Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin
The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.
Chen, L; Yang, D Y; Liu, T F; Nong, X; Huang, X; Xie, Y; Fu, Y; Zheng, W P; Zhang, R H; Wu, X H; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y
We analyzed synonymous codon usage patterns of the mitochondrial genomes of 43 parasitic platyhelminth species. The relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons (NC) and the frequency of G+C at the third synonymously variable coding position were calculated. Correspondence analysis was used to determine the major variation trends shaping the codon usage patterns. Among the mitochondrial genomes of 19 trematode species, the GC content of third codon positions varied from 0.151 to 0.592, with a mean of 0.295 ± 0.116. In cestodes, the mean GC content of third codon positions was 0.254 ± 0.044. A comparison of the nucleotide composition at 4-fold synonymous sites revealed that, on average, there was a greater abundance of codons ending on U (51.9%) or A (22.7%) than on C (6.3%) or G (19.14%). Twenty-two codons, including UUU, UUA and UUG, were frequently used. In the NC-plot, most of points were distributed well below or around the expected NC curve. In addition to compositional constraints, the degree of hydrophobicity and the aromatic amino acids also influenced codon usage in the mitochondrial genomes of these 43 parasitic platyhelminth species.
Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Farooqi, Mohammad Samir; Sharma, Naveen; Rai, Anil; Mishra, Dwijesh Chandra; Singh, Dhananjaya P
Chromohalobacter salexigens, a Gammaproteobacterium belonging to the family Halomonadaceae, shows a broad salinity range for growth. In order to reveal the factors influencing architecture of protein coding genes in C. salexigens, pattern of synonymous codon usage bias has been investigated. Overall codon usage analysis of the microorganism revealed that C and G ending codons are predominantly used in all the genes which are indicative of mutational bias. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the genes are separated along the first major explanatory axis according to their expression levels and their genomic GC content at the synonymous third positions of the codons. Both NC plot and correspondence analysis on Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU) indicates that the variation in codon usage among the genes may be due to mutational bias at the DNA level and natural selection acting at the level of mRNA translation. Gene length and the hydrophobicity of the encoded protein also influence the codon usage variation of genes to some extent. A comparison of the relative synonymous codon usage between 10% each of highly and lowly expressed genes determines 23 optimal codons, which are statistically over represented in the former group of genes and may provide useful information for salt-stressed gene prediction and gene-transformation. Furthermore, genes for regulatory functions; mobile and extrachromosomal element functions; and cell envelope are observed to be highly expressed. The study could provide insight into the gene expression response of halophilic bacteria and facilitate establishment of effective strategies to develop salt-tolerant crops of agronomic value. PMID:23251043
Singh, Niraj K; Tyagi, Anuj
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Southeast Asia have resulted in serious health concerns. To understand more about evolution and transmission of ZIKV, detailed codon usage analysis was performed for all available strains. A high effective number of codons (ENC) value indicated the presence of low codon usage bias in ZIKV. The effect of mutational pressure on codon usage bias was confirmed by significant correlations between nucleotide compositions at third codon positions and ENCs. Correlation analysis between Gravy values, Aroma values and nucleotide compositions at third codon positions also indicated some influence of natural selection. However, the low codon adaptation index (CAI) value of ZIKV with reference to human and mosquito indicated poor adaptation of ZIKV codon usage towards its hosts, signifying that natural selection has a weaker influence than mutational pressure. Additionally, relative dinucleotide frequencies, geographical distribution, and evolutionary processes also influenced the codon usage pattern to some extent.
Background Codon usage has direct utility in molecular characterization of species and is also a marker for molecular evolution. To understand codon usage within the diverse phylum Nematoda, we analyzed a total of 265,494 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 30 nematode species. The full genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae were also examined. A total of 25,871,325 codons were analyzed and a comprehensive codon usage table for all species was generated. This is the first codon usage table available for 24 of these organisms. Results Codon usage similarity in Nematoda usually persists over the breadth of a genus but then rapidly diminishes even within each clade. Globodera, Meloidogyne, Pristionchus, and Strongyloides have the most highly derived patterns of codon usage. The major factor affecting differences in codon usage between species is the coding sequence GC content, which varies in nematodes from 32% to 51%. Coding GC content (measured as GC3) also explains much of the observed variation in the effective number of codons (R = 0.70), which is a measure of codon bias, and it even accounts for differences in amino acid frequency. Codon usage is also affected by neighboring nucleotides (N1 context). Coding GC content correlates strongly with estimated noncoding genomic GC content (R = 0.92). On examining abundant clusters in five species, candidate optimal codons were identified that may be preferred in highly expressed transcripts. Conclusion Evolutionary models indicate that total genomic GC content, probably the product of directional mutation pressure, drives codon usage rather than the converse, a conclusion that is supported by examination of nematode genomes. PMID:26271136
Mitreva, Makedonka; Wendl, Michael C; Martin, John; Wylie, Todd; Yin, Yong; Larson, Allan; Parkinson, John; Waterston, Robert H; McCarter, James P
Codon usage has direct utility in molecular characterization of species and is also a arker for molecular evolution. To understand codon usage within the diverse phylum Nematoda,we analyzed a total of 265,494 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 30 nematode species. The full genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae were also examined. A total of 25,871,325 codons ere analyzed and a comprehensive codon usage table for all species was generated. This is the first codon usage table available for 24 of these organisms. Codon usage similarity in Nematoda usually persists over the breadth of a genus but thenrapidly diminishes even within each clade. Globodera, Meloidogyne, Pristionchus, and Strongyloides have the most highly derived patterns of codon usage. The major factor affecting differences in codon usage between species is the coding sequence GC content, which varies in nematodes from 32%to 51%. Coding GC content (measured as GC3) also explains much of the observed variation in the effective number of codons (R = 0.70), which is a measure of codon bias, and it even accounts for differences in amino acid frequency. Codon usage is also affected by neighboring nucleotides(N1 context). Coding GC content correlates strongly with estimated noncoding genomic GC content (R = 0.92). On examining abundant clusters in five species, candidate optimal codons were identified that may be preferred in highly expressed transcripts. Evolutionary models indicate that total genomic GC content, probably the product of directional mutation pressure, drives codon usage rather than the converse, a conclusion that is supported by examination of nematode genomes.
Qin, Hong; Wu, Wei Biao; Comeron, Josep M.; Kreitman, Martin; Li, Wen-Hsiung
To study the roles of translational accuracy, translational efficiency, and the Hill-Robertson effect in codon usage bias, we studied the intragenic spatial distribution of synonymous codon usage bias in four prokaryotic (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Sulfolobus tokodaii, and Thermotoga maritima) and two eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster) genomes. We generated supersequences at each codon position across genes in a genome and computed the overall bias at each codon position. By quantitatively evaluating the trend of spatial patterns using isotonic regression, we show that in yeast and prokaryotic genomes, codon usage bias increases along translational direction, which is consistent with purifying selection against nonsense errors. Fruit fly genes show a nearly symmetric M-shaped spatial pattern of codon usage bias, with less bias in the middle and both ends. The low codon usage bias in the middle region is best explained by interference (the Hill-Robertson effect) between selections at different codon positions. In both yeast and fruit fly, spatial patterns of codon usage bias are characteristically different from patterns of GC-content variations. Effect of expression level on the strength of codon usage bias is more conspicuous than its effect on the shape of the spatial distribution. PMID:15611189
Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo
Cytochrome b (CYB) protein plays an important role in complex III of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Codon usage is the phenomenon of non-uniform usage of synonymous codons. In the present study, we report the pattern of codon usage in MT-CYB gene using various codon usage parameters. Nucleotide composition such as % of C and T was higher than A and G in pisces. In aves, % of A and C was higher than T and G but in mammals, A and T was higher than C and G. Heat map shows that AT-ending codons were mostly negative and GC-ending codons were mostly positive. From the heat map based on RSCU values, it is evident that codon usage prefers A/C at the third codon position and it was less towards T/G in its third codon position. The codons absent in pisces were AGT (except Toxotes chatareus), TGT, and CAG (except Elasma zonatum). The codons such as AGT (except Falco peregrinus), CGT (except Vidua chalybeata), and ACG (except Aythya americana) were absent in aves whereas, in mammals, the absent codons were namely CAG (except Canis familiaris) and ACG (except Rattus norvegicus). Codon usage bias was low in pisces, aves, and mammals. The frequency of leucine was the highest in the amino acid and cysteine was the lowest. Correlation analysis further suggests that mutation pressure is mainly responsible for codon usage pattern. Natural selection might also play a vital role in codon usage pattern but it was weaker than mutation pressure.
Mirsafian, Hoda; Mat Ripen, Adiratna; Singh, Aarti; Teo, Phaik Hwan; Merican, Amir Feisal; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin
Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, α-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure. PMID:24707212
He, Bing; Dong, Hui; Jiang, Cong; Cao, Fuliang; Tao, Shentong; Xu, Li-an
As one of the most ancient tree species, the codon usage pattern analysis of Ginkgo biloba is a useful way to understand its evolutionary and genetic mechanisms. Several studies have been conducted on angiosperms, but seldom on gymnosperms. Based on RNA-Seq data of the G. biloba transcriptome, amount to 17,579 unigenes longer than 300 bp were selected and analyzed from 68,547 candidates. The codon usage pattern tended towards more frequently use of A/U-ending codons, which showed an obvious gradient progressing from gymnosperms to dicots to monocots. Meanwhile, analysis of high/low-expression unigenes revealed that high-expression unigenes tended to use G/C-ending codons together with more codon usage bias. Variation of unigenes with different functions suggested that unigenes involving in environment adaptation use G/C-ending codons more frequently with more usage bias, and these results were consistent with the conclusion that the formation of G. biloba codon usage bias was dominated by natural selection. PMID:27808241
Zhou, Hao; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Cheng, Anchun
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. As reported, TMUV infection has resulted in significant poultry losses, and the virus may also pose a threat to public health. To characterize TMUV evolutionarily and to understand the factors accounting for codon usage properties, we performed, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias for the genomes of 60 TMUV strains. The most recently published TMUV strains were found to be widely distributed in coastal cities of southeastern China. Codon preference among TMUV genomes exhibits a low bias (effective number of codons (ENC)=53.287) and is maintained at a stable level. ENC-GC3 plots and the high correlation between composition constraints and principal component factor analysis of codon usage demonstrated that mutation pressure dominates over natural selection pressure in shaping the TMUV coding sequence composition. The high correlation between the major components of the codon usage pattern and hydrophobicity (Gravy) or aromaticity (Aromo) was obvious, indicating that properties of viral proteins also account for the observed variation in TMUV codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that CQW1 isolated from Chongqing may have evolved from GX2013H or GX2013G isolated from Guangxi, thus indicating that TMUV likely disseminated from southeastern China to the mainland. Moreover, the preferred codons encoding eight amino acids were consistent with the optimal codons for human cells, indicating that TMUV may pose a threat to public health due to possible cross-species transmission (birds to birds or birds to humans). The results of this study not only have theoretical value for uncovering the characteristics of synonymous codon usage patterns in TMUV genomes but also have significant meaning with regard to the molecular evolutionary tendencies of TMUV.
Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Dekang; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Mafeng; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun
Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) belongs to the Flavobacteriaceae family and can cause a septicemia disease in poultry. The synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteria reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable bacteria to improve tolerance of the various environments. We detailed the codon usage patterns of RA isolates from the available 12 sequenced genomes by multiple codon and statistical analysis. Nucleotide compositions and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that A or U ending codons are predominant in RA. Neutrality analysis found no significant correlation between GC12 and GC3 (p > 0.05). Correspondence analysis and ENc-plot results showed that natural selection dominated over mutation in the codon usage bias. The tree of cluster analysis based on RSCU was concordant with dendrogram based on genomic BLAST by neighbor-joining method. By comparative analysis, about 50 highly expressed genes that were orthologs across all 12 strains were found in the top 5% of high CAI value. Based on these CAI values, we infer that RA contains a number of predicted highly expressed coding sequences, involved in transcriptional regulation and metabolism, reflecting their requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. These results provide some useful information on the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage bias and evolution of RA. PMID:27517915
Zhou, Jian-Hua; Gao, Zong-Liang; Sun, Dong-Jie; Ding, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jie; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Szathmary, Susan; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Liu, Yong-Sheng
The synonymous codon usage pattern of African swine fever virus (ASFV), the similarity degree of the synonymous codon usage between this virus and some organisms and the synonymous codon usage bias for the translation initiation region of viral functional genes in the whole genome of ASFV have been investigated by some simply statistical analyses. Although both GC12% (the GC content at the first and second codon positions) and GC3% (the GC content at the third codon position) of viral functional genes have a large fluctuation, the significant correlations between GC12 and GC3% and between GC3% and the first principal axis of principle component analysis on the relative synonymous codon usage of the viral functional genes imply that mutation pressure of ASFV plays an important role in the synonymous codon usage pattern. Turning to the synonymous codon usage of this virus, the codons with U/A end predominate in the synonymous codon family for the same amino acid and a weak codon usage bias in both leading and lagging strands suggests that strand compositional asymmetry does not take part in the formation of codon usage in ASFV. The interaction between the absolute codon usage bias and GC3% suggests that other selections take part in the formation of codon usage, except for the mutation pressure. It is noted that the similarity degree of codon usage between ASFV and soft tick is higher than that between the virus and the pig, suggesting that the soft tick plays a more important role than the pig in the codon usage pattern of ASFV. The translational initiation region of the viral functional genes generally have a strong tendency to select some synonymous codons with low GC content, suggesting that the synonymous codon usage bias caused by translation selection from the host takes part in modulating the translation initiation efficiency of ASFV functional genes.
Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Chakraborty, Supriyo
TP53 gene is known as the "guardian of the genome" as it plays a vital role in regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, initiation of programmed cell death and suppressing tumor growth. Non uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of protein known as codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of the genome and shows species specific deviation. Analysis of codon usage bias with compositional dynamics of coding sequences has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, the complete nucleotide coding sequences of TP53 gene from eight different mammalian species were used for CUB analysis. Our results showed that the codon usage patterns in TP53 gene across different mammalian species has been influenced by GC bias particularly GC3 and a moderate bias exists in the codon usage of TP53 gene. Moreover, we observed that nature has highly favored the most over represented codon CTG for leucine amino acid but selected against the ATA codon for isoleucine in TP53 gene across all mammalian species during the course of evolution.
Vidyavijayan, K K; Anangi, Brahmaiah; Banu, Brindha; Thiruvengadam, Kannan; Hassan, Sameer; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth
Codon usage has been identified as one of the most important factors that influence gene expression. The frequencies with which the different codons are used vary significantly between different organisms and also between the genes within the same organism. HIV has a remarkable nucleotide composition with an above average percentage of "A" nucleotides resulting in a codon usage pattern different from that of the human host. In this study, we compared the codon usage pattern of HIV-1 genes among different groups of HIV disease progressors to understand the influence of differential codon usage pattern on the pathogenic manifestation in the host.
Doherty, Aoife; McInerney, James O
Synonymous codon usage patterns are shaped by a balance between mutation, drift, and natural selection. To date, detection of translational selection in vertebrates has proven to be a challenging task, obscured by small long-term effective population sizes in larger animals and the existence of isochores in some species. The consensus is that, in such species, natural selection is either completely ineffective at overcoming mutational pressures and genetic drift or perhaps is effective but so weak that it is not detectable. The aim of this research is to understand the interplay between mutation, selection, and genetic drift in vertebrates. We observe that although variation in mutational bias is undoubtedly the dominant force influencing codon usage, translational selection acts as a weak additional factor influencing synonymous codon usage. These observations indicate that translational selection is a widespread phenomenon in vertebrates and is not limited to a few species.
Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A
We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed. PMID:8152923
Qin, Wei-Yun; Gan, Li-Na; Xia, Ri-Wei; Sun, Shou-Yong; Zhu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Sheng-Long; Bao, Wen-Bin
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is a member of a new generation of proteins known as super-antibiotics that are implicated as endotoxin neutralising agents. Non-uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of a protein is known as codon usage bias (CUB). Analysis of CUB and compositional dynamics of coding sequences could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, we performed CUB analysis of the complete coding sequences of the BPI gene from nine different species. The codon usage patterns of BPI across different species were found to be influenced by GC bias, particularly GC3s, with a moderate bias in the codon usage of BPI. We found significant similarities in the codon usage patterns in BPI gene among closely related species, such as Sus_scrofa and Bos_taurus. Moreover, we observed evolutionary conservation of the most over-represented codon CUG for the amino acid leucine in the BPI gene across all species. In conclusion, our analysis provides a novel insight into the codon usage patterns of BPI. This information facilitates an improved understanding of the structural, functional and evolutionary significance of BPI gene among species, and provides a theoretical reference for developing antiseptic drug proteins with high efficiency across species.
Angellotti, Michael C.; Bhuiyan, Shafquat B.; Chen, Guorong; Wan, Xiu-Feng
Synonymous codon usage biases are associated with various biological factors, such as gene expression level, gene length, gene translation initiation signal, protein amino acid composition, protein structure, tRNA abundance, mutation frequency and patterns, and GC compositions. Quantification of codon usage bias helps understand evolution of living organisms. A codon usage bias pipeline is demanding for codon usage bias analyses within and across genomes. Here we present a CodonO webserver service as a user-friendly tool for codon usage bias analyses across and within genomes in real time. The webserver is available at http//www.sysbiology.org/CodonO. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org. PMID:17537810
De Moro, Gianluca; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto
Synonymous codon usage bias (CUB) is a defined as the non-random usage of codons encoding the same amino acid across different genomes. This phenomenon is common to all organisms and the real weight of the many factors involved in its shaping still remains to be fully determined. So far, relatively little attention has been put in the analysis of CUB in bivalve mollusks due to the limited genomic data available. Taking advantage of the massive sequence data generated from next generation sequencing projects, we explored codon preferences in 64 different species pertaining to the six major evolutionary lineages in Bivalvia. We detected remarkable differences across species, which are only partially dependent on phylogeny. While the intensity of CUB is mild in most organisms, a heterogeneous group of species (including Arcida and Mytilida, among the others) display higher bias and a strong preference for AT-ending codons. We show that the relative strength and direction of mutational bias, selection for translational efficiency and for translational accuracy contribute to the establishment of synonymous codon usage in bivalves. Although many aspects underlying bivalve CUB still remain obscure, we provide for the first time an overview of this phenomenon in this large, commercially and environmentally important, class of marine invertebrates. PMID:26713259
Gerdol, Marco; De Moro, Gianluca; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto
Synonymous codon usage bias (CUB) is a defined as the non-random usage of codons encoding the same amino acid across different genomes. This phenomenon is common to all organisms and the real weight of the many factors involved in its shaping still remains to be fully determined. So far, relatively little attention has been put in the analysis of CUB in bivalve mollusks due to the limited genomic data available. Taking advantage of the massive sequence data generated from next generation sequencing projects, we explored codon preferences in 64 different species pertaining to the six major evolutionary lineages in Bivalvia. We detected remarkable differences across species, which are only partially dependent on phylogeny. While the intensity of CUB is mild in most organisms, a heterogeneous group of species (including Arcida and Mytilida, among the others) display higher bias and a strong preference for AT-ending codons. We show that the relative strength and direction of mutational bias, selection for translational efficiency and for translational accuracy contribute to the establishment of synonymous codon usage in bivalves. Although many aspects underlying bivalve CUB still remain obscure, we provide for the first time an overview of this phenomenon in this large, commercially and environmentally important, class of marine invertebrates.
Kampenusa, Ināra; Zikmanis, Pēteris
The combined set of codon usage frequencies (61 sense codons) from the 111 annotated sequences of leaderless secreted type I, type III, type IV, and type VI proteins from proteobacteria were subjected to the forward and backward selection to obtain a combination of most effective predictor variables for classification/prediction purposes. The group of 24 codon frequencies displayed a strong discriminatory power with an accuracy of 100% for originally grouped and 97.3 +/- 1.6% for cross-validated (LOOCV) cases and an acceptable error rate (0.062 +/- 0.012) in k-fold (k = 6) cross-validation (KCV). The summary frequencies of synonymous codons for ten amino acids as the alternative predictor variables revealed a comparable discriminatory power (92.8 +/- 2.5% for LOOCV), however at somewhat lower levels of prediction accuracy (0.106 +/- 0.015 of KCV). A number of significant (p < 0.001) differences were found among indices of codon usage and amino acid composition depending on a definite secretion type. About 60% of secretion substrates were characterized as apparently originated from horizontal gene transfer events or putative alien genes and found to be unequally allocated in respect of groups. The proposed prediction approaches could be used to specify secretome proteins from genomic sequences as well as to assess the compatibility between bacterial secretion pathways and secretion substrates.
Choudhury, M N; Uddin, A; Chakraborty, S
The SRY gene is present within the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome which is responsible for maleness in mammals. The nonuniform usage of synonymous codons in the mRNA transcript for encoding a particular amino acid is the codon usage bias (CUB). Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and molecular organisation of a gene. It also helps in heterologous gene expression, design of primer and synthetic gene. However, the analysis of codon usage bias of SRY gene was not yet studied. We have used bioinformatic tools to analyse codon usage bias of SRY gene across mammals. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was weak. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that most frequently used codons had an A or C at the third codon position. Compositional constraint played an important role in codon usage pattern as evident from correspondence analysis (CA). Significant correlation among nucleotides constraints indicated that both mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern. Neutrality plot suggested that natural selection might play a major role, while mutation pressure might play a minor role in codon usage pattern in SRY gene in different species of mammals.
Sablok, Gaurav; Nayak, Kinshuk Chandra; Vazquez, Franck; Tatarinova, Tatiana V
We have analyzed factors affecting the codon usage pattern of the chloroplasts genomes of representative species of pooid grass family. Correspondence analysis of relative synonymous codon usages (RSCU) showed that genes on secondary axis were correlated with their GC(3S) values (all r > 0.3, p < 0.05), indicating mutational bias as an important selective force that shaped the variation in the codon usage among chloroplast genes. The Nc-plot showed that although a majority of the points with low-Nc values were lying below the expected curve, a few genes lied on the expected curve. Nc plot clearly showed that mutational bias plays a major role in codon biology across the monocot plastomes. The hydrophobicity and aromaticity of encoded proteins of each species were found to be other factors of codon usage variation. In the view of above light, besides natural selection, several other factors also likely to be involved in determining the selective constraints on codon bias in plastomes of pooid grass genomes. In addition, five codons (B. distachyon), seven codons (H. vulgare), and four codons (T. aestivum) were identified as optimal codons of the three grass chloroplasts. To identify genes evolving under positive selection, rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (Ka) and synonymous substitutions (Ks) were computed for all groups of orthologous gene pairs.
Liu, Qingpo; Hu, Haichao; Wang, Hong
Alternative splicing plays important roles in diverse aspects of plant development, metabolism, and stress responses. However, the regulatory mechanisms of alternative splicing of genes still remain incompletely elucidated, especially in plants. In this study, the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced (AS) genes in rice was firstly explored using the combination of correspondence analysis (CA), internal CA, correlation and ANOVA analyses. The results show that alternatively and non-alternatively spliced (non-AS) genes have similar tendency for overall codon usage, but exhibit significant difference in 58 out of 64 codons. AS and non-AS genes are both under strong purifying selection, but the former ones have significant lower mutation rate and are prone to be enriched towards the chromosomal ends. In the group of AS genes, the variability in synonymous codon usage between genes is mainly due to the variations in GC content, CDS length, as well as gene functions. Mutational bias that accounts for 25.85 % of the total codon usage variability plays a major role in shaping the codon usage pattern of AS genes. In contrast, no obvious evidence is found for the contributions of translational selection, AS types, the conservation of AS events, and numbers of AS variants to the codon usage divergence between AS genes. These findings may be useful for further understanding the mechanisms of origination, differentiation and regulation of alternatively spliced genes in plants.
Dass, J Febin Prabhu; Sudandiradoss, C
5-HT (5-Hydroxy-tryptamine) or serotonin receptors are found both in central and peripheral nervous system as well as in non-neuronal tissues. In the animal and human nervous system, serotonin produces various functional effects through a variety of membrane bound receptors. In this study, we focus on 5-HT receptor family from different mammals and examined the factors that account for codon and nucleotide usage variation. A total of 110 homologous coding sequences from 11 different mammalian species were analyzed using relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), correspondence analysis (COA) and hierarchical cluster analysis together with nucleotide base usage frequency of chemically similar amino acid codons. The mean effective number of codon (ENc) value of 37.06 for 5-HT(6) shows very high codon bias within the family and may be due to high selective translational efficiency. The COA and Spearman's rank correlation reveals that the nucleotide compositional mutation bias as the major factors influencing the codon usage in serotonin receptor genes. The hierarchical cluster analysis suggests that gene function is another dominant factor that affects the codon usage bias, while species is a minor factor. Nucleotide base usage was reported using Goldman, Engelman, Stietz (GES) scale reveals the presence of high uracil (>45%) content at functionally important hydrophobic regions. Our in silico approach will certainly help for further investigations on critical inference on evolution, structure, function and gene expression aspects of 5-HT receptors family which are potential antipsychotic drug targets.
Zhou, Jian-hua; Su, Jun-hong; Chen, Hao-tai; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Szathmary, Susan; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Liu, Yong-sheng
The adaptation of the overall codon usage pattern of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to that of human is estimated by the synonymous codon usage value (RSCU). The synonymous codon usage biases for the translation initiation region (TIR) of this virus are also analyzed by calculation of usage fluctuation of each synonymous codon along the TIR (the first 30 codon sites of the whole coding sequence of HCV). As for the overall codon usage pattern of HCV, this virus has a significant tendency to delete the codons with CpG or TpA dinucleotides. Turning to the adaptation of the overall codon usage of HCV to that of human, over half part of codons has a similar usage pattern between this virus and human, suggesting that the host cellular environment of the overall codon usage pattern influences the formation of codon usage for HCV. In addition, there is no obvious phenomenon that the codons with relatively low energy tend to be highly selected in the TIR of HCV, suggesting that the synonymous codon usage patterns for the TIR of HCV might be not affected by the secondary structure of nucleotide sequence, however, the formation of synonymous codons usage in the TIR of HCV is influenced by the overall codon usage patterns of human to some degree.
Stewart, Jane E.; Kawabe, Masato; Abdo, Zaid; Arie, Tsutomu; Peever, Tobin L.
Sexual reproduction in heterothallic ascomycete fungi is controlled by a single mating-type locus called MAT1 with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2. These alleles lack sequence similarity and encode different transcriptional regulators. A large number of phytopathogenic fungi including Alternaria spp. are considered asexual, yet still carry expressed MAT1 genes. The molecular evolution of Alternaria MAT1 was explored using nucleotide diversity, nonsynonymous vs. synonymous substitution (dn/ds) ratios and codon usage statistics. Likelihood ratio tests of site-branch models failed to detect positive selection on MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1. Codon-site models demonstrated that both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 are under purifying selection and significant differences in codon usage were observed between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. Mean GC content at the third position (GC3) and effective codon usage (ENC) were significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 with values of 0.57 and 48 for MAT1-1-1 and 0.62 and 46 for MAT1-2-1, respectively. In contrast, codon usage of Pleospora spp. (anamorph Stemphylium), a closely related Dothideomycete genus, was not significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. The purifying selection and biased codon usage detected at the MAT1 locus in Alternaria spp. suggest a recent sexual past, cryptic sexual present and/or that MAT1 plays important cellular role(s) in addition to mating. PMID:21625561
Chen, Ye; Li, Xinxin; Chi, Xiaojuan; Wang, Song; Ma, Yanmei; Chen, Jilong
The classical swine fever virus (CSFV), circulating worldwide, is a highly contagious virus. Since the emergence of CSFV, it has caused great economic loss in swine industry. The envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the CSFV is an immunoprotective antigen that induces the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, it is essential to study the codon usage of the E2 gene of the CSFV. In this study, 140 coding sequences of the E2 gene were analyzed. The value of effective number of codons (ENC) showed low codon usage bias in the E2 gene. Our study showed that codon usage could be described mainly by mutation pressure ENC plot analysis combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and translational selection-correlation analysis between the general average hydropathicity (Gravy) and aromaticity (Aroma), and nucleotides at the third position of codons (A3s, T3s, G3s, C3s and GC3s). Furthermore, the neutrality analysis, which explained the relationship between GC12s and GC3s, revealed that natural selection had a key role compared with mutational bias during the evolution of the E2 gene. These results lay a foundation for further research on the molecular evolution of CSFV.
Grantham, R; Gautier, C; Gouy, M; Mercier, R; Pavé, A
Frequencies for each of the 61 amino acid codons have been determined in every published mRNA sequence of 50 or more codons. The frequencies are shown for each kind of genome and for each individual gene. A surprising consistency of choices exists among genes of the same or similar genomes. Thus each genome, or kind of genome, appears to possess a "system" for choosing between codons. Frameshift genes, however, have widely different choice strategies from normal genes. Our work indicates that the main factors distinguishing between mRNA sequences relate to choices among degenerate bases. These systematic third base choices can therefore be used to establish a new kind of genetic distance, which reflects differences in coding strategy. The choice patterns we find seem compatible with the idea that the genome and not the individual gene is the unit of selection. Each gene in a genome tends to conform to its species' usage of the codon catalog; this is our genome hypothesis. PMID:6986610
Frappat, L.; Minichini, C.; Sciarrino, A.; Sorba, P.
The distribution functions of codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data for 40 eukaryotic biological species and five chloroplasts, are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential, and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondria the analysis is not conclusive. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total guanine and cytosine (GC) content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly dependent on the exonic GC content, is computed.
Qian, Wenfeng; Yang, Jian-Rong; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Maclean, Calum; Zhang, Jianzhi
Cellular efficiency in protein translation is an important fitness determinant in rapidly growing organisms. It is widely believed that synonymous codons are translated with unequal speeds and that translational efficiency is maximized by the exclusive use of rapidly translated codons. Here we estimate the in vivo translational speeds of all sense codons from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, preferentially used codons are not translated faster than unpreferred ones. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is a result of codon usage in proportion to cognate tRNA concentrations, the optimal strategy in enhancing translational efficiency under tRNA shortage. Our predicted codon–tRNA balance is indeed observed from all model eukaryotes examined, and its impact on translational efficiency is further validated experimentally. Our study reveals a previously unsuspected mechanism by which unequal codon usage increases translational efficiency, demonstrates widespread natural selection for translational efficiency, and offers new strategies to improve synthetic biology. PMID:22479199
Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level.
Li, Xiuzhang; Song, Hui; Kuang, Yu; Chen, Shuihong; Tian, Pei; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao
Analysis of codon usage data has both practical and theoretical applications in understanding the basics of molecular biology. Differences in codon usage patterns among genes reflect variations in local base compositional biases and the intensity of natural selection. Recently, there have been several reports related to codon usage in fungi, but little is known about codon usage bias in Epichloë endophytes. The present study aimed to assess codon usage patterns and biases in 4870 sequences from Epichloë festucae, which may be helpful in revealing the constraint factors such as mutation or selection pressure and improving the bioreactor on the cloning, expression, and characterization of some special genes. The GC content with 56.41% is higher than the AT content (43.59%) in E. festucae. The results of neutrality and effective number of codons plot analyses showed that both mutational bias and natural selection play roles in shaping codon usage in this species. We found that gene length is strongly correlated with codon usage and may contribute to the codon usage patterns observed in genes. Nucleotide composition and gene expression levels also shape codon usage bias in E. festucae. E. festucae exhibits codon usage bias based on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values of 61 sense codons, with 25 codons showing an RSCU larger than 1. In addition, we identified 27 optimal codons that end in a G or C. PMID:27428961
Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo
Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of genomes. We have used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of the genes located in human Y chromosome. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was low. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that approximately half of the codons out of 59 synonymous codons were most frequently used, and possessed a T or G at the third codon position. The codon usage pattern was different in different genes as revealed from correspondence analysis (COA). A significant correlation between effective number of codons (ENC) and various GC contents suggests that both mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern of genes located in human Y chromosome. In addition, Y-linked genes have significant difference in GC contents at the second and third codon positions, expression level, and codon usage pattern of some codons like the SPANX genes in X chromosome.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the family Togaviridae that is transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Its genome comprises a 12 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. In the present study, we report the patterns of synonymous codon usage in 141 CHIKV genomes by calculating several codon usage indices and applying multivariate statistical methods. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed that the preferred synonymous codons were G/C and A-ended. A comparative analysis of RSCU between CHIKV and its hosts showed that codon usage patterns of CHIKV are a mixture of coincidence and antagonism. Similarity index analysis showed that the overall codon usage patterns of CHIKV have been strongly influenced by Pan troglodytes and Aedes albopictus during evolution. The overall codon usage bias was low in CHIKV genomes, as inferred from the analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) and codon adaptation index (CAI). Our data suggested that although mutation pressure dominates codon usage in CHIKV, patterns of codon usage in CHIKV are also under the influence of natural selection from its hosts and geography. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report describing codon usage analysis in CHIKV genomes. The findings from this study are expected to increase our understanding of factors involved in viral evolution, and fitness towards hosts and the environment. PMID:24595095
Xu, Xin; Fei, Dongliang; Han, Huansheng; Liu, Honggui; Zhang, Jiayong; Zhou, Yulong; Xu, Chuang; Wang, Hongbin; Cao, Hongwei; Zhang, Hua
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is responsible for the highly contagious viral disease of swine, and causes great economic loss in the swine-raising industry. Considering the significance of CSFV, a systemic analysis was performed to study its codon usage patterns. In this study, using the complete genome sequences of 76 CSFV representing three genotypes, we firstly analyzed the relative nucleotide composition, effective number of codon (ENC) and synonymous codon usage in CSFV genomes. The results showed that CSFV is GC-moderate genome and the third-ended codons are not preferentially used. Every ENC values in CSFV genomes are >50, indicating that the codon usage bias is comparatively slight. Subsequently, we performed the correspondence analysis (COA) to investigate synonymous codon usage variation among all of the CSFV genomes. We found that codon usage bias in these CSFV genomes is greatly influenced by G + C mutation, which suggests that mutational pressure may be the main factor determining the codon usage biases. Moreover, most of the codon usage bias among different CSFV ORFs is directly related to the nucleotide composition. Other factors, such as hydrophobicity and aromaticity, also influence the codon usage variation among CSFV genomes. Our study represents the most comprehensive analysis of codon usage patterns in CSFV genome and provides a basic understanding of the mechanisms for its codon usage bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yong-sheng; Zhou, Jian-hua; Chen, Hao-tai; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jie
In this study, we calculated the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values and codon usage bias (CUB) values to implement a comparative analysis of codon usage pattern of open reading frames (ORFs) which belong to the two main genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). By analysis of synonymous codon usage values in each ORF of PRRSV, the optimal codons for most amino acids were all C or G-ended codons except GAU for Asp, CAU for His, UUU for Phe and CCU for Pro. The synonymous codon usage patterns in different ORFs of PRRSV were different and genetically conserved. Among them, ORF1a, ORF4, ORF5 and ORF7 could cluster these strains into the two main serotypes (EU and US). Due to mutational pressure, compositional constraint played an important role in shaping the synonymous codon usage pattern in different ORFs, and the synonymous codon usage diversity in ORFs was correlated with gene function. The degree of CUB for some particular amino acids under strong selection pressure probably served as a potential genetic marker for each ORF in PRRSV. However, gene length and translational selection in nature had no effect on the synonymous codon usage pattern in PRRSV. These conclusions could not only offer an insight into the synonymous codon usage pattern and differentiation of gene function, but also assist in understanding the discrepancy of evolution among ORFs in PRRSV. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng
The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome.
Wang, Hongju; Liu, Siqing; Zhang, Bo
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by ZIKV infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. Codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of ZIKV. To gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of ZIKV, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 ZIKV strains by calculating the effective number of codons (ENc), codon adaptation index (CAI), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and other indicators. The results indicate that the codon usage bias of ZIKV is relatively low. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that translational selection plays a role in shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. The results from a correspondence analysis (CA) indicate that other factors, such as base composition, aromaticity, and hydrophobicity may also be involved in shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. Additionally, the results from a comparative analysis of RSCU between ZIKV and its hosts suggest that ZIKV tends to evolve codon usage patterns that are comparable to those of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from Homo sapiens on the ZIKV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Taken together, both natural translational selection and mutation pressure are important for shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. Our findings contribute to understanding the evolution of ZIKV and its adaption to its hosts. PMID:27893824
Ma, Yan-Ping; Ke, Hao; Liang, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Hao, Le; Ma, Jiang-Yao; Li, Yu-Gu
Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human and animal pathogen. To better understand the genetic features and evolution of S. agalactiae, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in S. agalactiae were analyzed in this study. A- and U-ending rich codons were used in S. agalactiae function genes through the overall codon usage analysis, indicating that Adenine (A)/Thymine (T) compositional constraints might contribute an important role to the synonymous codon usage pattern. The GC3% against the effective number of codon (ENC) value suggested that translational selection was the important factor for codon bias in the microorganism. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that (i) mutational pressure was the most important factor in shaping codon usage of all open reading frames (ORFs) in the S. agalactiae genome; (ii) strand specific mutational bias was not capable of influencing the codon usage bias in the leading and lagging strands; and (iii) gene length was not the important factor in synonymous codon usage pattern in this organism. Additionally, the high correlation between tRNA adaptation index (tAI) value and codon adaptation index (CAI), frequency of optimal codons (Fop) value, reinforced the role of natural selection for efficient translation in S. agalactiae. Comparison of synonymous codon usage pattern between S. agalactiae and susceptible hosts (human and tilapia) showed that synonymous codon usage of S. agalactiae was independent of the synonymous codon usage of susceptible hosts. The study of codon usage in S. agalactiae may provide evidence about the molecular evolution of the bacterium and a greater understanding of evolutionary relationships between S. agalactiae and its hosts. PMID:26927064
Bhatia, Sandeep; Sood, Richa; Selvaraj, Pavulraj
Equine influenza viruses (EIVs) of H3N8 subtype are culprits of severe acute respiratory infections in horses, and are still responsible for significant outbreaks worldwide. Adaptability of influenza viruses to a particular host is significantly influenced by their codon usage preference, due to an absolute dependence on the host cellular machinery for their replication. In the present study, we analyzed genome-wide codon usage patterns in 92 EIV strains, including both H3N8 and H7N7 subtypes by computing several codon usage indices and applying multivariate statistical methods. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis disclosed bias of preferred synonymous codons towards A/U-ended codons. The overall codon usage bias in EIVs was slightly lower, and mainly affected by the nucleotide compositional constraints as inferred from the RSCU and effective number of codon (ENc) analysis. Our data suggested that codon usage pattern in EIVs is governed by the interplay of mutation pressure, natural selection from its hosts and undefined factors. The H7N7 subtype was found less fit to its host (horse) in comparison to H3N8, by possessing higher codon bias, lower mutation pressure and much less adaptation to tRNA pool of equine cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the codon usage analysis of the complete genomes of EIVs. The outcome of our study is likely to enhance our understanding of factors involved in viral adaptation, evolution, and fitness towards their hosts. PMID:27119730
Chen, Xiwen; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xiang, Jun
In this study, Codon usage bias (CUB) of DEV UL18 gene was analyzed, the results showed that codon usage bias in the DEV UL18 gene was strong bias towards the synonymous codons with A and T at the third codon position. Phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of the DEV UL18 gene and the 27 other herpesviruses revealed that UL18 gene of the DEV CHv strain and some fowl herpesviruses such as MeHV-1, GaHV-2 and GaHV-3 were clustered within a monophyletic clade and grouped within alphaherpesvirinae. The ENC-GC3S plot indicated that codon usage bias has strong species-specificity between DEV and 27 reference herpesviruses, and suggests that factors other than gene composition, such as translational selection leading to the codon usage variation among genes in different organisms, contribute to the codon usage among the different herpesviruses. Comparison of codon preferences of DEV UL18 gene with those of E. coli , yeast and humans showed that there were 20 codons showing distinct usage differences between DEV UL18 and yeast, 22 between DEV UL18 and humans, 23 between DEV UL18 and E.coli, which indicated the codon usage bias pattern in the DEV UL18 gene was similar to that of yeast. It is infered that the yeast expression system may be more suitable for the DEV UL18 expression.
Zhang, Zhicheng; Dai, Wei; Dai, Dingzhen
Two species of the DNA virus Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), TTSuV1 and TTSuV2, have become widely distributed in pig-farming countries in recent years. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage bias in 41 available TTSuV2 coding sequences (CDS), and compared the codon usage patterns of TTSuV2 and TTSuV1. TTSuV codon usage patterns were found to be phylogenetically conserved. Values for the effective number of codons (ENC) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias in both TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 was not significant, the most frequently occurring codons had an A or C at the third codon position. Correspondence analysis (COA) was performed and TTSuV2 and TTSuV1 sequences were located in different quadrants of the first two major axes. A plot of the ENC revealed that compositional constraint was the major factor determining the codon usage bias for TTSuV2. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis of 41 TTSuV2 isolates based on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values suggested that there was no association between geographic distribution and codon bias of TTSuV2 sequences. Finally, the comparison of RSCU for TTSuV2, TTSuV1 and the corresponding host sequence indicated that the codon usage pattern of TTSuV2 was similar to that of TTSuV1. However the similarity was low for each virus and its host. These conclusions provide important insight into the synonymous codon usage pattern of TTSuV2, as well as better understangding of the molecular evolution of TTSuV2 genomes.
Castells, Matías; Victoria, Matías; Colina, Rodney; Musto, Héctor; Cristina, Juan
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important economic losses to the beef and dairy industry worldwide. To study the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is essential to understand host-pathogen interaction, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. We performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage and composition of BCoV. The global codon usage among BCoV strains is similar. Significant differences of codon preferences in BCoV genes in relation to codon usage of Bos taurus host genes were found. Most of the highly frequent codons are U-ending. G + C compositional constraint and dinucleotide composition also plays a role in the overall pattern of BCoV codon usage. The results of these studies revealed that mutational bias is a leading force shaping codon usage in this virus. Additionally, relative dinucleotide frequencies, geographical distribution, and evolutionary processes also influenced the codon usage pattern.
