using an information theoretic approach we evaluated hypotheses related to water quality, physical habitat and watershed features. The best model explaining variation in walleye mercury concentration included local habitat features (Wi = 0.991). These results show that physical habitat and watershed features were better predictors of walleye mercury concentration than water chemistry in glacial lakes of the Northern Great Plains.

  1. The spatiotemporal characteristics of soil physio-chemical parameters and their influence on cotton growth under mulched drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of the physio-chemical parameters of soil and their impacts on crop growth are the key issues affecting precision agriculture. However, quantitative research in cotton fields under mulched drip irrigation is rare. One hundred experimental plots (6 m× 6 m) were set up for the above purpose in an agricultural experimental field in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Soil samples were collected to measure the soil texture, moisture and salinity at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 cm in the near-tape zone and the inter-film zone in each experimental plot in March, April, June and September of 2012. The number and height of the cotton plants in June and the yield of cotton in September were also surveyed in 3 sample units (75 cm × 75 cm) in each experimental plot. The results indicate that the soil composition of clay and silt was highest at a soil depth of 5 to 20 cm due to the cultivation practices, and the Cv (coefficient of variation) values of soil texture increased with depth. The spring flush led to an 8% decrease in soil salinity and reduced the Cv values of soil salinity, soil moisture and soil texture. The Cv values of soil salinity and soil moisture increased as mulched drip irrigation was applied. The Cv values of soil salinity and moisture under the near tape zone were higher than under the interfilm zone; the difference was up to twofold in September. The validity of a theoretical semivariogram model of soil moisture is greater than that of texture, soil salinity and crop trait when comparing the estimation of the theoretical semivariogram with measured values. The influence of soil physiochemical characteristics on the number of cotton plants is largest in April, and their influence on the height of cotton plants is greatest in June. However, the influence of soil physiochemical characteristics on cotton yield is smaller than that on cotton number and height in April and June. The soil salt under the near tape

  2. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    PubMed

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P < 0.05) on seminal and testicular characteristics of rams, more noticeably observed at the 5% DM inclusion rate than at 3%. These results were manifested by the inferior (P < 0.05) seminal quality, reduced (P < 0.05) testicular morphometry, changes (P < 0.05) in testicular histopathology, defective (P < 0.05) endocrine signaling, and increased (P < 0.05) seminal oxidative stress in rams fed diets supplemented with Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to

  3. Influences on Bythotrephes longimanus life-history characteristics in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Warner, David M.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Nalepa, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    We compared Bythotrephes population demographics and dynamics to predator (planktivorous fish) and prey (small-bodied crustacean zooplankton) densities at a site sampled through the growing season in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. Although seasonal average densities of Bythotrephes were similar across lakes (222/m2 Erie, 247/m2 Huron, 162/m2 Michigan), temporal trends in abundance differed among lakes. In central Lake Erie where Bythotrephes' prey assemblage was dominated by small individuals (60%), where planktivorous fish densities were high (14,317/ha), and where a shallow water column limited availability of a deepwater refuge, the Bythotrephes population was characterized by a small mean body size, large broods with small neonates, allocation of length increases mainly to the spine rather than to the body, and a late summer population decline. By contrast, in Lake Michigan where Bythotrephes' prey assemblage was dominated by large individuals (72%) and planktivorous fish densities were lower (5052/ha), the Bythotrephes population was characterized by a large mean body size (i.e., 37–55% higher than in Erie), small broods with large neonates, nearly all growth in body length occurring between instars 1 and 2, and population persistence into fall. Life-history characteristics in Lake Huron tended to be intermediate to those found in Lakes Michigan and Erie, reflecting lower overall prey and predator densities (1224/ha) relative to the other lakes. Because plasticity in life history can affect interactions with other species, our findings point to the need to understand life-history variation among Great Lakes populations to improve our ability to model the dynamics of these ecosystems.

  4. [Influence of nutrient sources on Anabaena spiroides growth and odorous compounds production characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Wei; Chen, Ke-Yun; Su, Ming; Yang, Min; Liu, Dai-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The occurrence of taste and odors, produced by secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria, has been one of the major water quality problems in drinking water. However, the odorous compounds produced by cyanobacteria usually differ significantly with different species. One cyanobacterium isolated from Yanghe reservoir was identified as Anabaena sp., which can produce high level of geosmin consistently during laboratory culture. By culture expanding experiments, the algal growth and geosmin production characteristics of the Anabaena sp. were studied on different conditions of nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The results indicated that geosmin mainly remained in the intracellular algal cells regardless of the nutrient sources, and the extracellular content was only in th range of 0.2% - 9.6%. Compared with ammonia nitrogen conditions, the growth of Anabaena sp. in nitrate nitrogen conditions was much higher, with a 1.4-fold variation in geosmin production. While ammonia nitrogen concentration was 0.5 mg/L, the algal biomass and geosmin production achieved the highest level of 3.8 x 10(4) cells, mL(-1) and 1.1 x 10(4) ngL(-1), respectively. When the nitrate nitrogen concentration was 2.0 mg/L, the algal biomass and geosmin production achieved the highest level of 6.6 x 10(4) cells x mL(-1) and 1.3 x 10(4) ng x L(-1), respectively. Compared with nitrogen sources, the growth of Anabaena sp. could be promoted significantly until phosphorus level attained 0.12 mg/L, indicating that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient source for Anabaena sp.. For Yanghe reservoir, the nutrient level has already been enough for the growth of Anabaena sp. Therefore, the nutrient source content, especially phosphorus, should be reduced effectively to control the cyanobacterium bloom and taste and odor problems.

  5. Geographic clustering of underage drinking and the influence of community characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, Beth A; Preisser, John S; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which underage drinking clusters geographically in a sample of communities, and to investigate the manner in which community-level contexts are related to this process. We used data from a randomized community trial of underage drinking to provide the first quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the geographic clustering of underage drinking based upon pairwise odds ratios (PWORs). The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of youth aged 14-20 from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007 (n=18,730). Past 30-day drinking, binge drinking, getting drunk, experiencing non-violent consequences as a result of drinking and making a purchase attempt all significantly clustered within-communities with PWORs ranging from 1.05 to 1.21. After adjustment for individual-level characteristics, results remained relatively unchanged. However, there was evidence that the magnitude of the clustering varied as a function of neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood disorder, and family structure. Clustering of drunkenness and experiencing non-violent consequences as a result of drinking was greatest in the least economically disadvantaged and least disordered communities with the greatest percentage of married-couple families. The clustering of making a purchase attempt, however, was greatest in more disordered communities, specifically the largest communities with the highest degree of residential mobility and housing density. These findings that clustering of underage drinking behaviors varies by community context has the potential for identifying the types of communities to target for underage drinking behavior-specific preventive interventions.

  6. Influence of mixture composition on the noise and frictional characteristics of flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Karol J.

    Both traffic noise and wet pavement-tire friction are mainly affected by the tire/pavement interaction. Existing laboratory test methods allow for evaluation of polishing resistance of the aggregates only. Currently, there is no generally accepted standardized laboratory test method to address noise related issues and the overall frictional properties of pavements (including macrotexture). In this research, which included both laboratory and field components, friction and noise properties of the flexible (asphalt) pavements were investigated. As a part of this study, a laboratory device to polish asphalt specimens was developed and the procedure to evaluate mixture frictional properties was proposed. Following this procedure, forty-six different Superpave mixtures (each utilizing a different aggregate blends), one stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture and one porous friction course (PFC) mixture were tested. Six of the above mixes (four Superpave mixtures, SMA mixture and PFC mixture) were selected for laboratory noise testing. This testing was performed using a one-of-a-kind tester called the Tire/Pavement Test Apparatus (TPTA). In addition, the field sections constructed using Superpave, SMA and PFC mixtures were also periodically tested for friction and noise. Field measurements included testing of total of 23 different asphalt and two concrete pavements. The field friction testing was performed using both portable CTM and DFT devices and the (ASTM E 274) locked wheel friction trailer. The laboratory friction testing was performed using CTM and DFT devices only. The results of both field and laboratory friction measurements were used to develop an International Friction Index (IFI)-based frictional requirement for laboratory friction measurements. The results collected in the course of the study indicate that the IFI-based flag values could be successfully used in place of SN-based flag values to characterize frictional characteristics of pavements.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation.

  8. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Influence of pin and hammer mill on grinding characteristics, thermal and antioxidant properties of coriander powder.

    PubMed

    Barnwal, P; Singh, K K; Sharma, Alka; Choudhary, A K; Saxena, S N

    2015-12-01

    In present study, influence of grinding (hammer and pin mills) and moisture content (range: 6.4-13.6 % dry basis) on the quality traits of coriander powder were investigated. These include grinding parameters, colour parameters, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature, essential oil, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging (%) of coriander powder. For coriander seed, the geometric properties such as major, medium, minor dimensions, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and volume of coriander seeds increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). For coriander powder, the grinding parameters such as average particle size, volume surface mean diameter and volume mean diameter increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). With the grinding method, the colour attributes of coriander powder such as L-value, a-value, b-value, hue angle and browning index varied significantly. It was observed that the specific heat followed second order polynomial relationship with temperature and moisture whereas thermal conductivity varied linearly with temperature and moisture content. The variation of glass transition temperature with moisture can be best represented in quadratic manner. Total flavonoid content (mg QE/g crude seed extract) and DPPH scavenging % activity of coriander powder is significantly affected by grinding methods. A lower value of specific heat was observed for hammer ground coriander powder as compared to pin mill ground coriander powder. The thermal conductivity of hammer mill ground coriander powder was higher as compared to pin mill ground coriander. It was observed that hammer mill yields more fine coriander powder in comparison to pin mill. The browning index was more in hammer mill ground coriander powder. PMID:26604351

  10. Landscape characteristics influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread raptor (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Hull, Joshua M; Hull, Angus C; Sacks, Benjamin N; Smith, Jeff P; Ernest, Holly B

    2008-02-01

    Landscape-scale population genetic structure in vagile vertebrates was commonly considered to be a contradiction in terms whereas recent studies have demonstrated behaviour and habitat associated structure in several such species. We investigate whether landscape features influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread, mobile raptor. To accurately describe genetic differentiation associated with regional landscape factors, we first investigated subspecies relationships at a continental scale. We used 17 microsatellite loci and five morphological measurements to investigate differentiation between eastern and western subspecies of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and to identify patterns between differentiation and habitat within western North America. Bayesian and frequency-based analyses of microsatellite data revealed clear distinctions between B. j. borealis (eastern) and B. j. calurus (western) samples. Furthermore, hawks sampled in Texas were stouter than those collected from the Rocky Mountains and farther west. Among western samples, birds from the Great Basin, Rocky Mountains, and Washington were significantly different in morphology than those from Oregon and California. We identified a pattern of isolation by distance among western breeding sites around the Sierra Nevada. Given the long-range dispersal capabilities of raptors, this pattern suggests that population-specific habitat preferences, corresponding with habitat breaks between eastern and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and/or regionally variable population densities limit migration between the Mediterranean habitat of central California and the xeric habitats of southern California and interior west. We suggest habitat preferences and regionally disparate population densities may play a role in shaping genetic structure in vagile avian taxa.