Lal, Devi; Verma, Mansi; Behura, Susanta K; Lal, Rup
Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In this investigation, bias in codon usages of ninety actinobacterial genomes was analyzed by estimating different indices of codon bias such as Nc (effective number of codons), SCUO (synonymous codon usage order), RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage), as well as sequence patterns of codon contexts. The results revealed several characteristic features of codon usage in Actinobacteria, as follows: 1) C- or G-ending codons are used frequently in comparison with A- and U ending codons; 2) there is a direct relationship of GC content with use of specific amino acids such as alanine, proline and glycine; 3) there is an inverse relationship between GC content and Nc estimates, 4) there is low SCUO value (<0.5) for most genes; and 5) GCC-GCC, GCC-GGC, GCC-GAG and CUC-GAC are the frequent context sequences among codons. This study highlights the fact that: 1) in Actinobacteria, extreme GC content and codon bias are driven by mutation rather than natural selection; (2) traits like aerobicity are associated with effective natural selection and therefore low GC content and low codon bias, demonstrating the role of both mutational bias and translational selection in shaping the habitat and phenotype of actinobacterial species. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hussain, Snawar; Rasool, Sahibzada Tasleem
Zika virus is a zoonotic pathogen, which have made frequent incursion into the human population in Africa and South East Asia over the course of several decades but never reached to the pandemic proportions until the most recent outbreak. Viruses are solely dependent on host synthetic machinery for their replication cycle; therefore, replication and persistence in a host species of different genetic background requires certain degree of adaptation. These adaptations are necessary to avoid detection from host immune surveillance and maximize the utilization of available resources for efficient viral replication. Study of genomic composition and codon usage pattern not only offer an insight into the adaptation of viruses to their new host, but may also provide some information about pathogenesis and spread of the virus. To elucidate the genetic features and synonymous codon usage bias in ZIKV genome, a comprehensive analysis was performed on 80 full-length ZIKV sequences. Our analyses shows that the overall extent of codon usage bias in ZIKV genome is low and affected by nucleotide composition, protein properties, natural selection, and gene expression level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Athey, John; Alexaki, Aikaterini; Osipova, Ekaterina; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis V; Katneni, Upendra; Simonyan, Vahan; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava
Due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, most amino acids can be encoded by multiple synonymous codons. Synonymous codons naturally occur with different frequencies in different organisms. The choice of codons may affect protein expression, structure, and function. Recombinant gene technologies commonly take advantage of the former effect by implementing a technique termed codon optimization, in which codons are replaced with synonymous ones in order to increase protein expression. This technique relies on the accurate knowledge of codon usage frequencies. Accurately quantifying codon usage bias for different organisms is useful not only for codon optimization, but also for evolutionary and translation studies: phylogenetic relations of organisms, and host-pathogen co-evolution relationships, may be explored through their codon usage similarities. Furthermore, codon usage has been shown to affect protein structure and function through interfering with translation kinetics, and cotranslational protein folding. Despite the obvious need for accurate codon usage tables, currently available resources are either limited in scope, encompassing only organisms from specific domains of life, or greatly outdated. Taking advantage of the exponential growth of GenBank and the creation of NCBI's RefSeq database, we have developed a new database, the High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment-Codon Usage Tables (HIVE-CUTs), to present and analyse codon usage tables for every organism with publicly available sequencing data. Compared to existing databases, this new database is more comprehensive, addresses concerns that limited the accuracy of earlier databases, and provides several new functionalities, such as the ability to view and compare codon usage between individual organisms and across taxonomical clades, through graphical representation or through commonly used indices. In addition, it is being routinely updated to keep up with the continuous flow of new data in
Nakamura, Masayuki; Sugiura, Masahiro
Codon usage in chloroplasts is different from that in prokaryotic and eukaryotic nuclear genomes. However, no experimental approach has been made to analyse the translation efficiency of individual codons in chloroplasts. We devised an in vitro assay for translation efficiencies using synthetic mRNAs, and measured the translation efficiencies of five synonymous codon groups in tobacco chloroplasts. Among four alanine codons (GCN, where N is U, C, A or G), GCU was the most efficient for translation, whereas the chloroplast genome lacks tRNA genes corresponding to GCU. Phenylalanine and tyrosine are each encoded by two codons (UUU/C and UAU/C, respectively). Phenylalanine UUC and tyrosine UAC were translated more than twice as efficiently than UUU and UAU, respectively, contrary to their codon usage, whereas translation efficiencies of synonymous codons for alanine, aspartic acid and asparagine were parallel to their codon usage. These observations indicate that translation efficiencies of individual codons are not always correlated with codon usage in vitro in chloroplasts. This raises an important issue for foreign gene expression in chloroplasts.
Anhlan, Darisuren; Grundmann, Norbert; Makalowski, Wojciech; Ludwig, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph
The pandemic of 1918 was caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus, which is a negative strand RNA virus; however, little is known about the nature of its direct ancestral strains. Here we applied a broad genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a wide range of influenza virus genes, in particular the PB1 gene, to gain information about the phylogenetic relatedness of the 1918 H1N1 virus. We compared the RNA genome of the 1918 strain to many other influenza strains of different origin by several means, including relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), and phylogenetic relationship. We found that the PB1 gene of the 1918 pandemic virus had ENC values similar to the H1N1 classical swine and human viruses, but different ENC values from avian as well as H2N2 and H3N2 human viruses. Also, according to the RSCU of the PB1 gene, the 1918 virus grouped with all human isolates and "classical" swine H1N1 viruses. The phylogenetic studies of all eight RNA gene segments of influenza A viruses may indicate that the 1918 pandemic strain originated from a H1N1 swine virus, which itself might be derived from a H1N1 avian precursor, which was separated from the bulk of other avian viruses in toto a long time ago. The high stability of the RSCU pattern of the PB1 gene indicated that the integrity of RNA structure is more important for influenza virus evolution than previously thought.
Jiang, Peng; Sun, Xiao; Lu, Zuhong
In this study, a comparative analysis of the codon usage bias was performed in Aeropyrum pernix K1 and two other phylogenetically related Crenarchaeota microorganisms (i.e., Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639). The results indicated that the synonymous codon usage in A. pernix K1 was less biased, which was highly correlated with the GC(3S) value. The codon usage patterns were phylogenetically conserved among these Crenarchaeota microorganisms. Comparatively, it is the species function rather than the gene function that determines their gene codon usage patterns. A. pernix K1, P. aerophilum str. IM2, and S. acidocaldarius DSM 639 live in differently extreme conditions. It is presumed that the living environment played an important role in determining the codon usage pattern of these microorganisms. Besides, there was no strain-specific codon usage among these microorganisms. The extent of codon bias in A. pernix K1 and S. acidocaldarius DSM 639 were highly correlated with the gene expression level, but no such association was detected in P. aerophilum str. IM2 genomes.
Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Zarate, Selene; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pereira Lobo, Francisco; Gladue, Douglas P.; Arzt, Jonathan; Novella, Isabel S.; Rodriguez, Luis L.
Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for their translation, suggesting that virus codon usage could be a target for selection. In the current study we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) patterns of 26 arboviruses together with 25 vectors and hosts, including 8 vertebrates and 17 invertebrates. We used hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify trends in codon usage. HCA demonstrated that the RSCU of arboviruses reflects that of their natural hosts, but not that of dead-end hosts. Of the two major components identified by PCA, the first accounted for 62.1% of the total variance, and among the 59 codons analyzed in this study, the leucine codon CTG had the highest correlation with the first principal component, however isoleucine had the highest correlation during amino acid analysis. Nucleotide and dinucleotide composition were the variables that explained most of the total codon usage variance. The results suggest that the main factors driving the evolution of codon usage in arboviruses is based on the nucleotide and dinucleotide composition present in the host. Comparing codon usage of arboviruses and potential vector hosts can help identifying potential vectors for emerging arboviruses. PMID:27455096
Suzuki, Haruo; Saito, Rintaro; Tomita, Masaru
In many bacteria, intragenomic diversity in synonymous codon usage among genes has been reported. However, no quantitative attempt has been made to compare the diversity levels among different genomes. Here, we introduce a mean dissimilarity-based index (Dmean) for quantifying the level of diversity in synonymous codon usage among all genes within a genome. The application of Dmean to 268 bacterial genomes shows that in bacteria with extremely biased genomic G+C compositions there is little diversity in synonymous codon usage among genes. Furthermore, our findings contradict previous reports. For example, a low level of diversity in codon usage among genes has been reported for Helicobacter pylori, but based on Dmean, the diversity level of this species is higher than those of more than half of bacteria tested here. The discrepancies between our findings and previous reports are probably due to differences in the methods used for measuring codon usage diversity. We recommend that Dmean be used to measure the diversity level of codon usage among genes. This measure can be applied to other compositional features such as amino acid usage and dinucleotide relative abundance as a genomic signature.
Rao, Yousheng; Wu, Guozuo; Wang, Zhangfeng; Chai, Xuewen; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan
Synonymous codons are used with different frequencies both among species and among genes within the same genome and are controlled by neutral processes (such as mutation and drift) as well as by selection. Up to now, a systematic examination of the codon usage for the chicken genome has not been performed. Here, we carried out a whole genome analysis of the chicken genome by the use of the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) method and identified 11 putative optimal codons, all of them ending with uracil (U), which is significantly departing from the pattern observed in other eukaryotes. Optimal codons in the chicken genome are most likely the ones corresponding to highly expressed transfer RNA (tRNAs) or tRNA gene copy numbers in the cell. Codon bias, measured as the frequency of optimal codons (Fop), is negatively correlated with the G + C content, recombination rate, but positively correlated with gene expression, protein length, gene length and intron length. The positive correlation between codon bias and protein, gene and intron length is quite different from other multi-cellular organism, as this trend has been only found in unicellular organisms. Our data displayed that regional G + C content explains a large proportion of the variance of codon bias in chicken. Stepwise selection model analyses indicate that G + C content of coding sequence is the most important factor for codon bias. It appears that variation in the G + C content of CDSs accounts for over 60% of the variation of codon bias. This study suggests that both mutation bias and selection contribute to codon bias. However, mutation bias is the driving force of the codon usage in the Gallus gallus genome. Our data also provide evidence that the negative correlation between codon bias and recombination rates in G. gallus is determined mostly by recombination-dependent mutational patterns. PMID:22039174
The three stop codons UAA, UAG, and UGA signal the termination of mRNA translation. As a result of a mechanism that is not adequately understood, they are normally used with unequal frequencies. In this work, we showed that selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome. We found that, in respect to sense codons, stop codon usage was affected by stronger selective forces but was less influenced by neutral mutational biases. UGA is the most frequent termination codon in human genome. However, UAA was the preferred stop codon in genes with high breadth of expression, high level of expression, AT-rich coding sequences, housekeeping functions, and in gene ontology categories with the largest deviation from expected stop codon usage. Selective forces associated with the breadth and the level of expression favoured AT-rich sequences in the mRNA region including the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR, but acted with scarce effects on sense codons, generating two regions, upstream and downstream of the stop codon, with strongly different base composition. By favouring low levels of GC-content, selection promoted labile local secondary structures at the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR. The compositional and structural context favoured by selection was surprisingly emphasized in the class of ribosomal proteins and was consistent with sequence elements that increase the efficiency of translational termination. Stop codons were also heterogeneously distributed among chromosomes by a mechanism that was strongly correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences. In human genome, the nucleotide composition and the thermodynamic stability of stop codon site and its proximal 3'-UTR are correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences and with the breadth and the level of gene expression. In highly expressed genes stop codon usage is compositionally and structurally consistent with highly efficient translation termination signals.
Gouy, M; Gautier, C
The nucleic acid sequence bank now contains over 600 protein coding genes of which 107 are from prokaryotic organisms. Codon frequencies in each new prokaryotic gene are given. Analysis of genetic code usage in the 83 sequenced genes of the Escherichia coli genome (chromosome, transposons and plasmids) is presented, taking into account new data on gene expressivity and regulation as well as iso-tRNA specificity and cellular concentration. The codon composition of each gene is summarized using two indexes: one is based on the differential usage of iso-tRNA species during gene translation, the other on choice between Cytosine and Uracil for third base. A strong relationship between codon composition and mRNA expressivity is confirmed, even for genes transcribed in the same operon. The influence of codon use of peptide elongation rate and protein yield is discussed. Finally, the evolutionary aspect of codon selection in mRNA sequences is studied. PMID:6760125
Deb, Sushanta; Basak, Surajit
Paenibacillus sp. 32O-W, which is attributed for biodesulfurization of petroleum, has 56.34% genomic G+C content. Correspondence analysis on Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU) of the Paenibacillus sp. 32O-W genome has revealed the two different trends of codon usage variation. Two sets of genes have been identified representing the two distinct pattern of codon usage in this bacterial genome. We have measured several codon usage indices to understand the influencing factors governing the differential pattern of codon usage variation in this bacterial genome. We also observed significant differences in many protein properties between the two gene sets (e.g., hydrophobicity, protein biosynthetic cost, protein aggregation propensity). The compositional difference between the two sets of genes and the difference in their potential gene expressivity are the driving force for the differences in protein biosynthetic cost and aggregation propensity. Based on our results we argue that codon usage variation in Paenibacillus sp. 32O-W genome is actually influenced by both mutational bias and translational selection. PMID:28293070
Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Rai, Anil
Genome analysis of thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 revealed factors ruling choices of codons in this organism. Multiple parameters like Nc, GC3s, RSCU, Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), optimal and rare codons, codon-pair context and amino acid usage were analysed and compositional constraint was identified as major factor. Wide range of Nc values for the same GC3 content suggested the role of translational selection. Mutational bias is suggested at synonymous position. Among optimal codons for translation, most were GC-ending. Seven codons (AGA, AGG, AUA, UAA, UAG, UCA and UGA) were found to have least occurrence in the entire genome and except stop codons all were A-ending (exception AGG). Most widely used codon-pair in the genome are G-ending or C-ending and A-ending or U-ending codons make pair with G-ending or C-ending codons. Amino acids which are largely distributed in T. elongatus tend to use G-ending or C-ending codons most frequently. Findings showed cumulative role of translational selection, translational accuracy and gene expression levels with mutational bias as key player in codon selection pattern of this organism.
Stenico, M; Lloyd, A T; Sharp, P M
Synonymous codon usage varies considerably among Caenorhabditis elegans genes. Multivariate statistical analyses reveal a single major trend among genes. At one end of the trend lie genes with relatively unbiased codon usage. These genes appear to be lowly expressed, and their patterns of codon usage are consistent with mutational biases influenced by the neighbouring nucleotide. At the other extreme lie genes with extremely biased codon usage. These genes appear to be highly expressed, and their codon usage seems to have been shaped by selection favouring a limited number of translationally optimal codons. Thus, the frequency of these optimal codons in a gene appears to be correlated with the level of gene expression, and may be a useful indicator in the case of genes (or open reading frames) whose expression levels (or even function) are unknown. A second, relatively minor trend among genes is correlated with the frequency of G at synonymously variable sites. It is not yet clear whether this trend reflects variation in base composition (or mutational biases) among regions of the C.elegans genome, or some other factor. Sequence divergence between C.elegans and C.briggsae has also been studied. PMID:8041603
Li, Jing; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Ying; Yang, Sihai; Tian, Dacheng
Amino acids typically are encoded by multiple synonymous codons that are not used with the same frequency. Codon usage bias has drawn considerable attention, and several explanations have been offered, including variation in GC-content between species. Focusing on a simple parameter—combined GC proportion of all the synonymous codons for a particular amino acid, termed GCsyn—we try to deepen our understanding of the relationship between GC-content and amino acid/codon usage in more details. We analyzed 65 widely distributed representative species and found a close association between GCsyn, GC-content, and amino acids usage. The overall usages of the four amino acids with the greatest GCsyn and the five amino acids with the lowest GCsyn both vary with the regional GC-content, whereas the usage of the remaining 11 amino acids with intermediate GCsyn is less variable. More interesting, we discovered that codon usage frequencies are nearly constant in regions with similar GC-content. We further quantified the effects of regional GC-content variation (low to high) on amino acid usage and found that GC-content determines the usage variation of amino acids, especially those with extremely high GCsyn, which accounts for 76.7% of the changed GC-content for those regions. Our results suggest that GCsyn correlates with GC-content and has impact on codon/amino acid usage. These findings suggest a novel approach to understanding the role of codon and amino acid usage in shaping genomic architecture and evolutionary patterns of organisms. PMID:26248983
Pouyet, Fanny; Bailly-Bechet, Marc; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Guéguen, Laurent
Gene sequences are the target of evolution operating at different levels, including the nucleotide, codon, and amino acid levels. Disentangling the impact of those different levels on gene sequences requires developing a probabilistic model with three layers. Here we present SENCA (site evolution of nucleotides, codons, and amino acids), a codon substitution model that separately describes 1) nucleotide processes which apply on all sites of a sequence such as the mutational bias, 2) preferences between synonymous codons, and 3) preferences among amino acids. We argue that most synonymous substitutions are not neutral and that SENCA provides more accurate estimates of selection compared with more classical codon sequence models. We study the forces that drive the genomic content evolution, intraspecifically in the core genome of 21 prokaryotes and interspecifically for five Enterobacteria. We retrieve the existence of a universal mutational bias toward AT, and that taking into account selection on synonymous codon usage has consequences on the measurement of selection on nonsynonymous substitutions. We also confirm that codon usage bias is mostly driven by selection on preferred codons. We propose new summary statistics to measure the relative importance of the different evolutionary processes acting on sequences. PMID:27401173
Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Poore, Gary C.B.
Background Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters) and Caridea (true shrimps) are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Methods Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. Results We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Discussion Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages. PMID:28265498
Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Poore, Gary C B; Austin, Christopher M
Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters) and Caridea (true shrimps) are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages.
Wei, Lei; He, Jian; Jia, Xian; Qi, Qi; Liang, Zhisheng; Zheng, Hao; Ping, Yao; Liu, Shuyu; Sun, Jingchen
Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa, generally referring to differences in the occurrence frequency of codons across different species or within the genome of the same species. SCUB happens in various degrees under pressure from nature selection, mutation bias and other factors in different ways. It also attaches great significance to gene expression and species evolution, however, a systematic investigation towards the codon usage in Bombyx mori (B. mori) has not been reported yet. Moreover, it is still indistinct about the reasons contributing to the bias or the relationship between the bias and the evolution of B. mori. The comparison of the codon usage pattern between the genomic DNA (gDNA) and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from B. mori suggests that mtDNA has a higher level of codon bias. Furthermore, the correspondence analysis suggests that natural selection, such as gene length, gene function and translational selection, dominates the codon preference of mtDNA, while the composition constraints for mutation bias only plays a minor role. Additionally, the clustering results of the silkworm superfamily suggest a lack of explicitness in the relationship between the codon usage of mitogenome and species evolution. Among the complicated influence factors leading to codon bias, natural selection is found to play a major role in shaping the high bias in the mtDNA of B. mori from our current data. Although the cluster analysis reveals that codon bias correlates little with the species evolution, furthermore, a detailed analysis of codon usage of mitogenome provides better insight into the evolutionary relationships in Lepidoptera. However, more new methods and data are needed to investigate the relationship between the mtDNA bias and evolution.
Dohra, Hideo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Haruo
The ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbors the green-alga Chlorella symbionts. We reassembled the P. bursaria transcriptome to minimize falsely fused transcripts, and investigated amino acid and codon usage using the transcriptome data. Surface proteins preferentially use smaller amino acid residues like cysteine. Unusual synonymous codon and amino acid usage in highly expressed genes can reflect a balance between translational selection and other factors. A correlation of gene expression level with synonymous codon or amino acid usage is emphasized in genes down-regulated in symbiont-bearing cells compared to symbiont-free cells. Our results imply that the selection is associated with P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bentele, Kajetan; Saffert, Paul; Rauscher, Robert; Ignatova, Zoya; Blüthgen, Nils
The genetic code is degenerate; thus, protein evolution does not uniquely determine the coding sequence. One of the puzzles in evolutionary genetics is therefore to uncover evolutionary driving forces that result in specific codon choice. In many bacteria, the first 5–10 codons of protein-coding genes are often codons that are less frequently used in the rest of the genome, an effect that has been argued to arise from selection for slowed early elongation to reduce ribosome traffic jams. However, genome analysis across many species has demonstrated that the region shows reduced mRNA folding consistent with pressure for efficient translation initiation. This raises the possibility that unusual codon usage is a side effect of selection for reduced mRNA structure. Here we discriminate between these two competing hypotheses, and show that in bacteria selection favours codons that reduce mRNA folding around the translation start, regardless of whether these codons are frequent or rare. Experiments confirm that primarily mRNA structure, and not codon usage, at the beginning of genes determines the translation rate. PMID:23774758
Butt, Azeem Mehmood; Nasrullah, Izza; Qamar, Raheel; Tong, Yigang
The codon usage patterns of viruses reflect the evolutionary changes that allow them to optimize their survival and adapt their fitness to the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. Here we report the genotype-specific codon usage patterns of Zika virus (ZIKV) strains from the current and previous outbreaks. Several genotype-specific and common codon usage traits were noted in the ZIKV coding sequences, indicating their independent evolutionary origins from a common ancestor. The overall influence of natural selection was more profound than that of mutation pressure, acting on a specific set of viral genes in the Asian-genotype ZIKV strains from the recent outbreak. An interplay between codon adaptation and deoptimization may have allowed the virus to adapt to multiple host and vectors and is reported for the first time in ZIKV genomes. Combining our codon analysis with geographical data on Aedes populations in the Americas suggested that ZIKV has evolved host- and vector-specific codon usage patterns to maintain successful replication and transmission chains within multiple hosts and vectors. PMID:27729643
Butt, Azeem Mehmood; Nasrullah, Izza; Qamar, Raheel; Tong, Yigang
The codon usage patterns of viruses reflect the evolutionary changes that allow them to optimize their survival and adapt their fitness to the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. Here we report the genotype-specific codon usage patterns of Zika virus (ZIKV) strains from the current and previous outbreaks. Several genotype-specific and common codon usage traits were noted in the ZIKV coding sequences, indicating their independent evolutionary origins from a common ancestor. The overall influence of natural selection was more profound than that of mutation pressure, acting on a specific set of viral genes in the Asian-genotype ZIKV strains from the recent outbreak. An interplay between codon adaptation and deoptimization may have allowed the virus to adapt to multiple host and vectors and is reported for the first time in ZIKV genomes. Combining our codon analysis with geographical data on Aedes populations in the Americas suggested that ZIKV has evolved host- and vector-specific codon usage patterns to maintain successful replication and transmission chains within multiple hosts and vectors.
Chen, Haixia; Sun, Shichun; Norenburg, Jon L.; Sundberg, Per
The phenomenon of codon usage bias is known to exist in many genomes and it is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To understand the patterns of codon usage in nemertean mitochondrial genomes, we use bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein-coding sequences of eight nemertean species. Neutrality analysis did not find a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENc-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENc values are below it. ENc-plot suggested that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally and we propose that codons containing A or U at third position are used preferentially in nemertean species, regardless of whether corresponding tRNAs are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA. Context-dependent analysis indicated that the nucleotide at the second codon position slightly affects synonymous codon choices. These results suggested that mutational and selection forces are probably acting to codon usage bias in nemertean mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24454907
Chen, Haixia; Sun, Shichun; Norenburg, Jon L; Sundberg, Per
The phenomenon of codon usage bias is known to exist in many genomes and it is mainly determined by mutation and selection. To understand the patterns of codon usage in nemertean mitochondrial genomes, we use bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein-coding sequences of eight nemertean species. Neutrality analysis did not find a significant correlation between GC12 and GC3. ENc-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENc values are below it. ENc-plot suggested that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally and we propose that codons containing A or U at third position are used preferentially in nemertean species, regardless of whether corresponding tRNAs are encoded in the mitochondrial DNA. Context-dependent analysis indicated that the nucleotide at the second codon position slightly affects synonymous codon choices. These results suggested that mutational and selection forces are probably acting to codon usage bias in nemertean mitochondrial genomes.
Galves-dos-Santos, Dilermando P; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel
During the evolution of living organisms, a natural selection event occurs toward the optimization of their genomes regarding the usage of codons. During this process which is known as codon bias, a set of preferred codons is naturally defined in the genome of a given organism, since there are 61 possible codons (plus 3 stop codons) to 20 amino acids. Such event leads to optimization of metabolic cellular processes such as translational efficiency, RNA stability and energy saving. Although we know why, we do not know how exactly a set of preferred codons for each amino acid is defined for a given genome considering that the usage frequency of each synonymous codons is peculiar to each organism. In order to help answering this question, we analyzed the usage frequency of codons which are similar to stop codons, since a minor mutation on these codons may lead to a stop codon into the open reading frame compromising the protein expression as a result. We found a reduced use of those codons in Xanthomomas axonopodis pv. citri which presents an optimized genome regarding codon usage. On the other hand, such codons are more often used in Xylella fastidiosa, which does not seem to have established codon preferences as previously shown. Our results support that a set of preferred codons is not randomly selected and propose new ideas to the field warranting further experiments in this regard.
Saunders, Rhodri; Deane, Charlotte M.
Translation of mRNA into protein is a unidirectional information flow process. Analysing the input (mRNA) and output (protein) of translation, we find that local protein structure information is encoded in the mRNA nucleotide sequence. The Coding Sequence and Structure (CSandS) database developed in this work provides a detailed mapping between over 4000 solved protein structures and their mRNA. CSandS facilitates a comprehensive analysis of codon usage over many organisms. In assigning translation speed, we find that relative codon usage is less informative than tRNA concentration. For all speed measures, no evidence was found that domain boundaries are enriched with slow codons. In fact, genes seemingly avoid slow codons around structurally defined domain boundaries. Translation speed, however, does decrease at the transition into secondary structure. Codons are identified that have structural preferences significantly different from the amino acid they encode. However, each organism has its own set of ‘significant codons’. Our results support the premise that codons encode more information than merely amino acids and give insight into the role of translation in protein folding. PMID:20530529
Pal, Shilpee; Sarkar, Indrani; Roy, Ayan; Mohapatra, Pradeep K Das; Mondal, Keshab C; Sen, Arnab
The present study has been aimed to the comparative analysis of high GC composition containing Corynebacterium genomes and their evolutionary study by exploring codon and amino acid usage patterns. Phylogenetic study by MLSA approach, indel analysis and BLAST matrix differentiated Corynebacterium species in pathogenic and non-pathogenic clusters. Correspondence analysis on synonymous codon usage reveals that, gene length, optimal codon frequencies and tRNA abundance affect the gene expression of Corynebacterium. Most of the optimal codons as well as translationally optimal codons are C ending i.e. RNY (R-purine, N-any nucleotide base, and Y-pyrimidine) and reveal translational selection pressure on codon bias of Corynebacterium. Amino acid usage is affected by hydrophobicity, aromaticity, protein energy cost, etc. Highly expressed genes followed the cost minimization hypothesis and are less diverged at their synonymous positions of codons. Functional analysis of core genes shows significant difference in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Corynebacterium. The study reveals close relationship between non-pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic Corynebaterium as well as between molecular evolution and survival niches of the organism.
Wallace, Edward W J; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Drummond, D Allan
A key goal in molecular evolution is to extract mechanistic insights from signatures of selection. A case study is codon usage, where despite many recent advances and hypotheses, two longstanding problems remain: the relative contribution of selection and mutation in determining codon frequencies and the relative contribution of translational speed and accuracy to selection. The relevant targets of selection--the rate of translation and of mistranslation of a codon per unit time in the cell--can only be related to mechanistic properties of the translational apparatus if the number of transcripts per cell is known, requiring use of gene expression measurements. Perhaps surprisingly, different gene-expression data sets yield markedly different estimates of selection. We show that this is largely due to measurement noise, notably due to differences between studies rather than instrument error or biological variability. We develop an analytical framework that explicitly models noise in expression in the context of the population-genetic model. Estimates of mutation and selection strength in budding yeast produced by this method are robust to the expression data set used and are substantially higher than estimates using a noise-blind approach. We introduce per-gene selection estimates that correlate well with previous scoring systems, such as the codon adaptation index, while now carrying an evolutionary interpretation. On average, selection for codon usage in budding yeast is weak, yet our estimates show that genes range from virtually unselected to average per-codon selection coefficients above the inverse population size. Our analytical framework may be generally useful for distinguishing biological signals from measurement noise in other applications that depend upon measurements of gene expression.
Moore, Gregory L.; Maranas, Costas D.
We present a systematic computational framework, eCodonOpt, for designing parental DNA sequences for directed evolution experiments through codon usage optimization. Given a set of homologous parental proteins to be recombined at the DNA level, the optimal DNA sequences encoding these proteins are sought for a given diversity objective. We find that the free energy of annealing between the recombining DNA sequences is a much better descriptor of the extent of crossover formation than sequence identity. Three different diversity targets are investigated for the DNA shuffling protocol to showcase the utility of the eCodonOpt framework: (i) maximizing the average number of crossovers per recombined sequence; (ii) minimizing bias in family DNA shuffling so that each of the parental sequence pair contributes a similar number of crossovers to the library; and (iii) maximizing the relative frequency of crossovers in specific structural regions. Each one of these design challenges is formulated as a constrained optimization problem that utilizes 0–1 binary variables as on/off switches to model the selection of different codon choices for each residue position. Computational results suggest that many-fold improvements in the crossover frequency, location and specificity are possible, providing valuable insights for the engineering of directed evolution protocols. PMID:12034828
Background It is widely acknowledged that synonymous codons are used unevenly among genes in a genome. In organisms under translational selection, genes encoding highly expressed proteins are enriched with specific codons. This phenomenon, termed codon usage bias, is common to many organisms and has been recognized as influencing cellular fitness. This suggests that the global extent of codon usage bias of an organism might be associated with its phenotypic traits. Results To test this hypothesis we used a simple measure for assessing the extent of codon bias of an organism, and applied it to hundreds of sequenced prokaryotes. Our analysis revealed a large variability in this measure: there are organisms showing very high degrees of codon usage bias and organisms exhibiting almost no differential use of synonymous codons among different genes. Remarkably, we found that the extent of codon usage bias corresponds to the lifestyle of the organism. Especially, organisms able to live in a wide range of habitats exhibit high extents of codon usage bias, consistent with their need to adapt efficiently to different environments. Pathogenic prokaryotes also demonstrate higher extents of codon usage bias than non-pathogenic prokaryotes, in accord with the multiple environments that many pathogens occupy. Our results show that the previously observed correlation between growth rate and metabolic variability is attributed to their individual associations with codon usage bias. Conclusions Our results suggest that the extent of codon usage bias of an organism plays a role in the adaptation of prokaryotes to their environments. PMID:22032172
Patil, Atul B; Dalvi, Vijayendra S; Mishra, Akhilesh A; Krishna, Bal; Azeez, Abdul
The banana is one of the world's most important livelihood crops. Banana plants are principally infected by four virus species, Banana bunchy top virus (genus Babuvirus), Cucumber mosaic virus (genus Cucumovirus), Banana streak virus (genus Badnavirus) and Banana bract mosaic virus (genus Potyvirus). The objective of this study is to understand the codon usage pattern and phylogeny of coat protein gene in different banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) isolates. The BBrMV Coat Protein (CP) gene was amplified from BBrMV infected banana plant samples collected from different districts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, India. Six new BBrMV isolates were submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis and codon usage indices were studied along with other isolates of BBrMV. Phylogenetic analysis of CP genes shows that most of BBrMV isolates are closely related to each other except KF385484.1 and KF385478.1. Relative codon usage patterns among different BBrMV isolates were calculated by software CodonW version 1.4.2. In BBrMV, codons with A-ended or U ended are the most preferential except the Leu and Gln whose optimized codons are CAG and UUG ending by G. The codon usage patterns of BBrMV isolates are principally influenced by mutational bias; however, compositional constraints along with mutational bias also play a major role.
Sablok, Gaurav; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Yang, Chi; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Porta, Nicola L; Nayak, Kinshuk C; Huang, Po-Jung; Varotto, Claudio; Tang, Petrus
Organelle genomes are widely thought to have arisen from reduction events involving cyanobacterial and archaeal genomes, in the case of chloroplasts, or α-proteobacterial genomes, in the case of mitochondria. Heterogeneity in base composition and codon preference has long been the subject of investigation of topics ranging from phylogenetic distortion to the design of overexpression cassettes for transgenic expression. From the overexpression point of view, it is critical to systematically analyze the codon usage patterns of the organelle genomes. In light of the importance of codon usage patterns in the development of hyper-expression organelle transgenics, we present ChloroMitoCU, the first-ever curated, web-based reference catalog of the codon usage patterns in organelle genomes. ChloroMitoCU contains the pre-compiled codon usage patterns of 328 chloroplast genomes (29,960 CDS) and 3,502 mitochondrial genomes (49,066 CDS), enabling genome-wide exploration and comparative analysis of codon usage patterns across species. ChloroMitoCU allows the phylogenetic comparison of codon usage patterns across organelle genomes, the prediction of codon usage patterns based on user-submitted transcripts or assembled organelle genes, and comparative analysis with the pre-compiled patterns across species of interest. ChloroMitoCU can increase our understanding of the biased patterns of codon usage in organelle genomes across multiple clades. ChloroMitoCU can be accessed at: http://chloromitocu.cgu.edu.tw/. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Nayak, Kinshuk Chandra
In the present study, major constraints for codon and amino acid usage of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus tokodali, Sulfolobus islandis and 6 other isolates from islandicus species of genus Sulfolobus were investigated. Correspondence analysis revealed high significant correlation between the major trend of synonymous codon usage and gene expression level, as assessed by the "Codon Adaptation Index" (CAI). There is a significant negative correlation between Nc (Effective number of codons) and CAI demonstrating role of codon bias as an important determinant of codon usage. The significant correlation between major trend of synonymous codon usage and GC3s (G+C at third synonymous position) indicated dominant role of mutational bias in codon usage pattern. The result was further supported from SCUO (synonymous codon usage order) analysis. The amino acid usage was found to be significantly influenced by aromaticity and hydrophobicity of proteins. However, translational selection which causes a preference for codons that are most rapidly translated by current tRNA with multiple copy numbers was not found to be highly dominating for all studied isolates. Notably, 26 codons that were found to be optimally used by genes of S. acidocaldarius at higher expression level and its comparative analysis with 9 other isolates may provide some useful clues for further in vivo genetic studies on this genus.
Goñi, Natalia; Iriarte, Andrés; Comas, Victoria; Soñora, Martín; Moreno, Pilar; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Musto, Héctor; Cristina, Juan
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contains eight segments of a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 IAV strain (H1N1pdm) in Mexico and USA. Understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. A comprehensive study to investigate the effect of selection pressure imposed by the human host on the codon usage of an emerging, pandemic IAV strain and the trends in viral codon usage involved over the pandemic time period is much needed. We performed a comprehensive codon usage analysis of 310 IAV strains from the pandemic of 2009. Highly biased codon usage for Ala, Arg, Pro, Thr and Ser were found. Codon usage is strongly influenced by underlying biases in base composition. When correspondence analysis (COA) on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) is applied, the distribution of IAV ORFs in the plane defined by the first two major dimensional factors showed that different strains are located at different places, suggesting that IAV codon usage also reflects an evolutionary process. A general association between codon usage bias, base composition and poor adaptation of the virus to the respective host tRNA pool, suggests that mutational pressure is the main force shaping H1N1 pdm IAV codon usage. A dynamic process is observed in the variation of codon usage of the strains enrolled in these studies. These results suggest a balance of mutational bias and natural selection, which allow the virus to explore and re-adapt its codon usage to different environments. Recoding of IAV taking into account codon bias, base composition and adaptation to host tRNA may provide important clues to develop new and appropriate vaccines.
Background Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contains eight segments of a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 IAV strain (H1N1pdm) in Mexico and USA. Understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. A comprehensive study to investigate the effect of selection pressure imposed by the human host on the codon usage of an emerging, pandemic IAV strain and the trends in viral codon usage involved over the pandemic time period is much needed. Results We performed a comprehensive codon usage analysis of 310 IAV strains from the pandemic of 2009. Highly biased codon usage for Ala, Arg, Pro, Thr and Ser were found. Codon usage is strongly influenced by underlying biases in base composition. When correspondence analysis (COA) on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) is applied, the distribution of IAV ORFs in the plane defined by the first two major dimensional factors showed that different strains are located at different places, suggesting that IAV codon usage also reflects an evolutionary process. Conclusions A general association between codon usage bias, base composition and poor adaptation of the virus to the respective host tRNA pool, suggests that mutational pressure is the main force shaping H1N1 pdm IAV codon usage. A dynamic process is observed in the variation of codon usage of the strains enrolled in these studies. These results suggest a balance of mutational bias and natural selection, which allow the virus to explore and re-adapt its codon usage to different environments. Recoding of IAV taking into account codon bias, base composition and adaptation to host tRNA may provide important clues to develop new and appropriate vaccines. PMID:23134595
Cristina, Juan; Fajardo, Alvaro; Soñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Musto, Héctor
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae and its genome consists of a single-stranded positive sense RNA molecule with 10,794 nucleotides. Clinical manifestations of disease caused by ZIKV infection range from asymptomatic cases to an influenza-like syndrome. There is an increasing concern about the possible relation among microcephaly and ZIKV infection. To get insight into the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is extremely important to understand virus survival, fitness, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage and composition of ZIKV. The overall codon usage among ZIKV strains is similar and slightly biased. Different codon preferences in ZIKV genes in relation to codon usage of human, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus genes were found. Most of the highly frequent codons are A-ending, which strongly suggests that mutational bias is the main force shaping codon usage in this virus. G+C compositional constraint as well as dinucleotide composition also influence the codon usage of ZIKV. The results of these studies suggest that the emergence of ZIKV outside Africa, in the Pacific and the Americas may also be reflected in ZIKV codon usage. No significant differences were found in codon usage among strains isolated from microcephaly cases and the rest of strains from the Asian cluster enrolled in these studies.
Rudorf, Sophia; Lipowsky, Reinhard
To synthesize a protein, a ribosome moves along a messenger RNA (mRNA), reads it codon by codon, and takes up the corresponding ternary complexes which consist of aminoacylated transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs), elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), and GTP. During this process of translation elongation, the ribosome proceeds with a codon-specific rate. Here, we present a general theoretical framework to calculate codon-specific elongation rates and error frequencies based on tRNA concentrations and codon usages. Our theory takes three important aspects of in-vivo translation elongation into account. First, non-cognate, near-cognate and cognate ternary complexes compete for the binding sites on the ribosomes. Second, the corresponding binding rates are determined by the concentrations of free ternary complexes, which must be distinguished from the total tRNA concentrations as measured in vivo. Third, for each tRNA species, the difference between total tRNA and ternary complex concentration depends on the codon usages of the corresponding cognate and near-cognate codons. Furthermore, we apply our theory to two alternative pathways for tRNA release from the ribosomal E site and show how the mechanism of tRNA release influences the concentrations of free ternary complexes and thus the codon-specific elongation rates. Using a recently introduced method to determine kinetic rates of in-vivo translation from in-vitro data, we compute elongation rates for all codons in Escherichia coli. We show that for some tRNA species only a few tRNA molecules are part of ternary complexes and, thus, available for the translating ribosomes. In addition, we find that codon-specific elongation rates strongly depend on the overall codon usage in the cell, which could be altered experimentally by overexpression of individual genes.
The codons for some conserved amino acids are found to be the same between homologous genes from different species when the statistics of codon usage would suggest that they should be different. I examine whether this 'coincidence' of codon usage could be due to genetic mechanisms homogenising the DNA around specific sites. This paper describes the further analysis of the coincident codons in 19 genes (a total of 96 homologues) for slippage. Coincident codons arise in contexts of increased sequence simplicity, and have a high chance of occurring within sequences similar to the recombination-prone minisatellite 'core' sequence. This suggests a role of genetic homogenisation in their generation.
Shin, Young C.; Bischof, Georg F.; Lauer, William A.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.
The glycoproteins of herpesviruses and of HIV/SIV are made late in the replication cycle and are derived from transcripts that use an unusual codon usage that is quite different from that of the host cell. Here we show that the actions of natural transinducers from these two different families of persistent viruses (Rev of SIV and ORF57 of the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus) are dependent on the nature of the skewed codon usage. In fact, the transinducibility of expression of these glycoproteins by Rev and by ORF57 can be flipped simply by changing the nature of the codon usage. Even expression of a luciferase reporter could be made Rev dependent or ORF57 dependent by distinctive changes to its codon usage. Our findings point to a new general principle in which different families of persisting viruses use a poor codon usage that is skewed in a distinctive way to temporally regulate late expression of structural gene products. PMID:26504241
Behura, Susanta K; Singh, Brajendra K; Severson, David W
Genome biology of mosquitoes holds potential in developing knowledge-based control strategies against vectorborne diseases such as malaria, dengue, West Nile, and others. Although the genomes of three major vector mosquitoes have been sequenced, attempts to elucidate the relationship between intron and codon usage bias across species in phylogenetic contexts are limited. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intron content and codon bias of orthologous genes among three vector mosquito species. We found an antagonistic relationship between codon usage bias and the intron number of genes in each mosquito species. The pattern is further evident among the intronless and the intron-containing orthologous genes associated with either low or high codon bias among the three species. Furthermore, the covariance between codon bias and intron number has a directional component associated with the species phylogeny when compared with other nonmosquito insects. By applying a maximum likelihood–based continuous regression method, we show that codon bias and intron content of genes vary among the insects in a phylogeny-dependent manner, but with no evidence of adaptive radiation or species-specific adaptation. We discuss the functional and evolutionary significance of antagonistic relationships between intron content and codon bias. PMID:24187589
Liang, Yang; He, Mei; Teng, Chun-Bo
Four Vesiculovirus species causing vesicular stomatitis in the Americas, together with two closely related insect isolates, can be phyletically classified into two major groups: New Jersey (NJ) and Indiana (IN). Here, Bayesian coalescent analyses were conducted to the time-stamped entire coding sequences of the G gene of these vesiculoviruses, with emphasis on their divergence scenario. The primary bifurcation was a much ancient event that might have taken place around 1.8 million years ago between NJ and IN, which shared a similar high mean rate. Interestingly, the overall codon usage bias pattern of these viruses resembled that of the insect vectors rather than the livestock hosts.
Background Codon usage may vary significantly between different organisms and between genes within the same organism. Several evolutionary processes have been postulated to be the predominant determinants of codon usage: selection, mutation, and genetic drift. However, the relative contribution of each of these factors in different species remains debatable. The availability of complete genomes for tens of multicellular organisms provides an opportunity to inspect the relationship between codon usage and the evolutionary age of genes. Results We assign an evolutionary age to a gene based on the relative positions of its identified homologues in a standard phylogenetic tree. This yields a classification of all genes in a genome to several evolutionary age classes. The present study starts from the observation that each age class of genes has a unique codon usage and proceeds to provide a quantitative analysis of the codon usage in these classes. This observation is made for the genomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Drosophila melanogaster. It is even more remarkable that the differences between codon usages in different age groups exhibit similar and consistent behavior in various organisms. While we find that GC content and gene length are also associated with the evolutionary age of genes, they can provide only a partial explanation for the observed codon usage. Conclusion While factors such as GC content, mutational bias, and selection shape the codon usage in a genome, the evolutionary history of an organism over hundreds of millions of years is an overlooked property that is strongly linked to GC content, protein length, and, even more significantly, to the codon usage of metazoan genomes. PMID:19995431
Fu, Jingjing; Murphy, Katherine A.; Zhou, Mian; Li, Ying H.; Lam, Vu H.; Tabuloc, Christine A.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Liu, Yi
Codon usage bias is a universal feature of all genomes, but its in vivo biological functions in animal systems are not clear. To investigate the in vivo role of codon usage in animals, we took advantage of the sensitivity and robustness of the Drosophila circadian system. By codon-optimizing parts of Drosophila period (dper), a core clock gene that encodes a critical component of the circadian oscillator, we showed that dper codon usage is important for circadian clock function. Codon optimization of dper resulted in conformational changes of the dPER protein, altered dPER phosphorylation profile and stability, and impaired dPER function in the circadian negative feedback loop, which manifests into changes in molecular rhythmicity and abnormal circadian behavioral output. This study provides an in vivo example that demonstrates the role of codon usage in determining protein structure and function in an animal system. These results suggest a universal mechanism in eukaryotes that uses a codon usage “code” within genetic codons to regulate cotranslational protein folding. PMID:27542830
Fu, Jingjing; Murphy, Katherine A; Zhou, Mian; Li, Ying H; Lam, Vu H; Tabuloc, Christine A; Chiu, Joanna C; Liu, Yi
Codon usage bias is a universal feature of all genomes, but its in vivo biological functions in animal systems are not clear. To investigate the in vivo role of codon usage in animals, we took advantage of the sensitivity and robustness of the Drosophila circadian system. By codon-optimizing parts of Drosophila period (dper), a core clock gene that encodes a critical component of the circadian oscillator, we showed that dper codon usage is important for circadian clock function. Codon optimization of dper resulted in conformational changes of the dPER protein, altered dPER phosphorylation profile and stability, and impaired dPER function in the circadian negative feedback loop, which manifests into changes in molecular rhythmicity and abnormal circadian behavioral output. This study provides an in vivo example that demonstrates the role of codon usage in determining protein structure and function in an animal system. These results suggest a universal mechanism in eukaryotes that uses a codon usage "code" within genetic codons to regulate cotranslational protein folding. © 2016 Fu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Błażej, Paweł; Mackiewicz, Dorota; Wnętrzak, Małgorzata; Mackiewicz, Paweł
There are two main forces that affect usage of synonymous codons: directional mutational pressure and selection. The effectiveness of protein translation is usually considered as the main selectional factor. However, biased codon usage can also be a byproduct of a general selection at the amino acid level interacting with nucleotide replacements. To evaluate the validity and strength of such an effect, we superimposed >3.5 billion unrestricted mutational processes on the selection of nonsynonymous substitutions based on the differences in physicochemical properties of the coded amino acids. Using a modified evolutionary optimization algorithm, we determined the conditions in which the effect on the relative codon usage is maximized. We found that the effect is enhanced by mutational processes generating more adenine and thymine than guanine and cytosine, as well as more purines than pyrimidines. Interestingly, this effect is observed only under an unrestricted model of nucleotide substitution, and disappears when the mutational process is time-reversible. Comparison of the simulation results with data for real protein coding sequences indicates that the impact of selection at the amino acid level on synonymous codon usage cannot be neglected. Furthermore, it can considerably interfere, especially in AT-rich genomes, with other selections on codon usage, e.g., translational efficiency. It may also lead to difficulties in the recognition of other effects influencing codon bias, and an overestimation of protein coding sequences whose codon usage is subjected to adaptational selection. PMID:28122952
Ingvarsson, Pär K
Codon bias is generally thought to be determined by a balance between mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection on translational efficiency. However, natural selection on codon usage is considered to be a weak evolutionary force and selection on codon usage is expected to be strongest in species with large effective population sizes. In this paper, I study associations between codon usage, gene expression, and molecular evolution at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in the long-lived, woody perennial plant Populus tremula (Salicaceae). Using expression data for 558 genes derived from expressed sequence tags (EST) libraries from 19 different tissues and developmental stages, I study how gene expression levels within single tissues as well as across tissues affect codon usage and rates sequence evolution at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. I show that gene expression have direct effects on both codon usage and the level of selective constraint of proteins in P. tremula, although in different ways. Codon usage genes is primarily determined by how highly expressed a genes is, whereas rates of sequence evolution are primarily determined by how widely expressed genes are. In addition to the effects of gene expression, protein length appear to be an important factor influencing virtually all aspects of molecular evolution in P. tremula.
Two alternative hypotheses attribute different benefits to codon-anticodon adaptation. The first assumes that protein production is rate limited by both initiation and elongation and that codon-anticodon adaptation would result in higher elongation efficiency and more efficient and accurate protein production, especially for highly expressed genes. The second claims that protein production is rate limited only by initiation efficiency but that improved codon adaptation and, consequently, increased elongation efficiency have the benefit of increasing ribosomal availability for global translation. To test these hypotheses, a recent study engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes, all encoding the same protein but differing in degrees of codon adaptation, to quantify the effect of differential codon adaptation on protein production in Escherichia coli. The surprising conclusion that "codon bias did not correlate with gene expression" and that "translation initiation, not elongation, is rate-limiting for gene expression" contradicts the conclusion reached by many other empirical studies. In this paper, I resolve the contradiction by reanalyzing the data from the 154 sequences. I demonstrate that translation elongation accounts for about 17% of total variation in protein production and that the previous conclusion is due to the use of a codon adaptation index (CAI) that does not account for the mutation bias in characterizing codon adaptation. The effect of translation elongation becomes undetectable only when translation initiation is unrealistically slow. A new index of translation elongation ITE is formulated to facilitate studies on the efficiency and evolution of the translation machinery.
In order to characterize the evolutionary adaptations of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) genomes, we have compared codon usage and codon adaptation indexes among groups of Newcastle disease viruses that differ in biological, ecological, and genetic characteristics. We have used available GenBank com...
Rajneesh; Pathak, Jainendra; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Singh, Shailendra P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P
Nucleotide and amino acid compositions were studied to determine the genomic and structural relationship of photolyase gene in freshwater, marine and hot spring cyanobacteria. Among three habitats, photolyase encoding genes from hot spring cyanobacteria were found to have highest GC content. The genomic GC content was found to influence the codon usage and amino acid variability in photolyases. The third position of codon was found to have more effect on amino acid variability in photolyases than the first and second positions of codon. The variation of amino acids Ala, Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Leu, Pro, Gln, Arg and Val in photolyases of three different habitats was found to be controlled by first position of codon (G1C1). However, second position (G2C2) of codon regulates variation of Ala, Cys, Gly, Pro, Arg, Ser, Thr and Tyr contents in photolyases. Third position (G3C3) of codon controls incorporation of amino acids such as Ala, Phe, Gly, Leu, Gln, Pro, Arg, Ser, Thr and Tyr in photolyases from three habitats. Photolyase encoding genes of hot spring cyanobacteria have 85% codons with G or C at third position, whereas marine and freshwater cyanobacteria showed 82 and 60% codons, respectively, with G or C at third position. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that GC content has a profound effect in separating the genes along the first major axis according to their RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage) values, and neutrality analysis indicated that mutational pressure has resulted in codon bias in photolyase genes of cyanobacteria.
Korkmaz, Gürkan; Holm, Mikael; Wiens, Tobias; Sanyal, Suparna
We present a comprehensive analysis of stop codon usage in bacteria by analyzing over eight million coding sequences of 4684 bacterial sequences. Using a newly developed program called “stop codon counter,” the frequencies of the three classical stop codons TAA, TAG, and TGA were analyzed, and a publicly available stop codon database was built. Our analysis shows that with increasing genomic GC content the frequency of the TAA codon decreases and that of the TGA codon increases in a reciprocal manner. Interestingly, the release factor 1-specific codon TAG maintains a more or less uniform frequency (∼20%) irrespective of the GC content. The low abundance of TAG is also valid with respect to expression level of the genes ending with different stop codons. In contrast, the highly expressed genes predominantly end with TAA, ensuring termination with either of the two release factors. Using three model bacteria with different stop codon usage (Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Bacillus subtilis), we show that the frequency of TAG and TGA codons correlates well with the relative steady state amount of mRNA and protein for release factors RF1 and RF2 during exponential growth. Furthermore, using available microarray data for gene expression, we show that in both fast growing and contrasting biofilm formation conditions, the relative level of RF1 is nicely correlated with the expression level of the genes ending with TAG. PMID:25217634
Hart, Andrew; Martínez, Servet
We present a framework based on information theoretic concepts and the Dirichlet distribution for classifying chromosomes based on the degree to which they use synonymous codons uniformly or preferentially, that is, whether or not codons that code for an amino acid appear with the same relative frequency. At its core is a measure of codon usage bias we call the Kullback-Leibler codon information bias (KL-CIB or CIB for short). Being defined in terms of conditional entropy makes KL-CIB an ideal and natural quantity for expressing a chromosome's degree of departure from uniform synonymous codon usage. Applying the approach to a large collection of annotated bacterial chromosomes reveals three distinct groups of bacteria.
Ohama, T; Yamao, F; Muto, A; Osawa, S
The DNA sequence of the Micrococcus luteus str operon, which includes genes for ribosomal proteins S12 (str or rpsL) and S7 (rpsG) and elongation factors (EF) G (fus) and Tu (tuf), has been determined and compared with the corresponding sequence of Escherichia coli to estimate the effect of high genomic G + C content (74%) of M. luteus on the codon usage pattern. The gene organization in this operon and the deduced amino acid sequence of each corresponding protein are well conserved between the two species. The mean G + C content of the M. luteus str operon is 67%, which is much higher than that of E. coli (51%). The codon usage pattern of M. luteus is very different from that of E. coli and extremely biased to the use of G and C in silent positions. About 95% (1,309 of 1,382) of codons have G or C at the third position. Codon GUG is used for initiation of S12, EF-G, and EF-Tu, and AUG is used only in S7, whereas GUG initiates only one of the EF-Tu's in E. coli. UGA is the predominant termination codon in M. luteus, in contrast to UAA in E. coli. PMID:3654584
Whittle, Carrie A.; Extavour, Cassandra G.
In protein-coding genes, synonymous codon usage and amino acid composition correlate to expression in some eukaryotes, and may result from translational selection. Here, we studied large-scale RNA-seq data from three divergent arthropod models, including cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis, and tested for optimization of codon and amino acid usage relative to expression level. We report strong signals of AT3 optimal codons (those favored in highly expressed genes) in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, whereas weaker signs of GC3 optimal codons were found in P. hawaiensis, suggesting selection on codon usage in all three organisms. Further, in G. bimaculatus and O. fasciatus, high expression was associated with lowered frequency of amino acids with large size/complexity (S/C) scores in favor of those with intermediate S/C values; thus, selection may favor smaller amino acids while retaining those of moderate size for protein stability or conformation. In P. hawaiensis, highly transcribed genes had elevated frequency of amino acids with large and small S/C scores, suggesting a complex dynamic in this crustacean. In all species, the highly transcribed genes appeared to favor short proteins, high optimal codon usage, specific amino acids, and were preferentially involved in cell-cycling and protein synthesis. Together, based on examination of 1,680,067, 1,667,783, and 1,326,896 codon sites in G. bimaculatus, O. fasciatus, and P. hawaiensis, respectively, we conclude that translational selection shapes codon and amino acid usage in these three Pancrustacean arthropods. PMID:26384771
Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T
Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages.
Ran, Wenqi; Kristensen, David M; Koonin, Eugene V
The relationship between the selection affecting codon usage and selection on protein sequences of orthologous genes in diverse groups of bacteria and archaea was examined by using the Alignable Tight Genome Clusters database of prokaryote genomes. The codon usage bias is generally low, with 57.5% of the gene-specific optimal codon frequencies (Fopt) being below 0.55. This apparent weak selection on codon usage contrasts with the strong purifying selection on amino acid sequences, with 65.8% of the gene-specific dN/dS ratios being below 0.1. For most of the genomes compared, a limited but statistically significant negative correlation between Fopt and dN/dS was observed, which is indicative of a link between selection on protein sequence and selection on codon usage. The strength of the coupling between the protein level selection and codon usage bias showed a strong positive correlation with the genomic GC content. Combined with previous observations on the selection for GC-rich codons in bacteria and archaea with GC-rich genomes, these findings suggest that selection for translational fine-tuning could be an important factor in microbial evolution that drives the evolution of genome GC content away from mutational equilibrium. This type of selection is particularly pronounced in slowly evolving, "high-status" genes. A significantly stronger link between the two aspects of selection is observed in free-living bacteria than in parasitic bacteria and in genes encoding metabolic enzymes and transporters than in informational genes. These differences might reflect the special importance of translational fine-tuning for the adaptability of gene expression to environmental changes. The results of this work establish the coupling between protein level selection and selection for translational optimization as a distinct and potentially important factor in microbial evolution. IMPORTANCE Selection affects the evolution of microbial genomes at many levels, including both
Zang, Minghui; He, Wanting; Du, Fanshu; Wu, Gongjian; Wu, Bohao; Zhou, Zhenlei
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly prevalent pathogen of the domestic cat that causes acute infections of the oral and upper respiratory tract. The E region of the ORF2 protein is responsible for the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies, thus it is important to understand the codon usage of this gene. Here, analysed 90 coding sequences of ORF2 and show that it undergoes a low codon usage bias. In addition, although mutational bias is one of the factors shaping the codon usage bias of this gene, natural selection plays a more significant role. Our results reveal part of the mechanisms driving FCV evolution, which will lay foundation for the further research of FCV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Song, Jiangning; Wang, Minglei; Burrage, Kevin
High-quality data about protein structures and their gene sequences are essential to the understanding of the relationship between protein folding and protein coding sequences. Firstly we constructed the EcoPDB database, which is a high-quality database of Escherichia coli genes and their corresponding PDB structures. Based on EcoPDB, we presented a novel approach based on information theory to investigate the correlation between cysteine synonymous codon usages and local amino acids flanking cysteines, the correlation between cysteine synonymous codon usages and synonymous codon usages of local amino acids flanking cysteines, as well as the correlation between cysteine synonymous codon usages and the disulfide bonding states of cysteines in the E. coli genome. The results indicate that the nearest neighboring residues and their synonymous codons of the C-terminus have the greatest influence on the usages of the synonymous codons of cysteines and the usage of the synonymous codons has a specific correlation with the disulfide bond formation of cysteines in proteins. The correlations may result from the regulation mechanism of protein structures at gene sequence level and reflect the biological function restriction that cysteines pair to form disulfide bonds. The results may also be helpful in identifying residues that are important for synonymous codon selection of cysteines to introduce disulfide bridges in protein engineering and molecular biology. The approach presented in this paper can also be utilized as a complementary computational method and be applicable to analyse the synonymous codon usages in other model organisms.
Li, Sen; Yang, Jie
Recent studies of geothermally heated aquatic ecosystems have found widely divergent viruses with unusual morphotypes. Archaeal viruses isolated from these hot habitats usually have double-stranded DNA genomes, linear or circular, and can infect members of the Archaea domain. In this study, the synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) and dinucleotide composition in the available complete archaeal virus genome sequences have been investigated. It was found that there is a significant variation in SCUB among different Archaeal virus species, which is mainly determined by the base composition. The outcome of correspondence analysis (COA) and Spearman׳s rank correlation analysis shows that codon usage of selected archaeal virus genes depends mainly on GC richness of genome, and the gene׳s function, albeit with smaller effects, also contributes to codon usage in this virus. Furthermore, this investigation reveals that aromaticity of each protein is also critical in affecting SCUB of these viral genes although it was less important than that of the mutational bias. Especially, mutational pressure may influence SCUB in SIRV1, SIRV2, ARV1, AFV1, and PhiCh1 viruses, whereas translational selection could play a leading role in HRPV1׳s SCUB. These conclusions not only can offer an insight into the codon usage biases of archaeal virus and subsequently the possible relationship between archaeal viruses and their host, but also may help in understanding the evolution of archaeal viruses and their gene classification, and more helpful to explore the origin of life and the evolution of biology.
Mühlhausen, Stefanie; Kollmar, Martin
The universal genetic code defines the translation of nucleotide triplets, called codons, into amino acids. In many Saccharomycetes a unique alteration of this code affects the translation of the CUG codon, which is normally translated as leucine. Most of the species encoding CUG alternatively as serine belong to the Candida genus and were grouped into a so-called CTG clade. However, the “Candida genus” is not a monophyletic group and several Candida species are known to use the standard CUG translation. The codon identity could have been changed in a single branch, the ancestor of the Candida, or to several branches independently leading to a polyphyletic alternative yeast codon usage (AYCU). In order to resolve the monophyly or polyphyly of the AYCU, we performed a phylogenomics analysis of 26 motor and cytoskeletal proteins from 60 sequenced yeast species. By investigating the CUG codon positions with respect to sequence conservation at the respective alignment positions, we were able to unambiguously assign the standard code or AYCU. Quantitative analysis of the highly conserved leucine and serine alignment positions showed that 61.1% and 17% of the CUG codons coding for leucine and serine, respectively, are at highly conserved positions, whereas only 0.6% and 2.3% of the CUG codons, respectively, are at positions conserved in the respective other amino acid. Plotting the codon usage onto the phylogenetic tree revealed the polyphyly of the AYCU with Pachysolen tannophilus and the CTG clade branching independently within a time span of 30–100 Ma. PMID:25646540
Kessler, Michael D; Dean, Matthew D
Synonymous codons are not used at equal frequency throughout the genome, a phenomenon termed codon usage bias (CUB). It is often assumed that interspecific variation in the intensity of CUB is related to species differences in effective population sizes (Ne), with selection on CUB operating less efficiently in species with small Ne. Here, we specifically ask whether variation in Ne predicts differences in CUB in mammals and report two main findings. First, across 41 mammalian genomes, CUB was not correlated with two indirect proxies of Ne (body mass and generation time), even though there was statistically significant evidence of selection shaping CUB across all species. Interestingly, autosomal genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to X-linked genes, and high-recombination genes showed higher codon usage bias compared to low recombination genes, suggesting intraspecific variation in Ne predicts variation in CUB. Second, across six mammalian species with genetic estimates of Ne (human, chimpanzee, rabbit, and three mouse species: Mus musculus, M. domesticus, and M. castaneus), Ne and CUB were weakly and inconsistently correlated. At least in mammals, interspecific divergence in Ne does not strongly predict variation in CUB. One hypothesis is that each species responds to a unique distribution of selection coefficients, confounding any straightforward link between Ne and CUB. PMID:25505518
Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil; Mueller, David M.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508, (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements, were expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30 fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to exon junction complex independent nonsense mediated decay. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped ERAD resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that for CFTR, codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels, protein expression and likely, for F508del CFTR, chaperone assisted folding pathway. PMID:25676312
Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S
The FGLamide allatostatins (ASTs) are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders. They also show myomodulatory activity. FGLamide AST nucleotide frequencies and codon bias were investigated with respect to possible effects on mRNA secondary structure. 367 putative FGLamide ASTs and their potential endoproteolytic cleavage sites were identified from 40 species of crustaceans, chelicerates and insects. Among these, 55% comprised only 11 amino acids. An FGLamide AST consensus was identified to be (X)(1→16)Y(S/A/N/G)FGLGKR, with a strong bias for the codons UUU encoding for Phe and AAA for Lys, which can form strong Watson-Crick pairing in all peptides analyzed. The physical distance between these codons favor a loop structure from Ser/Ala-Phe to Lys-Arg. Other loop and hairpin loops were also inferred from the codon frequencies in the N-terminal motif, and the first amino acids from the C-terminal motif, or the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Our results indicate that nucleotide frequencies and codon usage bias in FGLamide ASTs tend to favor mRNA folds in the codon sequence in the C-terminal active peptide core and at the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morton, B R
A previously employed method that uses the composition of noncoding DNA as the basis of a test for selection between synonymous codons in plastid genes is reevaluated. The test requires the assumption that in the absence of selective differences between synonymous codons the composition of silent sites in coding sequences will match the composition of noncoding sites. It is demonstrated here that this assumption is not necessarily true and, more generally, that using compositional properties to draw inferences about selection on silent changes in coding sequences is much more problematic than commonly assumed. This is so because selection on nonsynonymous changes can influence the composition of synonymous sites (i.e., codon usage) in a complex manner, meaning that the composition biases of different silent sites, including neutral noncoding DNA, are not comparable. These findings also draw into question the commonly utilized method of investigating how selection to increase translation accuracy influences codon usage. The work then focuses on implications for studies that assess codon adaptation, which is selection on codon usage to enhance translation rate, in plastid genes. A new test that does not require the use of noncoding DNA is proposed and applied. The results of this test suggest that far fewer plastid genes display codon adaptation than previously thought. PMID:11560910
Xu, Wenjing; Xing, Tian; Zhao, Mingming; Yin, Xunhao; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng
Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes.
Zhao, Mingming; Yin, Xunhao; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng
Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes. PMID:26110418
Background The ISA virus (ISAV) is an Orthomyxovirus whose genome encodes for at least 10 proteins. Low protein identity and lack of genetic tools have hampered the study of the molecular mechanism behind its virulence. It has been shown that viral codon usage controls several processes such as translational efficiency, folding, tuning of protein expression, antigenicity and virulence. Despite this, the possible role that adaptation to host codon usage plays in virulence and viral evolution has not been studied in ISAV. Methods Intergenomic adaptation between viral and host genomes was calculated using the codon adaptation index score with EMBOSS software and the Kazusa database. Classification of host genes according to GeneOnthology was performed using Blast2go. A non parametric test was applied to determine the presence of significant correlations among CAI, mortality and time. Results Using the codon adaptation index (CAI) score, we found that the encoding genes for nucleoprotein, matrix protein M1 and antagonist of Interferon I signaling (NS1) are the ISAV genes that are more adapted to host codon usage, in agreement with their requirement for production of viral particles and inactivation of antiviral responses. Comparison to host genes showed that ISAV shares CAI values with less than 0.45% of Salmo salar genes. GeneOntology classification of host genes showed that ISAV genes share CAI values with genes from less than 3% of the host biological process, far from the 14% shown by Influenza A viruses and closer to the 5% shown by Influenza B and C. As well, we identified a positive correlation (p<0.05) between CAI values of a virus and the duration of the outbreak disease in given salmon farms, as well as a weak relationship between codon adaptation values of PB1 and the mortality rates of a set of ISA viruses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that ISAV is the least adapted viral Salmo salar pathogen and Orthomyxovirus family member less adapted to host codon
McManus, Donald Peter; Blair, David
Sequences of the complete protein-coding portions of the mitochondrial (mt) genome were analysed for 6 species of cestodes (including hydatid tapeworms and the pork tapeworm) and 5 species of trematodes (blood flukes and liver- and lung-flukes). A near-complete sequence was also available for an additional trematode (the blood flukeSchistosoma malayensis). All of these parasites belong to a large flatworm taxon named the Neodermata. Considerable variation was found in the base composition of the protein-coding genes among these neodermatans. This variation was reflected in statistically-significant differences in numbers of each inferred amino acid between many pairs of species. Both convergence and divergence in nucleotide, and hence amino acid, composition was noted among groups within the Neodermata. Considerable variation in skew (unequal representation of complementary bases on the same strand) was found among the species studied. A pattern is thus emerging of diversity in the mt genome in neodermatans that may cast light on evolution of mt genomes generally. PMID:15591833
Ahn, Insung; Bae, Se-Eun
We compared genetic variations in the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) isolated since 2000 from various region of the world. We analyzed relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and phylogenetic relationship between geographical regions, and calculated the genetic substitution patterns between Korean isolate and those from other countries. We calculated the ratios of synonymously substituted codons (SSC) to all observed substitutions and developed a new analytical parameter, EMC (the ratio of exact matching codons within each synonymous substitution group) to investigate more detailed substitution patterns within each synonymous codon group. We observed that FMDVs showed distinct RSCU patterns according to phylogenetic relationships in the same serotype (serotype O). Moreover, while the SSC and EMC values of FMDVs decreased according to phylogenetic distance, G + C composition at the third codon position was strictly conserved. Although there was little variation among the SSC values of 18 amino acids, more dynamic differences were observed in EMC values. The EMC values of 4- and 6-fold degenerate amino acids showed significantly lower values while most 2-fold degenerate amino acids showed no significant difference. Our findings suggest that different EMC patterns among the 18 amino acids might be an important factor in determining the direction of evolution in FMDV. PMID:21825834
Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G.
Viruses rely completely on the hosts’ machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833
Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G
Viruses rely completely on the hosts' machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Danon, Tamar; Christian, Thomas; Igarashi, Takao; Cohen, Lydia; Hou, Ya-Ming; Jensen, Lars Juhl
The cell cycle is a temporal program that regulates DNA synthesis and cell division. When we compared the codon usage of cell cycle-regulated genes with that of other genes, we discovered that there is a significant preference for non-optimal codons. Moreover, genes encoding proteins that cycle at the protein level exhibit non-optimal codon preferences. Remarkably, cell cycle-regulated genes expressed in different phases display different codon preferences. Here, we show empirically that transfer RNA (tRNA) expression is indeed highest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, consistent with the non-optimal codon usage of genes expressed at this time, and lowest toward the end of G1, reflecting the optimal codon usage of G1 genes. Accordingly, protein levels of human glycyl-, threonyl-, and glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetases were found to oscillate, peaking in G2/M phase. In light of our findings, we propose that non-optimal (wobbly) matching codons influence protein synthesis during the cell cycle. We describe a new mathematical model that shows how codon usage can give rise to cell-cycle regulation. In summary, our data indicate that cells exploit wobbling to generate cell cycle-dependent dynamics of proteins. PMID:22373820
Bahir, Iris; Fromer, Menachem; Prat, Yosef; Linial, Michal
Viruses differ markedly in their specificity toward host organisms. Here, we test the level of general sequence adaptation that viruses display toward their hosts. We compiled a representative data set of viruses that infect hosts ranging from bacteria to humans. We consider their respective amino acid and codon usages and compare them among the viruses and their hosts. We show that bacteria-infecting viruses are strongly adapted to their specific hosts, but that they differ from other unrelated bacterial hosts. Viruses that infect humans, but not those that infect other mammals or aves, show a strong resemblance to most mammalian and avian hosts, in terms of both amino acid and codon preferences. In groups of viruses that infect humans or other mammals, the highest observed level of adaptation of viral proteins to host codon usages is for those proteins that appear abundantly in the virion. In contrast, proteins that are known to participate in host-specific recognition do not necessarily adapt to their respective hosts. The implication for the potential of viral infectivity is discussed. PMID:19888206
Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata
We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest. PMID:19131380
Subramanian, Abhishek; Sarkar, Ram Rup
Understanding the variations in gene organization and its effect on the phenotype across different Leishmania species, and to study differential clinical manifestations of parasite within the host, we performed large scale analysis of codon usage patterns between Leishmania and other known Trypanosomatid species. We present the causes and consequences of codon usage bias in Leishmania genomes with respect to mutational pressure, translational selection and amino acid composition bias. We establish GC bias at wobble position that governs codon usage bias across Leishmania species, rather than amino acid composition bias. We found that, within Leishmania, homogenous codon context coding for less frequent amino acid pairs and codons avoiding formation of folding structures in mRNA are essentially chosen. We predicted putative differences in global expression between genes belonging to specific pathways across Leishmania. This explains the role of evolution in shaping the otherwise conserved genome to demonstrate species-specific function-level differences for efficient survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Yue-Zhi; Sun, Liu-Ke; Zhu, Dan-Tong; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua
Human schlafen11 is a novel restriction factor for HIV-1 based on bias regarding relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Here, we report the cloning of equine schlafen11 (eSLFN11) and the characteristics of its role in restricting the production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus similar to HIV-1. Overexpression of eSLFN11 inhibited EIAV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous eSLFN11 by siRNA enhanced the release of EIAV from its principal target cell. Notably, although eSLFN11 significantly suppressed expression of viral Gag protein and EIAV release into the culture medium, the levels of intracellular viral early gene proteins Tat and Rev and viral genomic RNA were unaffected. Coincidently, similar altered patterns of codon usage bias were observed for both the early and late genes of EIAV. Therefore, our data suggest that eSLFN11 restricts EIAV production by impairing viral mRNA translation via a mechanism that is similar to that employed by hSLFN11 for HIV-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sadeghi, Iman; Salavaty, Abbas; Nasiri, Habib
Different mechanisms, including transcriptional and post transcriptional processes, regulate tissue specific expression of genes. In this study, we report differences in gene/protein compositional features between apoptosis involved genes selectively expressed in human tissues. We found some correlations between codon/amino acid usage and tissue specific expression level of genes. The findings can be significant for understanding the translational selection on these features. The selection may play an important role in the differentiation of human tissues and can be considered for future studies in diagnosis of some diseases such as cancer. PMID:28154517
Michely, Stephanie; Toulza, Eve; Subirana, Lucie; John, Uwe; Cognat, Valérie; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Grimsley, Nigel; Moreau, Hervé; Piganeau, Gwenaël
Prasinoviruses are among the largest viruses (>200 kb) and encode several hundreds of protein coding genes, including most genes of the DNA replication machinery and several genes involved in transcription and translation, as well as transfer RNAs (tRNAs). They can infect and lyse small eukaryotic planktonic marine green algae, thereby affecting global algal population dynamics. Here, we investigate the causes of codon usage bias (CUB) in one prasinovirus, OtV5, and its host Ostreococcus tauri, during a viral infection using microarray expression data. We show that 1) CUB in the host and in the viral genes increases with expression levels and 2) optimal codons use those tRNAs encoded by the most abundant host tRNA genes, supporting the notion of translational optimization by natural selection. We find evidence that viral tRNA genes complement the host tRNA pool for those viral amino acids whose host tRNAs are in short supply. We further discuss the coevolution of CUB in hosts and prasinoviruses by comparing optimal codons in three evolutionary diverged host-virus-specific pairs whose complete genome sequences are known.
Michely, Stephanie; Toulza, Eve; Subirana, Lucie; John, Uwe; Cognat, Valérie; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Grimsley, Nigel; Moreau, Hervé; Piganeau, Gwenaël
Prasinoviruses are among the largest viruses (>200 kb) and encode several hundreds of protein coding genes, including most genes of the DNA replication machinery and several genes involved in transcription and translation, as well as transfer RNAs (tRNAs). They can infect and lyse small eukaryotic planktonic marine green algae, thereby affecting global algal population dynamics. Here, we investigate the causes of codon usage bias (CUB) in one prasinovirus, OtV5, and its host Ostreococcus tauri, during a viral infection using microarray expression data. We show that 1) CUB in the host and in the viral genes increases with expression levels and 2) optimal codons use those tRNAs encoded by the most abundant host tRNA genes, supporting the notion of translational optimization by natural selection. We find evidence that viral tRNA genes complement the host tRNA pool for those viral amino acids whose host tRNAs are in short supply. We further discuss the coevolution of CUB in hosts and prasinoviruses by comparing optimal codons in three evolutionary diverged host–virus-specific pairs whose complete genome sequences are known. PMID:23563969
Sueoka, N; Kawanishi, Y
The human genome, as in other eukaryotes, has a wide heterogeneity in the DNA base composition. The evolutionary basis for this heterogeneity has been unknown. A previous study of the human genome (846 genes analyzed) has shown that, in the major range of the G+C content in the third codon position (0.25-0.75), biases from the Parity Rule 2 (PR2) among the synonymous codons of the four-codon amino acids are similar except in the highest G+C range (Sueoka, N., 1999. Translation-coupled violation of Parity Rule 2 in human genes is not the cause of heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content of third codon position. Gene 238, 53-58.). PR2 is an intra-strand rule where A=T and G=C are expected when there are no biases between the two complementary strands of DNA in mutation and selection rates (substitution rates). In this study, 14,026 human genes were analyzed. In addition, the third codon positions of two-codon amino acids were analyzed. New results show the following: (a) The G+C contents of the third codon position of human genes are scattered in the G+C range of 0.22-0.96 in the third codon position. (b) The PR2 biases are similar in the range of 0.25-0.75, whereas, in the high G+C range (0.75-0.96; 13% of the genes), the PR2-bias fingerprints are different from those of the major range. (c) Unlike the PR2 biases, the G+C contents of the third codon position for both four-codon and two-codon amino acids are all correlated almost perfectly with the G+C content of the third codon position over the total G+C ranges. These results support the notion that the directional mutation pressure, rather than the directional selection pressure, is mainly responsible for the heterogeneity of the G+C content of the third codon position.
Barahimipour, Rouhollah; Strenkert, Daniela; Neupert, Juliane; Schroda, Michael; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Bock, Ralph
Summary The efficiency of gene expression in all organisms depends on the nucleotide composition of the coding region. GC content and codon usage are the two key sequence features known to influence gene expression, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. Here we have determined the relative contributions of GC content and codon usage to the efficiency of nuclear gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. By comparing gene variants that encode an identical amino acid sequence but differ in their GC content and/or codon usage, we show that codon usage is the key factor determining translational efficiency and, surprisingly, also mRNA stability. By contrast, unfavorable GC content affects gene expression at the level of the chromatin structure by triggering heterochromatinization. We further show that mutant algal strains that permit high-level transgene expression are less susceptible to epigenetic transgene suppression and do not establish a repressive chromatin structure at the transgenic locus. Our data disentangle the relationship between GC content and codon usage, and suggest simple strategies to overcome the transgene expression problem in Chlamydomonas. PMID:26402748
Aragonès, Lluís; Guix, Susana; Ribes, Enric; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the prototype of genus Hepatovirus, has several unique biological characteristics that distinguish it from other members of the Picornaviridae family. Among these, the need for an intact eIF4G factor for the initiation of translation results in an inability to shut down host protein synthesis by a mechanism similar to that of other picornaviruses. Consequently, HAV must inefficiently compete for the cellular translational machinery and this may explain its poor growth in cell culture. In this context of virus/cell competition, HAV has strategically adopted a naturally highly deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cellular host. With the aim to optimize its codon usage the virus was adapted to propagate in cells with impaired protein synthesis, in order to make tRNA pools more available for the virus. A significant loss of fitness was the immediate response to the adaptation process that was, however, later on recovered and more associated to a re-deoptimization rather than to an optimization of the codon usage specifically in the capsid coding region. These results exclude translation selection and instead suggest fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the underlying mechanism of the codon usage bias in this specific genome region. Additionally, the results provide clear evidence of the Red Queen dynamics of evolution since the virus has very much evolved to re-adapt its codon usage to the environmental cellular changing conditions in order to recover the original fitness. PMID:20221432
Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Kundu, Sudip; Das, Rabindranath; Roy, Sujit
Bacteria and archaea have evolved with the ability to fix atmospheric dinitrogen in the form of ammonia, catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which comprises three structural genes nifK, nifD and nifH. The nifK and nifD encodes for the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of component 1, while nifH encodes for component 2 of nitrogenase. Phylogeny based on nifDHK have indicated that Cyanobacteria is closer to Proteobacteria alpha and gamma but not supported by the tree based on 16SrRNA. The evolutionary ancestor for the different trees was also different. The GC1 and GC2% analysis showed more consistency than GC3% which appeared to below for Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Euarchaeota while highest in Proteobacteria beta and clearly showed the proportional effect on the codon usage with a few exceptions. Few genes from Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria alpha and delta were found under mutational pressure. These nif genes with low and high GC3% from different classes of organisms showed similar expected number of codons. Distribution of the genes and codons, based on codon usage demonstrated opposite pattern for different orientation of mirror plane when compared with each other. Overall our results provide a comprehensive analysis on the evolutionary relationship of the three structural nif genes, nifK, nifD and nifH, respectively, in the context of codon usage bias, GC content relationship and amino acid composition of the encoded proteins and exploration of crucial statistical method for the analysis of positive data with non-constant variance to identify the shape factors of codon adaptation index.
Esposito, Lauren A.; Gupta, Swati; Streiter, Fraida; Prasad, Ashley
In an genomics course sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), undergraduate students have isolated and sequenced the genomes of more than 1,150 mycobacteriophages, creating the largest database of sequenced bacteriophages able to infect a single host, Mycobacterium smegmatis, a soil bacterium. Genomic analysis indicates that these mycobacteriophages can be grouped into 26 clusters based on genetic similarity. These clusters span a continuum of genetic diversity, with extensive genomic mosaicism among phages in different clusters. However, little is known regarding the primary hosts of these mycobacteriophages in their natural habitats, nor of their broader host ranges. As such, it is possible that the primary host of many newly isolated mycobacteriophages is not M. smegmatis, but instead a range of closely related bacterial species. However, determining mycobacteriophage host range presents difficulties associated with mycobacterial cultivability, pathogenicity and growth. Another way to gain insight into mycobacteriophage host range and ecology is through bioinformatic analysis of their genomic sequences. To this end, we examined the correlations between the codon usage biases of 199 different mycobacteriophages and those of several fully sequenced mycobacterial species in order to gain insight into the natural host range of these mycobacteriophages. We find that UPGMA clustering tends to match, but not consistently, clustering by shared nucleotide sequence identify. In addition, analysis of GC content, tRNA usage and correlations between mycobacteriophage and mycobacterial codon usage bias suggests that the preferred host of many clustered mycobacteriophages is not M. smegmatis but other, as yet unknown, members of the mycobacteria complex or closely allied bacterial species. PMID:28348827
Gilchrist, Michael A.; Shah, Premal; Zaretzki, Russell
Codon usage bias (CUB) has been documented across a wide range of taxa and is the subject of numerous studies. While most explanations of CUB invoke some type of natural selection, most measures of CUB adaptation are heuristically defined. In contrast, we present a novel and mechanistic method for defining and contextualizing CUB adaptation to reduce the cost of nonsense errors during protein translation. Using a model of protein translation, we develop a general approach for measuring the protein production cost in the face of nonsense errors of a given allele as well as the mean and variance of these costs across its coding synonyms. We then use these results to define the nonsense error adaptation index (NAI) of the allele or a contiguous subset thereof. Conceptually, the NAI value of an allele is a relative measure of its elevation on a specific and well-defined adaptive landscape. To illustrate its utility, we calculate NAI values for the entire coding sequence and across a set of nonoverlapping windows for each gene in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c genome. Our results provide clear evidence of adaptation to reduce the cost of nonsense errors and increasing adaptation with codon position and expression. The magnitude and nature of this adaptation are also largely consistent with simulation results in which nonsense errors are the only selective force driving CUB evolution. Because NAI is derived from mechanistic models, it is both easier to interpret and more amenable to future refinement than other commonly used measures of codon bias. Further, our approach can also be used as a starting point for developing other mechanistically derived measures of adaptation such as for translational accuracy. PMID:19822731
Li, Manqing; Kao, Elaine; Gao, Xia; Sandig, Hilary; Limmer, Kirsten; Pavon-Eternod, Mariana; Jones, Thomas E.; Landry, Sebastien; Pan, Tao; Weitzman, Matthew D.; David, Michael
In mammals, one of the most pronounced consequences of viral infection is the induction of type I interferons, cytokines with potent antiviral activity. Schlafen (Slfn) genes are a subset of interferon-stimulated early response genes (ISGs) that are also induced directly by pathogens via the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathway1. However, many ISGs are of unknown or incompletely understood function. Here we show that human SLFN11 potently and specifically abrogates the production of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Our study revealed that SLFN11 has no effect on the early steps of the retroviral infection cycle, including reverse transcription, integration and transcription. Rather, SLFN11 acts at the late stage of virus production by selectively inhibiting the expression of viral proteins in a codon-usage-dependent manner. We further find that SLFN11 binds transfer RNA, and counteracts changes in the tRNA pool elicited by the presence of HIV. Our studies identified a novel antiviral mechanism within the innate immune response, in which SLFN11 selectively inhibits viral protein synthesis in HIV-infected cells by means of codon-bias discrimination. PMID:23000900
Li, Manqing; Kao, Elaine; Gao, Xia; Sandig, Hilary; Limmer, Kirsten; Pavon-Eternod, Mariana; Jones, Thomas E; Landry, Sebastien; Pan, Tao; Weitzman, Matthew D; David, Michael
In mammals, one of the most pronounced consequences of viral infection is the induction of type I interferons, cytokines with potent antiviral activity. Schlafen (Slfn) genes are a subset of interferon-stimulated early response genes (ISGs) that are also induced directly by pathogens via the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathway. However, many ISGs are of unknown or incompletely understood function. Here we show that human SLFN11 potently and specifically abrogates the production of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Our study revealed that SLFN11 has no effect on the early steps of the retroviral infection cycle, including reverse transcription, integration and transcription. Rather, SLFN11 acts at the late stage of virus production by selectively inhibiting the expression of viral proteins in a codon-usage-dependent manner. We further find that SLFN11 binds transfer RNA, and counteracts changes in the tRNA pool elicited by the presence of HIV. Our studies identified a novel antiviral mechanism within the innate immune response, in which SLFN11 selectively inhibits viral protein synthesis in HIV-infected cells by means of codon-bias discrimination.
Liao, Pei-Chun; Wang, Kung-Kai; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chuang, Kuo-Pin
The capsid genes from 14 pigeon circovirus (PiCV) sequences, collected from Taiwan between 2009 and 2010, were sequenced and compared with 14 PiCV capsid gene sequences from GenBank. Based on pairwise comparison, PiCV strains from Taiwan shared 73.9-100% nucleotide identity and 72-100% amino acid identity with those of the 14 reported PiCV sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Taiwanese PiCV isolates can be grouped into two clades: clade 1 comprising isolates from Belgium, Australia, USA, Italy and China, and clade 2 showing close relation to isolates from Germany and France. Recurrent positive selection was detected in clade 1 PiCV lineages, which may contribute to the diversification of predominant PiCV sequences in Taiwan. Further observations suggest that synonymous codon usage variations between PiCV clade 1 and clade 2 may reflect the adaptive divergence on translation efficiency of capsid genes in infectious hosts. Variation in selective pressures acting on the evolutionary divergence and codon usage bias of both clades explains the regional coexistence of virus sequences congeners prevented from competitive exclusion within an island such as Taiwan. Our genotyping results also provide insight into the aetiological agents of PiCV outbreak in Taiwan and we present a comparative analysis of the central coding region of PiCV genome. From the sequence comparison results of 28 PiCVs which differs in regard to the geographical origin and columbid species, we identified conserved regions within the capsid gene that are likely to be suitable for primer selection and vaccine development.