  11. Influence of patient and provider characteristics on quality of care for the myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gregory A; Cronin, Angel M; Odejide, Oreofe O; Uno, Hajime; Stone, Richard M; Steensma, David P

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about quality of care for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), or patient and provider factors that influence quality. We identified Medicare enrollees diagnosed with MDS between 2006 and 2011, and analysed linked claims for performance on two widely-accepted quality measures: diagnostic bone marrow cytogenetic testing (diagnostic quality) and pre-treatment iron assessment for patients receiving an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; treatment quality). A total of 4575 patients met the criteria for diagnostic quality measurement, and 3379 for treatment quality measurement. In the diagnostic cohort, 74% had a claim for marrow cytogenetic testing 3 months before to 3 months after diagnosis. In multivariate models, younger age (P < 0·001), treatment at a higher-volume MDS centre (P < 0·001), and claims for pancytopenia (P < 0·001) were all associated with higher levels of testing. A borderline result was observed for diagnostic year, with improvement over time (P = 0·06). In the treatment cohort, 56% had evidence of pre-ESA iron assessment, with higher rates for later years of diagnosis (P < 0·001), higher household income (P = 0·03), and those treated at higher-volume centres (P = 0·01). In this large cohort of patients with MDS, quality of care was suboptimal overall, but worse in several specific subgroups. These data suggest that targeted educational and/or process-focused interventions are warranted. PMID:26913376

  12. Head Rotational Acceleration Characteristics Influence Behavioral and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Outcomes Following Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Stemper, Brian D.; Shah, Alok S.; Pintar, Frank A.; McCrea, Michael; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Olsen, Christopher; Budde, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    A majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in motor vehicle crashes and sporting environments are mild and caused by high-rate acceleration of the head. For injuries caused by rotational acceleration, both magnitude and duration of the acceleration pulse were shown to influence injury outcomes. This study incorporated a unique rodent model of rotational acceleration-induced mild TBI (mTBI) to quantify independent effects of magnitude and duration on behavioral and neuroimaging outcomes. Ninety-two Sprague– Dawley rats were exposed to head rotational acceleration at peak magnitudes of 214 or 350 krad/s2 and acceleration pulse durations of 1.6 or 3.4 ms in a full factorial design. Rats underwent a series of behavioral tests including the Composite Neuroscore (CN), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and Morris Water Maze (MWM). Ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the fixed brains was conducted to assess the effects of rotational injury on brain microstructure as revealed by the parameter fractional anisotropy (FA). While the injury did not cause significant locomotor or cognitive deficits measured with the CN and MWM, respectively, a main effect of duration was consistently observed for the EPM. Increased duration caused significantly greater activity and exploratory behaviors measured as open arm time and number of arm changes. DTI demonstrated significant effects of both magnitude and duration, with the FA of the amygdala related to both the magnitude and duration. Increased duration also caused FA changes at the interface of gray and white matter. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that the consequences of rotational acceleration mTBI were more closely associated with duration of the rotational acceleration impulse, which is often neglected as an independent factor, and highlight the need for animal models of TBI with strong biomechanical foundations to associate behavioral outcomes with brain microstructure. PMID:25344352

  13. Influences of characteristic meteorological conditions on atmospheric carbonyls in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Zhu

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric pollutants are controlled not only by their production rates but also by meteorological conditions. The influences of dust storm, sauna weather (haze with high temperature and high humidity), wet precipitation and wind speed on atmospheric carbonyls in Beijing were investigated. During a severe dust episode (April 17, 2006), the mixing ratios of carbonyls were significantly elevated to 13-27 ppbV from 7 to 13 ppbV in the previous non-dust days (April 15 and 16) with the increasing extents of 38-154%. The accumulating effect and the lower photolysis rate in the dust day may be responsible for the increases of carbonyls' levels. Additionally, the contribution from heterogeneous reactions occurring on dust particles to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde cannot be ruled out. During the period of typical sauna weather, the concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls increased to 18-60 ppbV from 10 to 17 ppbV before the sauna days. The air mass over Beijing during the sauna days was controlled by a subtropical anticyclone and the boundary layer became quite stable, which was beneficial to the rapid accumulation of air pollutants including carbonyls. Wet precipitation was found to be an effective removal process to the atmospheric carbonyls. After one-hour of rain in summer, the total concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls decreased to less than half of that before the rainfall. The similar temporal varying patterns of carbonyls and inorganic ions in rainwater indicated that carbonyls were mainly washed out from the atmosphere into rainwater as inorganic ions were. Strong wind could evidently dilute atmospheric carbonyls and a negative correlation was found between wind speeds and the concentrations of carbonyls in spring in Beijing.

  14. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand: characteristics and influence from combustion related activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthawaree, J.; Tajima, Y.; Kato, S.; Khunchornyakong, A.; Sharp, A.; Kajii, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Elucidation of air quality in the suburban area of Bangkok, Thailand is essential in order to achieve effective regulations and mitigation strategies. VOCs plays important role in formation of tropospheric urban ozone. Without overkill NO concentration, transport of O3 precursors into suburban area which add surplus to local O3 formation as well as direct transport of O3 itself results in relatively higher total O3 observed in suburban area rather than urban. Whole air canister sampling was carried out in the suburban Bangkok during 2008, July 2-7. 4 samples per day were collected at 30 min passes 6, 12, 17, 21 hours with sampling time of 1 min. Analysis was achieved by using GC-FID and GC-MS. High concentrations of VOCs detected during the peak periods in the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emission. Averaged VOCs concentrations, reveal distinct different between data measured for weekday and weekend which the latter were found with lower concentrations. No difference was found for CFCs which the levels are also comparable to global background level reported by World Meteorological Organization. The most abundance species have found to be propane and toluene with averaged concentration of 3100 and 2891 pptv, respectively. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggest additional concentration owing to industrial emission, of which particularly larger during the weekday. Comparison with C2Cl4 and CH3Cl concentrations obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal relatively higher influence of biomass burning at suburban Bangkok. In order to estimate the role of the different VOCs towards tropospheric ozone formation, ozone formation potential was calculated using maximum incremental reactivity. Toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m,p-xylene, and propylene.

  15. Maternal country of origin, breast milk characteristics and potential influences on immunity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, U; Amoudruz, P; Johansson, M A; Haileselassie, Y; Ongoiba, A; Kayentao, K; Traoré, B; Doumbo, S; Schollin, J; Doumbo, O; Montgomery, S M; Sverremark-Ekström, E

    2010-12-01

    Breast milk contains pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines with potential to influence immunological maturation in the child. We have shown previously that country of birth is associated with the cytokine/chemokine profile of breast milk. In this study we have investigated how these differences in breast milk affect the cellular response of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, cell line HT-29) to microbial challenge. Ninety-five women were included: 30 from Mali in West Africa, 32 Swedish immigrants and 33 native Swedish women. CBMCs or IECs were stimulated in vitro with breast milk, alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN). Breast milk in general abrogated the LPS-induced down-regulation of surface CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression on CB monocytes, while inhibiting the PGN-induced TLR-2 up-regulation. However, breast milk from immigrant women together with LPS induced a lower CBMC release of interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0·034) and CXCL-8/IL-8 (P = 0·037) compared with breast milk from Swedish women, while breast milk from Swedish women and Mali women tended to increase the response. The same pattern of CXCL-8/IL-8 release could be seen after stimulation of IECs (HT-29). The lower CBMC and IEC (HT-29) responses to microbial compounds by breast milk from immigrant women could be explained by the fact that breast milk from the immigrant group showed a divergent pro- and anti-inflammatory content for CXCL-8/IL-8, transforming growth factor-β1 and soluble CD14, compared to the other two groups of women. This may have implications for maturation of their children's immune responses. PMID:20942805

  16. Influence of synthesis and sintering parameters on the characteristics of carbonate apatite.

    PubMed

    Landi, Elena; Tampieri, Anna; Celotti, Giancarlo; Vichi, Lucia; Sandri, Monica

    2004-05-01

    A new method to synthesise carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) powder has been set up introducing a CO(2) flux, as a source of carbonate, in the HA synthesis process based on the neutralisation reaction. The reactants are abundant and inexpensive. The yield is good compared to other CHA powder synthesis. The reaction may be performed at low temperature and without pH control and does not produce any by-products. The influence of the synthesis parameters (temperature, H(3)PO(4) solution dropping rate, i.e. reaction time, CO(2) flux, ageing time) has been tested to optimise the process conditions in order to obtain the highest carbonation degree and favour the B-type CHA precipitation with respect to A-type one. The prepared powder (5.8wt% of total carbonate with an A/B ratio of 0.78) was thermally treated at various temperatures in the range 500-1400 degrees C in different atmospheres (air, wet and dry carbon dioxide). The thermal treatments were performed with a double aim, to eliminate selectively the carbonate groups in A-position maintaining the B-type substitution, and to evaluate the thermal stability of the CHA and the total loss of carbonate as a function of temperature. The thermal treatment at 900 degrees C in wet CO(2) gave the best result in terms of a high carbonate residue and a low A/B ratio. We also investigate the use of different techniques (inductively coupled plasma, TGA, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction) for characterising CHA and calculating sensitivity and accuracy in the quantification of carbonate ions for each molecular site. PMID:14738839

  17. Influences of fireworks on chemical characteristics of atmospheric fine and coarse particles during Taiwan's Lantern Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Chien, Li-Hsing; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, the celebration activities of various folk-custom festivals have been getting more and more attention from the citizens in Taiwan. Festivities throughout the whole island are traditionally accompanied by loud and brightly colored firework displays. Among these activities, the firework displays during Taiwan's Lantern Festival in Kaohsiung harbor is one of the largest festivals in Taiwan each year. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the influence of fireworks displays on the ambient air quality during the Taiwan's Lantern Festival. Field measurements of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were conducted on February 9th-11th, 2009 during Taiwan's Lantern Festival in Kaohsiung City. Moreover, three kinds of fireworks powders obtained from the same manufacturing factory producing Kaohsiung Lantern Festival fireworks were burned in a self-designed combustion chamber to determine the physicochemical properties of the fireworks' particles and to establish the source profile of firework burning. Several metallic elements of PM during the firework display periods were notably higher than those during the non-firework periods. The concentrations of Mg, K, Pb, and Sr in PM2.5 during the firework periods were 10 times higher than those during the non-firework periods. Additionally, the Cl-/Na+ ratio was approximately 3 during the firework display periods as Cl- came from the chlorine content of the firework powder. Moreover, the OC/EC ratio increased up to 2.8. Results obtained from PCA and CMB receptor modeling showed that major sources of atmospheric particles during the firework display periods in Kaohsiung harbor were fireworks, vehicular exhausts, soil dusts and marine sprays. Particularly, on February 10th, the firework displays contributed approximately 25.2% and 16.6% of PM10 at two downwind sampling sites, respectively.