Isoe, Jun; Hagedorn, Henry H
vitellogenin genes of the three anautogenous mosquitoes, that require a blood meal to develop eggs, had very high synonymous codon usage biases similar to highly expressed genes of other organisms. On the other hand, the vitellogenin genes of autogenous mosquitoes, that develop at least one batch of eggs without a blood meal, exhibited low synonymous codon usage bias. An unusual pattern of synonymous codon usage was observed in the first 15 amino acid residues encoding the signal peptide in the vitellogenin genes, where a high number of rarely used synonymous codons are present. It is hypothesized that rare synonymous codons have selectively accumulated in the signal peptide region to down-regulate the rate of translation initiation in the absence of a blood meal. Real-time PCR gene expression experiments showed that all three Ae. aegypti vitellogenin genes were highly expressed after a blood meal, and expressed in non-blood-fed females, males, larvae and pupae at trace levels. Sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers: Ae. aegypti Vg-B, AY380797, Vg-C, AY373377; Oc. atropalpus Vg-B, AY691321, Vg-C, AY691322; Ae. polynesiensis Vg-A1, AY691318, Vg-B, AY691319, Vg-C, AY691320; Ae. albopictus Vg-A1, AY691316, Vg-C, AY691317; Oc. triseriatus Vg-C, AY691323; Cx. quinquefasciatus Vg-C1, AY691324, Vg-C2, AY691325; Tx. amboinensis Vg-C, AY691326; An. albimanus Vg-C, AY691327).
Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Vinuesa, Pablo; Christen, J Andrés; Collado-Vides, Julio
We present evidence supporting the notion that codon usage (CU) compatibility between foreign genes and recipient genomes is an important prerequisite to assess the selective advantage of imported functions, and therefore to increase the fixation probability of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. This contrasts with the current tendency in research to predict recent HGTs in prokaryotes by assuming that acquired genes generally display poor CU. By looking at the CU level (poor, typical, or rich) exhibited by putative xenologs still resembling their original CU, we found that most alien genes predominantly present typical CU immediately upon introgression, thereby suggesting that the role of CU amelioration in HGT has been overemphasized. In our strategy, we first scanned a representative set of 103 complete prokaryotic genomes for all pairs of candidate xenologs (exported/imported genes) displaying similar CU. We applied additional filtering criteria, including phylogenetic validations, to enhance the reliability of our predictions. Our approach makes no assumptions about the CU of foreign genes being typical or atypical within the recipient genome, thus providing a novel unbiased framework to study the evolutionary dynamics of HGT.
Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.
Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.
Salinas, Thalia; Duby, Francéline; Larosa, Véronique; Coosemans, Nadine; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Motte, Patrick; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Remacle, Claire
Mitochondria from diverse phyla, including protozoa, fungi, higher plants, and humans, import tRNAs from the cytosol in order to ensure proper mitochondrial translation. Despite the broad occurrence of this process, our understanding of tRNA import mechanisms is fragmentary, and crucial questions about their regulation remain unanswered. In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas, a precise correlation was found between the mitochondrial codon usage and the nature and amount of imported tRNAs. This led to the hypothesis that tRNA import might be a dynamic process able to adapt to the mitochondrial genome content. By manipulating the Chlamydomonas mitochondrial genome, we introduced point mutations in order to modify its codon usage. We find that the codon usage modification results in reduced levels of mitochondrial translation as well as in subsequent decreased levels and activities of respiratory complexes. These effects are linked to the consequential limitations of the pool of tRNAs in mitochondria. This indicates that tRNA mitochondrial import cannot be rapidly regulated in response to a novel genetic context and thus does not appear to be a dynamic process. It rather suggests that the steady-state levels of imported tRNAs in mitochondria result from a co-evolutive adaptation between the tRNA import mechanism and the requirements of the mitochondrial translation machinery.
Qi, Yueying; Xu, Wenjing; Xing, Tian; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Nana; Yan, Li; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng
Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is the nonuniform usage of codons, occurring often in nearly all organisms. Our previous study found that SCUB is correlated with intron number, is unequal among exons in the plant nuclear genome, and mirrors evolutionary specialization. However, whether this rule exists in the plastid genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the plastid genomes of 25 species from lower to higher plants (algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and spermatophytes). We found NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are preferential in the plastid genomes of all plants. Interestingly, this preference is heterogeneous among taxonomies of plants, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in pteridophytes, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. In addition, SCUB frequencies are consistent among genes with varied introns and among exons, indicating that the bias of NNA and NNT is unrelated to either intron number or exon position. Further, SCUB is associated with DNA methylation–induced conversion of cytosine to thymine in the vascular plants but not in algae or bryophytes. These data demonstrate that these SCUB profiles in the plastid genome are distinctly different compared with the nuclear genome. PMID:25922569
Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying
This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…
Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying
This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…
Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng
Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Synonymous codon usage bias has typically been correlated with, and attributed to translational efficiency. However, there are other pressures on genomic sequence composition that can affect codon usage patterns such as mutational biases. This study provides an analysis of the codon usage patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana in relation to gene expression levels, codon volatility, mutational biases and selective pressures. Results We have performed synonymous codon usage and codon volatility analyses for all genes in the A. thaliana genome. In contrast to reports for species from other kingdoms, we find that neither codon usage nor volatility are correlated with selection pressure (as measured by dN/dS), nor with gene expression levels on a genome wide level. Our results show that codon volatility and usage are not synonymous, rather that they are correlated with the abundance of G and C at the third codon position (GC3). Conclusions Our results indicate that while the A. thaliana genome shows evidence for synonymous codon usage bias, this is not related to the expression levels of its constituent genes. Neither codon volatility nor codon usage are correlated with expression levels or selective pressures but, because they are directly related to the composition of G and C at the third codon position, they are the result of mutational bias. Therefore, in A. thaliana codon volatility and usage do not result from selection for translation efficiency or protein functional shift as measured by positive selection. PMID:22805311
Karumathil, Sudeesh; Dirisala, Vijaya R.; Srinadh, Uthpala; Nikhil, Valaboju; Kumar, N. Satya Sampath; Nair, Rahul R.
Chaetognatha is a minor phylum, comprising transparent marine invertebrates varying in size from 0.5 to 12 cm. The exact phylogenetic position of Chaetognatha in Metazoa has not been deciphered as some embryological characteristics place chaetognaths among deuterostomes and some morphological characteristics place these among protostomes. In this study, the major factors that drive synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) in the mitogenomes of representative species of Chaetognatha and chosen species of other closely related phyla were analyzed. Spearman’s rank correlation analyses of nucleotide contents suggested that mutational pressure and selection were acting in all examined mitogenomes but with varying intensities. The quantification of SCUB using effective number of codons vs. GC composition at the third codon position (GC3) plot suggested that mutational pressure due to GC compositional constraints might be one of the major influencing forces driving the SCUB in all chaetognaths except Sagitta enflata. However, neutrality plots revealed no significant correlation between GC3 and cumulative GC content at first and second codon positions (GC12) in all other species, except in Daphnia pulex. The parity rule 2 bias plot showed that significant compositional differences existed between C and G, as well as between A and T, contents in most of the protein-coding genes (PCGs) and, comparatively, A and T contents were used more proportionally than C and G contents in all chosen mitogenomes. Chi-square analysis revealed the presence of putative optimal codons in all species, except in S. enflata. The correspondence analysis identified that mutational pressure and selection act on the mitogenomes of the selected chaetognaths and other phyla with varying intensities. The cluster analysis based on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values revealed that RSCU variations in the PCGs of mitogenomes of chaetognaths are more comparable with those of protostomes. Apart from
Campos, Jose L.; Zeng, Kai; Parker, Darren J.; Charlesworth, Brian; Haddrill, Penelope R.
Codon usage bias (CUB) in Drosophila is higher for X-linked genes than for autosomal genes. One possible explanation is that the higher effective recombination rate for genes on the X chromosome compared with the autosomes reduces their susceptibility to Hill–Robertson effects, and thus enhances the efficacy of selection on codon usage. The genome sequence of D. melanogaster was used to test this hypothesis. Contrary to expectation, it was found that, after correcting for the effective recombination rate, CUB remained higher on the X than on the autosomes. In contrast, an analysis of polymorphism data from a Rwandan population showed that mean nucleotide site diversity at 4-fold degenerate sites for genes on the X is approximately three-quarters of the autosomal value after correcting for the effective recombination rate, compared with approximate equality before correction. In addition, these data show that selection for preferred versus unpreferred synonymous variants is stronger on the X than the autosomes, which accounts for the higher CUB of genes on the X chromosome. This difference in the strength of selection does not appear to reflect the effects of dominance of mutations affecting codon usage, differences in gene expression levels between X and autosomes, or differences in mutational bias. Its cause therefore remains unexplained. The stronger selection on CUB on the X chromosome leads to a lower rate of synonymous site divergence compared with the autosomes; this will cause a stronger upward bias for X than A in estimates of the proportion of nonsynonymous mutations fixed by positive selection, for methods based on the McDonald–Kreitman test. PMID:23204387
Pavesi, Angelo; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Karlin, David G.
A well-known mechanism through which new protein-coding genes originate is by modification of pre-existing genes, e.g. by duplication or horizontal transfer. In contrast, many viruses generate protein-coding genes de novo, via the overprinting of a new reading frame onto an existing (“ancestral”) frame. This mechanism is thought to play an important role in viral pathogenicity, but has been poorly explored, perhaps because identifying the de novo frames is very challenging. Therefore, a new approach to detect them was needed. We assembled a reference set of overlapping genes for which we could reliably determine the ancestral frames, and found that their codon usage was significantly closer to that of the rest of the viral genome than the codon usage of de novo frames. Based on this observation, we designed a method that allowed the identification of de novo frames based on their codon usage with a very good specificity, but intermediate sensitivity. Using our method, we predicted that the Rex gene of deltaretroviruses has originated de novo by overprinting the Tax gene. Intriguingly, several genes in the same genomic region have also originated de novo and encode proteins that regulate the functions of Tax. Such “gene nurseries” may be common in viral genomes. Finally, our results confirm that the genomic GC content is not the only determinant of codon usage in viruses and suggest that a constraint linked to translation must influence codon usage. PMID:23966842
Hatfield, D; Rice, M; Hession, C A; Melera, P W
Isoacceptors of Physarum polycephalum Ala-, Arg-, Glu-, Gln-, Gly-, Ile-, Leu-, Lys-, Ser-, Thr-, and Val-tRNAs were resolved by reverse-phase chromatography and isolated, and their codon recognition properties were determined in a ribosomal binding assay. Codon assignments were made to most isoacceptors, and they are summarized along with those determined in other studies from Escherichia coli, yeasts, wheat germ, hymenoptera, Xenopus, and mammals. The patterns of codon recognition by isoacceptors from P. polycephalum are more similar to those of animals than to those of plants or lower fungi. PMID:7047488
Qiu, Suo; Zeng, Kai; Slotte, Tanja; Wright, Stephen; Charlesworth, Deborah
Population genetic theory predicts that the efficacy of natural selection in a self-fertilizing species should be lower than its outcrossing relatives because of the reduction in the effective population size (N(e)) in the former brought about by inbreeding. However, previous analyses comparing Arabidopsis thaliana (selfer) with A. lyrata (outcrosser) have not found conclusive support for this prediction. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining silent site polymorphisms (synonymous and intronic), which are expected to be informative about changes in N(e). Two comparisons were made: A. thaliana versus A. lyrata and Capsella rubella (selfer) versus C. grandiflora (outcrosser). Extensive polymorphism data sets were obtained by compiling published data from the literature and by sequencing 354 exon loci in C. rubella and 89 additional loci in C. grandiflora. To extract information from the data effectively for studying these questions, we extended two recently developed models in order to investigate detailed selective differences between synonymous codons, mutational biases, and biased gene conversion (BGC), taking into account the effects of recent changes in population size. We found evidence that selection on synonymous codons is significantly weaker in the selfers compared with the outcrossers and that this difference cannot be fully accounted for by mutational biases or BGC.
Chabregas, Sabrina M; Luche, Douglas D; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Menck, Carlos F M; Silva-Filho, Marcio C
Arabidopsis thaliana THI1 is encoded by a single nuclear gene and directed simultaneously to mitochondria and chloroplasts from a single major transcript. In vitro transcription/translation experiments revealed the presence of two translational products by the differential usage of two in-frame translational start codons. The coupling site-specific mutations on the THI1 encoding sequence with green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fusions showed that translation initiation at the first AUG directs translocation of THI1 to chloroplasts. However, when translation starts from the second AUG, THI1 is addressed to mitochondria. Analysis of the translation efficiency of thi1 mRNA revealed that the best context for translation initiation is to use the first AUG. In addition, a suboptimal context in the vicinity of the second AUG initiation codon, next to a stable stem-and-loop structure that is likely to slow translation, has been noted. The fact that translation preferentially occurs in the first AUG of this protein suggests a high requirement for TH1 in chloroplasts. Although the frequency of upstream AUG translation is higher, according to the first AUG rule, initiation at the second AUG deviates significantly from Kozak's consensus. It suggests leaky ribosomal scanning, reinitiation or the internal entry of ribosomes to assure mitochondrial protein import.
Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement has been highly conserved among vertebrates from jawless fishes to mammals for more than 500 million years. It remains unclear, however, whether such long-term persistence is a consequence of some constraints on the gene order. Results Based on the analysis of codon usage and tRNA gene positions, we suggest that tRNA gene order of the typical vertebrate mt-genomes may be important for their translational efficiency. The vertebrate mt-genome encodes 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 13 transmembrane proteins consisting mainly of hydrophobic domains. We found that the tRNA genes specifying the hydrophobic residues were positioned close to the control region (CR), where the transcription efficiency is estimated to be relatively high. Using 47 vertebrate mt-genome sequences representing jawless fishes to mammals, we further found a correlation between codon usage and tRNA gene positions, implying that highly-used tRNA genes are located close to the CR. In addition, an analysis considering the asymmetric nature of mtDNA replication suggested that the tRNA loci that remain in single-strand for a longer time tend to have more guanine and thymine not suffering deamination mutations in their anticodon sites. Conclusions Our analyses imply the existence of translational constraint acting on the vertebrate mt-gene arrangement. Such translational constraint, together with the deamination-related constraint, may have contributed to long-term maintenance of gene order. PMID:20723209
Faux, Noel G.; Huttley, Gavin A.; Mahmood, Khalid; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Garcia de la Banda, Maria; Whisstock, James C.
Over 3% of human proteins contain single amino acid repeats (repeat-containing proteins, RCPs). Many repeats (homopeptides) localize to important proteins involved in transcription, and the expansion of certain repeats, in particular poly-Q and poly-A tracts, can also lead to the development of neurological diseases. Previous studies have suggested that the homopeptide makeup is a result of the presence of G+C-rich tracts in the encoding genes and that expansion occurs via replication slippage. Here, we have performed a large-scale genomic analysis of the variation of the genes encoding RCPs in 13 species and present these data in an online database (http://repeats.med.monash.edu.au/genetic_analysis/). This resource allows rapid comparison and analysis of RCPs, homopeptides, and their underlying genetic tracts across the eukaryotic species considered. We report three major findings. First, there is a bias for a small subset of codons being reiterated within homopeptides, and there is no G+C or A+T bias relative to the organism’s transcriptome. Second, single base pair transversions from the homocodon are unusually common and may represent a mechanism of reducing the rate of homopeptide mutations. Third, homopeptides that are conserved across different species lie within regions that are under stronger purifying selection in contrast to nonconserved homopeptides. PMID:17567984
Brandão, Paulo Eduardo
To assess the codon evolution in virus-host systems, Avian coronavirus and its natural host Gallus gallus were used as a model. Codon usage (CU) was measured for the viral spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)) genes from a diverse set of A. coronavirus lineages and for G. gallus genes (lung surfactant protein A, intestinal cholecystokinin, oviduct ovomucin alpha subunit, kidney vitamin D receptor and the ubiquitary beta-actin) for different A. coronavirus replicating sites. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) trees accommodating all virus and host genes in a single topology showed a higher proximity of A. coronavirus CU to the respiratory tract for all genes. The codon adaptation index (CAI) showed a lower adaptation of S to G. gallus compared to NSP2, PL(pro) and N. The effective number of codons (Nc) and GC3% revealed that natural selection and genetic drift are the evolutionary forces driving the codon usage evolution of both A. coronavirus and G. gallus regardless of the gene being considered. The spike gene showed only one 100% conserved amino acid position coded by an A. coronavirus preferred codon, a significantly low number when compared to the three other genes (p<0.0001). Virus CU evolves independently for each gene in a manner predicted by the protein function, with a balance between natural selection and mutation pressure, giving further molecular basis for the viruses' ability to exploit the host's cellular environment in a concerted virus-host molecular evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rensing, Stefan A; Fritzowsky, Dana; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf
Background The moss Physcomitrella patens is an emerging plant model system due to its high rate of homologous recombination, haploidy, simple body plan, physiological properties as well as phylogenetic position. Available EST data was clustered and assembled, and provided the basis for a genome-wide analysis of protein encoding genes. Results We have clustered and assembled Physcomitrella patens EST and CDS data in order to represent the transcriptome of this non-seed plant. Clustering of the publicly available data and subsequent prediction resulted in a total of 19,081 non-redundant ORF. Of these putative transcripts, approximately 30% have a homolog in both rice and Arabidopsis transcriptome. More than 130 transcripts are not present in seed plants but can be found in other kingdoms. These potential "retained genes" might have been lost during seed plant evolution. Functional annotation of these genes reveals unequal distribution among taxonomic groups and intriguing putative functions such as cytotoxicity and nucleic acid repair. Whereas introns in the moss are larger on average than in the seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana, position and amount of introns are approximately the same. Contrary to Arabidopsis, where CDS contain on average 44% G/C, in Physcomitrella the average G/C content is 50%. Interestingly, moss orthologs of Arabidopsis genes show a significant drift of codon fraction usage, towards the seed plant. While averaged codon bias is the same in Physcomitrella and Arabidopsis, the distribution pattern is different, with 15% of moss genes being unbiased. Species-specific, sensitive and selective splice site prediction for Physcomitrella has been developed using a dataset of 368 donor and acceptor sites, utilizing a support vector machine. The prediction accuracy is better than those achieved with tools trained on Arabidopsis data. Conclusion Analysis of the moss transcriptome displays differences in gene structure, codon and splice site usage in
Fisher, Allan H., Jr.; And Others
A factor analysis was performed on an intercorrelation matrix of reported drug usage frequencies for seven drug categories at two consecutive periods of time. Subjects were 1,010 Army Vietnam veterans in pay grade E6 or below, aged 26 years or less. Retrospective reporting identified drug usage prior to a tour of Vietnam and during the tour. Four…
Chen, K C; Chen, J S; Johnson, J L
The structural gene (nifH1) encoding the nitrogenase iron protein of Clostridium pasteurianum has been cloned and sequenced. It is located on a 4-kilobase EcoRI fragment (cloned into pBR325) that also contains a portion of nifD and another nifH-like sequence (nifH2). C. pasteurianum nifH1 encodes a polypeptide (273 amino acids) identical to that of the isolated iron protein, indicating that the smaller size of the C. pasteurianum iron protein does not result from posttranslational processing. The 5' flanking region of nifH1 or nifH2 does not contain the nif promoter sequences found in several gram-negative bacteria. Instead, a sequence resembling the Escherichia coli consensus promoter (TTGACA-N17-TATAAT) is present before C. pasteurianum nifH2, and a TATAAT sequence is present before C pasteurianum nifH1. Codon usage in nifH1, nifH2, and nifD (partial) is very biased. A preference for A or U in the third position of the codons is seen. nifH2 could encode a protein of 272 amino acid residues, which differs from the iron protein (nifH1 product) in 23 amino acid residues (8%). Another nifH-like sequence (nifH3) is located on a nonadjacent EcoRI fragment and has been partially sequenced. C. pasteurianum nifH2 and nifH3 may encode proteins having several amino acids that are conserved in other proteins but not in C. pasteurianum iron protein, suggesting a possible role for the multiple nifH-like sequences of C. pasteurianum in the evolution of nifH. Among the nine sequenced iron proteins, only the C. pasteurianum protein lacks a conserved lysine residue which is near the extended C terminus of the other iron proteins. The absence of this positive charge in the C. pasteurianum iron protein might affect the cross-reactivity of the protein in heterologous systems. Images PMID:3457003
Griswold, Karl E; Mahmood, Nadir A; Iverson, Brent L; Georgiou, George
Matching the codon usage of recombinant genes to that of the expression host is a common strategy for increasing the expression of heterologous proteins in bacteria. However, while developing a cytoplasmic expression system for Fusarium solani cutinase in Escherichia coli, we found that altering codons to those preferred by E. coli led to significantly lower expression compared to the wild-type fungal gene, despite the presence of several rare E. coli codons in the fungal sequence. On the other hand, expression in the E. coli periplasm using a bacterial PhoA leader sequence resulted in high levels of expression for both the E. coli optimized and wild-type constructs. Sequence swapping experiments as well as calculations of predicted mRNA secondary structure provided support for the hypothesis that differential cytoplasmic expression of the E. coli optimized versus wild-type cutinase genes is due to differences in 5(') mRNA secondary structures. In particular, our results indicate that increased stability of 5(') mRNA secondary structures in the E. coli optimized transcript prevents efficient translation initiation in the absence of the phoA leader sequence. These results underscore the idea that potential 5(') mRNA secondary structures should be considered along with codon usage when designing a synthetic gene for high level expression in E. coli.
Margonis, Georgios A; Kim, Yuhree; Sasaki, Kazunari; Samaha, Mario; Amini, Neda; Pawlik, Timothy M
Investigations regarding the impact of tumor biology after surgical management of colorectal liver metastasis have focused largely on overall survival. We investigated the impact of codon-specific KRAS mutations on the rates and patterns of recurrence in patients after surgery for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). All patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for CRLM between 2002 and 2015 at Johns Hopkins who had available data on KRAS mutation status were identified. Clinico-pathologic data, recurrence patterns, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed using univariable and multivariable analyses. A total of 512 patients underwent resection only (83.2%) or resection plus radiofrequency ablation (16.8%). Although 5-year overall survival was 64.6%, 284 (55.5%) patients recurred with a median RFS time of 18.1 months. The liver was the initial recurrence site for 181 patients, whereas extrahepatic recurrence was observed in 162 patients. Among patients with an extrahepatic recurrence, 102 (63%) had a lung recurrence. Although overall KRAS mutation was not associated with overall RFS (P = 0.186), it was independently associated with a worse extrahepatic (P = 0.004) and lung RFS (P = 0.007). Among patients with known KRAS codon-specific mutations, patients with codon 13 KRAS mutation had a worse 5-year extrahepatic RFS (P = 0.01), whereas codon 12 mutations were not associated with extrahepatic (P = 0.11) or lung-specific recurrence rate (P = 0.24). On multivariable analysis, only codon 13 mutation independently predicted worse overall extrahepatic RFS (P = 0.004) and lung-specific RFS (P = 0.023). Among patients undergoing resection of CRLM, overall KRAS mutation was not associated with RFS. KRAS codon 13 mutations, but not codon 12 mutations, were associated with a higher risk for overall extrahepatic recurrence and lung-specific recurrence. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2698-2707. © 2016
Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
The transfer RNAs (tRNA) are essential components of translational machinery. We determined that tRNA isoacceptors (tRNAs with different anticodons but incorporating the same amino acid in protein synthesis) show differential copy number abundance, genomic distribution patterns and sequence evolution between Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The tRNA-Ala genes are present in unusually high copy number in the Ae. aegypti genome but not in An. gambiae. Many of the tRNA-Ala genes of Ae. aegypti are flanked by a highly conserved sequence that is not observed in An. gambiae. The relative abundance of tRNA isoacceptor genes is correlated with preferred (or optimal) and non-preferred (or rare) codons for ~2–4% of the predicted protein coding genes in both species. The majority (~ 74–85%) of these genes are related to pathways involved with translation, energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results suggest these genes and the related pathways may be under translational selection in these mosquitoes. PMID:21040044
Maksiutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N
Efficacy of candidate DNA-vaccines based on the variola virus natural gene A30L and artificial gene A30Lopt with modified codon usage, optimized for expression in mammalian cells, was tested. The groups of mice were intracutaneously immunized three times with three-week intervals with candidate DNA-vaccines: pcDNA_A30L or pcDNA_A30Lopt, and in three weeks after the last immunization all mice in the groups were intraperitoneally infected by the ectromelia virus K1 strain in 10 LD50 dose for the estimation of protection. It was shown that the DNA-vaccines based on natural gene A30L and codon-optimized gene A30Lopt elicited virus, thereby neutralizing the antibody response and protected mice from lethal intraperitoneal challenge with the ectromelia virus with lack of statistically significant difference.
Lobo, Francisco P.; Mota, Bruno E. F.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Macedo, Andréa M.; Tauch, Andreas; Machado, Carlos R.; Franco, Glória R.
Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. The two host groups possess very distinctive dinucleotide and codon usage patterns. A pronounced CpG under-representation was found in the vertebrate group, possibly induced by the methylation-deamination process, as well as a prominent TpA decrease. The invertebrate group displayed only a TpA frequency reduction bias. Flaviviridae viruses mimicked host nucleotide motif usage in a host-specific manner. Vertebrate-infecting viruses possessed under-representation of CpG and TpA, and insect-only viruses displayed only a TpA under-representation bias. Single-host Flaviviridae members which persistently infect mammals or insect hosts (Hepacivirus and insect-only Flavivirus, respectively) were found to posses a codon usage profile more similar to that of their hosts than to related Flaviviridae. We demonstrated that vertebrates and mosquitoes genomes are under very distinct lineage-specific constraints, and Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect these lineages appear to be
Behera, Parthasarathi; Kutty, V H Muhammed; Kumar, Ajeet; Sharma, Bhaskar
Genome recoding with bias codons (synonymous rare codons) or codon pair bias is being used as a method to attenuate virulence mostly in viruses. The target gene chosen for attenuation in general in bacteria is mostly toxin or virulence gene. We have used RNA chaperone hfq, a global post-transcriptional regulator of bacterial gene expression that regulates about 20 % genes in Salmonella, as the target of recoding. The hfq gene was recoded by replacing the codons of hfq gene with synonymous rare codons. Recoding decreased the expression of Hfq protein about two-fold in the mutant as compared to the parent strain. Recoding did not affect growth kinetics, but in growth competition the mutant strain was outcompeted by the parent strain. There was significant decrease in survivability of mutant strain in macrophage as compared to the parent strain. The biofilm formation was significantly impaired in case of recoded mutant. The mutants were also less motile as compared to the parent strain. Intraperitoneal infection of mice with the mutant strain had shown better survival as compared to parent strain. The results show that recoding is an effective method of reducing virulence.
Williford, Anna; Demuth, Jeffery P
Gene expression levels correlate with multiple aspects of gene sequence and gene structure in phylogenetically diverse taxa, suggesting an important role of gene expression levels in the evolution of protein-coding genes. Here we present results of a genome-wide study of the influence of gene expression on synonymous codon usage, amino acid composition, and gene structure in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Consistent with the action of translational selection, we find that synonymous codon usage bias increases with gene expression. However, the correspondence between tRNA gene copy number and optimal codons is weak. At the amino acid level, translational selection is suggested by the positive correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid usage, which is stronger for highly expressed genes. In addition, there is a clear trend for increased use of metabolically cheaper, less complex amino acids as gene expression increases. tRNA gene numbers also correlate negatively with amino acid size/complexity (S/C) score indicating the coupling between translational selection and selection to minimize the use of large/complex amino acids. Interestingly, the analysis of 10 additional genomes suggests that the correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid S/C score is widespread and might be explained by selection against negative consequences of protein misfolding. At the level of gene structure, three major trends are detected: 1) complete coding region length increases across low and intermediate expression levels but decreases in highly expressed genes; 2) the average intron size shows the opposite trend, first decreasing with expression, followed by a slight increase in highly expressed genes; and 3) intron density remains nearly constant across all expression levels. These changes in gene architecture are only in partial agreement with selection favoring reduced cost of biosynthesis.
Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang
Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt‑TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un-optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis.
Korgaonkar, Pradeep; Wolin, Lori D.
Discusses Web sales and explores the differences between heavy, medium, and light Web users in terms of their beliefs about Web advertising, attitudes toward Web advertising, purchasing patterns, and demographics. Suggests marketers need to target Web advertising to particular Web users. (Author/LRW)
Korgaonkar, Pradeep; Wolin, Lori D.
Discusses Web sales and explores the differences between heavy, medium, and light Web users in terms of their beliefs about Web advertising, attitudes toward Web advertising, purchasing patterns, and demographics. Suggests marketers need to target Web advertising to particular Web users. (Author/LRW)
Lionel H, Opie
Summary Summary Gradually the pattern of use of antihypertensive drug agents has changed, from prime use of diuretics and beta-blockers, to preference for the inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system and the calcium channel blockers. In assessing the value of potentially conflicting evidence, attention should be paid to the hierarchy of evidence, which works its way up through 10 steps from isolated case reports to integrated knowledge. PMID:19287817
This mixed-methods study looks at patterns of emoticon usage in adult, ESL student writing. Data are drawn from 13 students and their participation in online discussion forums designed to supplement a traditional ESL writing course. The study conceptualizes computer mediated communication as a hybridized and emergent form which utilizes features…
While the use of mobile devices for language learning has sparked the interest of an increasing number of researchers in recent years (e.g., Aizawa & Kiernan, 2003; Thornton & Houser, 2005), our knowledge of learners' preferences for the mobile platform and their usage patterns remains limited. Are learners prepared to use mobile phones…
Singh, Rahul; Bhattarai, Bibek
User behavior in a website is a critical indicator of the web site's usability and success. Therefore an understanding of usage patterns is essential to website design optimization. In this context, large multimedia websites pose a significant challenge for comprehension of the complex and diverse user behaviors they sustain. This is due to the complexity of analyzing and understanding user-data interactions in media-rich contexts. In this chapter we present a novel multi-perspective approach for usability analysis of large media rich websites. Our research combines multimedia web content analysis with elements of web-log analysis and visualization/visual mining of web usage metadata. Multimedia content analysis allows direct estimation of the information-cues presented to a user by the web content. Analysis of web logs and usage-metadata, such as location, type, and frequency of interactions provides a complimentary perspective on the site's usage. The entire set of information is leveraged through powerful visualization and interactive querying techniques to provide analysis of usage patterns, measure of design quality, as well as the ability to rapidly identify problems in the web-site design. Experiments on media rich sites including the SkyServer - a large multimedia web-based astronomy information repository demonstrate the efficacy and promise of the proposed approach.
Jackson, Benjamin C.; Campos, José L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian
Four-fold degenerate coding sites form a major component of the genome, and are often used to make inferences about selection and demography, so that understanding their evolution is important. Despite previous efforts, many questions regarding the causes of base composition changes at these sites in Drosophila remain unanswered. To shed further light on this issue, we obtained a new whole-genome polymorphism data set from D. simulans. We analyzed samples from the putatively ancestral range of D. simulans, as well as an existing polymorphism data set from an African population of D. melanogaster. By using D. yakuba as an outgroup, we found clear evidence for selection on 4-fold sites along both lineages over a substantial period, with the intensity of selection increasing with GC content. Based on an explicit model of base composition evolution, we suggest that the observed AT-biased substitution pattern in both lineages is probably due to an ancestral reduction in selection intensity, and is unlikely to be the result of an increase in mutational bias towards AT alone. By using two polymorphism-based methods for estimating selection coefficients over different timescales, we show that the selection intensity on codon usage has been rather stable in D. simulans in the recent past, but the long-term estimates in D. melanogaster are much higher than the short-term ones, indicating a continuing decline in selection intensity, to such an extent that the short-term estimates suggest that selection is only active in the most GC-rich parts of the genome. Finally, we provide evidence for complex evolutionary patterns in the putatively neutral short introns, which cannot be explained by the standard GC-biased gene conversion model. These results reveal a dynamic picture of base composition evolution. PMID:28082609
Kanaya, S; Kudo, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ikemura, T
We used principal component analysis to develop measures (called Z-parameters in this study) which reflect the diversity of codon usage in Escherichia coli genes. Protein production levels for 1500 CDSs (protein-coding sequences) identified by E.coli genome projects in Japan and the US were estimated from a correlation equation between Z1 and cellular protein content obtained through analysis of the genes experimentally characterized. Through the profile analysis of Z1 for E.coli sequences obtained by the Japanese Project, we predicted an additional 36 CDSs that had not been annotated in the International DNA Database. Thirty-one out of the 36 CDSs could be assigned to presumptive protein genes through a BLASTX search for recent protein databases in the Genome Net in Japan. Detailed examination of the Z1-parameter profile led us to assess sequencing errors which cause frame-shift.
Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi
In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 μg/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage.
Parto, Sahar; Lartillot, Nicolas
Phylogenetic codon models are often used to characterize the selective regimes acting on protein-coding sequences. Recent methodological developments have led to models explicitly accounting for the interplay between mutation and selection, by modeling the amino acid fitness landscape along the sequence. However, thus far, most of these models have assumed that the fitness landscape is constant over time. Fluctuations of the fitness landscape may often be random or depend on complex and unknown factors. However, some organisms may be subject to systematic changes in selective pressure, resulting in reproducible molecular adaptations across independent lineages subject to similar conditions. Here, we introduce a codon-based differential selection model, which aims to detect and quantify the fine-grained consistent patterns of adaptation at the protein-coding level, as a function of external conditions experienced by the organism under investigation. The model parameterizes the global mutational pressure, as well as the site- and condition-specific amino acid selective preferences. This phylogenetic model is implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework. After validation with simulations, we applied our method to a dataset of HIV sequences from patients with known HLA genetic background. Our differential selection model detects and characterizes differentially selected coding positions specifically associated with two different HLA alleles. Our differential selection model is able to identify consistent molecular adaptations as a function of repeated changes in the environment of the organism. These models can be applied to many other problems, ranging from viral adaptation to evolution of life-history strategies in plants or animals.
Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A
Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes.
Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; de Abreu, Miguel; Portillo, Francisco; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Fernández-Lobato, María
Schwanniomyces occidentalis β-fructofuranosidase (Ffase) releases β-fructose from the nonreducing ends of β-fructans and synthesizes 6-kestose and 1-kestose, both considered prebiotic fructooligosaccharides. Analyzing the amino acid sequence of this protein revealed that it includes a serine instead of a leucine at position 196, caused by a nonuniversal decoding of the unique mRNA leucine codon CUG. Substitution of leucine for Ser196 dramatically lowers the apparent catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the enzyme (approximately 1,000-fold), but surprisingly, its transferase activity is enhanced by almost 3-fold, as is the enzymes' specificity for 6-kestose synthesis. The influence of 6 Ffase residues on enzyme activity was analyzed on both the Leu196/Ser196 backgrounds (Trp47, Asn49, Asn52, Ser111, Lys181, and Pro232). Only N52S and P232V mutations improved the transferase activity of the wild-type enzyme (about 1.6-fold). Modeling the transfructosylation products into the active site, in combination with an analysis of the kinetics and transfructosylation reactions, defined a new region responsible for the transferase specificity of the enzyme. PMID:20851958
Aragonès, Lluís; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M.
Severe structural constraints in the hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsid have been suggested as the reason for the lack of emergence of new serotypes in spite of the occurrence of complex distributions of mutants or quasispecies. Analysis of the HAV mutant spectra under immune pressure by the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) K34C8 (immunodominant site) and H7C27 (glycophorin binding site) has revealed different evolutionary dynamics. Populations composed of complex ensembles of mutants with very low fitness or single dominant mutants with high fitness permit the acquisition of resistance to each of the MAbs, respectively. Deletion mutants were detected as components of the mutant spectra: up to 61 residues, with an average of 19, and up to 83 residues, with an average of 45, in VP3 and VP1 proteins, respectively. A clear negative selection of those replacements affecting the residues encoded by rare codons of the capsid surface has been detected through the present quasispecies analysis, confirming a certain beneficial role of such clusters. Since these clusters are located near or at the epitope regions, the need to maintain such clusters might prevent the emergence of new serotypes. PMID:18057242
Cheng, Xiao-fei; Wu, Xiao-yun; Wang, Hui-zhong; Sun, Yu-qiang; Qian, Yong-sheng; Luo, Lu
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution.
Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086
Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.
Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136
Wesolowski, Amy; Eagle, Nathan; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.; Buckee, Caroline O.
The rapid adoption of mobile phone technologies in Africa is offering exciting opportunities for engaging with high-risk populations through mHealth programs, and the vast volumes of behavioral data being generated as people use their phones provide valuable data about human behavioral dynamics in these regions. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires an understanding of the penetration of mobile phones and phone usage patterns across the continent, but very little is known about the social and geographical heterogeneities in mobile phone ownership among African populations. Here, we analyze a survey of mobile phone ownership and usage across Kenya in 2009 and show that distinct regional, gender-related, and socioeconomic variations exist, with particularly low ownership among rural communities and poor people. We also examine patterns of phone sharing and highlight the contrasting relationships between ownership and sharing in different parts of the country. This heterogeneous penetration of mobile phones has important implications for the use of mobile technologies as a source of population data and as a public health tool in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22558140
Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ∼30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shrestha, R; Shrestha, J M; Gurung, B
Sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns affecting both developed and developing countries accounting a quarter around one million deaths per annum. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of neonatal sepsis, culture isolates, pattern, antibiotic sensitivity and drug prescribing pattern. In present prospective study, 48 neonates admitted in pediatric ward from January to March 2011 of Dhulikhel Hospital were included. The gestation age, onset of sepsis, culture isolates, antibiotic sensitivity pattern and drug prescribing pattern were studied. Environmental air sampling of NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) was done by settle plate method for microbial examination. Among 48 neonates, 23 (47.92%) neonates were culture positive with predominant isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca 11(47.83%), Pseudomonas sp. 4(17.39%), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) 3(13.04%) and single case of Enterobacter spp. In environmental samples, K. oxytoca and Enterobacter sp. were isolated. Amikacin, Imepeneum and Ciprofloxacin were sensitive whereas Ampicillin in combination with Cloxacillin, Ampicillin, Aztreonam were resistant for Klebsiella. oxytoca. Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Imipenuem were sensitive to Enterobacter spp. The single or combinations of resistant antibiotics were found to be prescribed. The emerging antibiotic resistances among the culture isolates and coherence with environmental samples were observed. Hence, special measures are imperative for reducing environmental contamination and the rational usage of antibiotics for preventing the infection and emerging antibiotic resistance. The study recommends need of the antibiotic policy to curb the present scenario.
Gatter, Michael; Gatter, Thomas; Matthäus, Falk
The synthesis of complete genes is becoming a more and more popular approach in heterologous gene expression. Reasons for this are the decreasing prices and the numerous advantages in comparison to classic molecular cloning methods. Two of these advantages are the possibility to adapt the codon usage to the host organism and the option to introduce restriction enzyme target sites of choice. C.U.R.R.F. (Codon Usage regarding Restriction Finder) is a free Java(®)-based software program which is able to detect possible restriction sites in both coding and non-coding DNA sequences by introducing multiple silent or non-silent mutations, respectively. The deviation of an alternative sequence containing a desired restriction motive from the sequence with the optimal codon usage is considered during the search of potential restriction sites in coding DNA and mRNA sequences as well as protein sequences. C.U.R.R.F is available at http://www.zvm.tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/fakultaeten/fakultaet_mathematik_und_naturwissenschaften/fachrichtung_biologie/mikrobiologie/allgemeine_mikrobiologie/currf.
Lerner, Alan J; McClendon, McKee J; Sami, Susie A; Ogrocki, Paula K; Adams, Kathryn Betts; Smyth, Kathleen A
Memantine is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated the frequency and variables associated with its use in mild to moderate/severe AD as defined by criteria involving the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Consecutive possible and probable AD patients seen at our research center from November 2003 to December 2006 were included. Individuals were classified as mild dementia either by CDR=1 or MMSE >or=15, using criteria derived in part from the pivotal trials of memantine used for its approval by the Food and Drug Administration. Of 117 patients, 37% of those with mild AD by MMSE criterion (total N=94), and 38% of those with mild AD by CDR criterion (total N=86) used memantine. Logistic regression was used to simultaneously estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of the likelihood of memantine usage associated with a set of predictor variables. Lower MMSE was associated with a greater likelihood of using memantine independent of CDR [ORMMSE=7.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.50-37.05]; CDR was not significantly related to memantine use. Controlling both MMSE and CDR, Whites were more likely to use memantine than African Americans (OR=6.47, 95% CI=1.25-33.39). Patients who used other antidementia medications were more likely to use memantine than those who did not (OR=3.15, 95% CI=0.995-9.97). Eight other patient characteristics were not significant predictors. Use of memantine in mild AD was common. Patterns of memantine usage are complex and deserve further study in a larger sample because of their implications for medical system cost, equitable access to care, and risk of drug interactions.
This study in an academic medical sciences library setting examines the correlation of usage of a matched set of print and online titles, the validity of e-journals usage statistics and the impact of online journals on print journal usage. The print and online usage was determined for 270 journals, both versions of which were available. Print usage was determined annually since 1997 using the reshelving and the error-copies method. Online usage statistics were delivered by five publishers and corrected for redundant multiple accesses. Print journal usage decreased by 22.3 and 30.2% respectively over each of 2 years after the introduction of online journals. Journals published both in print and online lost 30.4% of their print usage within 2 years. The total loss of usage of print-only titles in the same period was somewhat higher, at 45.8%. The average correlation between online and print usage is 0.60 and 0.67 respectively. For the examined titles, users accessed the online versions ten times as often as the print version. Two clearly distinguishable groupings emerged: while with Academic Press and Elsevier, e-journal usage exceeded print usage by a factor of 3 or 4, the e-journals of Blackwell, HighWire and Springer were used on average 14.6 times as frequently as the corresponding print journals. Each usage of a print article cost 2.79-50.82 Euro, each usage of an online article 0.31-15.10 Euro, depending on the publisher. On average, the usage of an online article was 5.4 times cheaper. Within 2-3 years the usage of online journals has outstripped that of print titles by a factor of ten, but the specific spectrum of usage remains much the same as when only print journals alone existed. Print titles not available online suffer a greater decline in usage compared with print/online journals. This confirms that what is read or purchased is determined primarily by ease of access and that there is a steady tendency to reduce the multiplicity of access modes to a
Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.
Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606
Anker, Jeffrey L.; And Others
A survey was undertaken to determine current patterns of drug usage and related patterns of behavior among college and graduate students. The fact that one quarter to one third of university students find drug usage appealing or important would indicate combined psychological, epidemiological, sociological, and pharmacological study of the…
Rowen, Tami S.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Drey, Eleanor A.; Shindel, Alan W.