  18. Characteristics and influencing factors of tetrachloroethylene sorption-desorption on soil and its components.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaofu; Yang, Weiwei; He, Long; Zhao, Zhexuan; Lu, Shuguang; Sui, Qian

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of soil structure, soil organic carbon (SOC), minerals, initial tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentration (C0), and ionic strength (Ci) on PCE sorption-desorption, six types of soil were adopted as adsorbents, including two types of natural soil and four types of soil with most of the "soft carbon" pre-treated by H2O2 or with all SOC removed from the original soil by 600 °C ignition. The results showed that all of the sorption-desorption isotherms of PCE were non-linear within the experimental range, and the H2O2-treated samples exhibited higher non-linear sorption isotherms than those of the original soils. The hysteresis index of PCE sorption to original soil is less pronounced than that of the H2O2-treated and 600 °C-heated samples due to the entrapment of sorbate molecules in the "hard carbon" domain, together with the meso- and microporous structures within the 600 °C-heated samples. Both SOC and minerals have impacts on the sorption-desorption of PCE, and the sorption-desorption contribution rate of minerals increased with decreasing SOC content. C0 has almost no influence on the sorption to minerals of the soils, but the contribution rate of minerals decreased with increasing C0 in the desorption stage. As a result of the salting-out effect, PCE sorption capacity was increased by increasing Ci, especially when Ci ≥ 0.1 M. Moreover, desorption increased and hysteresis weakened with increasing Ci, except for the 600 °C-heated samples. In addition, no significant effect of Ci on desorption of PCE and no hysteresis was observed in this experimental range for the 600 °C-heated samples.

  19. Landscape characteristics influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread raptor (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Hull, Joshua M; Hull, Angus C; Sacks, Benjamin N; Smith, Jeff P; Ernest, Holly B

    2008-02-01

    Landscape-scale population genetic structure in vagile vertebrates was commonly considered to be a contradiction in terms whereas recent studies have demonstrated behaviour and habitat associated structure in several such species. We investigate whether landscape features influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread, mobile raptor. To accurately describe genetic differentiation associated with regional landscape factors, we first investigated subspecies relationships at a continental scale. We used 17 microsatellite loci and five morphological measurements to investigate differentiation between eastern and western subspecies of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and to identify patterns between differentiation and habitat within western North America. Bayesian and frequency-based analyses of microsatellite data revealed clear distinctions between B. j. borealis (eastern) and B. j. calurus (western) samples. Furthermore, hawks sampled in Texas were stouter than those collected from the Rocky Mountains and farther west. Among western samples, birds from the Great Basin, Rocky Mountains, and Washington were significantly different in morphology than those from Oregon and California. We identified a pattern of isolation by distance among western breeding sites around the Sierra Nevada. Given the long-range dispersal capabilities of raptors, this pattern suggests that population-specific habitat preferences, corresponding with habitat breaks between eastern and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and/or regionally variable population densities limit migration between the Mediterranean habitat of central California and the xeric habitats of southern California and interior west. We suggest habitat preferences and regionally disparate population densities may play a role in shaping genetic structure in vagile avian taxa. PMID:18208488

  20. The influence of impact object characteristics on impact force and force absorption by mouthguard material.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Tomotaka; Ishigami, Keiichi; Shintaro, Kawamura; Nakajima, Kazunori; Shimada, Atsushi; Regner, Connell Wayne

    2004-02-01

    Most impact force and impact energy absorption tests for mouthguards have used a steel ball in a drop-ball or the pendulum device. However, in reality most sports-related trauma is caused by objects other than the steel ball, e.g. various sized balls, hockey puck, or bat or stick. Also, the elasticity, the velocity and the mass of the object could change the degree and the extent of injuries. In this study, we attempted to measure the impact force from actual sports equipment in order to clarify the exact mechanism of dental-related sports injuries and the protective effects of mouthguards. The present study was conducted using the pendulum impact device and load cell. Impact objects were removable. Seven mobile impact objects were selected for testing: a steel ball, baseball, softball, field hockey ball, ice hockey puck, cricket ball, and wooden baseball bat. The mouthguard material used in this study was a 3-mm-thick Drufosoft (Dreve-Dentamid GmbH, Unna, Germany), and test samples were made of the one-layer type. The peak transmitted forces without mouthguard ranged from the smallest (ice hockey stick, 46.9 kgf) to the biggest (steel ball, 481.6 kgf). The peak transmitted forces were smaller when the mouthguard was attached than without it for all impact materials but the effect was significantly influenced by the object type. The steel ball showed the biggest (62.1%) absorption ability while the wooden bat showed the second biggest (38.3%). The other balls or the puck showed from 0.6 to 6.0% absorbency. These results show that it is important to test the effectiveness of mouthguards on specific types of sports equipment. In future, we may select different materials and mouthguard designs suitable for specific sports. PMID:14998410

  1. Perceptions of variability in facial emotion influence beliefs about the stability of psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Grunberg, Rebecca L; Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2016-10-01

    Beliefs about the malleability versus stability of traits (incremental vs. entity lay theories) have a profound impact on social cognition and self-regulation, shaping phenomena that range from the fundamental attribution error and group-based stereotyping to academic motivation and achievement. Less is known about the causes than the effects of these lay theories, and in the current work the authors examine the perception of facial emotion as a causal influence on lay theories. Specifically, they hypothesized that (a) within-person variability in facial emotion signals within-person variability in traits and (b) social environments replete with within-person variability in facial emotion encourage perceivers to endorse incremental lay theories. Consistent with Hypothesis 1, Study 1 participants were more likely to attribute dynamic (vs. stable) traits to a person who exhibited several different facial emotions than to a person who exhibited a single facial emotion across multiple images. Hypothesis 2 suggests that social environments support incremental lay theories to the extent that they include many people who exhibit within-person variability in facial emotion. Consistent with Hypothesis 2, participants in Studies 2-4 were more likely to endorse incremental theories of personality, intelligence, and morality after exposure to multiple individuals exhibiting within-person variability in facial emotion than after exposure to multiple individuals exhibiting a single emotion several times. Perceptions of within-person variability in facial emotion-rather than perceptions of simple diversity in facial emotion-were responsible for these effects. Discussion focuses on how social ecologies shape lay theories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Head rotational acceleration characteristics influence behavioral and diffusion tensor imaging outcomes following concussion.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Shah, Alok S; Pintar, Frank A; McCrea, Michael; Kurpad, Shekar N; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Olsen, Christopher; Budde, Matthew D

    2015-05-01

    A majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in motor vehicle crashes and sporting environments are mild and caused by high-rate acceleration of the head. For injuries caused by rotational acceleration, both magnitude and duration of the acceleration pulse were shown to influence injury outcomes. This study incorporated a unique rodent model of rotational acceleration-induced mild TBI (mTBI) to quantify independent effects of magnitude and duration on behavioral and neuroimaging outcomes. Ninety-two Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to head rotational acceleration at peak magnitudes of 214 or 350 krad/s(2) and acceleration pulse durations of 1.6 or 3.4 ms in a full factorial design. Rats underwent a series of behavioral tests including the Composite Neuroscore (CN), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and Morris Water Maze (MWM). Ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the fixed brains was conducted to assess the effects of rotational injury on brain microstructure as revealed by the parameter fractional anisotropy (FA). While the injury did not cause significant locomotor or cognitive deficits measured with the CN and MWM, respectively, a main effect of duration was consistently observed for the EPM. Increased duration caused significantly greater activity and exploratory behaviors measured as open arm time and number of arm changes. DTI demonstrated significant effects of both magnitude and duration, with the FA of the amygdala related to both the magnitude and duration. Increased duration also caused FA changes at the interface of gray and white matter. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that the consequences of rotational acceleration mTBI were more closely associated with duration of the rotational acceleration impulse, which is often neglected as an independent factor, and highlight the need for animal models of TBI with strong biomechanical foundations to associate behavioral outcomes with brain microstructure.

  3. Ionospheric influence on the global characteristics of electron precipitation during auroral substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Damien Han

    Global auroral images from the Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) and in situ, low altitude particle measurements from the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) spacecraft are used to investigate the effects of solar wind variations and seasonal variability in the ionosphere on electron precipitation during auroral substorms. Isolated substorms and storm-time, pressure pulse-driven intensifications are compared and we show that the global patterns of precipitating electron energy flux and average energy are markedly different for each class of auroral phenomena. Field-aligned acceleration of auroral electrons in the upward current regions is found to be an essential aspect of the global aurora during isolated substorms. In contrast, the electron precipitation during pressure pulse-driven intensifications is less structured with no indication of field-aligned acceleration. A new method of quantifying the time scales and phases of magnetospheric substorms using the hemispheric power derived from the UVI images is described. We show that substorm time scales vary most strongly with season while IMF orientation plays a secondary role. The recovery time for substorm activity is roughly a factor of two longer when the nightside auroral zone is in darkness (winter and equinox) than when it is sunlit. We find that the longer time scale of substorms occurring in darkness is sustained by discrete auroral features associated with field-aligned potential drops and inertial Alfven waves. These discrete structures exist for shorter time scales, if they are observed at all, during substorms that occur under sunlit conditions. The observed seasonal variations in global auroral structure during substorms are most consistent with the hypothesis that ionospheric boundary conditions strongly influence the effectiveness of auroral acceleration mechanisms that include parallel potentials and Alfven waves. The results presented in this thesis will enhance our understanding of substorm

  4. The influence of impact object characteristics on impact force and force absorption by mouthguard material.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Tomotaka; Ishigami, Keiichi; Shintaro, Kawamura; Nakajima, Kazunori; Shimada, Atsushi; Regner, Connell Wayne

    2004-02-01

    Most impact force and impact energy absorption tests for mouthguards have used a steel ball in a drop-ball or the pendulum device. However, in reality most sports-related trauma is caused by objects other than the steel ball, e.g. various sized balls, hockey puck, or bat or stick. Also, the elasticity, the velocity and the mass of the object could change the degree and the extent of injuries. In this study, we attempted to measure the impact force from actual sports equipment in order to clarify the exact mechanism of dental-related sports injuries and the protective effects of mouthguards. The present study was conducted using the pendulum impact device and load cell. Impact objects were removable. Seven mobile impact objects were selected for testing: a steel ball, baseball, softball, field hockey ball, ice hockey puck, cricket ball, and wooden baseball bat. The mouthguard material used in this study was a 3-mm-thick Drufosoft (Dreve-Dentamid GmbH, Unna, Germany), and test samples were made of the one-layer type. The peak transmitted forces without mouthguard ranged from the smallest (ice hockey stick, 46.9 kgf) to the biggest (steel ball, 481.6 kgf). The peak transmitted forces were smaller when the mouthguard was attached than without it for all impact materials but the effect was significantly influenced by the object type. The steel ball showed the biggest (62.1%) absorption ability while the wooden bat showed the second biggest (38.3%). The other balls or the puck showed from 0.6 to 6.0% absorbency. These results show that it is important to test the effectiveness of mouthguards on specific types of sports equipment. In future, we may select different materials and mouthguard designs suitable for specific sports.

  5. Influence of pin and hammer mill on grinding characteristics, thermal and antioxidant properties of coriander powder.

    PubMed

    Barnwal, P; Singh, K K; Sharma, Alka; Choudhary, A K; Saxena, S N

    2015-12-01

    In present study, influence of grinding (hammer and pin mills) and moisture content (range: 6.4-13.6 % dry basis) on the quality traits of coriander powder were investigated. These include grinding parameters, colour parameters, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature, essential oil, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging (%) of coriander powder. For coriander seed, the geometric properties such as major, medium, minor dimensions, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and volume of coriander seeds increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). For coriander powder, the grinding parameters such as average particle size, volume surface mean diameter and volume mean diameter increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). With the grinding method, the colour attributes of coriander powder such as L-value, a-value, b-value, hue angle and browning index varied significantly. It was observed that the specific heat followed second order polynomial relationship with temperature and moisture whereas thermal conductivity varied linearly with temperature and moisture content. The variation of glass transition temperature with moisture can be best represented in quadratic manner. Total flavonoid content (mg QE/g crude seed extract) and DPPH scavenging % activity of coriander powder is significantly affected by grinding methods. A lower value of specific heat was observed for hammer ground coriander powder as compared to pin mill ground coriander powder. The thermal conductivity of hammer mill ground coriander powder was higher as compared to pin mill ground coriander. It was observed that hammer mill yields more fine coriander powder in comparison to pin mill. The browning index was more in hammer mill ground coriander powder.