Background Previous studies indicate that the sexual beliefs and mores of students in medical professions may influence their capacity to care for patients’ sexuality and contraception issues. Students also represent a large sample of reproductive-age individuals. In this study, we examined contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students. Study Design Students using online medical student social and information networks enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February and July of 2008 were invited to participate via email and published announcements in an Internet-based survey consisting of a questionnaire that assessed ethnodemographic factors, year in school and sexual history. We also collected information about current use of contraceptive and barrier methods. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results Among our 2269 complete responses, at least one form of contraception was being utilized by 71% of men and 76% of women. Condoms were the most popular form of contraceptive, utilized by 1011 respondents (50% of men and 40% of women). Oral contraceptive pills were the contraceptive of choice for 34% of men and 41% of women. Decreased rates of contraception use were associated with being black or Asian, not being in a relationship and having more sexual dysfunction in female respondents. Students who reported comfort discussing sexual issues with patients were more likely to use effective contraceptive methods themselves. Ten percent of this of sexually active medical students was not currently using contraception. Conclusions There are significant differences in contraceptive use based on demographics, even at the highest education levels. The personal contraception choices of medical students may influence their ability to accurately convey information about contraception to their patients. In addition, medical students may personally benefit from improved
Rowen, Tami S; Smith, James F; Eisenberg, Michael L; Breyer, Benjamin N; Drey, Eleanor A; Shindel, Alan W
Previous studies indicate that the sexual beliefs and mores of students in medical professions may influence their capacity to care for patients' sexuality and contraception issues. Students also represent a large sample of reproductive-age individuals. In this study, we examined contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students. Students using online medical student social and information networks enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February and July of 2008 were invited to participate via email and published announcements in an Internet-based survey consisting of a questionnaire that assessed ethnodemographic factors, year in school and sexual history. We also collected information about current use of contraceptive and barrier methods. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Among our 2269 complete responses, at least one form of contraception was being utilized by 71% of men and 76% of women. Condoms were the most popular form of contraceptive, utilized by 1011 respondents (50% of men and 40% of women). Oral contraceptive pills were the contraceptive of choice for 34% of men and 41% of women. Decreased rates of contraception use were associated with being black or Asian, not being in a relationship and having more sexual dysfunction in female respondents. Students who reported comfort discussing sexual issues with patients were more likely to use effective contraceptive methods themselves. Ten percent of this of sexually active medical students was not currently using contraception. There are significant differences in contraceptive use based on demographics, even at the highest education levels. The personal contraception choices of medical students may influence their ability to accurately convey information about contraception to their patients. In addition, medical students may personally benefit from improved knowledge of effective contraceptive practices
Karlin, S; Mrázek, J
Synonymous codon usage is based and the bias seems to be different in different organisms. Factors with proposed roles in causing codon bias include degree and timing of gene expression, codon-anticodon interactions, transcription and translation rate and fidelity, codon context, and global and local G + C content. We offer a new perspective and new methods for elucidating codon choices applied especially to the human genome. We present data supporting the thesis that codon choices for human genes are largely a consequence of two factors: (1) amino acid constraints, (2) maintaining DNA structures dependent on base-step conformational tendencies consistent with the organism's genome signature that is determined by genome-wide processes of DNA modification, replication and repair. The related codon signature defined as the dinucleotide relative abundances at the distinct codon positions (1,2), (2,3), and (3,4) (4 = 1 of the next codon) accommodates both the global genome signature and amino acid constraints. In human genes, codon positions (2,3) and (3,4) containing the silent site have similar codon signatures reflecting DNA symmetry. Strong CG and TA dinucleotide underrepresentation is observed at all codon positions as well as in non-coding regions. Estimates of synonymous codon usage based on codon signatures are in excellent agreement with the actual codon usage in human and general vertebrate genes. These properties are largely independent of the isochore compartment (G + C content), gene size, and transcriptional and translational constraints. We hypothesize that major influences on codon usage in human genes result from residue preferences and diresidue associations in proteins coupled to biases on the DNA level, related to replication and repair processes and/or DNA structural requirements.
Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Müskens, Wolfgang; Krause, Ulrike; Alturki, Uthman; Aldraiweesh, Ahmed
A total of 2,338 students at German universities participated in a survey, which investigated media usage patterns of so-called traditional and non-traditional students (Schuetze & Wolter, 2003). The students provided information on the digital devices that they own or have access to, and on their usage of media and e-learning tools and…
Kim, Julie J; Yu, Jaeju; Bag, Jnanankur; Bakovic, Marica; Cant, John P
The rate of secretion of αs2-casein into bovine milk is approximately 25% of that of β-casein, yet mammary expression of their respective mRNA transcripts (csn1s2 and csn2) is not different. Our objective was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain the difference in translation efficiency between csn1s2 and csn2. Cell-free translational efficiency of csn2 was 5 times that of csn1s2. Transcripts of csn1s2 distributed into heavier polysomes than csn2 transcripts, indicating an attenuation of elongation and/or termination. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the 5' and 3' UTRs on translational efficiency were different with luciferase and casein sequences in the coding regions. Substituting the 5' and 3' UTRs from csn2 into csn1s2 did not improve csn1s2 translation, implicating the coding region itself in the translation difference. Deletion of a 28-codon fragment from the 3' terminus of the csn1s2 coding region, which displays codons with low correlations to cell fitness, increased translation to a par with csn2. We conclude that the usage of the last 28 codons of csn1s2 is the main regulatory element that attenuates its expression and is responsible for the differential translational expression of csn1s2 and csn2.
Kim, Julie J; Yu, Jaeju; Bag, Jnanankur; Bakovic, Marica; Cant, John P
The rate of secretion of αs2-casein into bovine milk is approximately 25% of that of β-casein, yet mammary expression of their respective mRNA transcripts (csn1s2 and csn2) is not different. Our objective was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain the difference in translation efficiency between csn1s2 and csn2. Cell-free translational efficiency of csn2 was 5 times that of csn1s2. Transcripts of csn1s2 distributed into heavier polysomes than csn2 transcripts, indicating an attenuation of elongation and/or termination. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the 5′ and 3′ UTRs on translational efficiency were different with luciferase and casein sequences in the coding regions. Substituting the 5′ and 3′ UTRs from csn2 into csn1s2 did not improve csn1s2 translation, implicating the coding region itself in the translation difference. Deletion of a 28-codon fragment from the 3′ terminus of the csn1s2 coding region, which displays codons with low correlations to cell fitness, increased translation to a par with csn2. We conclude that the usage of the last 28 codons of csn1s2 is the main regulatory element that attenuates its expression and is responsible for the differential translational expression of csn1s2 and csn2. PMID:25826667
Vawdrey, David K.
Many vendors of electronic medical records support structured and free-text entry of clinical documents using configurable templates. At a healthcare institution comprising two large academic medical centers, a documentation management data mart and a custom, Web-accessible business intelligence application were developed to track the availability and usage of electronic documentation templates. For each medical center campus, template availability and usage trends were measured from November 2007 through February 2008. By February 2008, approximately 65,000 electronic notes were authored per week on the two campuses. One site had 934 available templates, with 313 being used to author at least one note. The other site had 765 templates, of which 480 were used. The most commonly used template at both campuses was a free text note called “Miscellaneous Nursing Note,” which accounted for 33.3% of total documents generated at one campus and 15.2% at the other. PMID:18998863
In this article we show that usage of a mobile phone, i.e. daily series of number of calls made by a customer, exhibits long memory. We use a sample of 4502 postpaid users from a Polish mobile operator and study their two-year billing history. We estimate Hurst exponent by nine estimators: aggregated variance method, differencing the variance, absolute values of the aggregated series, Higuchi's method, residuals of regression, the R/S method, periodogram method, modified periodogram method and Whittle estimator. We also analyze empirically relations between estimators. Long memory implies an inertial effect in clients' behavior which may be used by mobile operators to accelerate usage and gain additional profit.
Moat, Helen Susannah; Curme, Chester; Avakian, Adam; Kenett, Dror Y.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias
Financial crises result from a catastrophic combination of actions. Vast stock market datasets offer us a window into some of the actions that have led to these crises. Here, we investigate whether data generated through Internet usage contain traces of attempts to gather information before trading decisions were taken. We present evidence in line with the intriguing suggestion that data on changes in how often financially related Wikipedia pages were viewed may have contained early signs of stock market moves. Our results suggest that online data may allow us to gain new insight into early information gathering stages of decision making.
Moat, Helen Susannah; Curme, Chester; Avakian, Adam; Kenett, Dror Y.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias
Financial crises result from a catastrophic combination of actions. Vast stock market datasets offer us a window into some of the actions that have led to these crises. Here, we investigate whether data generated through Internet usage contain traces of attempts to gather information before trading decisions were taken. We present evidence in line with the intriguing suggestion that data on changes in how often financially related Wikipedia pages were viewed may have contained early signs of stock market moves. Our results suggest that online data may allow us to gain new insight into early information gathering stages of decision making.
Grantham, R; Gautier, C; Gouy, M
The poor printing of our previous Figure 2 (1) is corrected. Codon usage in mRNA sequences just published is also given. A new correspondence analysis is done, based on simultaneous comparison in all mRNA of use of the 61 codons. This analysis reinforces our claim that most genes in a genome, or genome type, have the same coding strategy; that is, they show similar choices among synonymous codons, or among degenerate bases (2). Like analysis on frequency variation in the amino acids coded reveals an entirely different pattern. PMID:6159596
Scealy, Marita; Phillips, James G; Stevenson, Roger
The Internet has the potential to empower or isolate. Shyness and anxiety may potentially influence the extent to which people avail themselves of Internet services such as email, chat rooms, information searches, entertainment, and commerce. To understand how personality moderates Internet usage, 177 participants completed an Internet Use Survey, the Social Reticence Scale, and a Trait Anxiety Inventory. Shyness, anxiety, gender, and academic achievement were employed within separate multiple regressions to predict forms of Internet usage. The use of email and chat-rooms was not related to shyness or anxiety, suggesting that shyness or anxiety does not pose an obstacle to these Internet applications. Males were more likely to use the Internet for downloading entertainment. Shy males were more likely to use the Internet for recreation/leisure searches. Highly educated males were more likely to use the Internet for banking and paying bills. Although shyness or anxiety does not seem to modify the communicative functions of the Internet, it may influence people's use of other recreational applications.
Wu, Xudong; Li, Guohui
Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth, and the cause of different cancers is generally attributed to checkpoint dysregulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that non-optimal codons were preferentially adopted by genes to generate cell cycle-dependent oscillations in protein levels. This raises the intriguing question of how dynamic changes of codon usage modulate the cancer genome to cope with a non-controlled proliferative cell cycle. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the somatic mutations of codons in human cancers, and found that non-optimal codons tended to be accumulated through both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations compared with other types of genomic substitution. We further demonstrated that non-optimal codons were prevalently accumulated across different types of cancers, amino acids, and chromosomes, and genes with accumulation of non-optimal codons tended to be involved in protein interaction/signaling networks and encoded important enzymes in metabolic networks that played roles in cancer-related pathways. This study provides insights into the dynamics of codons in the cancer genome and demonstrates that accumulation of non-optimal codons may be an adaptive strategy for cancerous cells to win the competition with normal cells. This deeper interpretation of the patterns and the functional characterization of somatic mutations of codons will help to broaden the current understanding of the molecular basis of cancers. PMID:27513638
Boland, Mary Regina; Trembowelski, Sylvia; Bakken, Suzanne; Weng, Chunhua
Usage data for research networking systems (RNSs) are valuable but generally unavailable for understanding scientific professionals’ information needs and online collaborator seeking behaviors. This study contributes a method for evaluating RNSs and initial usage knowledge of one RNS obtained from using this method. We designed a log for an institutional RNS, defined categories of users and tasks, and analyzed correlations between usage patterns and user types and query types. Our results show that scientific professionals spend more time performing deep web searching on RNSs than generic Google users and we also show that retrieving scientist profiles is faster on an RNS than on Google (3.5 vs. 34.2 seconds) while organization-specific browsing on a RNS takes longer than on Google (117.0 vs. 34.2 seconds). Usage patterns vary by user role, e.g., faculty performed more informational queries than administrators, which implies role-specific user support is needed for RNSs. PMID:22883612
Roy-Zokan, Eileen M; Dyer, Kelly A; Meagher, Richard B
The actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (ADF/CFL) gene family encodes a diverse group of relatively small proteins. Once known strictly as modulators of actin filament dynamics, recent research has demonstrated that these proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, from signal transduction to the cytonuclear trafficking of actin. In both plant and animal lineages, expression patterns of paralogs in the ADF/CFL gene family vary among tissue types and developmental stages. In this study we use computational approaches to investigate the evolutionary forces responsible for the diversification of the ADF/CFL gene family. Estimating the rate of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) across phylogenetic lineages revealed that the majority of ADF/CFL codon positions were under strong purifying selection, with rare episodic events of accelerated protein evolution. In both plants and animals these instances of accelerated evolution were ADF/CFL subclass specific, and all of the sites under selection were located in regions of the protein that could serve in new functional roles. We suggest these sites may have been important in the functional diversification of ADF/CFL proteins.
Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A
A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.
Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Cruz, Maribel; Pérez, Ma Carmen; Vega, Vanessa; Torres, Víctor A
The risks and opportunities associated with the use of technologies are of growing research interest. Patterns of technology usage illuminate these opportunities and risks. However, no studies have assessed the usage patterns (frequency, duration, and intensity) and related factors in young people with intellectual disabilities. Questionnaires on Internet and cell phone usage patterns, the Internet Over-Use Scale and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory were filled out in one-on-one interviews of 216 youth with intellectual disabilities. Young people with disabilities make more social and recreational rather than educational use of these tools, and show higher rates of excessive use of both technologies than a comparison group of 410 young people without disabilities. Also, their overuse is associated with other unhealthy behaviors. The framework of support needs of people with disabilities should be considered to promote healthy Internet and cell phone use. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D
Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.
Billis, Antonis S.; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S.; Karagianni, Maria
Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes. PMID:27284457
De La Torre, Amanda R; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K
The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms.
Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Chaussard, Martine; Fedewa, Stacey
The isolated island nation of Madagascar has substantial prevalence of both smoking and smokeless tobacco use, although not of dual use. Madagascar's tobacco market, much like its historical and cultural underpinnings, appears to have both Asian and African influences. Additionally, it has a unique market structure that plays an important role in influencing patterns of tobacco use. This study analyzes the determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use in Madagascar. We used the 2008 Madagascar Demographic and Health Survey to analyze both smoking tobacco and smokeless tobacco use, stratified by gender. Multivariate log binomial models were used to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use and age, residence (urban/rural), province, marital status, and education. Our analysis indicates that two distinctly different groups of people use two distinctly different tobacco products. Smoking is almost exclusively used by men and does not appear to be related to socioeconomic status. Conversely, smokeless tobacco is consumed by large proportions of both men and women, who are less educated and live in rural areas of the country. This disparate pattern in consumption is a reflection of the different market structures for smokeless tobacco (a cottage industry) and smoking tobacco (a near monopoly). Distinct market-based, geographic, and socioeconomic disparities in tobacco use are explored in order to begin the classification of Madagascar's tobacco epidemic as more African, more Asian, or as a distinctly different environment.
Giannakos, Michail N.; Jaccheri, Letizia; Krogstie, John
Videos have enhanced the value of teaching and learning, particularly in tertiary education. Recent studies have investigated students' attitudes toward video lectures for educational purposes; however, the relationship between students' attitudes and different usage patterns such as platforms used, video duration, watching period and students'…
Hahn, Jung Sun
This paper describes the results of a study of the microcomputer use patterns reflected by more than 13,000 users' records from the microcomputer laboratory at Western Kentucky University for 1983 to 1986. The data analyzed focused on: (1) numbers of users; (2) frequent user groups; (3) sex differences; (4) prime time usage; (5) the use of…
Wu, Yi-Chieh; Liao, Wen-Hung; Chi, Ming-Te; Li, Tsai-Yen
In response to the recent trend in maker movement, teachers are learning 3D techniques actively and bringing 3D printing into the classroom to enhance variety and creativity in designing lectures. This study investigates the usage pattern of a 3D modeling software, Qmodel Creator, which is targeted at K-12 students. User logs containing…
Kokensparger, Brian Jay
This study explored relationships between writing sample features and LMS usage patterns for 366 college students who enrolled in Theology courses, junior-level courses cross-listed with theology courses, or Senior Perspective Program courses in the fall semester of 2012. These hybrid courses were managed inside the Canvas(TM) learning management…
von Konsky, Brian R.; Ivins, Jim; Gribble, Susan J.
This paper investigates the impact of web based lecture recordings on learning and attendance at lectures. Student opinions regarding the perceived value of the recordings were evaluated in the context of usage patterns and final marks, and compared with attendance data and student perceptions regarding the usefulness of lectures. The availability…
Gencer, Suzan Lema; Koc, Mustafa
This study focused on exploring Internet abuse among teenagers and its relations to some Internet usage patterns and demographic characteristics in a digitalizing country, Turkey. It was designed as a cross-sectional research on three types of school that differ in their academic performances. The data were collected from 1380 high school students…
Panzarasa, Pietro; Kujawski, Bernard; Hammond, Edward J.; Roberts, C. Michael
Despite the increasing popularity of e-learning systems across a variety of educational programmes, there is relatively little understanding of how students and trainees distribute their learning efforts over time. This study aimed to analyse the usage patterns of an e-learning resource designed to support specialty training. Data were collected…
Kokensparger, Brian Jay
This study explored relationships between writing sample features and LMS usage patterns for 366 college students who enrolled in Theology courses, junior-level courses cross-listed with theology courses, or Senior Perspective Program courses in the fall semester of 2012. These hybrid courses were managed inside the Canvas(TM) learning management…
Giannakos, Michail N.; Jaccheri, Letizia; Krogstie, John
Videos have enhanced the value of teaching and learning, particularly in tertiary education. Recent studies have investigated students' attitudes toward video lectures for educational purposes; however, the relationship between students' attitudes and different usage patterns such as platforms used, video duration, watching period and students'…
Panzarasa, Pietro; Kujawski, Bernard; Hammond, Edward J.; Roberts, C. Michael
Despite the increasing popularity of e-learning systems across a variety of educational programmes, there is relatively little understanding of how students and trainees distribute their learning efforts over time. This study aimed to analyse the usage patterns of an e-learning resource designed to support specialty training. Data were collected…
Stewart, Anna M.; Glenwick, David S.
Examined usage patterns (i.e., caller and telephone call characteristics) from 1985 through 1989 at a university-based, peer-operated hotline. Collected data on calls to the hotline for the years under examination. Data analysis revealed the importance of examining both sex differences and differences between repeat and nonrepeat callers.…
Gencer, Suzan Lema; Koc, Mustafa
This study focused on exploring Internet abuse among teenagers and its relations to some Internet usage patterns and demographic characteristics in a digitalizing country, Turkey. It was designed as a cross-sectional research on three types of school that differ in their academic performances. The data were collected from 1380 high school students…
Wong, Tit-Yee; Fernandes, Sanjit; Sankhon, Naby; Leong, Patrick P; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang
When the stop codons TGA, TAA, and TAG are found in the second and third reading frames of a protein-encoding gene, they are considered premature stop codons (PSC). Deinococcus radiodurans disproportionately favored TGA more than the other two triplets as a PSC. The TGA triplet was also found more often in noncoding regions and as a stop codon, though the bias was less pronounced. We investigated this phenomenon in 72 bacterial species with widely differing chromosomal GC contents. Although TGA and TAG were compositionally similar, we found a great variation in use of TGA but a very limited range of use of TAG. The frequency of use of TGA in the gene sequences generally increased with the GC content of the chromosome, while the frequency of use of TAG, like that of TAA, was inversely proportional to the GC content of the chromosome. The patterns of use of TAA, TGA and TAG as real stop codons were less biased and less influenced by the GC content of the chromosome. Bacteria with higher chromosomal GC contents often contained fewer PSC trimers in their genes. Phylogenetically related bacteria often exhibited similar PSC ratios. In addition, metabolically versatile bacteria have significantly fewer PSC trimers in their genes. The bias toward TGA but against TAG as a PSC could not be explained either by the preferential usage of specific codons or by the GC contents of individual chromosomes. We proposed that the quantity and the quality of the PSC in the genome might be important in bacterial evolution.
The objective of the study was to update the heavy-duty truck (HDT) population, activity (e.g., vehicle miles traveled (VMT), numbers of starts and trips, trip duration, etc.), and usage patterns type of service/business (e.g., delivery, construction, etc.), area of operation (i.e., local, short-haul, long-haul) for HDT`s registered and/or operated in California. The population and activity estimates were done on a weight-class-specific basis light-heavy-duty, medium-heavy-duty and heavy-heavy-duty. Population, activity and usage estimates were based primarily on Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) registration data and Truck Inventory and Usage Survey (TIUS) data. In addition to the analysis of existing data (i.e., DMV and TIUS), 42 HDTs were fitted with on-board data loggers that recorded numbers of trips and starts, daily VMT and travel by time-of-day.
Chen, Elizabeth S; Cimino, James J
Understanding how clinicians are using clinical information systems to assist with their everyday tasks is valuable to the system design and development process. Developers of such systems are interested in monitoring usage in order to make enhancements. System log files are rich resources for gaining knowledge about how the system is being used. We have analyzed the log files of our Web-based clinical information system (WebCIS) to obtain various usage statistics including which WebCIS features are frequently being used. We have also identified usage patterns, which convey how the user is traversing the system. We present our method and these results as well as describe how the results can be used to customize menus, shortcut lists, and patient reports in WebCIS and similar systems.
Boland, Mary Regina; Trembowelski, Sylvia; Bakken, Suzanne; Weng, Chunhua
Usage data for research networking systems (RNSs) are valuable but generally unavailable for understanding scientific professionals' information needs and online collaborator seeking behaviors. This study contributes a method for evaluating RNSs and initial usage knowledge of one RNS obtained from using this method. We designed a log for an institutional RNS, defined categories of users and tasks, and analyzed correlations between usage patterns and user and query types. Our results show that scientific professionals spend more time performing deep Web searching on RNSs than generic Google users and we also show that retrieving scientist profiles is faster on an RNS than on Google (3.5 seconds vs. 34.2 seconds) whereas organization-specific browsing on a RNS takes longer than on Google (117.0 seconds vs. 34.2 seconds). Usage patterns vary by user role, e.g., faculty performed more informational queries than administrators, which implies role-specific user support is needed for RNSs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Resnik, Linda; Acluche, Frantzy; Borgia, Matthew
Research is needed to understand how upper limb prosthesis users take advantage of multiple grip options. To quantify usage of DEKA hand grip patterns during home use and compare patterns of usage at home to test sessions. Observational study design. Data were collected from 21 subjects. Engineering data on grip were downloaded at various intervals. Proportion of time in each grip was calculated for the first 4 weeks of home use, later months, and test sessions (testing use) and compared statistically across intervals. Exploratory analyses compared grip proportion by DEKA Arm level and prior prosthesis use. Three most commonly used grips during home use were power, pinch open, and lateral pinch. There were no significant differences between grip use during the first month and later months. Power grip was used 55% of the time at home and 23% of the time in testing use. Pinch closed, lateral, and chuck grip were used less at home than in tests. Comparisons were by configuration level and prosthetic use and no significant differences were found. Patterns of DEKA hand grip usage differed between home and test environments, suggesting that users relied on fewer grip patterns at home. Clinical relevance These findings have implications for prosthetic training with multi-articulating terminal devices.
Yang, Pei-Ching; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Chen, Ying-Yeh
Background Prompt recognition and intervention of negative emotions is crucial for patients with depression. Mobile phones and mobile apps are suitable technologies that can be used to recognize negative emotions and intervene if necessary. Objective Mobile phone usage patterns can be associated with concurrent emotional states. The objective of this study is to adapt machine-learning methods to analyze such patterns for the prediction of negative emotion. Methods We developed an Android-based app to capture emotional states and mobile phone usage patterns, which included call logs (and use of apps). Visual analog scales (VASs) were used to report negative emotions in dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. In the system-training phase, participants were requested to tag their emotions for 14 consecutive days. Five feature-selection methods were used to determine individual usage patterns and four machine-learning methods were tested. Finally, rank product scoring was used to select the best combination to construct the prediction model. In the system evaluation phase, participants were then requested to verify the predicted negative emotions for at least 5 days. Results Out of 40 enrolled healthy participants, we analyzed data from 28 participants, including 30% (9/28) women with a mean (SD) age of 29.2 (5.1) years with sufficient emotion tags. The combination of time slots of 2 hours, greedy forward selection, and Naïve Bayes method was chosen for the prediction model. We further validated the personalized models in 18 participants who performed at least 5 days of model evaluation. Overall, the predictive accuracy for negative emotions was 86.17%. Conclusion We developed a system capable of predicting negative emotions based on mobile phone usage patterns. This system has potential for ecological momentary intervention (EMI) for depressive disorders by automatically recognizing negative emotions and providing people with preventive treatments before it
Smith, J.M.; Smith, N.H.
Sequences of the gapA and ompA genes from 10 genera of enterobacteria have been analyzed. There is strong bias in codon usage, but different synonymous codons are preferred at different sites in the same gene. Site-specific preference for unfavored codons is not confined to the first 100 codons and is usually manifest between two codons utilizing the same tRNA. Statistical analyses, based on conclusions reached in an accompanying paper, show that the use of an unfavored codon at a given site in different genera is not due to common descent and must therefore be caused either by sequence-specific mutation or sequence-specific selection. Reasons are given for thinking that sequence-specific mutation cannot be responsible. We are unable to explain the preference between synonymous codons ending in C or T, but synonymous choice between A and G at third sites is largely explained by avoidance of AG-G (where the hyphen indicates the boundary between codons). We also observed that the preferred codon for proline in Enterobacter cloacea has changed from CCG to CCA. 27 refs., 7 tabs.
This paper investigates Internet-usage patterns of immigrants, and seeks to identify the correlation between Internet use and intercultural adaptation. The study focuses on mainland Chinese immigrants in Singapore, and was conducted via a nationwide telephone survey. The results show that immigrants tend to change their preferences on Internet use to reflect their residence in the host country. In particular, the longer an immigrant resides in the host country, the less likely they would be to surf their original country's websites and the more likely they would be to communicate with local people via the Internet. More importantly, differences in Internet usage are found to have a significant impact on immigrants' intercultural adaptation. In an online environment, the social communication in the host country is a critical component that can facilitate or impede immigrants' successful adaptation to the host country, whereas ethnic social communication also plays a role at the initial stage of transition.
Yu, Kai; Ang, Kok Siong; Lee, Dong-Yup
Codon optimization has been widely used for designing native or synthetic genes to enhance their expression in heterologous host organisms. We recently developed Codon Optimization On-Line (COOL) which is a web-based tool to provide multi-objective codon optimization functionality for synthetic gene design. COOL provides a simple and flexible interface for customizing codon optimization based on several design parameters such as individual codon usage, codon pairing, and codon adaptation index. User-defined sequences can also be compared against the COOL optimized ones to show the extent by which the user's sequences can be evaluated and further improved. The utility of COOL is demonstrated via a case study where the codon optimized sequence of an invertase enzyme is generated for the enhanced expression in E. coli.
Biran, A; Jenkins, M W; Dabrase, P; Bhagwat, I
To explore and explain patterns of use of communal latrine facilities in urban poverty pockets. Six poverty pockets with communal latrine facilities representing two management models (Sulabh and municipal) were selected. Sampling was random and stratified by poverty pocket population size. A seventh, community-managed facility was also included. Data were collected by exit interviews with facility users and by interviews with residents from a randomly selected representative sample of poverty pocket households, on social, economic and demographic characteristics of households, latrine ownership, defecation practices, costs of using the facility and distance from the house to the facility. A tally of facility users was kept for 1 day at each facility. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling to identify determinants of communal latrine usage. Communal latrines differed in their facilities, conditions, management and operating characteristics, and rates of usage. Reported usage rates among non-latrine-owning households ranged from 15% to 100%. There was significant variation in wealth, occupation and household structure across the poverty pockets as well as in household latrine ownership. Households in pockets with municipal communal latrine facilities appeared poorer. Households in pockets with Sulabh-managed communal facilities were significantly more likely to own a household latrine. Determinants of communal facility usage among households without a latrine were access and convenience (distance and opening hours), facility age, cleanliness/upkeep and cost. The ratio of male to female users was 2:1 across all facilities for both adults and children. Provision of communal facilities reduces but does not end the problem of open defecation in poverty pockets. Women appear to be relatively poorly served by communal facilities and, cost is a barrier to use by poorer households. Results suggest improving facility convenience and access and modifying fee
Pizzo, Lucilla; Iriarte, Andrés; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando; Marín, Mónica
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system, with a prevalence of about 1:3000 people. Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in CFTR gene, which lead to a defective function of the chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Up-to-date, more than 1900 mutations have been reported in CFTR. However for an important proportion of them, their functional effects and the relation to disease are still not understood. Many of these mutations are silent (or synonymous), namely they do not alter the encoded amino acid. These synonymous mutations have been considered as neutral to protein function. However, more recent evidence in bacterial and human proteins has put this concept under revision. With the aim of understanding possible functional effects of synonymous mutations in CFTR, we analyzed human and primates CFTR codon usage and divergence patterns. We report the presence of regions enriched in rare and frequent codons. This spatial pattern of codon preferences is conserved in primates, but this cannot be explained by sequence conservation alone. In sum, the results presented herein suggest a functional implication of these regions of the gene that may be maintained by purifying selection acting to preserve a particular codon usage pattern along the sequence. Overall these results support the idea that several synonymous mutations in CFTR may have functional importance, and could be involved in the disease.
Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S
Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.
The objective of the study was to determine various vehicle utilization patterns that are needed to update and verify vehicle activity for emissions inventory estimations. The contract, sponsored by the American Automotive Manufacturers Association and co-funded by the California Air Resources Board with the Gallup Organization as the sub-contractor, involved data collection through surveys, data analysis and a report on vehicle usage patterns, focusing on passenger cars and light- and medium-duty trucks. The information collected included the model year and make of the vehicle, odometer readings at the end of each trip, time and location at the start and end of a trip, number of passengers during each trip, trip length, trip purpose, type of fuel used and refueling events, parking conditions (enclosed garage, open-shaded or exposed area), number of work hours and number of work days per week, etc. Vehicle owners were randomly selected from various cities throughout the United States.
Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu
Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid.
Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu
Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid. PMID:23315666
Jung, Changmi; Padman, Rema
Virtualization of healthcare delivery via patient portals has facilitated the increasing interest in online medical consultations due to its benefits such as improved convenience and flexibility, lower cost, and time savings. Despite this growing interest, adoption by both consumers and providers has been slow, and little is known about users and their usage and adoption patterns. To learn characteristics of online healthcare consumers and understand their patterns of adoption and usage of online clinical consultation services (or eVisits delivered via the portal) such as adoption time for portal users, whether adoption hazard changes over time, and what factors influence patients to become early/late adopters. Using online medical consultation records between April 1, 2009 and May 31, 2010 from four ambulatory practices affiliated with a major healthcare provider, we conduct simple descriptive analysis to understand the users of online clinical consults and their usage patterns. Multilevel Logit regression is employed to measure the effect of patient and primary care provider characteristics on the likelihood of eVisit adoption by the patient, and survival analysis and Ordered Logit regression are applied to study eVisit adoption patterns that delineate elements describing early or late adopters. On average, eVisit adopters are younger and predominantly female. Their primary care providers participate in the eVisit service, highlighting the importance of physician's role in encouraging patients to utilize the service. Patients who are familiar with the patient portal are more likely to use the service, as are patients with more complex health issues. Younger and female patients have higher adoption hazard, but gender does not affect the decision of adopting early vs. late. These adopters also access the patient portal more frequently before adoption, indicating that they are potentially more involved in managing their health. The majority of eVisits are submitted
Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Baru, C.
Since its launch five years ago, the National Science Foundation-funded GEON Project (www.geongrid.org) has been providing access to a variety of geoscience data sets such as geologic maps and other geographic information system (GIS)-oriented data, paleontologic databases, gravity and magnetics data and LiDAR topography via its online portal interface. In addition to data, the GEON Portal also provides web-based tools and other resources that enable users to process and interact with data. Examples of these tools include functions to dynamically map and integrate GIS data, compute synthetic seismograms, and to produce custom digital elevation models (DEMs) with user defined parameters such as resolution. The GEON portal built on the Gridsphere-portal framework allows us to capture user interaction with the system. In addition to the site access statistics captured by tools like Google Analystics which capture hits per unit time, search key words, operating systems, browsers, and referring sites, we also record additional statistics such as which data sets are being downloaded and in what formats, processing parameters, and navigation pathways through the portal. With over four years of data now available from the GEON Portal, this record of usage is a rich resource for exploring how earth scientists discover and utilize online data sets. Furthermore, we propose that this data could ultimately be harnessed to optimize the way users interact with the data portal, design intelligent processing and data management systems, and to make recommendations on algorithm settings and other available relevant data. The paradigm of integrating popular and commonly used patterns to make recommendations to a user is well established in the world of e-commerce where users receive suggestions on books, music and other products that they may find interesting based on their website browsing and purchasing history, as well as the patterns of fellow users who have made similar
Shaw, J P; Ferry, D G; Pethica, D; Brenner, D; Tucker, I G
To assess nicotine patch use in smokers who purchased the product as a non-prescription medicine from pharmacies. A questionnaire administered at the time of purchase. Community pharmacies throughout New Zealand. A total of 805 male and female purchasers of nicotine patches aged 18 through 87 years. Patterns of usage including self-reported smoking history, previous quit-smoking attempts, previous and current use of transdermal nicotine and other products, side effects, and concomitant smoking. Most respondents (74%) had attempted to quit smoking previously, many of whom (53%) had used a non-prescription nicotine replacement product. Approximately 60% of purchasers were first-time users. For those continuing a course of treatment, there was no evidence of use for longer than the manufacturer's recommendation (12 weeks). Twenty-eight per cent of respondents reported continuing smoking while using transdermal nicotine, although the number of cigarettes smoked was much less than in the reported smoking history. Side effects were reported by 24% of patch users in the current course, but there was no evidence of significant safety problems. This survey provides preliminary data on the non-prescription usage of transdermal nicotine when purchased through pharmacies.
Shaw, J.; Ferry, D.; Pethica, D.; Brenner, D.; Tucker, I.
OBJECTIVE—To assess nicotine patch use in smokers who purchased the product as a non-prescription medicine from pharmacies. DESIGN—A questionnaire administered at the time of purchase. SETTING—Community pharmacies throughout New Zealand. SUBJECTS—A total of 805 male and female purchasers of nicotine patches aged 18 through 87 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Patterns of usage including self-reported smoking history, previous quit-smoking attempts, previous and current use of transdermal nicotine and other products, side effects, and concomitant smoking. RESULTS—Most respondents (74%) had attempted to quit smoking previously, many of whom (53%) had used a non-prescription nicotine replacement product. Approximately 60% of purchasers were first-time users. For those continuing a course of treatment, there was no evidence of use for longer than the manufacturer's recommendation (12 weeks). Twenty-eight per cent of respondents reported continuing smoking while using transdermal nicotine, although the number of cigarettes smoked was much less than in the reported smoking history. Side effects were reported by 24% of patch users in the current course, but there was no evidence of significant safety problems. CONCLUSIONS—This survey provides preliminary data on the non-prescription usage of transdermal nicotine when purchased through pharmacies. Keywords: nicotine replacement therapy; nicotine skin patch; transdermal nicotine; over-the-counter medication PMID:9789935
Mauro, Vincent P; Chappell, Stephen A
Codon optimization describes gene engineering approaches that use synonymous codon changes to increase protein production. Applications for codon optimization include recombinant protein drugs and nucleic acid therapies, including gene therapy, mRNA therapy, and DNA/RNA vaccines. However, recent reports indicate that codon optimization can affect protein conformation and function, increase immunogenicity, and reduce efficacy. We critically review this subject, identifying additional potential hazards including some unique to nucleic acid therapies. This analysis highlights the evolved complexity of codon usage and challenges the scientific bases for codon optimization. Consequently, codon optimization may not provide the optimal strategy for increasing protein production and may decrease the safety and efficacy of biotech therapeutics. We suggest that the use of this approach is reconsidered, particularly for in vivo applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The genetic code consists of non-random usage of synonymous codons for the same amino acids, termed codon bias or codon usage. Codon juxtaposition is also non-random, referred to as codon context bias or codon pair bias. The codon and codon pair bias vary among different organisms, as well as with viruses. Reasons for these differences are not completely understood. For classical swine fever virus (CSFV), it was suggested that the synonymous codon usage does not significantly influence virulence, but the relationship between variations in codon pair usage and CSFV virulence is unknown. Virulence can be related to the fitness of a virus: Differences in codon pair usage influence genome translation efficiency, which may in turn relate to the fitness of a virus. Accordingly, the potential of the codon pair bias for clustering CSFV isolates into classes of different virulence was investigated. Results The complete genomic sequences encoding the viral polyprotein of 52 different CSFV isolates were analyzed. This included 49 sequences from the GenBank database (NCBI) and three newly sequenced genomes. The codon usage did not differ among isolates of different virulence or genotype. In contrast, a clustering of isolates based on their codon pair bias was observed, clearly discriminating highly virulent isolates and vaccine strains on one side from moderately virulent strains on the other side. However, phylogenetic trees based on the codon pair bias and on the primary nucleotide sequence resulted in a very similar genotype distribution. Conclusion Clustering of CSFV genomes based on their codon pair bias correlate with the genotype rather than with the virulence of the isolates. PMID:22126254
Li, Ying; Kim, Oanh Thi Phuong; Ito, Koichi; Saito, Kazuki; Suzaki, Toshinobu; Harumoto, Terue
Most ciliates use a deviant genetic code. Eukaryotic release factor (eRF1) appears to play an important role in the process of reassignment of stop codons. Although the precise site on eRF1 for recognition of stop codons remains obscure, studies have suggested that the tip region NIKS and its adjacent YxCxxxF motifs in domain 1 are important for stop codon recognition. Litostomatea is a class of ciliate that appears to use the standard genetic code. We used Dileptus (Litostomatea) eRF1 in this study to identify key residues located in or near the YxCxxxF motif. We predicted sites involving stop codon recognition by computational calculation of RNA-protein interaction propensity. We introduced mutations at the predicted sites of Dileptus eRF1 and examined the activity of the mutated Dileptus eRF1 using in vivo assay systems. The results show that the single mutation R128I (Dileptus eRF1 numbering) in the YxCxxxF motif converted the omnipotent recognition of Dileptus eRF1 to Euplotes-type dualpotent eRF1. Our results indicate that R128 is one of the key residues preserving the ability to recognize all three stop codons, especially UGA, in Dileptus. We discuss a possible advantage that ciliates from the Litostomatea class may gain from using the standard genetic code.
Steele, Aaron; Carmichael, Rory; Rodriguez, Anabel; Specht, Alicia T.; Ngo, Kim; Emrich, Scott
Synonymous rare codons are considered to be sub-optimal for gene expression because they are translated more slowly than common codons. Yet surprisingly, many protein coding sequences include large clusters of synonymous rare codons. Rare codons at the 5’ terminus of coding sequences have been shown to increase translational efficiency. Although a general functional role for synonymous rare codons farther within coding sequences has not yet been established, several recent reports have identified rare-to-common synonymous codon substitutions that impair folding of the encoded protein. Here we test the hypothesis that although the usage frequencies of synonymous codons change from organism to organism, codon rarity will be conserved at specific positions in a set of homologous coding sequences, for example to tune translation rate without altering a protein sequence. Such conservation of rarity–rather than specific codon identity–could coordinate co-translational folding of the encoded protein. We demonstrate that many rare codon cluster positions are indeed conserved within homologous coding sequences across diverse eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal species, suggesting they result from positive selection and have a functional role. Most conserved rare codon clusters occur within rather than between conserved protein domains, challenging the view that their primary function is to facilitate co-translational folding after synthesis of an autonomous structural unit. Instead, many conserved rare codon clusters separate smaller protein structural motifs within structural domains. These smaller motifs typically fold faster than an entire domain, on a time scale more consistent with translation rate modulation by synonymous codon usage. While proteins with conserved rare codon clusters are structurally and functionally diverse, they are enriched in functions associated with organism growth and development, suggesting an important role for synonymous codon usage in
Rima, Bert K
The stability and conservation of the sequences of RNA viruses in the field and the high error rates measured in vitro are paradoxical. The field stability indicates that there are very strong selective constraints on sequence diversity. The nature of these constraints is discussed. Apart from constraints on variation in cis-acting RNA and the amino acid sequences of viral proteins, there are other ones relating to the presence of specific dinucleotides such CpG and UpA as well as the importance of RNA secondary structures and RNA degradation rates. Recent other constraints identified in other RNA viruses, such as effects of secondary RNA structure on protein folding or modification of cellular tRNA complements, are also discussed. Using the family Paramyxoviridae, I show that the codon usage pattern (CUP) is (i) specific for each virus species and (ii) that it is markedly different from the host - it does not vary even in vaccine viruses that have been derived by passage in a number of inappropriate host cells. The CUP might thus be an additional constraint on variation, and I propose the concept of codon constellation to indicate the informational content of the sequences of RNA molecules relating not only to stability and structure but also to the efficiency of translation of a viral mRNA resulting from the CUP and the numbers and position of rare codons.
My previous theoretical research shows that the rotating circular genetic code is a viable tool to make easier to distinguish the rules of variation applied to the amino acid exchange; it presents a precise and positional bio-mathematical balance of codons, according to the amino acids they codify. Here, I demonstrate that when using the conventional or classic circular genetic code, a clearer pattern for the human codon usage per amino acid and per genome emerges. The most used human codons per amino acid were the ones ending with the three hydrogen bond nucleotides: C for 12 amino acids and G for the remaining 8, plus one codon for arginine ending in A that was used approximately with the same frequency than the one ending in G for this same amino acid (plus *). The most used codons in man fall almost all the time at the rightmost position, clockwise, ending either in C or in G within the circular genetic code. The human codon usage per genome is compared to other organisms such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), squid (Loligo pealei), and many others. The biosemiotic codon usage of each genomic population or ‘Theme’ is equated to a ‘molecular language’. The C/U choice or difference, and the G/A difference in the third nucleotide of the most used codons per amino acid are illustrated by comparing the most used codons per genome in humans and squids. The human distribution in the third position of most used codons is a 12-8-2, C-G-A, nucleotide ending signature, while the squid distribution in the third position of most used codons was an odd, or uneven, distribution in the third position of its most used codons: 13-6-3, U-A-G, as its nucleotide ending signature. These findings may help to design computational tools to compare human genomes, to determine the exchangeability between compatible codons and amino acids, and for the early detection of incompatible changes leading to hereditary diseases. PMID:22997484
Heckman, Joyce E.; Sarnoff, Joshua; Alzner-DeWeerd, Birgit; Yin, Samuel; RajBhandary, Uttam L.
We report the sequences of Neurospora crassa mitochondrial alanine, leucine1, leucine2, threonine, tryptophan, and valine tRNAs. On the basis of the anticodon sequences of these tRNAs and of a glutamine tRNA, whose sequence analysis is nearly complete, we infer the following: (i) The N. crassa mitochondrial tRNA species for alanine, leucine2, threonine, and valine, amino acids that belong to four-codon families (GCN, CUN, ACN, and GUN, respectively; N = U, C, A, or G) all contain an unmodified U in the first position of the anticodon. In contrast, tRNA species for glutamine, leucine1, and tryptophan, amino acids that use codons ending in purines (CAGA, UUGA, and UGGA, respectively) contain a modified U derivative in the same position. These findings and the fact that we have not detected any other isoacceptor tRNAs for these amino acids suggest that N. crassa mitochondrial tRNAs containing U in the first position of the anticodon are capable of reading all four codons of a four-codon family whereas those containing a modified U are restricted to reading codons ending in A or G. Such an expanded codon-reading ability of certain mitochondrial tRNAs will explain how the mitochondrial protein-synthesizing system operates with a much lower number of tRNA species than do systems present in prokaryotes or in eukaryotic cytoplasm. (ii) The anticodon sequence of the N. crassa mitochondrial tryptophan tRNA is U*CA and not CCA or CmCA as is the case with tryptophan tRNAs from prokaryotes or from eukaryotic cytoplasm. Because a tRNA with U*CA in the anti-codon would be expected to read the codon UGA, as well as the normal tryptophan codon UGG, this suggests that in N. crassa mitochondria, as in yeast and in human mitochondria, UGA is a codon for tryptophan and not a signal for chain termination. (iii) The anticodon sequences of the two leucine tRNAs indicate that N. crassa mitochondria use both families of leucine codons (UUAG and CUN; N = U, C, A, or G) for leucine, in
Miyata, T; Hayashida, H
Comparisons of nucleotide sequences of several pseudogenes described to date, including alpha- and beta-globin and immunoglobulin kappa-type variable domain pseudogenes, with those of functional counterparts revealed that pseudogenes accumulate mutations at an extremely high rate uniformly over their entirety. It is remarkable that the evolutionary rate exceeds the rate of changes between synonymous codons, the highest known rate, in functional genes. Because no pseudogenes appear to function, this result strongly supports the neutral theory. In addition this result apparently indicates the presence of selective pressure against changes between synonymous codons in functional genes. Close examinations of codon utilization patterns in pseudogenes and functional genes revealed a significant correlation between the rate of changes at synonymous codon sites and the strength of bias in code word usage. This implies that even synonymous codon changes are not completely free from selective pressure but are constrained in part, although presumably weakly, depending on the degree of bias in code word usage. We also reexamined alignment between mouse beta h3 (pseudogene) and beta maj sequences and found a unique structure of the beta h3 that is homologous in sequence to the beta maj gene overall but contains a long deletion (about 150 base pairs) in the middle of the gene. PMID:6795634
Cladel, Nancy M.; Bertotto, Alex; Christensen, Neil D.
Human papillomaviruses use rare codons relative to their hosts. It has been theorized that this is a mechanism to allow the virus to escape immune surveillance. In the present study we examined the codings of four major genes of 21 human alpha (mucosatropic) viruses and 16 human beta (cutaneous-tropic) viruses. We compared the codon usage of different genes from a given papillomavirus and also the same genes from different papillomaviruses. Our data showed that codon usage was not always uniform between two genes of a given papillomavirus or between the same genes of papillomaviruses from different genera. We speculate as to why this might be and conclude that codon usage in the papillomaviruses may not only play a role in facilitating escape from immune surveillance but may also underlie some of the unanswered questions in the papillomavirus field. PMID:20157772
Cladel, Nancy M; Bertotto, Alex; Christensen, Neil D
Human papillomaviruses use rare codons relative to their hosts. It has been theorized that this is a mechanism to allow the virus to escape immune surveillance. In the present study, we examined the codings of four major genes of 21 human alpha (mucosatropic) viruses and 16 human beta (cutaneous-tropic) viruses. We compared the codon usage of different genes from a given papillomavirus and also the same genes from different papillomaviruses. Our data showed that codon usage was not always uniform between two genes of a given papillomavirus or between the same genes of papillomaviruses from different genera. We speculate as to why this might be and conclude that codon usage in the papillomaviruses may not only play a role in facilitating escape from immune surveillance but may also underlie some of the unanswered questions in the papillomavirus field.
Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K
Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola
As part of a more detailed needs analysis, patterns of computer usage among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland were investigated. Utilising a questionnaire approach, a response rate of 23.82% (n = 131) was obtained. Results suggest that medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland are relatively sophisticated in their use of computer and information technologies and have embraced computerisation to a substantially higher extent compared with their urban counterparts and previously published estimates. Findings also indicate that a substantial number of rural and remote practitioners are utilising computer and information technologies for clinical purposes such as pathology, patient information sheets, prescribing, education, patient records and patient recalls. Despite barriers such as bandwidth limitations, cost and the sometimes unreliable quality of Internet service providers, a majority of rural and remote respondents rated an Internet site with continuing medical education information and services as being important or very important. Suggestions that "rural doctors are slow to adapt to new technologies" are questioned, with findings indicating that rural and remote medical practitioners in Queensland have adapted to, and utilise, information technology to a far higher extent than has been previously documented.
Gilchrist, Michael A.; Chen, Wei-Chen; Shah, Premal; Landerer, Cedric L.; Zaretzki, Russell
Extracting biologically meaningful information from the continuing flood of genomic data is a major challenge in the life sciences. Codon usage bias (CUB) is a general feature of most genomes and is thought to reflect the effects of both natural selection for efficient translation and mutation bias. Here we present a mechanistically interpretable, Bayesian model (ribosome overhead costs Stochastic Evolutionary Model of Protein Production Rate [ROC SEMPPR]) to extract meaningful information from patterns of CUB within a genome. ROC SEMPPR is grounded in population genetics and allows us to separate the contributions of mutational biases and natural selection against translational inefficiency on a gene-by-gene and codon-by-codon basis. Until now, the primary disadvantage of similar approaches was the need for genome scale measurements of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to both extract accurate estimates of codon-specific mutation biases and translational efficiencies while simultaneously generating accurate estimates of gene expression, rather than requiring such information. We demonstrate the utility of ROC SEMPPR using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c genome. When we compare our model fits with previous approaches we observe an exceptionally high agreement between estimates of both codon-specific parameters and gene expression levels (ρ>0.99 in all cases). We also observe strong agreement between our parameter estimates and those derived from alternative data sets. For example, our estimates of mutation bias and those from mutational accumulation experiments are highly correlated (ρ=0.95). Our estimates of codon-specific translational inefficiencies and tRNA copy number-based estimates of ribosome pausing time (ρ=0.64), and mRNA and ribosome profiling footprint-based estimates of gene expression (ρ=0.53−0.74) are also highly correlated, thus supporting the hypothesis that selection against translational inefficiency is an
Reinfurt, D W; St Cyr, C L; Hunter, W W
This study examined seat belt usage in North Carolina by drivers of 4,151 late model cars equipped with a variety of restraint system types. We measured usage by restraint type (automatic belt, air bag, manual belt), by make/model and by driver characteristics (age, sex, and race). Usage ranged from a high of 94.2% for motorized shoulder belts (but with only 28.6% lap belt usage in these cars) to 73.9% usage of manual lap/shoulder belts in cars equipped with air bags. Various types of misuse of the shoulder belt (e.g. excessive slack, detachment from the door, placement under the arm) were observed in nearly 6% of the sample.
Satapathy, Siddhartha Sankar; Powdel, Bhesh Raj; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Ray, Suvendra Kumar
The different triplets encoding the same amino acid, termed as synonymous codons, are not equally abundant in a genome. Factors such as G + C% and tRNA are known to influence their abundance in a genome. However, the order of the nucleotide in each codon per se might also be another factor impacting on its abundance values. Of the synonymous codons for specific amino acids, some are preferentially used in the high expression genes that are referred to as the ‘optimal codons’ (OCs). In this study, we compared OCs of the 18 amino acids in 221 species of bacteria. It is observed that there is amino acid specific influence for the selection of OCs. There is also influence of phylogeny in the choice of OCs for some amino acids such as Glu, Gln, Lys and Leu. The phenomenon of codon bias is also supported by the comparative studies of the abundance values of the synonymous codons with same G + C. It is likely that the order of the nucleotides in the triplet codon is also perhaps involved in the phenomenon of codon usage bias in organisms. PMID:27426467
Dovales, Ana C M; da Rosa, Luiz A R; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Pearce, Mark S; Veiga, Lene H S
While the patterns and trends of computed tomography (CT) are well documented in developed countries, relatively little is known about CT usage in developing countries, including Brazil. We evaluated CT usage among outpatients from the public healthcare system in Brazil (SUS), which is the unique healthcare provider to about 75% of the Brazilian population. We collected the annual number of CT procedures and type of CT examinations performed in SUS for the period 2001-2011. Age at examination was evaluated for 2008-2011. CT usage in Brazil has more than tripled during the study period, but the most striking annual increase (17.5%) was observed over the years 2008-2011. Head was the most frequently examined region for all age groups, but a decreasing trend of proportional contribution of head CT, with a simultaneous increase of abdomen/pelvis and chest CT over time was observed. CT examination for pediatric and young adult patients was about 13% of all CTs (9% if we considered age-standardized CT rates). CT usage has grown rapidly in Brazil and may still be increasing. Increased CT usage may certainly be associated with improved patient care. However, given the high frequency of pediatric and young adult CT procedures and the suggested associated cancer risk, efforts need to be undertaken to reduce unwarranted CT scans in Brazil.
Household air pollution generated from solid fuel use for cooking is one of the leading risk factors for ill-health globally. Deployment of advanced cookstoves to reduce emissions has been a major focus of intervention efforts. However, household usage of these stoves and resulting changes in usage of traditional polluting stoves is not well characterized. In Palwal District, Haryana, India, we carried out an intervention utilizing the Philips HD4012 fan-assisted stove, one of the cleanest biomass stoves available. We placed small, unobtrusive data-logging iButton thermometers on both the traditional and Philips stoves to collect continuous data on use patterns in 200 homes over 60 weeks. Intervention stove usage declined steadily over time and stabilized after approximately 200 days; use of the traditional stove remained relatively constant. We additionally evaluated how well short-duration usage measures predicted long-term use. Measuring usage over time of both traditional and intervention stoves provides better understanding of cooking behaviors and can lead to more precise quantification of potential exposure reductions and consequent health benefits attributable to interventions. PMID:25390366
Kushnir, Talma; Avin, Lela; Neck, Alexandra; Sviatochevski, Anna; Polak, Svetlana; Peretz, Chava
There is limited research on the role of dysfunctional/irrational thinking processes and immigration status on hearing protection device (HPD) usage. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of low frustration tolerance (LFT) and immigration status on HPD usage among employees exposed to hazardous industrial noise. A total of 117 Israeli-borns and 80 new immigrants from former Soviet Union completed a questionnaire. The association between HPD usage and barriers to action, self-efficacy, and LFT (accounting for age, years of exposure, and immigration status) were assessed using ordered logistic regression models. LFT was associated negatively (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=.25, 95%; confidence interval [CI]=.15-.41) with HPD usage. Self-efficacy was a modifier (adjusted OR=1.47, 95%; CI=1.34-1.63): the higher the self-efficacy for a given LFT level, the higher the extent of HPD usage. Immigration status was not a significant predictor. HPD usage is associated with both rational and irrational motivations. The role of LFT in hearing protection should be further investigated.
Milsten, Andrew M; Seaman, Kevin G; Liu, Peter; Bissell, Rick A; Maguire, Brian J
Mass gatherings create difficult environments for which to plan emergency medical responses. The purpose of this study was to identify those variables that are associated with increased medical usage rates (MURs) and certain injury patterns that can be used to facilitate the planning process. Patient information collected at three types of mass gatherings (professional American football and baseball games and rock concerts) over a three-year period was reviewed retrospectively. Specific variables were abstracted: (1) event type; (2) gender; (3) age; (4) weather; and (5) attendance. All 216 events (total attendance 9,708,567) studied were held in the same metropolitan region. All MURs are reported as patients per 10,000 (PPTT). The 5,899 patient encounters yielded a MUR of 6.1 PPTT. Patient encounters totaled 3,659 for baseball games (4.85 PPTT), 1,204 for football games (6.75 PPTT), and 1,036 for rock concerts (30 PPTT). The MUR for Location A concerts (no mosh pits) was 7.49 PPTT, whereas the MUR for the one Location B concert (with mosh pits) was 110 PPTT. The MUR for Location A concerts was higher than for baseball, but not football games (p = 0.005). Gender distribution was equal among patrons seeking medical care. The mean values for patient ages were 29 years at baseball games, 33 years at football games, and 20 years at concerts. The MUR at events held when the apparent temperature was 80 degrees F significantly lower statistically than that at events conducted at temperatures <80 degrees F were (18 degrees C) (4.90 vs. 8.10 PPTT (p = 0.005)). The occurrence of precipitation and increased attendance did not predict an increased MUR. Medical care was sought mostly for minor/basic-level care (84%) and less so for advanced-level care (16%). Medical cases occurred more often at sporting events (69%), and were more common than were cases with traumatic injuries (31%). Concerts with precipitation and rock concerts had a positive association with the incidence of
Glasgow, Russell E; Christiansen, Steven M; Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane K; Woolley, Tim; Faber, Andrew J; Estabrooks, Paul A; Strycker, Lisa; Toobert, Deborah; Dickman, Jennifer
to 47% during weeks 7 to 16. There were no significant differences between website only and website plus support conditions on most of the engagement variables. In total, 75% of participants entered self-monitoring data at least once per week. Exercise action plan pages were visited more often than medication taking and healthy eating pages (mean of 4.3 visits vs 2.8 and 2.0 respectively, P < .001). Spearman nonparametric correlations indicated few significant associations between patient characteristics and summary website engagement variables, and key factors such as ethnicity, baseline computer use, age, health literacy, and education were not related to use. Partial correlations indicated that engagement, especially in self-monitoring, was most consistently related to improvement in healthy eating (r = .20, P = .04) and reduction of dietary fat (r = -.31, P = .001). There was also a significant correlation between self-monitoring and improvement in exercise (r = .20, P = .033) but not with medication taking. Participants visited the website fairly often and used all of the theoretically important sections, but engagement decreased over 4 months. Usage rates and patterns were similar for a wide range of participants, which has encouraging implications for the potential reach of online interventions. NCT00987285; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00987285 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5vpe4RHTV).
Wright, Adam; Feblowitz, Joshua C; Pang, Justine E; Carpenter, James D; Krall, Michael A; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F
Many computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems include the ability to create electronic order sets: collections of clinically related orders grouped by purpose. Order sets promise to make CPOE systems more efficient, improve care quality and increase adherence to evidence-based guidelines. However, the development and implementation of order sets can be expensive and time-consuming and limited literature exists about their utilization. Based on analysis of order set usage logs from a diverse purposive sample of seven sites with commercially and internally developed inpatient CPOE systems, we developed an original order set classification system. Order sets were categorized across seven non-mutually exclusive axes: admission/discharge/transfer (ADT), perioperative, condition-specific, task-specific, service-specific, convenience, and personal. In addition, 731 unique subtypes were identified within five axes: four in ADT (S=4), three in perioperative, 144 in condition-specific, 513 in task-specific, and 67 in service-specific. Order sets (n=1914) were used a total of 676,142 times at the participating sites during a one-year period. ADT and perioperative order sets accounted for 27.6% and 24.2% of usage respectively. Peripartum/labor, chest pain/acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction and diabetes order sets accounted for 51.6% of condition-specific usage. Insulin, angiography/angioplasty and arthroplasty order sets accounted for 19.4% of task-specific usage. Emergency/trauma, obstetrics/gynecology/labor delivery and anesthesia accounted for 32.4% of service-specific usage. Overall, the top 20% of order sets accounted for 90.1% of all usage. Additional salient patterns are identified and described. We observed recurrent patterns in order set usage across multiple sites as well as meaningful variations between sites. Vendors and institutional developers should identify high-value order set types through concrete data analysis in order to optimize the
Munshi, Anusheel; Dutta, Debanarayan; Tike, Pramod; Agarwal, Jai Prakash
Obtain baseline data of cell-phone usage in the medical (MO), surgical (SO) and radiation (RO) oncology community practicing in India. Indigenously prepared cell-phone usage related questionnaire was used in the present study after approval by the Institutional Ethics/Scientific Committees. The questionnaire had 41 items and was made to assess the cell-phone usage parameters, utility in clinical practice, awareness, and to compare parameters between oncology specialties. Between November 2009 and January 2010, the questionnaire was sent as an E-mail attachment to 200 oncologists in India. In all, 123 responses were received (61% responders); 84 (68.3%) were RO. The median age of responders was 35 years. Overall, 80% felt handicapped without cell-phone. The Mean cell-phone score, an index to assess overall usefulness over a score of 1-10, was 6.46 (median 7, standard deviation 1.709). There was no significant difference between RO, MO and SO in duration of usage (P = 0.235), number of cell-phones (P = 0.496), call duration per day (P = 0.490) and dependence on cell-phone (P = 0.574). Age of starting cell-phone usage was earlier in RO (P = 0.086). Professional usage was significantly more by MO and SO compared to RO (P < 0.001); however, the former were less aware of any potential cell-phone hazards compared to RO (P < 0.007). The results of the first such questionnaire based study have been presented. Most oncologists consider cell-phones a useful tool in patient care. More RO are aware of potential cell-phone hazards compared to non-RO's.
Spennemann, Dirk H. R.
Purpose: This paper seeks to look at the usage of the internet by students, academics and university administrators as part of their normal working day. It investigates whether access to computer facilities and the mode of study have any influence, or whether other factors need to be considered when providing services. Design/methodology/approach:…
White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola
As part of a study examining continuing medical education, computer usage was investigated among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). Surveys of 131 rural doctors showed that they used computers more than their urban counterparts and more than previously estimated. A majority of respondents considered Internet delivery…
Chatra, L. K.; Shenai, Prashanth; Shetty, Devika
Aim and Objectives. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with the usage of areca nut. Usage of processed forms of areca nut is popular among the youth and its carcinogenic effects are not well known. Due to large immigrant population, various patterns of areca nut usage are seen. The aim of this study is to assess the various quid chewing patterns and their association with severity of OSF. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 250 cases clinically and histologically diagnosed as having OSF lesion that were selected and subjected to a detailed habit history which was recorded through preformed questionnaire. The data obtained was statistically analyzed. Results. Among the 250 subjects, males were seen to be affected more than females within the age group of 26–35 years and were having clinical stage I OSF. A combination of processed areca nut and processed tobacco was used by the majority of the subjects with duration of 1 to 5 years, at a frequency of 3 to 5 quids per day. Conclusion. The present study confirms the association between oral submucous fibrosis and the quid containing processed areca nut and processed tobacco and also highlights the increasing youth population using the processed forms of areca nut. PMID:27777969
Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Remi; Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Derbyshire, Mark; Oliver, Richard P; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain
The range of hosts that parasites can infect is a key determinant of the emergence and spread of disease. Yet, the impact of host range variation on the evolution of parasite genomes remains unknown. Here, we show that codon optimization underlies genome adaptation in broad host range parasites. We found that the longer proteins encoded by broad host range fungi likely increase natural selection on codon optimization in these species. Accordingly, codon optimization correlates with host range across the fungal kingdom. At the species level, biased patterns of synonymous substitutions underpin increased codon optimization in a generalist but not a specialist fungal pathogen. Virulence genes were consistently enriched in highly codon-optimized genes of generalist but not specialist species. We conclude that codon optimization is related to the capacity of parasites to colonize multiple hosts. Our results link genome evolution and translational regulation to the long-term persistence of generalist parasitism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22472.001 PMID:28157073
Reid, Sandra D; Ramsarran, Jonathan; Brathwaite, Rachel; Lyman, Sarika; Baker, Ariane; Cornish, D'Andra C; Ganga, Stefan; Mohammed, Zahrid; Sookdeo, Avinash T; Thapelo, Cathrine K
There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 1994 students from eight institutions was conducted using a de novo questionnaire based on findings from a focus group of students. Chi-squared analyses and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between energy drink usage, adverse effects and other factors affecting energy drink use, and to verify predictors of energy drink use. Prevalence of use was 86%; 38% were current users. Males were more likely to use, used more frequently and at an earlier age. Energy drinks were used most commonly to increase energy (50%), combat sleepiness (45%) and enhance academic performance (40%), and occurred during sports (23%) and mixed with alcohol (22.2%). The majority (79.6%) consumed one energy drink per sitting; 62.2% experienced adverse effects, most commonly restlessness (22%), jolt and crash (17.1%) and tachycardia (16.6%). Awareness of adverse effects was associated with no use (p=0.004), but adverse effects were not a deterrent to continued use. Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina
Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.
Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina
Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development. PMID:27278133
Moura, Gabriela R.; Pinheiro, Miguel; Freitas, Adelaide; Oliveira, José L.; Frommlet, Jörg C.; Carreto, Laura; Soares, Ana R.; Bezerra, Ana R.; Santos, Manuel A. S.
Background Codon pair usage (codon context) is a species specific gene primary structure feature whose evolutionary and functional roles are poorly understood. The data available show that codon-context has direct impact on both translation accuracy and efficiency, but one does not yet understand how it affects these two translation variables or whether context biases shape gene evolution. Methodologies/Principal Findings Here we study codon-context biases using a set of 72 orthologous highly conserved genes from bacteria, archaea, fungi and high eukaryotes to identify 7 distinct groups of codon context rules. We show that synonymous mutations, i.e., neutral mutations that occur in synonymous codons of codon-pairs, are selected to maintain context biases and that non-synonymous mutations, i.e., non-neutral mutations that alter protein amino acid sequences, are also under selective pressure to preserve codon-context biases. Conclusions Since in vivo studies provide evidence for a role of codon context on decoding fidelity in E. coli and for decoding efficiency in mammalian cells, our data support the hypothesis that, like codon usage, codon context modulates the evolution of gene primary structure and fine tunes the structure of open reading frames for high genome translational fidelity and efficiency in the 3 domains of life. PMID:22046369
Duong, Mai; Salvo, Francesco; Pariente, Antoine; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Lassalle, Regis; Droz, Cecile; Blin, Patrick; Moore, Nicholas
Most risks of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are pharmacological, dose and duration dependent. Usage patterns of prescription-only (POM) or 'over-the-counter (OTC)' NSAIDs may influence risks, but are not commonly described. The Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires database, the permanent 1/97 representative sample from the French national healthcare insurance systems, was queried over 2009-2010 to identify usage patterns, concomitant chronic diseases and cardiovascular medication in OTC and POM NSAID users. Over 2 years, 229 477 of 526 108 patients had at least one NSAID dispensation; 44 484 patients (19%) were dispensed only OTC NSAIDs (93% ibuprofen) and 121 208 (53%) only POM NSAIDs. The OTC users were younger (39.9 vs. 47.4 years old) and more often female (57 vs. 53%); 69% of OTC users and 49% of POM users had only one dispensation. A mean of 14.6 defined daily doses (DDD) were dispensed over 2 years for OTC vs. 53 for POM; 93% OTC vs. 60% POM patients bought ≤ 30 DDD over 2 years, and 1.5 vs. 12% bought ≥ 90 DDD. Chronic comorbidities were found in 19% of OTC users vs. 28% of POM users; 24 vs. 37% had at least one dispensation of a cardiovascular drug over the 2 years. Most of the use of NSAIDs appears to be short term, especially for OTC-type NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen. The validity of risk estimates for NSAIDs extrapolated from clinical trials or from observational studies not including OTC-type usage may need to be revised. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Duong, Mai; Salvo, Francesco; Pariente, Antoine; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Lassalle, Regis; Droz, Cecile; Blin, Patrick; Moore, Nicholas
Aims Most risks of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are pharmacological, dose and duration dependent. Usage patterns of prescription-only (POM) or ‘over-the-counter (OTC)’ NSAIDs may influence risks, but are not commonly described. Methods The Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires database, the permanent 1/97 representative sample from the French national healthcare insurance systems, was queried over 2009–2010 to identify usage patterns, concomitant chronic diseases and cardiovascular medication in OTC and POM NSAID users. Results Over 2 years, 229 477 of 526 108 patients had at least one NSAID dispensation; 44 484 patients (19%) were dispensed only OTC NSAIDs (93% ibuprofen) and 121 208 (53%) only POM NSAIDs. The OTC users were younger (39.9 vs. 47.4 years old) and more often female (57 vs. 53%); 69% of OTC users and 49% of POM users had only one dispensation. A mean of 14.6 defined daily doses (DDD) were dispensed over 2 years for OTC vs. 53 for POM; 93% OTC vs. 60% POM patients bought ≤ 30 DDD over 2 years, and 1.5 vs. 12% bought ≥ 90 DDD. Chronic comorbidities were found in 19% of OTC users vs. 28% of POM users; 24 vs. 37% had at least one dispensation of a cardiovascular drug over the 2 years. Conclusions Most of the use of NSAIDs appears to be short term, especially for OTC-type NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen. The validity of risk estimates for NSAIDs extrapolated from clinical trials or from observational studies not including OTC-type usage may need to be revised. PMID:24102791
Degeneracy in the genetic code implies that different codons can encode the same amino acid. Usage preference of synonymous codons has been observed in all domains of life. There is much evidence suggesting that this bias has a major role on protein elongation rate, contributing to differential expression and to co-translational folding. In addition to codon usage bias, other preference variations have been observed such as codon pairs. In this paper, I report that codon pairs have significant different frequency usage for coding either lowly or highly abundant proteins. These usage preferences cannot be explained by the frequency usage of the single codons. The statistical analysis of coding sequences of nine organisms reveals that in many cases bicodon preferences are shared between related organisms. Furthermore, it is observed that misfolding in the drug-transport protein, encoded by MDR1 gene, is better explained by a big change in the pause propensity due to the synonymous bicodon variant, rather than by a relatively small change in codon usage. These findings suggest that codon pair usage can be a more powerful framework to understand translation elongation rate, protein folding efficiency, and to improve protocols to optimize heterologous gene expression. PMID:28289571
Siegal, Gil; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael; Duvdevani, Shay; Alon, Eran E
Information technology has revolutionized health care. However, the development of dedicated mobile health software has been lagging, leading to the use of general mobile applications to fill in the void. The use of such applications has several legal, ethical, and regulatory implications. We examined the experience and practices governing the usage of a global mobile messenger application (WhatsApp) for mobile health purposes in a national cohort of practicing otolaryngologists in Israel, a known early adaptor information technology society. Cross-sectional data were collected from practicing otolaryngologists and otolaryngology residents via self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of a demographic section, a section surveying the practices of mobile application use, mobile health application use, and knowledge regarding institutional policies governing the transmission of medical data. The sample included 22 otolaryngology residents and 47 practicing otolaryngologists. Of the physicians, 83% worked in academic centers, and 88% and 40% of the physicians who worked in a hospital setting or a community clinic used WhatsApp for medical use, respectively. Working with residents increased the medical usage of WhatsApp from 50% to 91% (P = .006). Finally, 72% were unfamiliar with any institutional policy regarding the transfer of medical information by personal smartphones. Mobile health is becoming an integral part of modern medical systems, improving accessibility, efficiency, and possibly quality of medical care. The need to incorporate personal mobile devices in the overall information technology standards, guidelines, and regulation is becoming more acute. Nonetheless, practices must be properly instituted to prevent unwanted consequences. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Background The practice of evidence-based medicine requires efficient biomedical literature search such as PubMed/MEDLINE. Retrieval performance relies highly on the efficient use of search field tags. The purpose of this study was to analyze PubMed log data in order to understand the usage pattern of search tags by the end user in PubMed/MEDLINE search. Methods A PubMed query log file was obtained from the National Library of Medicine containing anonymous user identification, timestamp, and query text. Inconsistent records were removed from the dataset and the search tags were extracted from the query texts. A total of 2,917,159 queries were selected for this study issued by a total of 613,061 users. The analysis of frequent co-occurrences and usage patterns of the search tags was conducted using an association mining algorithm. Results The percentage of search tag usage was low (11.38% of the total queries) and only 2.95% of queries contained two or more tags. Three out of four users used no search tag and about two-third of them issued less than four queries. Among the queries containing at least one tagged search term, the average number of search tags was almost half of the number of total search terms. Navigational search tags are more frequently used than informational search tags. While no strong association was observed between informational and navigational tags, six (out of 19) informational tags and six (out of 29) navigational tags showed strong associations in PubMed searches. Conclusions The low percentage of search tag usage implies that PubMed/MEDLINE users do not utilize the features of PubMed/MEDLINE widely or they are not aware of such features or solely depend on the high recall focused query translation by the PubMed’s Automatic Term Mapping. The users need further education and interactive search application for effective use of the search tags in order to fulfill their biomedical information needs from PubMed/MEDLINE. PMID:23302604
Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Xia, Xuhua
The GC-rich bacterial species, Aeromonas salmonicida, is parasitised by both GC-rich phages (Aeromonas phages - phiAS7 and vB_AsaM-56) and GC-poor phages (Aeromonas phages - 25, 31, 44RR2.8t, 65, Aes508, phiAS4 and phiAS5). Both the GC-rich Aeromonas phage phiAS7 and Aeromonas phage vB_AsaM-56 have nearly identical codon usage bias as their host. While all the remaining seven GC-poor Aeromonas phages differ dramatically in codon usage from their GC-rich host. Here, we investigated whether tRNA encoded in the genome of Aeromonas phages facilitate the translation of phage proteins. We found that tRNAs encoded in the phage genome correspond to synonymous codons overused in the phage genes but not in the host genes.
We have previously identified the mycobacterial high G+C codon usage bias as a limiting factor in heterologous expression of MAP proteins from Lb.salivarius, and demonstrated that codon optimisation of a synthetic coding gene greatly enhances MAP protein production. Here, we effectively demonstrate ...
Pechmann, Sebastian; Chartron, Justin W; Frydman, Judith
The genetic code allows most amino acids a choice of optimal and nonoptimal codons. We report that synonymous codon choice is tuned to promote interaction of nascent polypeptides with the signal recognition particle (SRP), which assists in protein translocation across membranes. Cotranslational recognition by the SRP in vivo is enhanced when mRNAs contain nonoptimal codon clusters 35–40 codons downstream of the SRP-binding site, the distance that spans the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. A local translation slowdown upon ribosomal exit of SRP-binding elements in mRNAs containing these nonoptimal codon clusters is supported experimentally by ribosome profiling analyses in yeast. Modulation of local elongation rates through codon choice appears to kinetically enhance recognition by ribosome-associated factors. We propose that cotranslational regulation of nascent-chain fate may be a general constraint shaping codon usage in the genome. PMID:25420103
Williams, Ernest; Place, Allen; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan
Although dinoflagellates are a potential source of pharmaceuticals and natural products, the mechanisms for regulating and producing these compounds are largely unknown because of extensive post-transcriptional control of gene expression. One well-documented mechanism for controlling gene expression during translation is codon bias, whereby specific codons slow or even terminate protein synthesis. Approximately 10,000 annotatable genes from fifteen “core” dinoflagellate transcriptomes along a range of overall guanine and cytosine (GC) content were used for codonW analysis to determine the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and the GC content at each codon position. GC bias in the analyzed dataset and at the third codon position varied from 51% and 54% to 66% and 88%, respectively. Codons poor in GC were observed to be universally absent, but bias was most pronounced for codons ending in uracil followed by adenine (UA). GC bias at the third codon position was able to explain low abundance codons as well as the low effective number of codons. Thus, we propose that a bias towards codons rich in GC bases is a universal feature of core dinoflagellates, possibly relating to their unique chromosome structure, and not likely a major mechanism for controlling gene expression. PMID:28448468
Schulz, M; Hämmerlein, A; Hinkel, U; Weis, G; Gillissen, A
Mucoactive substances such as ambroxol, available in several countries as over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, are used for the treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis. This study was designed to evaluate the "real life" behavior of consumers with non-prescription access to an ambroxol cough syrup with special focus on tolerability and the pattern of product usage. Customers who bought the ambroxol syrup were recruited in 300 community pharmacies in Germany. Baseline data were collected from the participants in the pharmacy. Completing a self-administered questionnaire, participants provided information on tolerability, self-perceived effectiveness and usage pattern. 2,707 participants were recruited in 266 pharmacies. 2,664 questionnaires were evaluable. At baseline, the respondents reported a complex pattern of symptoms. Productive cough, congested airways, dry cough, cough irritation in the throat and soreness in the throat were the most common ones. 67 patients (2.5%) reported a total of 81 adverse events (AE) which were usually mild in nature and mostly affecting the gastrointestinal tract (n = 53) followed by skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (n = 9). No serious or unknown AE were reported. In general, 97% of the participants assessed the safety as "very good" (51%) or "good" (46%). Overall, the respondents complied with the indications for use and the recommended dosages, with only 0.7% of the participants using the maximum daily dose. 92% of the patients assessed the self-perceived effectiveness as "very good" (29%) or "good" (63%) and 89% were willing to purchase this ambroxol cough syrup again. This study confirms that ambroxol is used according to the advice given in the patients' leaflet and supports the already established safety and efficacy of this product in acute bronchitis. It also demonstrates that the use of an OTC cough medication can be successfully monitored in a pharmacy-based cohort study.
Muzika, František; Schreiber, Igor
We study a model system of three diffusively coupled reaction cells arranged in a linear array that display Turing patterns with special focus on the case of equal coupling strength for all components. As a suitable model reaction we consider a two-variable core model of glycolysis. Using numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques we analyze the dependence of the system's steady states on varying rate coefficient of the recycling step while the coupling coefficients of the inhibitor and activator are fixed and set at the ratios 100:1, 1:1, and 4:5. We show that stable Turing patterns occur at all three ratios but, as expected, spontaneous transition from the spatially uniform steady state to the spatially nonuniform Turing patterns occurs only in the first case. The other two cases possess multiple Turing patterns, which are stabilized by secondary bifurcations and coexist with stable uniform periodic oscillations. For the 1:1 ratio we examine modular spatiotemporal perturbations, which allow for controllable switching between the uniform oscillations and various Turing patterns. Such modular perturbations are then used to construct chemical computing devices utilizing the multiple Turing patterns. By classifying various responses we propose: (a) a single-input resettable sensor capable of reading certain value of concentration, (b) two-input and three-input memory arrays capable of storing logic information, (c) three-input, three-output logic gates performing combinations of logical functions OR, XOR, AND, and NAND.
Background Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Results Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Conclusions Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations
Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Elon, Lisa; Parker, Ruth
Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations use their cell phones, including: sharing
Paul, E C; Roobol, A; Foster, K E; Gull, K
Tubulin synthesis in the naturally synchronous plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a markedly periodic event restricted to the late G2 period of the cell cycle. Mitosis in the plasmodium is intranuclear, and there are no cytoplasmic microtubules at any stage of the cell cycle. We have combined a biochemical investigation of the synthesis of the plasmodial tubulin isotypes and their participation in the mitotic spindle with a microscopic study (immunofluorescence) of the development of spindle microtubules throughout the cell cycle. We have shown that all four tubulin isotypes identified in the plasmodium (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2) are present in the mitotic spindle. The stoichiometry of isotype usage in the mitotic spindle generally reflects the overall abundance of isotypes in the plasmodium as a whole: beta 2 greater than alpha 1 greater than alpha 2 greater than beta 1. We have also shown that tubulins synthesized in the G2 period of one cell cycle can be incorporated into the spindles of the immediately ensuing mitosis and have sufficient biological longevity to allow participation in the mitotic divisions of future cell cycles. Thus, the phenomenon of periodic tubulin synthesis does not reflect a restricted use of tubulin to the cell cycle in which it was synthesized. The major polymerization of tubulin in the nucleus occurred less than 30 min before metaphase. A novel tubulin-containing structure was, however, present in the nucleus approximately 60 min before metaphase. Polymerized tubulin is rapidly removed from the nucleus following nucleokinesis.
Riedl, David; Stöckl, Andrea; Nussbaumer, Charlotte; Rumpold, Gerhard; Sevecke, Kathrin; Fuchs, Martin
The use of digital media such as the Internet and Computer games has greatly increased. In the western world, almost all young people regularly use these relevant technologies. Against this background, forms of use with possible negative consequences for young people have been recognized and scientifically examined. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of pathological use of these technologies in a sample of young Tyrolean people. 398 students (average age 15.2 years, SD ± 2.3 years, 34.2% female) were interviewed by means of the structured questionnaires CIUS (Internet), CSV-S (Computer games) and SWE (Self efficacy). Additionally, socio demographic data were collected. In line with previous studies, 7.7% of the adolescents of our sample showed criteria for problematic internet use, 3.3% for pathological internet use. 5.4% of the sample reported pathological computer game usage. The most important aspect to influence our results was the gender of the subjects. Intensive users in the field of Internet and Computer games were more often young men, young women, however, showed significantly less signs of pathological computer game use. A significant percentage of Tyrolean adolescents showed difficulties in the development of competent media use, indicating the growing significance of prevention measures such as media education. In a follow-up project, a sample of adolescents with mental disorders will be examined concerning their media use and be compared with our school-sample.
Piparo, D.; Innocente, V.
Transcendental mathematical functions are one of the main hot-spots of scientific applications. The usage of highly optimised, general purpose mathematical libraries can mitigate this issue. On the other hand, a more comprehensive solution is represented by the replacement of the generic mathematical functions by specific implementations targeting particular subdomains only. CptnHook is a tool that helps achieving this goal allowing to monitor the input values of mathematical functions used in a given application, categorised according to the stacktraces leading to their invocations. In this contribution we describe the design of CptnHook, the data format of its profile and how it is possible to perform measurements without instrumenting the users code and imposing the need of recompilation. We demonstrate that this approach scales on production workflows of LHC experiments and characterise a set of real life measurements, showing where opportunities for improvement lie and how the tool can be used for advanced debugging. We also illustrate how elegant summaries of the measurements can be produced and how ROOT based analysis of the profiles can be performed.
Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian
Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, with potential for sexual selection to continue post-copulation through sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Few studies have investigated the influences of population density on polyandry and sperm usage, and paternity distribution in successive broods of marine invertebrates. The marine gastropod Rapana venosa is ideal for investigating how population density influences the frequency of polyandry and elucidating patterns of sperm usage. Two different population density (12 ind/m3 and 36 ind/m3) treatments with two replications were set to observe reproductive behaviors. Five microsatellite markers were used to identify the frequency of multiple paternity and determine paternal contributions to progeny arrays in 120 egg masses. All of the mean mating frequency, mean number of sires and mean egg-laying frequency were higher at high population density treatment relative to low population density treatment, indicating population density is an important factor affecting polyandry. The last sperm donors achieved high proportions of paternity in 74.77% of egg masses, which supported the “last male sperm precedence” hypothesis. In addition, high variance in reproductive success among R. venosa males were detected, which might have an important influence on effective population size. PMID:26996441
Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian
Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, with potential for sexual selection to continue post-copulation through sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Few studies have investigated the influences of population density on polyandry and sperm usage, and paternity distribution in successive broods of marine invertebrates. The marine gastropod Rapana venosa is ideal for investigating how population density influences the frequency of polyandry and elucidating patterns of sperm usage. Two different population density (12 ind/m(3) and 36 ind/m(3)) treatments with two replications were set to observe reproductive behaviors. Five microsatellite markers were used to identify the frequency of multiple paternity and determine paternal contributions to progeny arrays in 120 egg masses. All of the mean mating frequency, mean number of sires and mean egg-laying frequency were higher at high population density treatment relative to low population density treatment, indicating population density is an important factor affecting polyandry. The last sperm donors achieved high proportions of paternity in 74.77% of egg masses, which supported the "last male sperm precedence" hypothesis. In addition, high variance in reproductive success among R. venosa males were detected, which might have an important influence on effective population size.
Bobb, Lesley E; Farber, Michaela K; McGovern, Catherine; Camann, William
To compare the rate of epidural use before and after the implementation of nitrous oxide (N2O). Data were obtained from a nursing database of N2O usage and our obstetric anesthesia database. We compared 8 months before and 8 months after the introduction of N2O. It was available 24 h/d, 7 d/wk, consistent with neuraxial analgesia availability. Epidural utilization before and after introduction of N2O was compared using χ(2) analysis. Labor and delivery floor. Total number of births over the study period was 8539: 4315 pre-N2O and 4224 post-N2O. The rate of epidural usage was 77% pre-N2O and 74% after N2O (P= not significant, χ(2)). A total of 762 patients used N2O. Monthly analysis showed no change in pattern of neuraxial analgesia use in post-N2O period compared with the pre-N2O period. The introduction of N2O for labor analgesia was not associated with any change in our rate of labor epidural utilization. Under the conditions of our study, these results suggest that N2O does not discourage neuraxial use for labor pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moran, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.
Data on the volumes of oxygenates and other compounds in gasoline are available from several sources collectively referred as gasoline surveys. The gasoline surveys provide the most definitive knowledge of which oxygenate, if any, and what volumes of that oxygenate are being used in various areas of the country. This information is important in water-quality assessments for relating the detection of MTBE in water to patterns of usage of MTBE in gasoline. General information on three surveys that have been conducted by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, and the EPA was presented. The samples were tested for physical properties and constituents including octane number, specific gravity, and volumes of olefins, aromatics, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The data in each survey had its own utility based on the type of assessment that is undertaken. Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Using NAWQA data, the percent occurrence of MTBE in ground water in metropolitan areas that use substantial amounts of MTBE (> 5% by vol) was ??? 21%, compared to ??? 2% in areas that do not use substantial amounts of MTBE (< 5% by vol). When several other factors are considered in a logistic regression model including MTBE usage in RFG or OXY gasoline areas (??? 3% by vol) as a factor, a 4-6 fold increase in the detection frequency of MTBE in ground water was found when compared to areas that do not use MTBE or use it only for octane enhancement (< 3% by vol).
Chen, Hui-Min; Cooper, Michael D.
Uses continuous-time stochastic models, mainly based on semi-Markov chains, to derive user state transition patterns, both in rates and in probabilities, in a Web-based information system. Describes search sessions from transaction logs of the University of California's MELVYL library catalog system and discusses sequential dependency. (Author/LRW)
Bratton, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R.
. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP usage predicted longer term use, there are patients in whom this is not the case, and patients with low initial usage may need to extend their CPAP trial before a decision about longer-term use is made. PMID:26904268
Carton, Jill M; Sauerwald, Tina; Hawley-Nelson, Pam; Morse, Barry; Peffer, Nancy; Beck, Heena; Lu, Jin; Cotty, Adam; Amegadzie, Bernard; Sweet, Ray
While well established in bacterial hosts, the effect of coding sequence variation on protein expression in mammalian systems is poorly characterized outside of viral proteins or proteins from distant phylogenetic families. The potential impact is substantial given the extensive use of mammalian expression systems in research and manufacturing of protein biotherapeutics. We are studying the effect of codon engineering on expression of recombinant antibodies with an emphasis on developing manufacturing cell lines. CNTO 888, a human mAb specific for human MCP-1, was obtained by antibody phage display in collaboration with MorphoSys AG. The isolated DNA sequence of the antibody was biased towards bacterial codons, reflecting the engineering of the Fab library for phage display expression in Escherichia coli. We compared the expression of CNTO 888 containing the parental V-region sequences with two engineered coding variants. In the native codon exchanged (NCE) variant, the V-region codons were replaced with those used in naturally derived human antibody genes. In the human codon optimized (HCO) variant the V-region codons were those used at the highest frequency based on a human codon usage table. The antibody expression levels from stable transfections in mammalian host cells were measured. The HCO codon variant of CNTO 888 yielded the highest expressing cell lines and the highest average expression for the screened populations. This had a significant positive effect on the process to generate a CNTO 888 production cell line and indicates the potential to improve antibody expression in mammalian expression systems by codon engineering.