  6. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants. PMID:27048278

  7. Independent Living Oldest Old and Their Primary Health Provider: A Mixed Method Examination of the Influence of Patient Personality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stadtlander, Lee M; Giles, Martha J; Sickel, Amy E; Brooks, Emma; Brown, Cherri; Cormell, Melissa; Ewing, Lara; Hart, Delores; Koons, Dawn; Olson, Christy; Parker, Pamela; Semenova, Veronica; Stoneking, Shawna

    2015-10-01

    This convergent mixed methods study examined 35 healthy, independent living individuals' (above 85 years) perceptions of their relationship with their primary health provider (PHP) and health practices. The relationship between PHP relationship perceptions and locus of control (LOC), resilience, and self-efficacy was explored through surveys and interviews. The majority indicated they visited their PHP just for preventative care; the number of PHP visits per year was significantly lower than reported for individuals above 85 by the CDC, possible reasons for this finding are provided. A positive relationship between LOC, resiliency, and self-efficacy for the oldest old was found. Few participants indicated their PHP had discussed normal changes with aging. This study has deepened understanding of the complexity inherent to the healthy oldest olds' relationship with their PHP. The findings suggest this relationship relates to the PHP's personal characteristics, the older adult patients' personality, and the influence of the accompanying patient escort.

  8. Pressure influence on the structural characteristics of modified absorptive glass mat separators: A standard contact porosimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burashnikova, M. M.; Khramkova, T. S.; Kazarinov, I. A.; Shmakov, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the structural characteristics of absorptive glass mats manufactured by "Hollingsworth & Vose" (a 2.8 mm thickness) and "Bernard Dumas" (a 3.0 mm thickness) modified by impregnation with polymeric emulsions based on polyvinylidene fluoride, a polyvinylpyrrolidone styrene copolymer, and polytetrafluoroethylene, by means of standard contact porosimetry. The key study is influence of features of the porous structure on the compression properties, the rate of wicking, and the oxygen cycle efficiency in lead-acid battery mock-ups under several plate-group compression pressures. It is found that the treatment of the absorptive glass mat separators with polymeric emulsions leads to redistribution of their pores by size. An increased pressure in the electrode unit insignificantly changes the pore structure of the modified absorptive glass mat separators, and the oxygen cycle efficiency rises in comparison with unmodified separators.

  9. The influence of synthesis methods on the morpho - structural and luminescent characteristics of rare earth silicate phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Muresan, L. E.; Cadis, A. I.; Perhaita, I.; Oprea, B. F.; Silipas, D. T.

    2013-11-13

    Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by two different wet-chemical synthesis routes namely: simultaneous addition of reagents (SimAd) and solution combustion (SC) using yttriumcerium nitrate and urea as starting materials. TEOS or SiO{sub 2} fume were used as Si sources. A comparative study regarding the morpho-structural and luminescent properties of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce phosphors is presented. The influence of the silicon source, same as the firing temperature on the samples characteristics were discussed. TG-SDTA, FT-IR, SEM, XRD and photoluminescence investigations were used to characterize the precursors and the corresponding phosphors.

  10. The Relationship Between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarević, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A

    2016-07-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical judgement accuracy was compared against final diagnosis for high and low confidence levels (with confidence assessed on a 0-100 % scale). We identified a significant CA relationship with predictive accuracy highest at confidence levels of 90-100 %. Parent report of unusual behaviors was the only significant independent predictor of confidence. Clinicians' confidence may be important when evaluating decisions to refer, or not to refer, children for further diagnostic assessment. PMID:26975451

  11. Influence of catchment characteristics on the spatio-temporal dynamics of streamwater temperatures in montane headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Streamwater temperature is an important physical parameter in riverine ecosystems. It governs many processes; from water quality to biogeochemical dynamics, and is thus essential to consider when producing river basin management plans. The thermal regimes of streams are determined by a complex series of inter-linkages which can be categorised in one of the three groups: atmospheric conditions, terrestrial controls and stream geomorphology. The climatic conditions are the most important factors as they are the drivers of the processes of heat fluxes at the air-surface interface, however terrestrial and aquatic factors such as elevation, aspect and vegetation are the main modulators of the atmospheric processes. Here we will couple spatially distributed streamwater, groundwater and riparian wetland surface water temperatures to provide insight into dynamics and controls of thermal dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. The study is located in a 3.2 km2 upland watershed in the North East Scottish Highlands, and covers an 18 month period of measurements. The objectives are to characterise the streamwater thermal fingerprints of the three different headwaters with contrasting landscape description units (fen dominated, steep valley and a wetland dominated corrie), and infer the controls on the spatial and temporal patterns of water temperature throughout the catchment stream network. Results indicate that the temperature of the stream represents the energy balance of the source areas when the riparian zone is connected with the stream network and not just the energy balance of the stream network alone. There are significant differences between the characteristically different headwaters with a significant reduction in the diurnal temperature variability in the largest headwater catchment. The headwater catchment also contains the greatest percentage of wetland soils suggesting groundwater contributions act in the dampening of streamwater temperatures

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. PMID:24018116

  13. How proton pulse characteristics influence protoacoustic determination of proton-beam range: simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin C; Seghal, Chandra M; Avery, Stephen

    2016-03-21

    The unique dose deposition of proton beams generates a distinctive thermoacoustic (protoacoustic) signal, which can be used to calculate the proton range. To identify the expected protoacoustic amplitude, frequency, and arrival time for different proton pulse characteristics encountered at hospital-based proton sources, the protoacoustic pressure emissions generated by 150 MeV, pencil-beam proton pulses were simulated in a homogeneous water medium. Proton pulses with Gaussian widths ranging up to 200 μs were considered. The protoacoustic amplitude, frequency, and time-of-flight (TOF) range accuracy were assessed. For TOF calculations, the acoustic pulse arrival time was determined based on multiple features of the wave. Based on the simulations, Gaussian proton pulses can be categorized as Dirac-delta-function-like (FWHM < 4 μs) and longer. For the δ-function-like irradiation, the protoacoustic spectrum peaks at 44.5 kHz and the systematic error in determining the Bragg peak range is <2.6 mm. For longer proton pulses, the spectrum shifts to lower frequencies, and the range calculation systematic error increases (⩽ 23 mm for FWHM of 56 μs). By mapping the protoacoustic peak arrival time to range with simulations, the residual error can be reduced. Using a proton pulse with FWHM = 2 μs results in a maximum signal-to-noise ratio per total dose. Simulations predict that a 300 nA, 150 MeV, FWHM = 4 μs Gaussian proton pulse (8.0 × 10(6) protons, 3.1 cGy dose at the Bragg peak) will generate a 146 mPa pressure wave at 5 cm beyond the Bragg peak. There is an angle dependent systematic error in the protoacoustic TOF range calculations. Placing detectors along the proton beam axis and beyond the Bragg peak minimizes this error. For clinical proton beams, protoacoustic detectors should be sensitive to <400 kHz (for -20 dB). Hospital-based synchrocyclotrons and cyclotrons are promising sources of proton pulses for generating clinically measurable protoacoustic

  14. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-02-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance

  15. Characteristics influencing changes in aerobic performance of children aged 7-9.

    PubMed

    Faludi, J; Farkas, A; Zsidegh, M; Petrekanits, M; Pavlik, G

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of the actual level of aerobic endurance in a growing child is difficult. Endurance capacity per se is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. by genetic endowment, developmental rate, body composition and habitual physical activity. The respective effects of these factors cannot be distinctly separated from one another, so their particular role is not clearly definable in the various age periods. The aim of our investigation was to define the actual level of aerobic endurance performance in children aged 7-9, and to analyse the relevant factors that may affect this kind of performance according to the different level of sport activities. Two primary school classes (N=42) were selected for the experiment. Both groups had physical education classes every day (five times a week). One group (AG, N=31) consisted of children taking part in regular sport courses at least twice a week (e.g. basket ball, karate, triathlon swimming and gymnastics), as well, the other group (NAG, N=11) served as comparison group. Aerobic performance was estimated by measuring cardiorespiratory response during a Jaeger treadmill run using a "vita maxima" (all-out) testing protocol. The subjects were measured in the Laboratory for Spiroergometry of the Hungarian University of Physical Education twice, in 1997 and 1998. Body composition was assessed by the Drinkwater-Ross [4] body mass fractionation technique. Robustness of the body was described by using the plastic index (PLX) of Conrad's growth type [2], morphological age (MORF AGE) was estimated by using the method of Mészáros and Mohácsi [5]. Exercise performance was studied in the laboratory by using a Jaeger 6000 LE model treadmill and a Jaeger mu-DATASPIR model gas analyser. The functional status of the subjects' cardiopulmonary system was estimated by spiroergometric parameters and total mechanical work (WORK). The AG group had a better endurance performance in 1998 than that of non-athletic group. A factor analytic

  16. Geochemistry characteristics of Seamounts in the Tonga arc : Influence of subduction component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myeong, B.; Kim, J. H.; Woo, H.; Jang, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Located in the southwest Pacific ocean, The seamounts, from TA07 seamount to TA26, in the Tonga arc are located from 20 °S to 25 °S. At 25 °S, the Tonga trench is intersected by the Louisville ridge, a ~4,300-km-long chain of seamounts and the Osbourn trough, a paleo-spreading center. For this reason, magma which created these seamounts may have various origin. Based on this, the seamounts which forming the Tonga arc are divided into three groups; including group 1(region that the earliest Louisville ridge subduction arised, correspond to TA07-12), group 2(region that the second Louisville ridge subduction arised, correspond to TA14-24); and group 3(region that the Louisville ridge and the Osbourn trough are subducting, correspond to TA25-26). These seamounts are mostly stratovolcanoes with caldera. Rocks recovered by dredging have been identified as pumice, dacite, andesite, basaltic andesites and basalts(most abundant). Major element concentrations are constant, trace element concentrations are enriched LILE, depleted HFSE compared with MORB. The Tonga arc is affected by subduction components divided into the shallow and deep subduction components. Related to subduction components, variables include mantle source, AOC(altered oceanic crust), PS(pelagic sediment), LSC(Louisville seamount chain) and OS(Osbourn trough). In the case of shallow subduction component, it tends to have higher contents in group 1, 3 and lower contents in group 2. Thus, comparatively speaking, it seems that group 1, 3 have been heavily influenced by the fluid. However, origin of the fluid seems to be different, since its locations are not continuous. In the case of deep subduction component, it shows similar range in the group 1, 2, and shows a significantly lower ratio in the group 3. The reason why its values are similar is that it is effected by the melt during the Louisville ridge was subducting and the reason why the ratio in the group 3 shown lower is because of the fluid effect

  17. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The main focus during operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is on clogging processes, specifically on the changes of infiltration capacities and degradation of infiltrated organic substances including vadose zone oxygen dynamics. Lab scale experiments are one opportunity to understand and characterize these processes under different drying and wetting cycles and infiltration rates. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over- or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Therefore, the specific objective of this investigation is to compare the results obtained from two different experimental set-ups with different scales: a 3D, rectangular shaped, stainless steel lysimeter (1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 m) with an infiltration basin installed in the centre of its surface and a 1D soil column (1m, ᴓ 0.15 m) with the infiltration over the complete column surface. The study focuses on the influence of the experimental setup conditions on the soil clogging, water flow pattern, oxygen dynamics and degradation of organic substances. The results should allow making statements about the suitability of these lab experiments for the investigation of processes taking place in the unsaturated soil zone during operation of MAR. Both experimental units were packed with the same soil and equipped with tensiometers, TDR-probes, oxygen probes and suction cups in two depths for the estimation of spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture, oxygen and infiltrated substances. The lysimeter and the column were placed inside of a fully automatic climate tent, which facilitates the exact control of air temperature and humidity. The first results confirm that both infiltration units are suitable to simulate the clogging and the oxidation of easily degradable organic substances. However, the velocity of water transport is higher in the column compared with the lysimeter

  18. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Carlos Castilla, Juan

    2005-04-01

    Rocky shore communities are often influenced by near-shore coastal upwelling. For macrofauna in algal turf, these effects may be caused directly by well-studied bottom-up mechanisms or indirectly via changes in habitat structure provided by algal turf associated high nutrient loads. Here, we investigated possible interactions between upwelling and habitat structure by sampling diverse faunal assemblages in coralline algal turf on seven rocky intertidal shores in northern Chile, ranging from El Cobre [23°17'1″S, 70°31'40″W] to La Lobería [23°03'40″S, 70°33'14″W]. Some of these shores were located adjacent to strong upwelling centers, while others were in areas rarely affected. On each shore, we sampled four (2 × 2 m) sites separated by 15-50 m. In each site, we collected three replicate cores (80 mm in diameter) from which we measured macrofauna greater than 850 μm, biomass of sediment and epiphytes, frond density and average frond length. We used mean water temperature and its variation at 1-1.5 m water depth (below Extreme Low Water Spring, ELWS) to represent local upwelling intensity because long-term data have shown that these variables make excellent indicators for this region. In total, we found 94 macrofaunal taxa in coralline turf, which is almost three times higher than has previously been reported in Chile. Although macrofaunal assemblages varied significantly among shores, there were no patterns to suggest mesoscale variation in upwelling intensity affected either faunal assemblages or local habitat characteristics. In contrast, multivariate and univariate correlations highlighted sediment and frond density as strong determinants of community structure. We therefore conclude that traditionally studied habitat characteristics, such as structural complexity and habitat heterogeneity, have greater influence on faunal assemblages in mat-like habitats on rocky shores than environmental variables associated with mesoscale coastal upwelling.

  19. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    PubMed

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  20. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics on Police Officers’ Encounters with Persons Suspected to Have a Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Krishan, Shaily; Bakeman, Roger; Broussard, Beth; Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; Husbands, Letheshia; Watson, Amy C.; Compton, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Police officers’ decisions and behaviors are impacted by the neighborhood context in which police encounters occur. For example, officers may use greater force and be more likely to make arrests in disadvantaged neighborhoods. We examined whether neighborhood characteristics influence police encounters with individuals suspected to have a serious mental illness, addictive disorder, or developmental disability. Method We obtained data on 916 encounters from 166 officers in six jurisdictions in Georgia, USA and abstracted geographical data pertaining to the location of these encounters from United States Decennial Census data. Encounters were nested within 163 census tracts. Officer-reported data covered general encounter characteristics, the officer’s perception of the subject’s condition, subject demographics, use of force, and disposition of the encounter (e.g., arrest v. referral or transport to treatment services). Geographical data included 17 variables representing population and housing characteristics of the census tracts, from which three indices pertaining to neighborhood income, stability, and immigration status were derived using factor-analytic techniques. We then examined associations of these indices with various encounter-related variables using multi-level analysis. Results Encounters taking place in higher-income and higher-stability census tracts were more likely to be dispatch-initiated and take place in a private home compared to those in lower-income and lower-stability neighborhoods. In higher-income neighborhoods, encounters were more likely to involve a subject suspected to have a mental illness (as opposed to an addictive disorder or developmental disability) and less likely to involve a subject suspected to have alcohol problems. The officer’s level of force used was not associated with neighborhood factors. Regarding disposition, although the likelihood of arrest was unrelated to neighborhood characteristics, encounters

  1. The geomagnetic activity influence on climatic characteristics of the troposphere and climate changes in the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, Gely; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Molodykh, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    Mechanisms of solar activity effects on weather and climate have been discussed. Authors proposed a physical mechanism of solar activity effects on climatic characteristics and the atmospheric circulation through the atmospheric electricity. A model of the solar activity effect on climatic characteristics of the Earth's troposphere was elaborated on the basis of the mechanism under consideration. The model key concept is the heliogeophysical disturbance effect on the Earth climatic system's parameters, which influence energy flux going from the Earth to space in high-latitude areas. In accordance with this model, the atmospheric electricity parameters in the high latitudes depend on the solar activity; at the same time, they influence the altitude distribution of charged condensation nuclei in the troposphere, as well as the cloudiness formation and radiation balance and atmospheric circulation. When the solar activity increases, radiation cooling of high-latitude regions decreases, thermobaric field restructures, average meridian gradient of temperature between polar and equatorial regions decreases, defining the atmospheric circulation. Precipitation is a sensitive indicator of the atmospheric circulation change. NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP data were used to analyze particularities and regularities of long-term variations in amount of precipitation in 1950-2007. Global decrease in amount of precipitation was found to dominate till late 1990s. It started increasing only 10 years ago. Peculiarities of distribution and long-term variations in amount of precipitation in different latitudes and longitudes were also considered. In the framework of the model considered, the analysis results are presented and discussed of regularities of variations in geomagnetic activity and troposphere thermobaric characteristics for 1900-2007. It is showed that a continuous increase of the Earth climatic system heat content has been observed from 1910 till now. Under the model, we

  2. Influences of current density on tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings on ZK60 Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohong; Su, Peibo; Jiang, Zhaohua; Meng, Song

    2010-03-01

    Current density is a key factor of plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Its influences on structure, mechanical, and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings on ZK60 Mg alloy by pulsed bipolar microplasma oxidation in Na(3)PO(4) solution were studied in this paper. Thickness, structure, composition, mechanical property, and tribological characteristics of the coatings were studied by eddy current coating thickness gauge, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation measurements, and ball-on-disk friction testing. The results show that all the coatings prepared under different current densities are composed of MgO phase. The amount of MgO phase, thickness and friction coefficient of the coatings increased with the increasing current density. Among three ceramic coatings produced under three current densities, the coating produced under the current density of 7 A/dm(2) got the highest nanohardness and lowest wear rate with the value of 1.7 GPa and 1.27 x 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm.

  3. Executive functioning in autism spectrum disorders: influence of task and sample characteristics and relation to symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Van Eylen, Lien; Boets, Bart; Steyaert, Jean; Wagemans, Johan; Noens, Ilse

    2015-11-01

    Impaired executive functioning (EF) has been proposed to underlie symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, insight in the EF profile of ASD individuals is hampered due to task impurity and inconsistent findings. To elucidate these inconsistencies, we investigated the influence of task and sample characteristics on EF in ASD, with an extended test battery designed to reduce task impurity. Additionally, we studied the relation between EF and ASD symptoms. EF (inhibition, cognitive flexibility, generativity, working memory and planning) was measured in open-ended versus structured assessment situations, while controlling for possible confounding EF and non-EF variables. The performance of 50 individuals with ASD was compared with that of 50 age, gender and IQ matched typically developing (TD) individuals. The effects of group (ASD versus TD), age (children versus adolescents) and gender were examined, as well as the correlation between age, IQ, ASD symptoms and EF. Individuals with ASD showed impairments in all EF domains, but deficits were more pronounced in open-ended compared to structured settings. Group differences did not depend on gender and only occasionally on participants' age. This suggests that inconsistencies between studies largely result from differences in task characteristics and less from differences in the investigated sample features. However, age and IQ strongly correlated with EF, indicating that group differences in these factors should be controlled for when studying EF. Finally, EF correlated with both social and non-social ASD symptoms, but further research is needed to clarify the nature of this relationship. PMID:25697266

  4. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jeremy S.; Waylen, Kerry A.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains. PMID:23236173

  5. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  6. Influence of gas temperature on self-sustained volume discharge characteristics in working mixtures of a repetitively pulsed COIL

    SciTech Connect

    Aksinin, V I; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N; Antsiferov, S A; Velikanov, S D; Kalinovskii, V V; Konovalov, V V; Mikhalkin, V N; Sevryugin, I V

    2014-02-28

    The influence of gas temperature on the characteristics of a self-sustained volume discharge was studied in the working mixtures of a chemical oxygen – iodine laser with pulsed electricdischarge production of iodine atoms. In experiments, laser working mixtures were modelled by the mixture of air and iodide C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I. It was established that mixture heating is accompanied by an increase in the voltage across the discharge plasma and by a decrease in the discharge current. By varying the temperature of the mixture with the iodine content of ∼2.7% and initial pressure p=12 Torr from 22 °C to 96 °C, the current amplitude falls by ∼12%, and at the instant corresponding to a maximal current the voltage raises by ∼22%. Such a change in the discharge characteristics is explained by a higher rate of electron attachment to vibrationally excited iodide molecules at elevated temperatures. (active media)

  7. Influence of basin characteristics on the effectiveness and downstream reach of interbasin water transfers: displacing a problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, Ryan E.; Buckley, John J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, Ge

    2015-12-01

    Interbasin water transfers are globally important water management strategies, yet little is known about their role in the hydrologic cycle at regional and continental scales. Specifically, there is a dearth of centralized information on transfer locations and characteristics, and few analyses place transfers into a relevant hydrological context. We assessed hydrological characteristics of interbasin transfers (IBTs) in the conterminous US using a nationwide inventory of transfers together with historical climate data and hydrological modeling. Supplying and receiving drainage basins share similar hydroclimatological conditions, suggesting that climatological drivers of water shortages in receiving basins likely have similar effects on supplying basins. This result calls into question the effectiveness of transfers as a strategy to mitigate climate-driven water shortages, as the water shortage may be displaced but not resolved. We also identified hydrologically advantageous and disadvantageous IBTs by comparing the water balances of supplying and receiving basins. Transfer magnitudes did not vary between the two categories, confirming that factors driving individual IBTs, such as patterns of human water demand or engineering constraints, also influence the continental-scale distribution of transfers. Some IBTs impact streamflow for hundreds of kilometers downstream. Transfer magnitude, hydroclimate and organization of downstream river networks mediate downstream impacts, and these impacts have the potential to expand downstream nonlinearly during years of drought. This work sheds new light on IBTs and emphasizes the need for updated inventories and analyses that place IBTs in an appropriate hydrological context.

  8. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jeremy S; Waylen, Kerry A; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-12-26

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains.

  9. The influence of sodium on the point defect characteristics in off stoichiometric CuInSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Christiane; Greiner, Dieter; Schorr, Susan; Kaufmann, Christian A.