Marcon, Gabriella; Indaco, Antonio; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Suardi, Silvia; Finato, Nicoletta; Moretti, Valentino; Micoli, Sandro; Fociani, Paolo; Zerbi, Pietro; Pincherle, Alessandro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio
Prion diseases include sporadic, acquired and genetic forms linked to mutations of the prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). In subjects carrying the D178N PRNP mutation, distinct phenotypes can be observed, depending on the methionine/valine codon 129 polymorphism. We present here a 53-year-old woman with D178N mutation in the PRNP gene and homozygosity for valine at codon 129. The disease started at age 47 with memory deficits, progressive cognitive impairment and ataxia. The clinical picture slowly worsened to a state of akinetic mutism in about 2 years and the disease course was 6 years. The neuropathologic examination demonstrated severe diffuse cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss, spongiosis and marked myelin loss and tissue rarefaction in the hemispheric white matter, configuring panencephalopathic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PrP deposition was present in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum with diffuse synaptic-type pattern of immunoreactivity and clusters of countless, small PrP deposits, particularly evident in the lower cortical layers, in the striatum and in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 1 PrP(Sc) (Parchi classification). These findings underline the clear-cut distinction between the neuropathological features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with D178N PRNP mutation and those of fatal familial insomnia.
Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L
In this paper, statistical analysis and techniques from process mining are employed to analyze interaction patterns originating from radiologists reading medical images in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Event logs from 1 week of data, corresponding to 567 cases of single-view chest radiographs read by 14 radiologists, were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that the numbers of commands and command types used by the radiologists per case only have a slightly positive correlation with the time to read a case (0.31 and 0.55, respectively). Further, one way ANOVA showed that the factors time of day, radiologist and specialty were significant for the number of commands per case, whereas radiologist was also significant for the number of command types, but with no significance of any of the factors on time to read. Applying process mining to the event logs of all users showed that a seemingly "simple" examination (single-view chest radiographs) can be associated with a highly complex interaction process. However, repeating the process discovery on each individual radiologist revealed that the initially discovered complex interaction process consists of one group of radiologists with individually well-structured interaction processes and a second smaller group of users with progressively more complex usage patterns. Future research will focus on metrics to describe derived interaction processes in order to investigate if one set of interaction patterns can be considered as more efficient than another set when reading radiological images in a PACS.
Zaheri, Maryam; Dib, Linda; Salamin, Nicolas
Models of codon evolution have attracted particular interest because of their unique capabilities to detect selection forces and their high fit when applied to sequence evolution. We described here a novel approach for modeling codon evolution, which is based on Kronecker product of matrices. The 61 × 61 codon substitution rate matrix is created using Kronecker product of three 4 × 4 nucleotide substitution matrices, the equilibrium frequency of codons, and the selection rate parameter. The entities of the nucleotide substitution matrices and selection rate are considered as parameters of the model, which are optimized by maximum likelihood. Our fully mechanistic model allows the instantaneous substitution matrix between codons to be fully estimated with only 19 parameters instead of 3,721, by using the biological interdependence existing between positions within codons. We illustrate the properties of our models using computer simulations and assessed its relevance by comparing the AICc measures of our model and other models of codon evolution on simulations and a large range of empirical data sets. We show that our model fits most biological data better compared with the current codon models. Furthermore, the parameters in our model can be interpreted in a similar way as the exchangeability rates found in empirical codon models. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Panicker, Indu S; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F
While the genomes of many Mycoplasma species have been sequenced, there are no collated data on translational start codon usage, and the effects of alternate start codons on gene expression have not been studied. Analysis of the annotated genomes found that ATG was the most prevalent translational start codon among Mycoplasma spp. However in Mycoplasma gallisepticum a GTG start codon is commonly used in the vlhA multigene family, which encodes a highly abundant, phase variable lipoprotein adhesin. Therefore, the effect of this alternate start codon on expression of a reporter PhoA lipoprotein was examined in M. gallisepticum. Mutation of the start codon from ATG to GTG resulted in a 2.5 fold reduction in the level of transcription of the phoA reporter, but the level of PhoA activity in the transformants containing phoA with a GTG start codon was only 63% of that of the transformants with a phoA with an ATG start codon, suggesting that GTG was a more efficient translational initiation codon. The effect of swapping the translational start codon in phoA reporter gene expression was less in M. gallisepticum than has been seen previously in Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, suggesting the process of translational initiation in mycoplasmas may have some significant differences from those used in other bacteria. This is the first study of translational start codon usage in mycoplasmas and the impact of the use of an alternate start codon on expression in these bacteria.
Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H. James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Rubin, Edward
Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences
Chipangura, John K; Eagar, Hayley; Kgoete, Marcia; Abernethy, Darrell; Naidoo, Vinny
At present very little information is available on antimicrobial use patterns in small animal veterinary practice in South Africa. The aim of this study was firstly to provide some indication of antimicrobial use patterns, and secondly to ascertain if the country's small animal veterinarians make use of prudent use guidelines to optimise their antimicrobial use in order to minimise the development of antimicrobial resistance. In order to understand use patterns, a questionnaire was circulated to registered South African veterinarians, whose responses were evaluated by descriptive statistics. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was evaluated for dogs from samples submitted for culture and susceptibility testing for the period 2007-2013 from the only faculty of Veterinary Science in the country. The resistance data was organized into contingency tables and yearly trends in resistance evaluated by means of a chi-square. The use of antimicrobials from the survey were compared to the laboratory result to ascertain the degree of prudent use of the antimicrobials in small animal practice in a developing country. The responses from the questionnaire indicated that South African veterinarians predominantly (91.16%) used antimicrobials empirically before resorting to laboratory testing and that antimicrobial compounding and off label use (86.19%) of human registered medication was common practice. A worrying finding was that a large number of clients attempted antimicrobial treatment of their pets prior to seeking veterinary assistance. In terms of monitored resistance, annual prevalence of resistance was above 10% and multiple drug resistance was above 50% for all the isolates. It is concluded that antimicrobial resistant bacteria are present in small companion animal practice in South Africa which requires better implementation of prudent use guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chiu, Pin-Yao Bernie; Löwemark, Ludvig
, the loss core tops and glacial hiatuses limits the usage and accuracy of the correlation of Mn stratigraphies. Therefore, additional radiocarbon dating can refine our understanding of the Mn patterns in Arctic marine sediment and help to make it a better proxy for both paleoenvironmental reconstructions and for the age models. Further study on the cause of hiatus often encountered in the LGM interval is necessary to ensure the usefulness of Mn stratigraphy.
Esposito, Felice; Di Rocco, Federico; Zada, Gabriel; Cinalli, Giuseppe; Schroeder, Henry W S; Mallucci, Conor; Cavallo, Luigi M; Decq, Philippe; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cappabianca, Paolo
During the past decade, endoscopic intraventricular and skull base operations have become widely used for a variety of evolving indications. A global survey of practicing endoscopic neurosurgeons was performed to characterize patterns of usage regarding endoscopy equipment, instrumentation, and the indications for using image-guided surgery systems (IGSs). An online survey consisting of 8 questions was completed by 235 neurosurgeons with endoscopic surgical experience. Responses were entered into a database and subsequently analyzed. The median number of operations performed per year by intraventricular and skull base endoscopic surgeons was 27 and 25, respectively. Data regarding endoscopic equipment brand, diameter, and length are presented. The most commonly reported indications for IGSs during intraventricular endoscopic surgery were tumor biopsy/resection, intraventricular cyst fenestration, septostomy/pellucidotomy, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and aqueductal stent placement. Intraventricular surgeons reported using IGSs for all cases in 16.6% and never in 24.4%. Overall, endoscopic skull base surgeons reported using IGSs for all cases in 23.9% and never in 18.9%. The most commonly reported indications for IGSs during endoscopic skull base operations were complex sinus/skull base anatomy, extended approaches, and reoperation. Many variations and permutations for performing intraventricular and skull base endoscopic surgery exist worldwide. Much can be learned by studying the patterns and indications for using various types of equipment and operative adjuncts such as IGSs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subba, Sonu H.; Mandelia, Chetan; Pathak, Vaibhav; Reddy, Divya; Goel, Akanksha; Tayal, Ayushi; Nair, Swati; Nagaraj, Kondagunta
Aims: Technologies like mobile phones may not always work positively but they may have unforeseen adverse effects. This study was conducted to find the proportion of students who experienced ringxiety (phantom ringing) and other perceived effects, as well as the pattern of the mobile phone usage among college students. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, south India, among 336 medical students by using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Among the total number of students, 335 students possessed mobile phones. Mostly, the persons whom they talked to on their phones were parents for 220 (51%) of the students. 48% (150) talked for less than half hour in a day and 41% (137) were high volume message users. “Ringxiety” was experienced by 34.5% (116) of the students and they were more likely to use their phones at restricted places like classrooms (99%) and libraries (60.3%). A significantly larger proportion of ringxiety sufferers also complained of hampered studies. Conclusion: The pattern of mobile phone use among the medical students appeared to be problematic, as a fairly large proportion suffered from ringxiety, they reported getting very upset and they used their phones at restricted times and places. This problem needs to be recognized, all stakeholders must be made aware of the symptoms and measures must be taken to reduce it. PMID:23542709
Noack-Cooper, Karen L; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Mirka, Gary A
A limited number of studies have focused on computer-use-related MSDs in college students, though risk factor exposure may be similar to that of workers who use computers. This study examined computer use patterns of college students, and made comparisons to a group of previously studied computer-using professionals. 234 students completed a web-based questionnaire concerning computer use habits and physical discomfort respondents specifically associated with computer use. As a group, students reported their computer use to be at least 'Somewhat likely' 18 out of 24 h/day, compared to 12 h for the professionals. Students reported more uninterrupted work behaviours than the professionals. Younger graduate students reported 33.7 average weekly computing hours, similar to hours reported by younger professionals. Students generally reported more frequent upper extremity discomfort than the professionals. Frequent assumption of awkward postures was associated with frequent discomfort. The findings signal a need for intervention, including, training and education, prior to entry into the workforce. Students are future workers, and so it is important to determine whether their increasing exposure to computers, prior to entering the workforce, may make it so they enter already injured or do not enter their chosen profession due to upper extremity MSDs.
Park, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Oh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Kee Wook; Duk Ye, Byong; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho; Sik Yu, Chang
Ciprofloxacin is the antibiotic most frequently used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). We attempted to identify the microorganisms present in CD-related intra-abdominal abscesses, their ciprofloxacin resistance patterns, and the clinical impact. Microorganisms, their ciprofloxacin resistance, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in 78 CD patients with intra-abdominal abscesses, who underwent percutaneous drainage between March 1991, and November 2011. The median time from diagnosis of CD to abscess drainage was 59.5 months (range, 1 to 178 mo). As for bacteriology, the no-growth proportion was 38.5% (n=30), and 69 microorganisms belonging to 11 genera were isolated from the other 48 (61.5%) patients. Of the 69 microorganisms, 65 were bacteria, including 30 (43.4%) gram-positive, 28 (40.6%) gram-negative aerobes, 7 (10.1%) gram-negative anaerobes, and 4 (4.1%) fungi. Streptococci spp. (25, 36.2%) were the most common bacteria, followed by Escherichia coli (18, 26.1%). Nineteen of the 28 gram-negative aerobes (67.9%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, including 14 of 18 (77.8%) E. coli isolates. When we compared clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in 17 patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and 8 with ciprofloxacin-sensitive bacteria, we found that disease duration from diagnosis to drainage (97.2 vs. 50.7 mo, P=0.03) and median length of hospitalization (40 vs. 31 d, P=0.03) was significantly longer in the former. When gram-negative aerobes were isolated from abscesses in CD patients, more than two thirds were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Providers should consider this high rate of ciprofloxacin resistance when choosing first-line antibiotic treatment for CD-related intra-abdominal abscesses.
Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L
Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes
Zhang, Zhongheng; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J
English is the most widely used language in medical community worldwide. Till now there is no study yet on how English language is being used among mainland Chinese doctors. The present survey aimed to address this question. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of 23 Oct 2014 to 13 November 2014, totaling 22 days. This survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China with registered medical doctor users of slightly more than one million. E-mails were sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate the survey which lasts approximately five-minute. The questionnaire included three major aspects: (I) the demographic characteristics of participants; (II) English reading pattern; and (III) paper publishing experience in international journals. To accommodate the complexity of relationships among variables, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to build the model. In total 1,663 DXY users completed the survey, which counted for ≈1% of the total registered medical doctor users. There were more participants from relatively economically developed eastern coast areas. The age of participants was 33.6±7.4 years. There were 910 respondents from teaching hospitals (54.72%), followed by tertiary care hospitals (class-III hospital, 22.37%). Mainland Chinese doctors were more likely to consult medical materials in Chinese (63.5%) when they encounter clinical difficulties. Participants who were able to list English journals of their own specialty up to four were 44.02% for 0, 13.77% for one journal, 13.89% for two journals, 9.26% for three journals, and 19.06% for four journals. Most participants (82.86%) have read at least one English paper or one professional book in English, while 17.14% responded they never read a single English paper or professorial book in English. About 30.42% participants published at least one paper in English
Kurtz, Michael J.; Bollen, Johan
Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.
Background Variations in codon usage between species are one of the major causes affecting recombinant protein expression levels, with a significant impact on the economy of industrial enzyme production processes. The use of codon-optimized genes may overcome this problem. However, designing a gene for optimal expression requires choosing from a vast number of possible DNA sequences and different codon optimization methods have been used in the past decade. Here, a comparative study of the two most common methods is presented using calf prochymosin as a model. Results Seven sequences encoding calf prochymosin have been designed, two using the "one amino acid-one codon" method and five using a "codon randomization" strategy. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the variants optimized by the codon randomization approach produced significantly more proteins than the native sequence including one gene that produced an increase of 70% in the amount of prochymosin accumulated. On the other hand, no significant improvement in protein expression was observed for the variants designed with the one amino acid-one codon method. The use of codon-optimized sequences did not affect the quality of the recovered inclusion bodies. Conclusions The results obtained in this study indicate that the codon randomization method is a superior strategy for codon optimization. A significant improvement in protein expression was obtained for the largely established process of chymosin production, showing the power of this strategy to reduce production costs of industrial enzymes in microbial hosts. PMID:21371320
Kawai-Tsuboi, Naoko; Kawai, Motofumi; Minami, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Akitoshi
To investigate the association between patterns of eye drop prescription and medication usage in patients with glaucoma. Sixty-seven Japanese patients with glaucoma who were prescribed topical antiglaucoma medications including a prostaglandin analogue bilaterally for >6 months at Nayoro City General Hospital, Nayoro, Japan, were included in the study. A self-administered, 5-item patient questionnaire was administered to determine how patients routinely use medications, including the method of eye drop administration, number of eye drops per instillation, accuracy of eye drop placement, weekly frequency of eye drop application, and their awareness of local side effects. The number of prostaglandin analogue bottles prescribed monthly was compared in each factor. The mean patient age was 74.4±10.0 years (range, 52 to 95 y; 39 women, 28 men). The mean duration of glaucoma treatment was 4.2±3.2 years (range, 0.7 to 10.6 y). Patients who placed the eye drops outside the eye were prescribed significantly more bottles monthly (P=0.008). The other factors had no significant effect on the number of bottles prescribed monthly. Patients with glaucoma who used eye drops incorrectly were routinely prescribed additional bottles of eye drops. Ophthalmologists should determine whether patients who request an unusual number of eye drops are using the eye drops correctly.
Bloomer, Melissa J; Lee, Susan F; Lewis, David P; Biro, Mary Anne; Moss, Cheryle
The aims are to (1) measure occupancy rates of single and shared rooms; (2) compare single room usage patterns and (3) explore the practice, rationale and decision-making processes associated with single rooms; across one Australian public health service. There is a tendency in Australia and internationally to increase the proportion of single patient rooms in hospitals. To date there have been no Australian studies that investigate the use of single rooms in clinical practice. This study used a sequential exploratory design with data collected in 2014. A descriptive survey was used to measure the use of single rooms across a two-week time frame. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with occupancy decision-makers to explore the practices, rationale decision-making process associated with single-room allocation. Total bed occupancy did not fall below 99·4% during the period of data collection. Infection control was the primary reason for patients to be allocated to a single room, however, the patterns varied according to ward type and single-room availability. For occupancy decision-makers, decisions about patient allocation was a complex and challenging process, influenced and complicated by numerous factors including occupancy rates, the infection status of the patient/s, funding and patient/family preference. Bed moves were common resulting from frequent re-evaluation of need. Apart from infection control mandates, there was little tangible evidence to guide decision-making about single-room allocation. Further work is necessary to assist nurses in their decision-making. There is a trend towards increasing the proportion of single rooms in new hospital builds. Coupled with the competing clinical demands for single room care, this study highlights the complexity of nursing decision-making about patient allocation to single rooms, an issue urgently requiring further attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Phua, Vincent Chee Ee; Wong, Wei Quan; Tan, Pei Lin; Bustam, Anita Zarina; Saad, Marniza; Alip, Adlinda; Wan Ishak, Wan Zamaniah
Oral capecitabine is increasingly replacing intravenous 5-fluorouracil in many chemotherapy regimens. However, data on the risk of febrile neutropaenia (FN) and treatment related death (TRD) with the drug remain sparse outside of clinical trial settings despite its widespread usage. This study aimed to determine these rates in a large cohort of patients treated in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We reviewed the clinical notes of all patients prescribed with oral capecitabine chemotherapy for any tumour sites in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) from 1st January 2009 till 31st June 2010. Information collected included patient demographics, histopathological features, treatment received including the different chemotherapy regimens and intent of treatment whether the chemotherapy was given for neoadjuvant, concurrent with radiation, adjuvant or palliative intent. The aim of this study is to establish the pattern of usage, FN and TRD rates with capecitabine in clinical practice outside of clinical trial setting. FN is defined as an oral temperature >38.5°or two consecutive readings of >38.0° for 2 hours and an absolute neutrophil count <0.5 x 109/L, or expected to fall below 0.5 x 109/L (de Naurois et al., 2010). Treatment related death was defined as death occurring during or within 30 days of last chemotherapy treatment. Between 1st January 2009 and 30th June 2010, 274 patients were treated with capecitabine chemotherapy in UMMC. The mean age was 58 years (range 22 to 82 years). Capecitabine was used in 14 different tumour sites with the colorectal site predominating with a total of 128 cases (46.7%), followed by breast cancer (35.8%). Capecitabine was most commonly used in the palliative setting accounting for 63.9% of the cases, followed by the adjuvant setting (19.7%). The most common regimen was single agent capecitabine with 129 cases (47.1%). The other common regimens were XELOX (21.5%) and ECX (10.2%). The main result of this study
Camiolo, S.; Melito, S.; Porceddu, A.
Codon bias is the non-random use of synonymous codons, a phenomenon that has been observed in species as diverse as bacteria, plants and mammals. The preferential use of particular synonymous codons may reflect neutral mechanisms (e.g. mutational bias, G|C-biased gene conversion, genetic drift) and/or selection for mRNA stability, translational efficiency and accuracy. The extent to which these different factors influence codon usage is unknown, so we dissected the contribution of mutational bias and selection towards codon bias in genes from 15 eudicots, 4 monocots and 2 mosses. We analysed the frequency of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides and investigated whether the compositional genomic background could account for the observed codon usage profiles. Neutral forces such as mutational pressure and G|C-biased gene conversion appeared to underlie most of the observed codon bias, although there was also evidence for the selection of optimal translational efficiency and mRNA folding. Our data confirmed the compositional differences between monocots and dicots, with the former featuring in general a lower background compositional bias but a higher overall codon bias. PMID:26546225
Vervoort, Elisa B.; van Ravestein, Arno; van Peij, Noël N. M. E.; Heikoop, Judith C.; van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Verheijden, Gijs F.; Linskens, Maarten H. K.
Expression of heterologous proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum presents unique research opportunities, such as the functional analysis of complex human glycoproteins after random mutagenesis. In one study, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human follicle stimulating hormone were expressed in Dictyostelium. During the course of these experiments, we also investigated the role of codon usage and of the DNA sequence upstream of the ATG start codon. The Dictyostelium genome has a higher AT content than the human, resulting in a different codon preference. The hCG-β gene contains three clusters with infrequently used codons that were changed to codons that are preferred by Dictyostelium. The results reported here show that optimizing the first 5–17 codons of the hCG gene contributes to 4- to 5-fold increased expression levels, but that further optimization has no significant effect. These observations suggest that optimal codon usage contributes to ribosome stabilization, but does not play an important role during the elongation phase of translation. Furthermore, adapting the 5′-sequence of the hCG gene to the Dictyostelium ‘Kozak’-like sequence increased expression levels ~1.5-fold. Thus, using both codon optimization and ‘Kozak’ adaptation, a 6- to 8-fold increase in expression levels could be obtained for hCG. PMID:10773074
Deng, Youjin; Huang, Xiaoxing; Ruan, Banzhan; Xie, Baogui; van Peer, Arend Frans; Jiang, Yuji
Tremella fuciformis is a popular edible fungus with fruiting bodies that can be produced in large quantities at low costs, while it is easy to transform and cultivate as yeast. This makes it an attractive potential bioreactor. Enhanced heterologous gene expression through codon optimization would be useful, but until now codon usage preferences in T. fuciformis remain unknown. To precisely determine the preferred codon usage of T. fuciformis we sequenced the genome of strain Tr26 resulting in a 24.2 Mb draft genome with 10,040 predicted genes. 3288 of the derived predicted proteins matched the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot databases with 40% or more similarity. Corresponding gene models of this subset were subsequently optimized through repetitive comparison of alternative start codons and selection of best length matching gene models. For experimental confirmation of gene models, 96 random clones from an existing T. fuciformis cDNA library were sequenced, generating 80 complete CDSs. Calculated optimal codons for the 3288 predicted and the 80 cloned CDSs were highly similar, indicating sufficient accuracy of predicted gene models for codon usage analysis. T. fuciformis showed a strong preference for C and then G at the third base pair position of used codons, while average GC content of predicted genes was slightly higher than the total genome sequence average. Most optimal codons ended in C or G except for one, and an increased frequency of C ending codons was observed in genes with higher expression levels. Surprisingly, the preferred codon usage in T. fuciformis strongly differed from T. mesenterica and C. neoformans. Instead, optimal codon usage was similar to more distant related species such as Ustilago maydis and Neurospora crassa. Despite much higher overall sequence homology between T. fuciformis and T. mesenterica, only 7 out of 21 optimal codons were equal, whereas T. fuciformis shared up to 20 out of 21 optimal codons with other species. Clearly, codon usage in
Kofman, Alexander; Graf, Marcus; Bojak, Alexandra; Deml, Ludwig; Bieler, Kurt; Kharazova, Alexandra; Wolf, Hans; Wagner, Ralf
There is a significant variation of codon usage bias among different species and even among genes within the same organisms. Codon optimization, this is, gene redesigning with the use of codons preferred for the specific expression system, results in improved expression of heterologous genes in bacteria, plants, yeast, mammalian cells, and transgenic animals. The mechanisms preventing expression of genes with rare or low-usage codons at adequate levels are not completely elucidated. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents an interesting model for studying how differences in codon usage affect gene expression in heterologous systems. Construction of synthetic genes with optimized codons demonstrated that the codon-usage effects might be a major impediment to the efficient expression of HIV gag/pol and env gene products in mammalian cells. According to another hypothesis, the poor expression of HIV structural proteins even without HIV context is attributed to the so-called cis-acting inhibitory elements (INS), which are located within the protein-coding region. They consist of AU-rich sequences and may be inactivated through the introduction of multiple mutations over the large regions of gag gene. In our work, we evaluated expression of hybrid HIV-1 gag mRNAs where wild-type (A-rich) gag sequences were combined with artificial sequences. In such "humanized" gag fragments with adapted codon usage, AT-content was significantly reduced in favor of G and C nucleotides without any changes in protein sequence. We show that wild-type gag sequences negatively influence expression of gag-reporter, and the addition of fragments with optimized codons to gag mRNA partially rescues its expression. The results demonstrate that the expression of HIV-1 gag is determined by the ratio of optimized and rare codons within mRNA. Our data also indicates that some wtgag fragments counteract the influence of the other wtgag sequences, which cause the inhibition of gag expression. The
alternatives. Using this method, we confirmed the relevance of the SRZ by tracking codon fitness over time in 14 different genes, finding that codons...codes. codon choice | genome editing | recoded genomes The genetic code possesses inherent redundancy (1), with up tosix different codons specifying a...strong preference for certain codons over synonymous alternatives (5, 6). Although different species have evolved to prefer different codons, codon
Kapoor, Suman; Samhita, Laasya; Varshney, Umesh
Occasionally, ribosomes stall on mRNAs prior to the completion of the polypeptide chain. In Escherichia coli and other eubacteria, tmRNA-mediated trans-translation is a major mechanism that recycles the stalled ribosomes. The tmRNA possesses a tRNA-like domain and a short mRNA region encoding a short peptide (ANDENYALAA in E. coli) followed by a termination codon. The first amino acid (Ala) of this peptide encoded by the resume codon (GCN) is highly conserved in tmRNAs in different species. However, reasons for the high evolutionary conservation of the resume codon identity have remained unclear. In this study, we show that changing the E. coli tmRNA resume codon to other efficiently translatable codons retains efficient functioning of the tmRNA. However, when the resume codon was replaced with the low-usage codons, its function was adversely affected. Interestingly, expression of tRNAs decoding the low-usage codon from plasmid-borne gene copies restored efficient utilization of tmRNA. We discuss why in E. coli, the GCA (Ala) is one of the best codons and why all codons in the short mRNA of the tmRNA are decoded by the abundant tRNAs. PMID:21602351
Liang, Han; Landweber, Laura F; Fresco, Jacques R
The precise mechanism of stop codon recognition in translation termination is still unclear. A previously published study by Ivanov and colleagues proposed a new model for stop codon recognition in which 3-nucleotide Ter-anticodons within the loops of hairpin helices 69 (domain IV) and 89 (domain V) in large ribosomal subunit (LSU) rRNA recognize stop codons to terminate protein translation in eubacteria and certain organelles. We evaluated this model by extensive bioinformatic analysis of stop codons and their putative corresponding Ter-anticodons across a much wider range of species, and found many cases for which it cannot explain the stop codon usage without requiring the involvement of one or more of the eight possible noncomplementary base pairs. Involvement of such base pairs may not be structurally or thermodynamically damaging to the model. However, if, according to the model, Ter-anticodon interaction with stop codons occurs within the ribosomal A-site, the structural stringency which that site imposes on sense codon.tRNA anticodon interaction should also extend to stop codon.Ter-anticodon interactions. Moreover, with Ter-tRNA in place of an aminoacyl-tRNA, for each of the various Ter-anticodons there is a sense codon that can interact with it preferentially by complementary and wobble base-pairing. Both these considerations considerably weaken the arguments put forth previously.
Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen
Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of ‘traffic jams’ where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this ‘context effect’ further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species.
Nissley, Daniel A; O'Brien, Edward P
Experiments have demonstrated that changing the rate at which the ribosome translates a codon position in an mRNA molecule's open reading frame can alter the behavior of the newly synthesized protein. That is, codon translation rates can govern nascent proteome behavior. We emphasize that this phenomenon is a manifestation of the nonequilibrium nature of cotranslational processes, and as such, there exist theoretical tools that offer a potential means to quantitatively predict the influence of codon translation rates on the broad spectrum of nascent protein behaviors including cotranslational folding, aggregation, and translocation. We provide a review of the experimental evidence for the impact that codon translation rates can have, followed by a discussion of theoretical methods that can describe this phenomenon. The development and application of these tools are likely to provide fundamental insights into protein maturation and homeostasis, codon usage bias in organisms, the origins of translation related diseases, and new rational design methods for biotechnology and biopharmaceutical applications.
Pek, Han Bin; Klement, Maximilian; Ang, Kok Siong; Chung, Bevan Kai-Sheng; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei; Lee, Dong-Yup
Various isoforms of invertases from prokaryotes, fungi, and higher plants has been expressed in Escherichia coli, and codon optimisation is a widely-adopted strategy for improvement of heterologous enzyme expression. Successful synthetic gene design for recombinant protein expression can be done by matching its translational elongation rate against heterologous host organisms via codon optimization. Amongst the various design parameters considered for the gene synthesis, codon context bias has been relatively overlooked compared to individual codon usage which is commonly adopted in most of codon optimization tools. In addition, matching the rates of transcription and translation based on secondary structure may lead to enhanced protein folding. In this study, we evaluated codon context fitness as design criterion for improving the expression of thermostable invertase from Thermotoga maritima in Escherichia coli and explored the relevance of secondary structure regions for folding and expression. We designed three coding sequences by using (1) a commercial vendor optimized gene algorithm, (2) codon context for the whole gene, and (3) codon context based on the secondary structure regions. Then, the codon optimized sequences were transformed and expressed in E. coli. From the resultant enzyme activities and protein yield data, codon context fitness proved to have the highest activity as compared to the wild-type control and other criteria while secondary structure-based strategy is comparable to the control. Codon context bias was shown to be a relevant parameter for enhancing enzyme production in Escherichia coli by codon optimization. Thus, we can effectively design synthetic genes within heterologous host organisms using this criterion.
Kurko, T A T; Saastamoinen, L K; Tähkäpää, S; Tuulio-Henriksson, A; Taiminen, T; Tiihonen, J; Airaksinen, M S; Hietala, J
Numerous treatment guidelines recommend that long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZD) should be avoided primarily due to development of tolerance and a risk for BZD dependence. Despite this, long-term BZD use remains a controversial subject in clinical patient care with "for and against" debates. However, there is no explicit understanding of what is meant by long-term BZD use in real world. The aim of this study was to assess different definitions, usage patterns, prevalence and other characteristics of long-term BZD use based on published register-based studies. Synthesis of these characteristics is essential to derive a meaningful definition of long-term BZD. Systematic review of register-based studies on long-term BZD use published in 1994-2014. Fourty-one studies met our predetermined inclusion criteria. The length of BZD use defined as "long-term" varied in these studies ranging from one month to several years. The most common definition was six months or longer during a year. The prevalence of long-term BZD use in the general population was estimated to be about 3%. The relative proportion of long-term BZD users (all definitions) in adult BZD users ranged from 6% to 76% (mean 24%; 95% CL 13-36%). The estimates were higher in studies only on the elderly (47%; 95% CL 31-64%). Long-term use involved typically steady treatment with low BZD doses. However, in elderly patients long-term BZD use and exceeding recommended doses was relatively common. Several characteristics associated with long-term use were found. Long-term BZD use is common and a clinical reality. Uniform definitions for "long-term", which is in line with population-based evidence, is needed to have more comparable results between studies. Our systematic review suggests that duration of BZD treatment over six months, the most common definition for long-term BZD use in the included studies. As also recommended previously, it is a useful starting point for further analyses on disadvantages but also
Background The construction of customized nucleic acid sequences allows us to have greater flexibility in gene design for recombinant protein expression. Among the various parameters considered for such DNA sequence design, individual codon usage (ICU) has been implicated as one of the most crucial factors affecting mRNA translational efficiency. However, previous works have also reported the significant influence of codon pair usage, also known as codon context (CC), on the level of protein expression. Results In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression. By formulating appropriate mathematical expressions to quantify the ICU and CC fitness of a coding sequence, optimization procedures based on genetic algorithm were employed to maximize its ICU and/or CC fitness. Surprisingly, the in silico validation of the resultant optimized DNA sequences for Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that CC is a more relevant design criterion than the commonly considered ICU. Conclusions The proposed CC optimization framework can complement and enhance the capabilities of current gene design tools, with potential applications to heterologous protein production and even vaccine development in synthetic biotechnology. PMID:23083100
Recently, artificial gene networks have been developed in synthetic biology to control gene expression and make organisms as controllable as robots. Here, I present an artificial posttranslational gene-silencing system based on the codon usage bias and low tRNA content corresponding to minor codons. I engineered the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to inhibit translation indirectly with the lowest-usage codons to monopolize various minor tRNAs (lgfp). The expression of lgfp interfered nonspecifically with the growth of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human HeLa cervical cancer cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HEK293 kidney cells, as well as phage and adenovirus expansion. Furthermore, insertion of lgfp downstream of a phage response promoter conferred phage resistance on E. coli. Such engineered gene silencers could act as components of biological networks capable of functioning with suitable promoters in E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human cells to control gene expression. The results presented here show general suppressor artificial genes for live cells and viruses. This robust system provides a gene expression or cell growth control device for artificially synthesized gene networks.
Nabiyouni, Maryam; Prakash, Ashwin; Fedorov, Alexei
Two factors are thought to have contributed to the origin of codon usage bias in eukaryotes: 1) genome-wide mutational forces that shape overall GC-content and create context-dependent nucleotide bias, and 2) positive selection for codons that maximize efficient and accurate translation. Particularly in vertebrates, these two explanations contradict each other and cloud the origin of codon bias in the taxon. On the one hand, mutational forces fail to explain GC-richness (~60%) of third codon positions, given the GC-poor overall genomic composition among vertebrates (~40%). On the other hand, positive selection cannot easily explain strict regularities in codon preferences. Large-scale bioinformatic assessment, of nucleotide composition of coding and non-coding sequences in vertebrates and other taxa, suggests a simple possible resolution for this contradiction. Specifically, we propose that the last common vertebrate ancestor had a GC-rich genome (~65% GC). The data suggest that whole-genome mutational bias is the major driving force for generating codon bias. As the bias becomes prominent, it begins to affect translation and can result in positive selection for optimal codons. The positive selection can, in turn, significantly modulate codon preferences.
Chan, Hui-Ting; Williams-Carrier, Rosalind; Barkan, Alice
Codon optimization based on psbA genes from 133 plant species eliminated 105 (human clotting factor VIII heavy chain [FVIII HC]) and 59 (polio VIRAL CAPSID PROTEIN1 [VP1]) rare codons; replacement with only the most highly preferred codons decreased transgene expression (77- to 111-fold) when compared with the codon usage hierarchy of the psbA genes. Targeted proteomic quantification by parallel reaction monitoring analysis showed 4.9- to 7.1-fold or 22.5- to 28.1-fold increase in FVIII or VP1 codon-optimized genes when normalized with stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (or housekeeping protein peptides), but quantitation using western blots showed 6.3- to 8-fold or 91- to 125-fold increase of transgene expression from the same batch of materials, due to limitations in quantitative protein transfer, denaturation, solubility, or stability. Parallel reaction monitoring, to our knowledge validated here for the first time for in planta quantitation of biopharmaceuticals, is especially useful for insoluble or multimeric proteins required for oral drug delivery. Northern blots confirmed that the increase of codon-optimized protein synthesis is at the translational level rather than any impact on transcript abundance. Ribosome footprints did not increase proportionately with VP1 translation or even decreased after FVIII codon optimization but is useful in diagnosing additional rate-limiting steps. A major ribosome pause at CTC leucine codons in the native gene of FVIII HC was eliminated upon codon optimization. Ribosome stalls observed at clusters of serine codons in the codon-optimized VP1 gene provide an opportunity for further optimization. In addition to increasing our understanding of chloroplast translation, these new tools should help to advance this concept toward human clinical studies. PMID:27465114
Hagan, John Elvis; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas
Although sport psychology literature focuses on psychological skills use to promote proficiency, it is still puzzling that current research has focused on psychological skills use only during competition. There remains a scarcity of empirical evidence to support the timing, and content of psychological skill application during the time preceding competition. This study examined the extent to which psychological skills usage are dynamic or stable over a 7-day pre-competitive period and whether any natural learning experiences might have accounted for the acquisition of these skills across gender and skill level. Ninety elite and sub-elite table tennis players completed the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) at three different periods (7 days, 2 days, 1 hour) before competition. A MANOVA repeated measures with follow-up analyses revealed significant multivariate main effects for only skill level and time-to-competition with no interactions. Specifically, elite (international) athletes reported more usage than sub-elite (national) counterparts for self-talk, imagery and relaxation respectively. Time-to-competition effects showed imagery use decreased steadily across the three time points while reported usage of relaxation were almost at the same level on two time points (7 days and 1 hour) but decreased 2 days before competition. Findings suggest an implementation of formalized and periodized psychological skills training programs over continuous training cycles. This may foster a positive long-term athletes' psychological state prior to the onset of competition.
Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas
Background and purpose Although sport psychology literature focuses on psychological skills use to promote proficiency, it is still puzzling that current research has focused on psychological skills use only during competition. There remains a scarcity of empirical evidence to support the timing, and content of psychological skill application during the time preceding competition. This study examined the extent to which psychological skills usage are dynamic or stable over a 7-day pre-competitive period and whether any natural learning experiences might have accounted for the acquisition of these skills across gender and skill level. Methods and results Ninety elite and sub-elite table tennis players completed the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) at three different periods (7 days, 2 days, 1 hour) before competition. A MANOVA repeated measures with follow-up analyses revealed significant multivariate main effects for only skill level and time-to-competition with no interactions. Specifically, elite (international) athletes reported more usage than sub-elite (national) counterparts for self-talk, imagery and relaxation respectively. Time-to-competition effects showed imagery use decreased steadily across the three time points while reported usage of relaxation were almost at the same level on two time points (7 days and 1 hour) but decreased 2 days before competition. Conclusions Findings suggest an implementation of formalized and periodized psychological skills training programs over continuous training cycles. This may foster a positive long-term athletes’ psychological state prior to the onset of competition. PMID:28786998
Panicker, Indu S.; Browning, Glenn F.; Markham, Philip F.
While the genomes of many Mycoplasma species have been sequenced, there are no collated data on translational start codon usage, and the effects of alternate start codons on gene expression have not been studied. Analysis of the annotated genomes found that ATG was the most prevalent translational start codon among Mycoplasma spp. However in Mycoplasma gallisepticum a GTG start codon is commonly used in the vlhA multigene family, which encodes a highly abundant, phase variable lipoprotein adhesin. Therefore, the effect of this alternate start codon on expression of a reporter PhoA lipoprotein was examined in M. gallisepticum. Mutation of the start codon from ATG to GTG resulted in a 2.5 fold reduction in the level of transcription of the phoA reporter, but the level of PhoA activity in the transformants containing phoA with a GTG start codon was only 63% of that of the transformants with a phoA with an ATG start codon, suggesting that GTG was a more efficient translational initiation codon. The effect of swapping the translational start codon in phoA reporter gene expression was less in M. gallisepticum than has been seen previously in Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, suggesting the process of translational initiation in mycoplasmas may have some significant differences from those used in other bacteria. This is the first study of translational start codon usage in mycoplasmas and the impact of the use of an alternate start codon on expression in these bacteria. PMID:26010086
Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua A
Objective To assess the usage patterns of epidural injections for chronic spinal pain in the fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare population from 2000 to 2014 in the USA. Design A retrospective cohort. Methods The descriptive analysis of the administrative database from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary (PSPS) master data from 2000 to 2014 was performed. The guidance from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) was applied. Analysis included multiple variables based on the procedures, specialties and geography. Results Overall epidural injections increased 99% per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries with an annual increase of 5% from 2000 to 2014. Lumbar interlaminar and caudal epidural injections constituted 36.2% of all epidural injections, with an overall decrease of 2% and an annual decrease of 0.2% per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries. However, lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injections increased 609% with an annual increase of 15% from 2000 to 2014 per 100 000 Medicare population. Conclusions Usage of epidural injections increased from 2000 to 2014, with a decline thereafter. However, an escalating growth has been seen for lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injections despite numerous reports of complications and regulations to curb the usage of transforaminal epidural injections. PMID:27965254
Wilmer, Henry H; Chein, Jason M
Mobile electronic devices are playing an increasingly pervasive role in our daily activities. Yet, there has been very little empirical research investigating how mobile technology habits might relate to individual differences in cognition and affect. The research presented in this paper provides evidence that heavier investment in mobile devices is correlated with a relatively weaker tendency to delay gratification (as measured by a delay discounting task) and a greater inclination toward impulsive behavior (i.e., weaker impulse control, assessed behaviorally and through self-report) but is not related to individual differences in sensitivity to reward. Analyses further demonstrated that individual variation in impulse control mediates the relationship between mobile technology usage and delay of gratification. Although based on correlational results, these findings lend some backing to concerns that increased use of portable electronic devices could have negative impacts on impulse control and the ability to appropriately valuate delayed rewards.
Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi
The practice of evidence-based medicine requires efficient biomedical literature search such as PubMed/MEDLINE. Retrieval performance relies highly on the efficient use of search field tags. The purpose of this study was to analyze PubMed log data in order to understand the usage pattern of search tags by the end user in PubMed/MEDLINE search. A PubMed query log file was obtained from the National Library of Medicine containing anonymous user identification, timestamp, and query text. Inconsistent records were removed from the dataset and the search tags were extracted from the query texts. A total of 2,917,159 queries were selected for this study issued by a total of 613,061 users. The analysis of frequent co-occurrences and usage patterns of the search tags was conducted using an association mining algorithm. The percentage of search tag usage was low (11.38% of the total queries) and only 2.95% of queries contained two or more tags. Three out of four users used no search tag and about two-third of them issued less than four queries. Among the queries containing at least one tagged search term, the average number of search tags was almost half of the number of total search terms. Navigational search tags are more frequently used than informational search tags. While no strong association was observed between informational and navigational tags, six (out of 19) informational tags and six (out of 29) navigational tags showed strong associations in PubMed searches. The low percentage of search tag usage implies that PubMed/MEDLINE users do not utilize the features of PubMed/MEDLINE widely or they are not aware of such features or solely depend on the high recall focused query translation by the PubMed's Automatic Term Mapping. The users need further education and interactive search application for effective use of the search tags in order to fulfill their biomedical information needs from PubMed/MEDLINE.