    2016-11-01

    The device performance of polycrystalline chalcogenide thin film solar cells is strongly influenced by different kinds of defects within the material. The presence of sodium or other alkali metals like potassium during the deposition process is well known to influence the electronic properties of the solar cell and thus to improve the efficiency of the final device. Structural analysis of neutron powder diffraction data collected at low temperatures and subsequent profile analysis by the LeBail and Rietveld method demonstrates the impact of sodium on the point defect characteristics in off stoichiometric CuInSe2. The analyzed materials are powder and thin film solar absorber material with addition of NaF and free of sodium. It is illustrated, the so called "sodium effect" cannot be reduced to one single origin. A range of effects, the reduction of InCu donors with a followed increase of VCu acceptors is possible. The main effect is an increased ordered character of the chalcopyrite crystal structure at off stoichiometric composition, when containing sodium.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

    2014-07-16

    Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute.

  11. Influences of Bi 2O 3 additive on the microstructure, permeability, and power loss characteristics of Ni-Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Jia, Lijun; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2009-10-01

    Nickel-zinc ferrite materials containing different Bi 2O 3 concentrations have been prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. Micrographs have clearly revealed that the Bi 2O 3 additive promoted grain growth. When the Bi 2O 3 content reached 0.15 wt%, a dual microstructure with both small grains (<5 μm) and some extremely large grains (>50 μm) appeared. With higher Bi 2O 3 content, the samples exhibited a very large average grain size of more than 30 μm. The initial permeability gradually decreased with increasing Bi 2O 3 content. When the Bi 2O 3 content exceeded 0.15 wt%, the permeability gradually decreased with frequency due to the low-frequency resonance induced by the large grain size. Neither the sintering density nor the saturation magnetization was obviously influenced by the Bi 2O 3 content or microstructure of the samples. However, power loss (Pcv) characteristics were evidently influenced. At low flux density, the sample with 0.10 wt% Bi 2O 3, which was characterized by an average grain size of 3-4 μm and few closed pores, displayed the lowest Pcv, irrespective of frequency. When the flux density was equal to or greater than the critical value of 40 mT, the sample with 0.20 wt% Bi 2O 3, which had the largest average grain size, displayed the lowest Pcv.

  12. Influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristic of landfills that adopt the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    As far as the optimal design, operation, and field application of the Aerobic-Anaerobic Landfill Method (AALM) are concerned, it is very important to understand how aeration modes (different combinations of aeration depth and air injection rate) affect the biodegradation of organic carbon and the transformation of nitrogen in landfill solid waste. Pilot-scale lysimeter experiments were carried out under different aeration modes to obtain detailed information regarding the influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristics. Results from these lysimeter experiments revealed that aeration at the bottom layer was the most effective for decomposition of organic carbon when compared with aeration at the surface or middle layers. Moreover, the air injection rate led to different nitrogen transformation patterns, unlike the lesser influence it has on organic carbon decomposition. Effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were observed for the aeration mode with a higher air injection rate (=1.0 L/min). On the other hand, the phenomenon of sequenced nitrification and denitrification could be observed when a low air injection rate (=0.5L/min.) was employed. Finally, it is concluded that, for AALM, air injection with a higher air injection rate at the deepest layer near the leachate collection pipe tends to accelerate the stabilization of landfill waste as defined in terms of the enhancement of denitrification as well as organic carbon decomposition.

  13. The influences of iron characteristics, operating conditions and solution chemistry on contaminants removal by zero-valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuankui; Li, Jinxiang; Huang, Tinglin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    For successful application of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) system, of particular interest is the performance of ZVI under various conditions. The current review comprehensively summarizes the potential effects of the major influencing factors, such as iron intrinsic characteristics (e.g., surface area, iron impurities and oxide films), operating conditions (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen, iron dosage, iron pretreatment, mixing conditions and temperature) and solution chemistry (e.g., anions, cations and natural organic matter) on the performance of ZVI reported in literature. It was demonstrated that all of the factors could exert significant effects on the ZVI performance toward contaminants removal, negatively or positively. Depending on the removal mechanisms of the respective contaminants and other environmental conditions, an individual variable may exhibit different effects. On the other hand, many of these influences have not been well understood or cannot be individually isolated in experimental or natural systems. Thus, more research is required in order to elucidate the exact roles and mechanisms of each factor in affecting the performance of ZVI. Furthermore, based on these understandings, future research may attempt to establish some feasible strategies to minimize the deteriorating effects and utilize the positive effects so as to improve the performance of ZVI. PMID:27206056

  14. Influence of Precision of Emission Characteristic Parameters on Model Prediction Error of VOCs/Formaldehyde from Dry Building Material

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wenjuan; Xiong, Jianyin; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Mass transfer models are useful in predicting the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde from building materials in indoor environments. They are also useful for human exposure evaluation and in sustainable building design. The measurement errors in the emission characteristic parameters in these mass transfer models, i.e., the initial emittable concentration (C0), the diffusion coefficient (D), and the partition coefficient (K), can result in errors in predicting indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations. These errors have not yet been quantitatively well analyzed in the literature. This paper addresses this by using modelling to assess these errors for some typical building conditions. The error in C0, as measured in environmental chambers and applied to a reference living room in Beijing, has the largest influence on the model prediction error in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration, while the error in K has the least effect. A correlation between the errors in D, K, and C0 and the error in the indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration prediction is then derived for engineering applications. In addition, the influence of temperature on the model prediction of emissions is investigated. It shows the impact of temperature fluctuations on the prediction errors in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations to be less than 7% at 23±0.5°C and less than 30% at 23±2°C. PMID:24312497

  15. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  16. Influence of electron-beam lithography exposure current level on the transport characteristics of graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangwoo; Movva, Hema C. P.; Sanne, Atresh; Rai, Amritesh; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-03-01

    Many factors have been identified to influence the electrical transport characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors. In this report, we examine the influence of the exposure current level used during electron beam lithography (EBL) for active region patterning. In the presence of a self-assembled hydrophobic residual layer generated by oxygen plasma etching covering the top surface of the graphene channel, we show that the use of low EBL current level results in higher mobility, lower residual carrier density, and charge neutrality point closer to 0 V, with reduced device-to-device variations. We show that this correlation originates from the resist heating dependent release of radicals from the resist material, near its interface with graphene, and its subsequent trapping by the hydrophobic polymer layer. Using a general model for resist heating, we calculate the difference in resist heating for different EBL current levels. We further corroborate our argument through control experiments, where radicals are either intentionally added or removed by other processes. We also utilize this finding to obtain mobilities in excess of 18 000 cm2/V s on silicon dioxide substrates. We believe these results are applicable to other 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides and nanoscale devices in general.

  17. An exploratory study on the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on water end uses inside buildings.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Bento, Ricardo; Varajão, João; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Any strategy of water demand management needs the collaboration of the population involved and so it is important to know how characteristics as residence area, number of residents, presence/absence of children/elders, income level, and educational level, among others, may influence the use of water. Empirical studies that quantify relationship between socio-demographic factors and the water end use patterns inside buildings are still largely lacking. To help to fill this gap this paper gathers information about the characterization of water end use per domestic device in three regions of north of Portugal with different socio-demographic characteristics. The main research goal was to establish indoor water end use patterns per domestic device and to evaluate possible relations between these patterns with the socio-demographic characteristics of the area where the household is, namely the number of residents, the presence/absence of children/elders, the income level and educational level. The washbasin is in average the domestic device with more number of uses in a day (responsible for 34% of the total use), close followed by the kitchen sink (32%), the toilet flush (23%), the bathtub (6%) and finally the dishwasher (3%) and the washing machine (2%). The results found might reflect differences in rural and urban lifestyles once that, with the exception of the kitchen sink, Valpaços is the city that registers the lowest number of uses in the appliances monitored. Significant correlations were found in the following cases: between the residence area and the number of uses in washbasin and in the toilet flush; between the presence of children in the household and the use in the dishwasher; between the income level and the number of uses in the washbasin, in the bathtub, in the washing machine and in the dishwasher.

  18. Complex contextual influences on the communicative interactions of students with multiple and severe disabilities.

    PubMed

    De Bortoli, Tania; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Foreman, Phil; Balandin, Susan; Mathisen, Bernice

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions and experiences of supports and obstacles to engaging students with multiple and severe disabilities (MSD) in communicative interactions at school. Eleven teachers of students with MSD participated in two in-depth interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed for narrative structure and content themes. Inter-coder reliability for coding of content themes was 87.5%. Participants identified a broad range of factors, including: characteristics of individual students, attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of teachers and other staff, class structure, staffing, opportunities for collegiality, resources, funding, infrastructure, collaboration with speech-language pathologists, appropriate communication education for teachers, the role of government departments, and broader societal factors. The findings suggest that there are complex contextual influences on the communicative interactions of students with MSD. While inadequate systemic supports appear to contribute to low frequencies of communication, systemic factors can be structured so that students participate in activities and have opportunities for communication. Further research is required with teachers of students with MSD to substantiate these findings.

  19. Influence of Ionophore Supplementation on Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Cattle during Period of Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Barreras, A.; Castro-Pérez, B. I.; López-Soto, M. A.; Torrentera, N. G.; Montaño, M. F.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Ríos, F. G.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Plascencia, A.; Zinn, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-eight crossbred heifers (378.1±18 kg) were used in a 56-d feeding trial (four pens per treatment in a randomised complete block design) to evaluate the influence of ionophore supplementation on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass characteristics in finishing cattle during a period of heat stress. Heifers were fed a diet based on steam-flaked corn (2.22 Mcal NEm/kg) with and without an ionophore. Treatments were: i) control, no ionophore; ii) 30 mg/kg monensin sodium (RUM30); iii) 20 mg/kg lasalocid sodium (BOV20), and iv) 30 mg/kg lasalocid sodium (BOV30). Both dry matter intake (DMI) and climatic variables were measured daily and the temperature humidity index (THI) was estimated. The maximum THI during the study averaged 93, while the minimum was 70 (THI average = 79.2±2.3). Compared to controls, monensin supplementation did not influence average daily gain, the estimated NE value of the diet, or observed-to-expected DMI, but tended (p = 0.07) to increase (4.8%) gain to feed. Compared to controls, the group fed BOV30 increased (p≤0.03) daily gain (11.8%), gain to feed (8.3%), net energy of the diet (5%), and observed-to-expected DMI (5.2%). Daily weight gain was greater (7.6%, p = 0.05) for heifers fed BOV30 than for heifers fed MON30. Otherwise, differences between the two treatments in DMI, gain to feed, and dietary NE were not statistically significant (p>0.11). Plotting weekly intakes versus THI, observed intake of controls was greater (p<0.05) at THI values ≤77 than ionophore groups. When THI values were greater than 79, DMI of control and MON30 were not different (p = 0.42), although less than that of groups fed lasalocid (p = 0.04). Variation in energy intake was lower (p>0.05) in the ionophores group (CV = 1.7%) than in the control group (CV = 4.5%). Inclusion of ionophores in the diet resulted in relatively minor changes in carcass characteristics. It is concluded that ionophore supplementation did not exacerbate the decline of

  20. An experimental study into the influence of aquatic plant motion characteristics on the generation of a fluvial turbulent flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. J.; Marjoribanks, T.; Parsons, D. R.; Thomas, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has a determining effect on flow and consequently sediment transport as it generates both skin friction and form drag. The measurement of flow above the vegetation canopy has received much attention and there is now a good process understanding of mean and turbulent flow, although, much of this research has focused on rigid vegetation with relatively simple morphology. However, vegetation immersed in a flow experiences several forces (buoyancy; drag; virtual mass; Basset; and Saffman) which are counteracted by the properties of the vegetation (flexural rigidity; modulus of elasticity; the plant area exposed to the flow and; the packing density of the stems). The ratio of these forces determines the plant motion characteristics which are generally classified as either i) erect with no movement; ii) gently swaying; iii) strong, coherent swaying or; iv) prone. Here we report on an investigation into the influence of plant motion on the turbulence structure in the mixing zone as vortices in this region have been shown to account for the majority of the momentum transport between the canopy and the open flow. We report on a series of flume experiments where flow over a canopy of surrogate aquatic vegetation was measured using PIV at a spatial resolution of ~1mm2 and at a temporal resolution of 100 Hz. This provided whole flow field measurements for all three components of flow over the vegetation canopy. Plant motion characteristics were altered by modifying the flow Reynolds number through both velocity and depth. The influences of plant stem length were also assessed. The measured flows were analysed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices were identified within the canopy shear layer that are generated close to the canopy top and evolve downstream into span-wise roller vortices, which expand with both distance and time. When

  1. Space-time clustering analysis of wildfires: The influence of dataset characteristics, fire prevention policy decisions, weather and climate.

    PubMed

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G; Tonini, Marj

    2016-07-15

    The present study focuses on the dependence of the space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) (1) on the input database's characteristics and (2) on the use of this methodology to assess changes on the fire regime due to different type of climate and fire management activities. Based on the very strong relationship between weather and the fire incidence in Portugal, the detected clusters will be interpreted in terms of the atmospheric conditions. Apart from being the country most affected by the fires in the European context, Portugal meets all the conditions required to carry out this study, namely: (i) two long and comprehensive official datasets, i.e. the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) and the National Mapping Burnt Areas (NMBA), respectively based on ground and satellite measurements; (ii) the two types of climate (Csb in the north and Csa in the south) that characterizes the Mediterranean basin regions most affected by the fires also divide the mainland Portuguese area; and, (iii) the national plan for the defence of forest against fires was approved a decade ago and it is now reasonable to assess its impacts. Results confirmed (1) the influence of the dataset's characteristics on the detected clusters, (2) the existence of two different fire regimes in the country promoted by the different types of climate, (3) the positive impacts of the fire prevention policy decisions and (4) the ability of the STPSS to correctly identify clusters, regarding their number, location, and space-time size in spite of eventual space and/or time splits of the datasets. Finally, the role of the weather on days when clustered fires were active was confirmed for the classes of small, medium and large fires. PMID:27058134

  2. Space-time clustering analysis of wildfires: The influence of dataset characteristics, fire prevention policy decisions, weather and climate.

    PubMed

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G; Tonini, Marj

    2016-07-15

    The present study focuses on the dependence of the space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) (1) on the input database's characteristics and (2) on the use of this methodology to assess changes on the fire regime due to different type of climate and fire management activities. Based on the very strong relationship between weather and the fire incidence in Portugal, the detected clusters will be interpreted in terms of the atmospheric conditions. Apart from being the country most affected by the fires in the European context, Portugal meets all the conditions required to carry out this study, namely: (i) two long and comprehensive official datasets, i.e. the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) and the National Mapping Burnt Areas (NMBA), respectively based on ground and satellite measurements; (ii) the two types of climate (Csb in the north and Csa in the south) that characterizes the Mediterranean basin regions most affected by the fires also divide the mainland Portuguese area; and, (iii) the national plan for the defence of forest against fires was approved a decade ago and it is now reasonable to assess its impacts. Results confirmed (1) the influence of the dataset's characteristics on the detected clusters, (2) the existence of two different fire regimes in the country promoted by the different types of climate, (3) the positive impacts of the fire prevention policy decisions and (4) the ability of the STPSS to correctly identify clusters, regarding their number, location, and space-time size in spite of eventual space and/or time splits of the datasets. Finally, the role of the weather on days when clustered fires were active was confirmed for the classes of small, medium and large fires.

  3. Predicting the Influence of Pore Characteristics on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Casting Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-06-10

    In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die casting Mg materials on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM50 and AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope to obtain the overall information on the pore characteristics. The experimentally quantified pore characteristics are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructures with different pore sizes, pore volume fractions and pore size distributions. Pores are explicitly represented in the synthetic microstructures and meshed out for the subsequent finite element analysis. In the finite element analysis, an intrinsic critical strain value is used for the Mg matrix material, beyond which work-hardening is no longer permissible. With no artificial failure criterion prescribed, ductility levels are predicted for the various microstructures in the form of strain localization. Mesh size effect study is also conducted, from which a mesh size dependent critical strain curve is determined. A concept of scalability of pore size effects is then presented and examined with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve. The results in this study show that, for the regions with lower pore size and lower volume fraction, the ductility generally decreases as the pore size and pore volume fraction increase whereas, for the regions with larger pore size and larger pore volume fraction, other factors such as the mean distance between the pores begin to have some substantial influence on the ductility. The results also indicate that the pore size effects may be scalable for the models with good-representative pore shape and distribution with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on spectral characteristic of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Inner Mongolia Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. D.; Song, K. S.; Zhao, Y.; Du, J.; Ma, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    Spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were examined in conjunction with environmental factors in the waters of 22 rivers and 26 terminal waters in Hulun Buir plateau, northeast China. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) were significantly higher in terminal waters than rivers waters (p < 0.01). Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that non-water light absorption and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances might be the causes of the diversity of water quality parameters in Hulun Buir plateau. CDOM absorption in river waters was significantly lower than terminal waters (p < 0.01). Analysis of ratio of absorption at 250-365 nm (E250 : 365), specific UV absorbance (SUVA254), and spectral slope ratio (Sr) indicated that CDOM in river waters had higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and vascular plant contribution than in terminal waters. Furthermore, results showed that DOC concentration, CDOM light absorption, and the proportion of autochthonous sources of CDOM in plateau waters were all higher than in other freshwater rivers reported in the literature. The strong evapoconcentration, intense ultraviolet irradiance and landscape features of Hulun Buir plateau may be responsible for the above phenomenon. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables TSM, TN, and EC had a strong correlation with light absorption characteristics, followed by TDS and chlorophyll a. In most sampling locations, CDOM was the dominant non-water light-absorbing substance. Light absorption by non-algal particles often exceeded that by phytoplankton in the plateau waters. Study of these optical-physicochemical correlations is helpful in the evaluation of the potential influence of water quality factors on non-water light absorption in cold plateau water environments. And the study on organic carbon in plateau lakes had a vital contribution to global carbon balance estimation.

  5. Influence of environmental factors on spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Inner Mongolia Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. D.; Song, K. S.; Zhao, Y.; Du, J.; Ma, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were examined in conjunction with environmental factors in the waters of rivers and terminal lakes within the Hulun Buir plateau, northeast China. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) were significantly higher in terminal lakes than rivers waters (p < 0.01). Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that non-water light absorption and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances were the likely causes of the diversity of water quality parameters. CDOM absorption in river waters was significantly lower than terminal lakes. Analysis of the ratio of absorption at 250 to 365 nm (E250 : 365), specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance (SUVA254), and the spectral slope ratio (Sr) indicated that CDOM in river waters had higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and vascular plant contribution than in terminal lakes. Furthermore, results showed that DOC concentration, CDOM light absorption, and the proportion of autochthonous sources of CDOM in plateau waters were all higher than in other freshwater rivers reported in the literature. The strong evapoconcentration, intense ultraviolet irradiance, and landscape features of the Hulun Buir plateau may be responsible for the above phenomenon. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables total suspended matter (TSM), TN, and electrical conductivity (EC) had a strong correlation with light absorption characteristics, followed by total dissolved solid (TDS) and chlorophyll a. In most sampling locations, CDOM was the dominant non-water light-absorbing substance. Light absorption by non-algal particles often exceeded that by phytoplankton in the plateau waters. Study of these optical-physicochemical correlations is helpful in the evaluation of the potential influence of water quality factors on non-water light absorption in cold plateau water environments. The construction of a correlation between DOC

  6. Physicochemical behavior of oil-in-water emulsions: influence of milk protein mixtures, glycerol ester mixtures and fat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Granger, C; Barey, P; Veschambre, P; Cansell, M

    2005-05-25

    Different emulsions based on two protein mixtures (skim milk powder (SMP) and functional dairy proteins (FDP)), two mono-di-glyceride mixtures (MDG) (saturated and partially unsaturated), three fats (hydrogenated and refined coconut oils and refined palm oil) were studied to investigate the interactions occurring between the oil phase, low molecular weight emulsifiers and proteins. Immediately following the emulsification process, high diameters of fat globules were obtained in FDP-based systems, relevant of an aggregation phenomenon. At this stage, the fat globule size characteristics were dependent on the emulsifier and fat types present in the formulation. In contrast, SMP-based emulsions were characterized by low proportions of aggregated particles regardless the formulations. Ageing (24 h at 4 degrees C) promoted disaggregation in FDP formulations, while SMP emulsions were well stabilized. Just after the homogenization step, less proteins were required to stabilize the globule interface in FDP systems as compared to SMP ones. Only with SMP, the amount of protein load at the fat globule surface was influenced by the oil nature and/or by the emulsifier type. A competitive adsorption of caseins, over whey proteins, was demonstrated in the case of FDP. The ageing period promoted a displacement of the proteins adsorbed at the oil droplet interface, suggesting a disruption of the interfacial protein interactions. This disruption was more marked with SMP than with FDP and, in both cases, was more or less influenced by the emulsifier and oil phase natures. The variations of the viscosity and rheological parameters (elastic and viscous moduli) were not dependent on one specific component of the formulation. PMID:15893224

  7. Type and location of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations influence clinical characteristics and disease outcome of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Koszarska, Magdalena; Bors, Andras; Feczko, Angela; Meggyesi, Nora; Batai, Arpad; Csomor, Judit; Adam, Emma; Kozma, Andras; Orban, Tamas I; Lovas, Nora; Sipos, Andrea; Karaszi, Eva; Dolgos, Janos; Fekete, Sandor; Reichardt, Judit; Lehoczky, Eniko; Masszi, Tamas; Tordai, Attila; Andrikovics, Hajnalka

    2013-05-01

    Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and prognostic effect of IDH1/2 mutations together followed by an individual analysis of each substitution in a Hungarian cohort consisting of 376 patients with AML. IDH1(mut) and IDH2(mut) were mutually exclusive, detected in 8.5% and 7.5% of cases, respectively. IDH1/2(mut) was associated with: older age (p = 0.001), higher average platelet count (p = 0.001), intermediate karyotype (p < 0.0001), NPM1(mut) (p = 0.022) and lower mRNA expression level of ABCG2 gene (p = 0.006). Overall survival (OS), remission and relapse rates were not different in IDH1(mut) or IDH2(mut) vs. IDH(neg). IDH1(mut) and IDH2(mut) were associated differently with NPM1(mut); co-occurrence was observed in 14.3% of IDH1 R132C vs. 70% of R132H carriers (p = 0.02) and in 47.4% of IDH2 R140Q vs. 0% of R172K carriers (p = 0.02). IDH1 R132H negatively influenced OS compared to IDH(neg) (p = 0.02) or R132C (p = 0.019). Particular amino acid changes affecting the same IDH1 codon influence the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in AML.

  8. Influence of resonators on the acoustic and propulsion performance characteristics of a ramjet ejector chamber under conditions with vibration hydrogen combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, A. V.; Moskvichev, D. Yu.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of acoustic resonators on the acoustic and propulsion performance characteristics of a ramjet ejector chamber under conditions with vibration hydrogen combustion was experimentally examined. In the study, resonators having identical throats and different cavity diameters were used. For fixed-volume resonators the best propulsion performance characteristics were achieved in the case in which the cavity diameter differed little from the resonator throat diameter.

  9. Numerical investigation of influence on heat transfer characteristics to pneumatically conveyed dense phase flow by selecting models and boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Liu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Solids moving with a gas stream in a pipeline can be found in many industrial processes, such as power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and commodity transfer processes. A mass flow rate of the solids is important characteristic that is often required to be measured (and controlled) to achieve efficient utilization of energy and raw materials in pneumatic conveying systems. The methods of measuring the mass flow rate of solids in a pneumatic pipeline can be divided into direct and indirect (inferential) measurements. A thermal solids' mass flow-meter, in principle, should ideally provide a direct measurement of solids flow rate, regardless of inhomogeneities in solids' distribution and environmental impacts. One key issue in developing a thermal solids' mass flow-meter is to characterize the heat transfer between the hot pipe wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow. The Eulerian continuum modeling with gas-solid two phases is the most common method for pneumatic transport. To model a gas-solid dense phase flow passing through a heated region, the gas phase is described as a continuous phase and the particles as the second phase. This study aims to describe the heat transfer characteristics between the hot wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow in pneumatic pipelines by modeling a turbulence gas-solid plug passing through the heated region which involves several actual and crucial issues: selections of interphase exchange coefficient, near-wall region functions and different wall surface temperatures. A sensitivity analysis was discussed to identify the influence on the heat transfer characteristics by selecting different interphase exchange coefficient models and different boundary conditions. Simulation results suggest that sensitivity analysis in the choice of models is very significant. The simulation results appear to show that a combination of choosing the Syamlal-O'Brien interphase exchange coefficient model and the standard k-ɛ model along with

  10. Dependence of the Startle Response on Temporal and Spectral Characteristics of Acoustic Modulatory Influences in Rats and Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Steube, Natalie; Nowotny, Manuela; Pilz, Peter K. D.; Gaese, Bernhard H.

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation by non-startling prepulses, presented shortly before the startle-eliciting stimulus, is a broadly applied test paradigm to determine changes in neural processing related to auditory or psychiatric disorders. Modulation by a gap in background noise as a prepulse is especially used for tinnitus assessment. However, the timing and frequency-related aspects of prepulses are not fully understood. The present study aims to investigate temporal and spectral characteristics of acoustic stimuli that modulate the ASR in rats and gerbils. For noise-burst prepulses, inhibition was frequency-independent in gerbils in the test range between 4 and 18 kHz. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) by noise-bursts in rats was constant in a comparable range (8–22 kHz), but lower outside this range. Purely temporal aspects of prepulse–startle-interactions were investigated for gap-prepulses focusing mainly on gap duration. While very short gaps had no (rats) or slightly facilitatory (gerbils) influence on the ASR, longer gaps always had a strong inhibitory effect. Inhibition increased with durations up to 75 ms and remained at a high level of inhibition for durations up to 1000 ms for both, rats and gerbils. Determining spectral influences on gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI) revealed that gerbils were unaffected in the limited frequency range tested (4–18 kHz). The more detailed analysis in rats revealed a variety of frequency-dependent effects. Gaps in pure-tone background elicited constant and high inhibition (around 75%) over a broad frequency range (4–32 kHz). For gaps in noise-bands, on the other hand, a clear frequency-dependency was found: inhibition was around 50% at lower frequencies (6–14 kHz) and around 70% at high frequencies (16–20 kHz). This pattern of frequency-dependency in rats was specifically resulting from the inhibitory effect by the gaps, as revealed by detailed analysis of the underlying startle amplitudes. An

  11. Influence of Structural Parameters on Electrical Characteristics of Schottky Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor and Its Scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Dou, Chunmeng; Wei, Feng; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Ohmori, Kenji; Ahmet, Parhat; Watanabe, Takanobu; Tsutsui, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Akira; Sugii, Nobuyuki; Natori, Kenji; Yamada, Keisaku; Kataoka, Yoshinori; Hattori, Takeo; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    The influence of structural parameters, including the Schottky barrier height for electron (φBn) and channel doping (Na), on the electrical characteristics of a scaled Schottky barrier tunneling FET (SBTFET) have been clarified by numerical device simulation. The thermionic emission current (ITH) as well as the tunneling current (ITN) have been considered as the main electron injections at the source edge. Simulation results have revealed that the main conduction is ITN in the region near and above the threshold voltage (Vth). As tunneling probability is determined by φBn and the width of the triangular potential barrier at the source edge, a lower φBn with higher Na results in a better subthreshold swing (SS) with high on-state drive current (ION) at a gate length (Lg) of 50 nm. With Lg scaling down to 10 nm, however, a lower φBn has shown an increased off-state leakage current (IOFF) due to the short-channel effect (SCE), while a larger φBn can suppress the IOFF at the cost of ION. Therefore, considering SS with ION and IOFF ratio, it can be concluded that an optimum φBn exists for short-channel devices. The SBTFET showed good subthreshold performance and higher ION/IOFF than the conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET in 10 nm region with the Schottky barrier height optimization.

  12. Leader-Member Exchange across two hierarchical levels of leadership: concurrent influences on work characteristics and employee psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Karanika-Murray, Maria; Bartholomew, Kimberley J.; Williams, Glenn A.; Cox, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that the quality of the leader–employee relationship is linked to employee psychological health. Leaders who reside at different hierarchical levels have unique roles and spheres of influence and potentially affect employees' work experiences in different ways. Nevertheless, research on the impact of leadership on employee psychological health has largely viewed leaders as a homogeneous group. Expanding on LMX theory, we argue that (1) LMX sourced at the levels of the line manager (LM) and senior management (SM) team will be differentially linked to employee psychological health (assessed as worn-out) and that (2) these relationships will be mediated by perceived work characteristics (reward and recognition, workload management, quality of relationships with colleagues and physical environment). Structural equation modelling on data from 337 manual workers partially supported the hypotheses. Perceptions of the physical environment mediated the relationship between LMX at the LM level and employee psychological health, whereas perceptions of workload management mediated the relationship between LMX at the SM level and psychological health. These findings corroborate arguments that leaders are not a uniform group and as such the effects of LMX on employees will depend on leadership hierarchy. Implications for expanding leadership theory are discussed. PMID:25999635

  13. [Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw characteristics in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems].

    PubMed

    Haufe, H C; Friedli, K; Gygax, L; Wechsler, B

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the floor type used in the walking area of cubicle housing systems and of access to pasture on claw dimensions and claw shape in dairy cows. Data were collected on 36 farms, 12 farms each fitted with mastic asphalt, slatted concrete or solid rubber flooring. With each floor type, cows on half of the farms had access to pasture in summer. The farms were visited three times at intervals of about 6 months and data were collected from 10 cows during each visit. Net growth of the claw horn was highest on rubber flooring and lowest on mastic asphalt. On all floor types, claw angles were larger after the winter period and smaller after the summer period. With regard to claw shape, floor type had an effect on the occurrence of flat, concave and overgrown claw soles. In conclusion, none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others with regard to claw dimensions and claw shape, and access to pasture during summer (median 4 h per day) had only little influence on the investigated claw characteristics.

  14. [Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING UNPROTECTED ANAL INTERCOURSE AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN FUYANG, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Meng-ying; Ma, Jing-jing; Liu, Meng-xue; Chen, Bai-feng; Ding, Xin-ping; Wen, Yu-feng

    2015-07-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for contracting hu- man immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics and factors influencing unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among MSM in Fuyang, China in order to develop an intervention program to prevent the spread of HIV infection among MSM. We conducted this cross sectional study among 413 MSM in 2013. Participants completed an interviewer- administered questionnaire and were tested for HIV and syphilis infections. Three hundred fifty of 413 subjects reported sexual activity with a male partner during the previous 6 months; of these 27(7.7%) had unprotected sex. Forty-four subjects had sex with a female partner during the previous 6 months; of these 25 (58.1%) had unprotected sex. The frequency of having unprotected sex with a female was significantly greater than with a male (χ2 = 84.52, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic analysis showed education level (OR = 0.45, p = 0.003), length of time of current residence (OR = 0.47, p = 0.014), knowledge about HIV infection (OR = 0.09, p = 0.022) and integrated interventions (OR = 0.32, p < 0.001) were all significantly associated with UAI. High-risk sex behavior was common among the study population. A targeted interventions needs to be developed urgently. PMID:26867388

  16. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values of the BF and SM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the SM, while no difference was observed for the BF. Consumer panel results revealed that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) acceptability of the SM, tenderness of both muscles, and tended to increase (P=0.07) juiciness of the SM. Our results show that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of both muscles and overall acceptability of the SM. PMID:27155799

  17. Characteristics of heavy metal transfer and their influencing factors in different soil-crop systems of the industrialization region, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Tianyuan; Hu, Sun; Ji, Junfeng; Wang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Soil heavy metals and their bioaccumulation in agricultural products have attracted widespread concerns, yet the transfer and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in different soil-crop systems was rarely investigated. Soil and crop samples were collected from the typical agricultural areas in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg in the soils, roots and grains of rice (Oryza Sativa L.), wheat (Triticum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) were determined in this study. Transfer ability of heavy metals in soil-rice system was stronger than those in soil-wheat and soil-canola systems. The wheat showed a strong capacity to transfer Zn, Cu and Cd from root to the grain while canola presented a restricting effect to the intake of Cu and Cd. Soil pH and total organic matter were major factors influencing metal transfer from soil to rice, whereas soil Al2O3 contents presented a negative effect on heavy metal mobility in wheat and canola cultivation systems. The concentration of Zn and Cd in crop grains could well predicted according to the stepwise multiple linear regression models, which could help to quantitatively evaluate the ecologic risk of heavy metal accumulation in crops in the study area.

  18. The influence of zeta potential and yield stress on the filtration characteristics of a magnesium hydroxide simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, Simon; Nabi, Rafiq; Poole, Colin

    2007-07-01

    In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to minimise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline conditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid interactions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treatment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a range of pH conditions with electro-acoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment cake. (authors)

  19. The influence of SRT on phosphorus removal and sludge characteristics in the HA-A/A-MCO sludge reduction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, N.; Ji, F. Y.

    2013-02-01

    By researching the influence of sludge age (SRT) on phosphorous removal and sludge characteristics in the HA-A/A-MCO (hydrolysis-acidification-anaerobic/anoxic-multistep continuous oxic tank) process, which has the effect of simultaneous phosphorous and nitrogen removal and sludge reduction, it is found that extended SRT is helpful for improving the ability of anaerobic phosphorous release and chemical recovery of phosphate, but the hosphorous removal efficiency is not affected. Extended SRT causes the system to have even more active sludge; it can also lead to the system having a powerful ability of biochemical reaction by using superiority of concentration. Meanwhile, extended SRT can still reduce sludge yield. Extended SRT cannot make soluble metabolic product (SMP) accumulate in the reactor, so that the pollutant removal power is reduced; it also cannot affect the activity of the sludge. However, extended SRT is able to make the coagulation of the sludge hard, and cause the sludge volume index value increase, but cannot cause sludge bulking.

  20. [Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans. PMID:23947070