Namazi, Soha; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Hashempour, Mohammad Mahdi; Sadatsharifi, Arman
Background: The inappropriate use of aminoglycosides has harmful effects such as the development of resistant pathogens and the incidence of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Therefore, drug utilization evaluation of these drugs may improve their usage remarkably. The aim of this study was to assess the usage pattern of amikacin in an internal medicine ward. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Ward of Nemazee Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, in 2011. The guideline for amikacin use was approved by the institutional Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee, and the study criteria were developed to assess several parameters involved in amikacin therapy such as appropriateness of drug use, dosage, duration of therapy, toxicity monitoring, and serum concentration assay. Serum concentration was assayed using a Cobas Mira AutoAnalyzer. Clinical and paraclinical parameters such as glomerular filtration rate, culture, microbial sensitivity, white blood cell count, and fever were collected. Results: Sixty-three patients were evaluated. Fifty-seven percent of the patients needed dose readjustment; however, it was not performed for 89% of them. Culture between 48 and 72 hours after amikacin administration was not controlled for 79% of the patients. In 19% of the patients, optimum therapeutic effect was not achieved. The mean±SD of the trough and peak concentrations was 7.63±5.4 μg/mL and 15.67±7.79 μg/mL, respectively. Forty-five percent of the trough and 38% of the peak levels were within the therapeutic range. The overall adherence of amikacin usage to the guideline was only 48%. Conclusion: To achieve appropriate treatment and prevent toxic effects, we recommend that pharmacokinetic dosing methods, amikacin guideline, and serum monitoring be considered. PMID:27217603
McCloud, Rachel F; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Sorensen, Glorian; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Important gaps remain in our knowledge of how individuals from low socioeconomic position (SEP) use the Internet for resources and in understanding the full range of activities they perform online. Although self-report data indicate that low SEP individuals use the Internet less than high SEP people for health information and for other beneficial capital-enhancing activities, these results may not provide an accurate overall view of online use. The aim of this study was to determine the ways in which low SEP individuals use the Internet, including for entertainment, social networking, and capital-enhancing functions, and how they are associated with health information seeking. Detailed Web tracking data were collected from 118 low SEP individuals who participated in the intervention group of a randomized controlled trial that provided Internet access. Websites were grouped by topic, including categories of capital-enhancing websites that provided access to resources and information. Different types of online activities were summed into an Internet use index. Single and multiple negative binomial regression models were fitted with the Internet use index as the predictor and health information seeking as the outcome. Next, models were fitted with low, medium, and high Web usage in capital-enhancing, entertainment, and social network categories to determine their associations with health information seeking. Participants used the Web for diverse purposes, with 63.6% (75/118) accessing the Internet for all defined types of Internet use. Each additional category of Internet use was associated with 2.12 times the rate of health information seeking (95% CI 1.84-2.44, P<.001). Higher use of each type of capital-enhancing information was associated with higher rates of health information seeking, with high uses of government (incident rate ratio [IRR] 8.90, 95% CI 4.82-16.42, P<.001) and news (IRR 11.36, 95% CI 6.21-20.79, P<.001) websites associated with the highest rates
Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Yamazhan, Tansu; Tasbakan, Meltem; Pullukcu, Husnu; Tunger, Alper; Buke, Cagri; Ulusoy, Sercan
In 2003 Turkish government released a new budget application instruction for regulating the usage of parenteral antibiotics inside and outside of the hospitals. In this study it was aimed to evaluate the effect of this instruction on the overall usage of restricted antibiotics, their cost, overall mortality, bacterial resistance patterns and nosocomial infection rates in intensive care units (ICUs) of our setting for March-October 2002 and March-October 2003 periods. Overall daily defined dose/1000 patients/day of restricted drugs decreased, whereas unrestricted drugs increased significantly after the instruction. The cost of all analysed drugs in 2003 period was 540,303USD (-19.6%) less than 2002 period. Nosocomial infection rates in ICUs decreased significantly (p<0.05). When all microbiologically confirmed nosocomial bacteremia cases during the study period were analysed, amoxycilline/clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, piperacilline/tazobactam resistance and ESBL rate in Klebsiella pneumoniae decreased significantly (p<0.05). Amikacin resistance in Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii increased significantly (p<0.05). Antibiotic control is one of the most important and significant ways to save money, and to prevent antibacterial resistance.
Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xingtao; Tao, Xingkui; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Ming
Since the birth of molecular evolutionary analysis, primates have been a central focus of study and mitochondrial DNA is well suited to these endeavors because of its unique features. Surprisingly, to date no comprehensive evaluation of the nucleotide substitution patterns has been conducted on the mitochondrial genome of primates. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary patterns and evaluated selection and recombination in the mitochondrial genomes of 44 Primates species downloaded from GenBank. The results revealed that a strong rate heterogeneity occurred among sites and genes in all comparisons. Likewise, an obvious decline in primate nucleotide diversity was noted in the subunit rRNAs and tRNAs as compared to the protein-coding genes. Within 13 protein-coding genes, the pattern of nonsynonymous divergence was similar to that of overall nucleotide divergence, while synonymous changes differed only for individual genes, indicating that the rate heterogeneity may result from the rate of change at nonsynonymous sites. Codon usage analysis revealed that there was intermediate codon usage bias in primate protein-coding genes, and supported the idea that GC mutation pressure might determine codon usage and that positive selection is not the driving force for the codon usage bias. Neutrality tests using site-specific positive selection from a Bayesian framework indicated no sites were under positive selection for any gene, consistent with near neutrality. Recombination tests based on the pairwise homoplasy test statistic supported complete linkage even for much older divergent primate species. Thus, with the exception of rate heterogeneity among mitochondrial genes, evaluating the validity assumed complete linkage and selective neutrality in primates prior to phylogenetic or phylogeographic analysis seems unnecessary.
Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Sorensen, Glorian; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background Important gaps remain in our knowledge of how individuals from low socioeconomic position (SEP) use the Internet for resources and in understanding the full range of activities they perform online. Although self-report data indicate that low SEP individuals use the Internet less than high SEP people for health information and for other beneficial capital-enhancing activities, these results may not provide an accurate overall view of online use. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the ways in which low SEP individuals use the Internet, including for entertainment, social networking, and capital-enhancing functions, and how they are associated with health information seeking. Methods Detailed Web tracking data were collected from 118 low SEP individuals who participated in the intervention group of a randomized controlled trial that provided Internet access. Websites were grouped by topic, including categories of capital-enhancing websites that provided access to resources and information. Different types of online activities were summed into an Internet use index. Single and multiple negative binomial regression models were fitted with the Internet use index as the predictor and health information seeking as the outcome. Next, models were fitted with low, medium, and high Web usage in capital-enhancing, entertainment, and social network categories to determine their associations with health information seeking. Results Participants used the Web for diverse purposes, with 63.6% (75/118) accessing the Internet for all defined types of Internet use. Each additional category of Internet use was associated with 2.12 times the rate of health information seeking (95% CI 1.84-2.44, P<.001). Higher use of each type of capital-enhancing information was associated with higher rates of health information seeking, with high uses of government (incident rate ratio [IRR] 8.90, 95% CI 4.82-16.42, P<.001) and news (IRR 11.36, 95% CI 6.21-20.79, P<.001
Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio
DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks.
Lamothe, Alain R.
This paper presents the results from a quantitative and systematic analysis comparing the online usage of an e-reference and an e-monograph collection. A very strong relationship exists between size and usage: the larger the collection, the greater the usage. An equally strong relationship exists between searches and viewings, meaning that the…
Lamothe, Alain R.
This paper presents the results from a quantitative and systematic analysis comparing the online usage of an e-reference and an e-monograph collection. A very strong relationship exists between size and usage: the larger the collection, the greater the usage. An equally strong relationship exists between searches and viewings, meaning that the…
Mustafa, Mahiran; Chan, Wai Ming; Lee, Christopher; Harijanto, Eddy; Loo, Chian Min; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Anh, Nguyen Dat; Garcia, Jemelyn
Doripenem is approved in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region for treating nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Clinical usage of doripenem (500mg intravenously, infused over 1h or 4h every 8h for 5-14 days) in APAC was evaluated in a prospective, open-label, non-comparative, multicentre study of inpatients (≥18 years) with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. A total of 216 [intention-to-treat (ITT)] patients received doripenem: 53 NP (24.5%); 77 VAP (35.6%); 67 cIAI (31.0%); and 19 cUTI (8.8%). Doripenem MIC90 values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 32, 32, 0.094 and 0.64μg/mL, respectively. Doripenem was used most commonly as monotherapy (86.6%) and as second-line therapy (62.0%). The clinical cure rate in clinically evaluable patients was 86.7% at the end of therapy (EOT) and 87.1% at test of cure (TOC) (7-14 days after EOT). In the ITT population, overall clinical cure rates were 66.2% at EOT and 56.5% at TOC. The median duration of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation was 20, 12 and 10 days, respectively. Of 146 discharged patients, 7 were re-admitted within 28 days of EOT; 1 VAP patient was re-admitted to the ICU. The all-cause mortality rate was 22.7% (49/216). The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea (1.4%) and vomiting (1.4%). Doripenem is a viable option for treating APAC patients with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00986102]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Salinas, Dino G; Gallardo, Mauricio O; Osorio, Manuel I
Here we study the distribution of randomly generated partitions of the set of amino acid-coding codons. Some results are an application from a previous work, about the Stirling numbers of the second kind and triplet codes, both to the cases of triplet codes having four stop codons, as in mammalian mitochondrial genetic code, and hypothetical doublet codes. Extending previous results, in this work it is found that the most probable number of blocks of synonymous codons, in a genetic code, is similar to the number of amino acids when there are four stop codons, as well as it could be for a primigenious doublet code. Also it is studied the integer partitions associated to patterns of synonymous codons and it is shown, for the canonical code, that the standard deviation inside an integer partition is one of the most probable. We think that, in some early epoch, the genetic code might have had a maximum of the disorder or entropy, independent of the assignment between codons and amino acids, reaching a state similar to "code freeze" proposed by Francis Crick. In later stages, maybe deterministic rules have reassigned codons to amino acids, forming the natural codes, such as the canonical code, but keeping the numerical features describing the set partitions and the integer partitions, like a "fossil numbers"; both kinds of partitions about the set of amino acid-coding codons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mittelstaet, Joerg; Kutz, Felicitas; Schwalbe, Harald; Rodnina, Marina V.; Komar, Anton A.
SUMMARY In all genomes, most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon. Synonymous codons can modulate protein production and folding, but the mechanism connecting codon usage to protein homeostasis is not known. Here we show that synonymous codon variants in the gene encoding gamma-B crystallin, a mammalian eye lens protein, modulate the rates of translation and co-translational folding of protein domains monitored in real time by Förster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence intensity changes. Gamma-B crystallins produced from mRNAs with changed codon bias have the same amino acid sequence, but attain different conformations as indicated by altered in vivo stability and in vitro protease resistance. 2D NMR spectroscopic data suggest that structural differences are associated with different cysteine oxidation states of the purified proteins, providing a link between translation, folding, and the structures of isolated proteins. Thus, synonymous codons provide a secondary code for protein folding in the cell. PMID:26849192
Chin, Ju Xin; Chung, Bevan Kai-Sheng; Lee, Dong-Yup
Codon optimization has been widely used for designing synthetic genes to improve their expression in heterologous host organisms. However, most of the existing codon optimization tools consider a single design criterion and/or implement a rather rigid user interface to yield only one optimal sequence, which may not be the best solution. Hence, we have developed Codon Optimization OnLine (COOL), which is the first web tool that provides the multi-objective codon optimization functionality to aid systematic synthetic gene design. COOL supports a simple and flexible interface for customizing various codon optimization parameters such as codon adaptation index, individual codon usage and codon pairing. In addition, users can visualize and compare the optimal synthetic sequences with respect to various fitness measures. User-defined DNA sequences can also be compared against the COOL optimized sequences to show the extent by which the user's sequences can be further improved. COOL is free to academic and non-commercial users and licensed to others for a fee by the National University of Singapore. Accessible at http://bioinfo.bti.a-star.edu.sg/COOL/ CONTACT: email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Foster, Angel M; Wynn, Lisa; Rouhana, Aida; Polis, Chelsea; Trussell, James
Emergency contraception (EC) has the potential to reduce significantly the incidence of unintended pregnancy worldwide. In May 2003, the first Arabic-language web site dedicated to disseminating information about and increasing awareness of EC was launched. This paper examines patterns of web site use and user profiles over a 19-month period. Analysis of use shows that the Arabic web site users are interested in different aspects of EC than the English web site users, suggesting the importance of creating culturally specific content when adapting and translating health education materials. Arabic web site users demonstrate significant interest in general reproductive health issues not specific to EC, suggesting a need for greater availability of Arabic-language health education resources through the Internet.
Jacinto-Loeza, Eva; Vivanco-Domínguez, Serafín; Guarneros, Gabriel; Hernández-Sánchez, Javier
Rare AGA or AGG codons close to the initiation codon inhibit protein synthesis by a tRNA-sequestering mechanism as toxic minigenes do. To further understand this mechanism, a parallel analysis of protein synthesis and peptidyl-tRNA accumulation was performed using both a set of lacZ constructs where AGAAGA codons were moved codon by codon from +2, +3 up to +7, +8 positions and a series of 3–8 codon minigenes containing AGAAGA codons before the stop codon. β-Galactosidase synthesis from the AGAAGA lacZ constructs (in a Pth defective in vitro system without exogenous tRNA) diminished as the AGAAGA codons were closer to AUG codon. Likewise, β-galactosidase expression from the reporter +7 AGA lacZ gene (plus tRNA, 0.25 μg/μl) waned as the AGAAGAUAA minigene shortened. Pth counteracted both the length-dependent minigene effect on the expression of β-galactosidase from the +7 AGA lacZ reporter gene and the positional effect from the AGAAGA lacZ constructs. The +2, +3 AGAAGA lacZ construct and the shortest +2, +3 AGAAGAUAA minigene accumulated the highest percentage of peptidyl-tRNAArg4. These observations lead us to propose that hungry codons at early positions, albeit with less strength, inhibit protein synthesis by a minigene-like mechanism involving accumulation of peptidyl-tRNA. PMID:18583364
Jiménez-Montaño, M. A.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Ramos-Fernández, A.
To understand the way the Genetic Code and the physical-chemical properties of coded amino acids affect accepted amino acid substitutions in short-term protein evolution, taking into account only overall amino acid conservation, we consider an underlying codon-level model. This model employs codon pair-substitution frequencies from an empirical matrix in the literature, modified for single-base mutations only. Ordering the degenerated codons according to their codon information value (Volkenstein, 1979), we found that three-fold and most of four-fold degenerated codons, which have low codon values, were best fitted to rank-frequency distributions with constant failure rate (exponentials). In contrast, almost all two-fold degenerated codons, which have high codon values, were best fitted to rank-frequency distributions with variable failure rate (inverse power-laws). Six-fold degenerated codons are considered to be doubly assigned. The exceptional behavior of some codons, including non-degenerate codons, is discussed.
To see how the Internet is actually embedded in our lives, this exploratory study examines how Internet users search the Web for important information, especially health or medical information, to make critical decisions, and the perception of how intimately our lives are embedded in the Internet intersects with patterns of health information seeking online and the expected quality of health information websites. Data from a probability sample of 569 Internet users found four types of commonly sought health information clusters online which included information on (a) health improvement, (b) medical treatment, (c) family health, and (d) health issues that are difficult to talk about. Results also show that behavior or behavioral intentions in health information seeking are in fact either a function of value expectancy or the evaluation of health information websites. More importantly, people who often go to the Internet for health information and have high expectations of the value and quality of health information websites (especially in terms of reliability, relevance/context, and interaction) tend to be those who are more likely to perceive the Internet as playing an important role in life decisions or rate the Internet as more embedded in their lives.
Hulse, Nathan C; Lee, Jaehoon; Borgeson, Tim
Robust order set catalogs are considered to be a vital part of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) implementation. Tools and processes for building, localizing, and maintaining these content sets in a centralized repository are important in facilitating the knowledge management lifecycle. Collectively, these order sets represent a significant investment of effort and expertise in capturing and distributing best clinical practice throughout an enterprise. In order to address an important gap of understanding how order sets are both created and used in practice in a current EHR installation, we have developed tools to analyze how order sets are used and customized in clinical practice. In this paper, we present the capabilities of these tools. We further characterize early development patterns in our enterprise order set catalog in early phases of a system-wide vendor EHR rollout. We present data that show how personalized order sets (favorites) are authored and then used in clinical practice. We anticipate that this type of utility will provide useful insight and feedback for those tasked with content governance and maintenance in CPOE systems. PMID:28269862
Ahmed, Waqar H; Mendiz, Oscar A; Thomas, Martyn R
The TAXUS OLYMPIA registry is a prospective, global, post-approval program designed to collect clinical outcome data through 1 year from patients receiving the TAXUS Liberté paclitaxel-eluting stent in routine interventional cardiology practice. The thin-strut TAXUS Liberté stent has been studied in ongoing clinical trials with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Between September 2005 and April 2007, a total of 21,954 patients from 365 sites in 57 countries eligible to receive a TAXUS Liberté stent were enrolled in the TAXUS OLYMPIA registry. Baseline characteristics and procedure patterns were collected and clinical follow-up is available for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the composite cardiac event (cardiac death, MI, and reintervention of the target vessel) rate related to the TAXUS Liberté stent at 1 year. All cardiac events were monitored and all endpoints were independently adjudicated. Complex patients and lesions were prevalent, including: 27% medically-treated diabetes, 58% ACC/AHA type B2/C lesions, 32% multiple stenting, 13% long lesions (>28 mm), and 10% small vessels (<2.5 mm). At 1 year, the composite cardiac event rate was 4.4%, including 1.4% cardiac death, 1.0% MI, and 3.2% TVR. Stent thrombosis (ST, angiographically confirmed) occurred in 0.8% of patients, with 0.4% ST occurring >30 days postprocedure. The composite cardiac event rate related to the TAXUS Liberté stent was 3.8% at 1 year. Low 1-year cardiac event rates were reported with TAXUS Liberté in a broad spectrum of patients, thereby confirming the technical and clinical performance of this stent in a "real-world" setting. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure
Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P
The genomic as well as structural relationship of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in different cyanobacterial species are determined by nucleotides as well as amino acid composition. The genomic GC constituents influence the amino acid variability and codon usage of particular subunit of PBPs. We have analyzed 11 cyanobacterial species to explore the variation of amino acids and causal relationship between GC constituents and codon usage. The study at the first, second and third levels of GC content showed relatively more amino acid variability on the levels of G3+C3 position in comparison to the first and second positions. The amino acid encoded GC rich level including G rich and C rich or both correlate the codon variability and amino acid availability. The fluctuation in amino acids such as Arg, Ala, His, Asp, Gly, Leu and Glu in α and β subunits was observed at G1C1 position; however, fluctuation in other amino acids such as Ser, Thr, Cys and Trp was observed at G2C2 position. The coding selection pressure of amino acids such as Ala, Thr, Tyr, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Asn, and Ser in α and β subunits of PBPs was more elaborated at G3C3 position. In this study, we observed that each subunit of PBPs is codon specific for particular amino acid. These results suggest that genomic constraint linked with GC constituents selects the codon for particular amino acids and furthermore, the codon level study may be a novel approach to explore many problems associated with genomics and proteomics of cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Codon usage bias (CUB) results from the complex interplay between translational selection and mutational biases. Current methods for CUB analysis apply heuristics to integrate both components, limiting the depth and scope of CUB analysis as a technique to probe into the evolution and optimization of protein-coding genes. Here we introduce a self-consistent CUB index (scnRCA) that incorporates implicit correction for mutational biases, facilitating exploration of the translational selection component of CUB. We validate this technique using gene expression data and we apply it to a detailed analysis of CUB in the Pseudomonadales. Our results illustrate how the selective enrichment of specific codons among highly expressed genes is preserved in the context of genome-wide shifts in codon frequencies, and how the balance between mutational and translational biases leads to varying definitions of codon optimality. We extend this analysis to other moderate and fast growing bacteria and we provide unified support for the hypothesis that C- and A-ending codons of two-box amino acids, and the U-ending codons of four-box amino acids, are systematically enriched among highly expressed genes across bacteria. The use of an unbiased estimator of CUB allows us to report for the first time that the signature of translational selection is strongly conserved in the Pseudomonadales in spite of drastic changes in genome composition, and extends well beyond the core set of highly optimized genes in each genome. We generalize these results to other moderate and fast growing bacteria, hinting at selection for a universal pattern of gene expression that is conserved and detectable in conserved patterns of codon usage bias. PMID:24116094
Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Matsuno, Toshihide; Fukuda, Nobuo; Kondo, Akihiko
Green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was originally isolated from jellyfish, is a widely used tool in biological research, and homologs from other organisms are available. However, researchers must determine which GFP is the most suitable for a specific host. Here, we expressed GFPs from several sources in codon-optimized and non-codon-optimized forms in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which represents an ideal eukaryotic model. Surprisingly, codon-optimized mWasabi and mNeonGreen, which are typically the brightest GFPs, emitted less green fluorescence than did the other five codon-optimized GFPs tested in S. cerevisiae. Further, commercially available GFPs that have been optimized for mammalian codon usage (e.g., EGFP, AcGFP1 and TagGFP2) unexpectedly exhibited extremely low expression levels in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, codon-optimization of the GFPs for S. cerevisiae markedly increased their expression levels, and the fluorescence intensity of the cells increased by a maximum of 101-fold. Among the tested GFPs, the codon-optimized monomeric mUkG1 from soft coral showed the highest levels of both expression and fluorescence. Finally, the expression of this protein as a fusion-tagged protein successfully improved the reporting system’s ability to sense signal transduction and protein–protein interactions in S. cerevisiae and increased the detection rates of target cells using flow cytometry. PMID:27782154
Jungreis, Irwin; Kellis, Manolis
Translational stop codon readthrough emerged as a major regulatory mechanism affecting hundreds of genes in animal genomes, based on recent comparative genomics and ribosomal profiling evidence, but its evolutionary properties remain unknown. Here, we leverage comparative genomic evidence across 21 Anopheles mosquitoes to systematically annotate readthrough genes in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, and to provide the first study of abundant readthrough evolution, by comparison with 20 Drosophila species. Using improved comparative genomics methods for detecting readthrough, we identify evolutionary signatures of conserved, functional readthrough of 353 stop codons in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and of 51 additional Drosophila melanogaster stop codons, including several cases of double and triple readthrough and of readthrough of two adjacent stop codons. We find that most differences between the readthrough repertoires of the two species arose from readthrough gain or loss in existing genes, rather than birth of new genes or gene death; that readthrough-associated RNA structures are sometimes gained or lost while readthrough persists; that readthrough is more likely to be lost at TAA and TAG stop codons; and that readthrough is under continued purifying evolutionary selection in mosquito, based on population genetic evidence. We also determine readthrough-associated gene properties that predate readthrough, and identify differences in the characteristic properties of readthrough genes between clades. We estimate more than 600 functional readthrough stop codons in mosquito and 900 in fruit fly, provide evidence of readthrough control of peroxisomal targeting, and refine the phylogenetic extent of abundant readthrough as following divergence from centipede. PMID:27604222
Napolitano, Michael G.; Landon, Matthieu; Gregg, Christopher J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Govindarajan, Lakshmi; Mosberg, Joshua A.; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Goodman, Daniel B.; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Isaacs, Farren J.; Söll, Dieter; Church, George M.
The degeneracy of the genetic code allows nucleic acids to encode amino acid identity as well as noncoding information for gene regulation and genome maintenance. The rare arginine codons AGA and AGG (AGR) present a case study in codon choice, with AGRs encoding important transcriptional and translational properties distinct from the other synonymous alternatives (CGN). We created a strain of Escherichia coli with all 123 instances of AGR codons removed from all essential genes. We readily replaced 110 AGR codons with the synonymous CGU codons, but the remaining 13 “recalcitrant” AGRs required diversification to identify viable alternatives. Successful replacement codons tended to conserve local ribosomal binding site-like motifs and local mRNA secondary structure, sometimes at the expense of amino acid identity. Based on these observations, we empirically defined metrics for a multidimensional “safe replacement zone” (SRZ) within which alternative codons are more likely to be viable. To evaluate synonymous and nonsynonymous alternatives to essential AGRs further, we implemented a CRISPR/Cas9-based method to deplete a diversified population of a wild-type allele, allowing us to evaluate exhaustively the fitness impact of all 64 codon alternatives. Using this method, we confirmed the relevance of the SRZ by tracking codon fitness over time in 14 different genes, finding that codons that fall outside the SRZ are rapidly depleted from a growing population. Our unbiased and systematic strategy for identifying unpredicted design flaws in synthetic genomes and for elucidating rules governing codon choice will be crucial for designing genomes exhibiting radically altered genetic codes. PMID:27601680
Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Paravar, Mohammad; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Javad; Mahdian, Soroush
Background: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the main public health problems in Iran. The seat belts, which are vehicle safety devices, are imperative to reduce the risk of severe injuries and mortality. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate injury patterns, severity and outcome among belted and unbelted car occupants who were injured in car accidents. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was performed on all car occupants injured in RTAs (n = 822) who were transported to hospital and hospitalized for more than 24 hours from March 2012 to March 2013. Demographic profile of the patients, including age, gender, position in the vehicle, the use of seat belts, type of car crashes, injured body regions, revised trauma score (RTS), Glasgow coma score (GCS), duration of hospital stay and mortality rate were analyzed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 560 patients used seat belts (68.1%). The unbelted occupants were younger (28 years vs. 38 years) and had more frequently sustained head, abdomen and multiple injuries (P = 0.01, P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively). Also, these patients had significantly lower GCS and elongated hospitalization and higher death rate (P = 0.001, P = 0.001 and P = 0.05, respectively). Tendency of severe head trauma and low RTS and death were increased in unbelted occupants in car rollover accident mechanisms (P = 0.001, P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively). Conclusions: During car crashes, especially car rollover, unbelted occupants are more likely to sustain multiple severe injuries and death. Law enforcement of the seat belt usage for all occupants (front and rear seat) is obligatory to reduce severe injuries sustained as a result of car accidents, especially in vehicles with low safety. PMID:26064867
Hauber, David J; Grogan, Dennis W; DeBry, Ronald W
Codon-tRNA coevolution to maximize protein production has been, until recently, the dominant hypothesis to explain codon-usage bias in highly expressed bacterial genes. Two predictions of this hypothesis are 1) selection is weak; and 2) similar silent replacements at different codons should have similar fitness consequence. We used an allele-replacement strategy to change five specific 3rd-codon-position (silent) sites in the highly expressed Escherichia coli ribosomal protein gene rplQ from the wild type to a less-preferred alternative. We introduced the five mutations within a 10-codon region. Four of the silent sites were chosen to test the second prediction, with a CTG to CTA mutation being introduced at two closely linked leucine codons and an AAA to AAG mutation being introduced at two closely linked lysine codons. We also introduced a fifth silent mutation, a GTG to GTA mutation at a valine codon in the same genic region. We measured the fitness effect of the individual mutations by competing each single-mutant strain against the parental wild-type strain, using a disrupted form of the araA gene as a selectively neutral phenotypic marker to distinguish between strains in direct competition experiments. Three of the silent mutations had a fitness effect of |s| > 0.02, which is contradictory to the prediction that selection will be weak. The two leucine mutations had significantly different fitness effects, as did the two lysine mutations, contradictory to the prediction that similar mutations at different codons should have similar fitness effects. We also constructed a strain carrying all five silent mutations in combination. Its fitness effect was greater than that predicted from the individual fitness values, suggesting that negative synergistic epistasis acts on the combination allele.
Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance
To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis-match specific endonuclease
Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance
Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis
Johnston, Christopher D.; Bannantine, John P.; Govender, Rodney; Endersen, Lorraine; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, Roy D.
It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of MAP2121c can enhance the heterologous expression of the major membrane protein (MMP), analogous to the form in which it is produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants were preserved in synthetic MMP proteins as shown by monoclonal antibody mediated ELISA. Moreover, MMP is a membrane protein in MAP, which is also targeted to the cellular surface of recombinant L. salivarius at levels comparable to MAP. Additionally, we previously engineered MAP3733c (encoding MptD) and show herein that MptD displays the tendency to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane boundary under confocal microscopy and the intracellularly accumulated protein selectively adheres to the MptD-specific bacteriophage fMptD. This work demonstrates there is potential for L. salivarius as a viable antigen delivery vehicle for MAP, which may provide an effective mucosal vaccine against Johne's disease. PMID:25237653
Satapathy, Siddhartha Sankar; Powdel, Bhesh Raj; Dutta, Malay; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Ray, Suvendra Kumar
The fourfold degenerate site (FDS) in coding sequences is important for studying the effect of any selection pressure on codon usage bias (CUB) because nucleotide substitution per se is not under any such pressure at the site due to the unaltered amino acid sequence in a protein. We estimated the frequency variation of nucleotides at the FDS across the eight family boxes (FBs) defined as Um(g), the unevenness measure of a gene g. The study was made in 545 species of bacteria. In many bacteria, the Um(g) correlated strongly with Nc'-a measure of the CUB. Analysis of the strongly correlated bacteria revealed that the U-ending codons (GGU, CGU) were preferred to the G-ending codons (GGG, CGG) in Gly and Arg FBs even in the genomes with G+C % higher than 65.0. Further evidence suggested that these codons can be used as a good indicator of selection pressure on CUB in genomes with higher G+C %.
This new bioinformatics research bridges Genomics and Mathematics. We propose a universal "Fractal Genome Code Law": The frequency of each of the 64 codons across the entire human genome is controlled by the codon's position in the Universal Genetic Code table. We analyze the frequency of distribution of the 64 codons (codon usage) within single-stranded DNA sequences. Concatenating 24 Human chromosomes, we show that the entire human genome employs the well known universal genetic code table as a macro structural model. The position of each codon within this table precisely dictates its population. So the Universal Genetic Code Table not only maps codons to amino acids, but serves as a global checksum matrix. Frequencies of the 64 codons in the whole human genome scale are a self-similar fractal expansion of the universal genetic code. The original genetic code kernel governs not only the micro scale but the macro scale as well. Particularly, the 6 folding steps of codon populations modeled by the binary divisions of the "Dragon fractal paper folding curve" show evidence of 2 attractors. The numerical relationship between the attractors is derived from the Golden Ratio. We demonstrate that: (i) The whole Human Genome Structure uses the Universal Genetic Code Table as a tuning model. It predetermines global codons proportions and populations. The Universal Genetic Code Table governs both micro and macro behavior of the genome. (ii) We extend the Chargaff's second rule from the domain of single TCAG nucleotides to the larger domain of codon triplets. (iii) Codon frequencies in the human genome are clustered around 2 fractal-like attractors, strongly linked to the golden ratio 1.618.
Zamora-Romo, Efraín; Cruz-Vera, Luis Rogelio; Vivanco-Domínguez, Serafín; Magos-Castro, Marco Antonio; Guarneros, Gabriel
In an effort to improve the knowledge about the rules which direct the effect of the early ORF sequences on translation efficiency, we have analyzed the effect of pairs of the six arginine codons at the second and third positions on the expression of lacZ variants. Whereas the pairs of identical AGA or AGG codons were favorable for the gene expression, identical pairs of each of the four CGN codons were very inefficient. This result was unexpected because tandems of AGA or AGG codons located in more internal gene positions provoke deficient expression whilst internally located CGU and CGC are the most abundant and efficiently translated arginine codons. The mixed combinations of AGA and each of the CGN codons usually resulted in efficient rates of lacZ expression independently of the peptidyl-tRNA propensity to dissociate from the ribosome. Thus, the variant harboring the pair of AGA codons was expressed as efficiently as the variant carrying a pair of AAA codons in the same positions, a configuration reported as one of the most common and efficient for gene expression. We explain these results assuming that the presence of adenines in these early positions enhance gene expression. As expected, specific mRNA levels correlated with the intensity of lacZ expression for each variant. However, the induction of lacZ AGA AGA gene in pth cells accumulated peptidyl-tRNAArg4 as well as a short 5′-proximal lacZ mRNA fragment suggesting ribosome stalling due to depletion of aminoacylated-tRNAArg4. PMID:17726048
Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K
Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely recognized as important environmental contaminants. Despite the extensive use of antibiotic agents in meat and poultry production and the known resistance problems in human and veterinary medicine, detailed knowledge about usage patterns of VAs in Germany is still scarce. This lack of knowledge severely impacts current research on the environmental risk of VAs, but it is expected that recently established surveillance programs for antimicrobial drug usage will close this knowledge gap. Therefore, a spatially more precise environmental risk assessment and management might become possible in the near future. In this study, a new usage pattern-based exposure screening (UPES) approach for the comprehensive environmental exposure assessment of veterinary antibiotics was preliminarily assessed using approximated scenarios of antimicrobial substance usage in German meat and poultry production. Resulting predicted manure concentrations covered seven orders of magnitude ranging from ng kg(-1) to g kg(-1) dry weight (dw). Beyond that 14 antibiotic substances of 10 different antimicrobial classes were predicted to have the potential to occur in soil concentrations higher than 100 μg kg(-1) dw. These findings raise further questions regarding the environmental exposure and risks of frequently used VAs, especially in regions with higher-than-average livestock density. With this case study we demonstrate that UPES simplifies to account for differing local agricultural factors and therefore facilitates priority-setting on a regional level. In this context a simple prioritization scheme for environmental assessment of VAs, considering both the expected environmental concentration and the frequency of application, is proposed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodier, F; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C
The signal qualifying an AUG or GUG as an initiator in mRNAs processed by E. coli ribosomes is not found to be a systematic, literal homology sequence. In contrast, stability analysis reveals that initiators always occur within nucleic acid domains of low stability, for which a high A/U content is observed. Since no aminoacid selection pressure can be detected at N-termini of the proteins, the A/U enrichment results from a biased usage of the code degeneracy. A computer analysis is presented which allows easy detection of the codon strategy. N-terminal codons carry rather systematically A or U in third position, which suggests a mechanism for translation initiation and helps to detect protein coding sequences in sequenced DNA. PMID:7038623
Rafels-Ybern, Àlbert; Torres, Adrian Gabriel; Grau-Bove, Xavier; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; de Pouplana, Lluís Ribas
The modification of adenosine to inosine at position 34 of tRNA anticodons has a profound impact upon codon-anticodon recognition. In bacteria, I34 is thought to exist only in tRNA(Arg), while in eukaryotes the modification is present in eight different tRNAs. In eukaryotes, the widespread use of I34 strongly influenced the evolution of genomes in terms of tRNA gene abundance and codon usage. In humans, codon usage indicates that I34 modified tRNAs are preferred for the translation of highly repetitive coding sequences, suggesting that I34 is an important modification for the synthesis of proteins of highly skewed amino acid composition. Here we extend the analysis of distribution of codons that are recognized by I34 containing tRNAs to all phyla known to use this modification. We find that the preference for codons recognized by such tRNAs in genes with highly biased codon compositions is universal among eukaryotes, and we report that, unexpectedly, some bacterial phyla show a similar preference. We demonstrate that the genomes of these bacterial species contain previously undescribed tRNA genes that are potential substrates for deamination at position 34.
Ivanova, Natalia N; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Rubin, Edward M
The canonical genetic code is assumed to be deeply conserved across all domains of life with very few exceptions. By scanning 5.6 trillion base pairs of metagenomic data for stop codon reassignment events, we detected recoding in a substantial fraction of the >1700 environmental samples examined. We observed extensive opal and amber stop codon reassignments in bacteriophages and of opal in bacteria. Our data indicate that bacteriophages can infect hosts with a different genetic code and demonstrate phage-host antagonism based on code differences. The abundance and diversity of genetic codes present in environmental organisms should be considered in the design of engineered organisms with altered genetic codes in order to preclude the exchange of genetic information with naturally occurring species.
Finger, Constanze; Gamer, Martin; Klunkelfuß, Saskia; Bunk, Boyke; Biedendieck, Rebekka
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed for the plasmid-based production of recombinant proteins at the gram-per-liter scale. The amount of protein produced per cell was found strongly correlated to the codon usage of the heterologous gene of interest in comparison to the codon usage of B. megaterium. For analyzing the influence of rare codons on the translational efficiency and protein production in B. megaterium, a test system using the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter was established. For this purpose, four consecutive identical codons were introduced into the 5' end of gfp and the resulting variations in GFP formation were quantified. Introduction of the rare codons GCC, CGG, and ACC for alanine, arginine, and threonine reduced GFP production 2.1-, 3.3-, and 1.7-fold in comparison to the favored codons GCU, CGU, and ACA, respectively. Coexpression of the corresponding rare codon tRNA (rctRNA) genes improved GFP production 4.2-, 2.7-, and 1.7-fold, respectively. The system was applied to the production of a formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Mycobacterium vaccae and an extracellular hydrolase (TFH) from Thermobifida fusca. Coexpression of one to three different rctRNA genes resulted in an up to 18-fold increased protein production. Interestingly, rctRNA gene coexpression also elevated the production of M. vaccae FDH and T. fusca TFH from codon optimized genes, indicating a general positive effect by rctRNA gene overexpression on the protein production in B. megaterium. Thus, the basis for a B. megaterium enhanced production strain coexpressing rctRNA genes was laid.
Qi, Bin; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Ping
Based on RSCU method and by analyzing the preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 isolated in Chinese mainland and Taiwan region from 1998 to 2008, it is clear that there is an obvious time discrimination in RSCU calculated from EV71 VP1 strain between two different regions of China and it is more obvious in Taiwan region, therefore, according to the diversity of RSCU, the years can be divided into 2 intervals in Chinese mainland and 4 intervals in Taiwan region, especially, the number of intervals in one region have a positive co-relation with the activity of variation of the EV71 in the same region. The change of the preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 can significantly embody the Variation of the EV71, so we can make use of the analysis on preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 to predict the possible variation trend of the EV71.
Inouye, Satoshi; Sahara-Miura, Yuiko; Sato, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Takahiro
A simple design method for codon optimization of genes to express a heterologous protein in mammalian cells is described. Codon optimization was performed by choosing only codons preferentially used in humans and with over 60% GC content, and the method was named the "preferred human codon-optimized method." To test our simple rule for codon optimization, the preferred human codon-optimized genes for six proteins containing photoproteins (aequorin and clytin II) and luciferases (Gaussia luciferase, Renilla luciferase, and firefly luciferases from Photinus pyralis and Luciola cruciata) were chemically synthesized and transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. All preferred human codon-optimized genes showed higher luminescence activity than the corresponding wild-type genes. Our simple design method could be used to improve protein expression in mammalian cells efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biddle, Wil; Schmitt, Margaret A; Fisk, John D
Understanding the interactions that drive the fidelity of the genetic code and the limits to which modifications can be made without breaking the translational system has practical implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms of evolution as well as expanding the set of encodable amino acids, particularly those with chemistries not provided by Nature. Because 61 sense codons encode 20 amino acids, reassigning the meaning of sense codons provides an avenue for biosynthetic modification of proteins, furthering both fundamental and applied biochemical research. We developed a simple screen that exploits the absolute requirement for fluorescence of an active site tyrosine in green fluorescent protein (GFP) to probe the pliability of the degeneracy of the genetic code. Our screen monitors the restoration of the fluorophore of GFP by incorporation of a tyrosine in response to a sense codon typically assigned another meaning in the genetic code. We evaluated sense codon reassignment at four of the 21 sense codons read through wobble interactions in Escherichia coli using the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pair originally developed and commonly used for amber stop codon suppression. By changing only the anticodon of the orthogonal tRNA, we achieved sense codon reassignment efficiencies between 1% (Phe UUU) and 6% (Lys AAG). Each of the orthogonal tRNAs preferentially decoded the codon traditionally read via a wobble interaction in E. coli with the exception of the orthogonal tRNA with an AUG anticodon, which incorporated tyrosine in response to both the His CAU and His CAC codons with approximately equal frequencies. We applied our screen in a high-throughput manner to evaluate a 10(9)-member combined tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase library to identify improved sense codon reassigning variants for the Lys AAG codon. A single rapid screen with the ability to broadly evaluate reassignable codons will facilitate
de Castro, Marcelo Souza; Rodriguez, Oscar Mauricio Hernandez
The study of the hydrodynamic stability of flow patterns is important in the design of equipment and pipelines for multiphase flows. The maintenance of a particular flow pattern becomes important in many applications, e.g., stratified flow pattern in heavy oil production avoiding the formation of emulsions because of the separation of phases and annular flow pattern in heat exchangers which increases the heat transfer coefficient. Flow maps are drawn to orientate engineers which flow pattern is present in a pipeline, for example. The ways how these flow maps are drawn have changed from totally experimental work, to phenomenological models, and then to stability analysis theories. In this work an experimental liquid-liquid flow map, with water and viscous oil as work fluids, drawn via subjective approach with high speed camera was used to compare to approaches of the same theory: the interfacial-tension-force model. This theory was used to drawn the wavy stratified flow pattern transition boundary. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches of the interfacial-tension-force model for transition boundaries of liquid-liquid flow patterns: (i) solving the wave equation for the wave speed and using average values for wave number and wave speed; and (ii) solving the same equation for the wave number and then using a correlation for the wave speed. The results show that the second approach presents better results.
Biro, J C; Benyó, B; Sansom, C; Szlávecz, A; Fördös, G; Micsik, T; Benyó, Z
A periodic table of codons has been designed where the codons are in regular locations. The table has four fields (16 places in each) one with each of the four nucleotides (A, U, G, C) in the central codon position. Thus, AAA (lysine), UUU (phenylalanine), GGG (glycine), and CCC (proline) were placed into the corners of the fields as the main codons (and amino acids) of the fields. They were connected to each other by six axes. The resulting nucleic acid periodic table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons. The corresponding amino acid table also displaced periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydropathy) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table emphasizes the importance of the central nucleotide in the codons and predicts that purines control the charge while pyrimidines determine the polarity of the amino acids. This prediction was experimentally tested.
Castresana, Jose; Feldmaier-Fuchs, Gertraud; Pääbo, Svante
In the mitochondrial genome of the hemichordate Balanoglossus carnosus, the codon AAA, which is assigned to lysine in most metazoans but to asparagine in echinoderms, is absent. Furthermore, the lysine tRNA gene carries an anticodon substitution that renders its gene product unable to decode AAA codons, whereas the asparagine tRNA gene has not changed to encode a tRNA with the ability to recognize AAA codons. Thus, the hemichordate mitochondrial genome can be regarded as an intermediate in the process of reassignment of mitochondrial AAA codons, where most metazoans represent the ancestral situation and the echinoderms the derived situation. This lends support to the codon capture hypothesis. We also show that the reassignment of the AAA codon is associated with a reduction in the relative abundance of lysine residues in mitochondrial proteins. PMID:9520430
Ryu, Borim; Kim, Seok; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung
Bedside stations, also known as bedside terminals, are in place to enhance the quality and experience of a hospital's healthcare service delivery. The purpose of this study was to identify information needs and overall satisfaction with the personalized patient bedside system, called Smart Bedside Station (SBS) system, embedded in a tertiary general university hospital. End-user responses on the satisfaction survey and system usage logs of the SBS system were collected and analyzed. For the user opinion survey, 156 nurses and 1914 patients, their family members, or caregivers participated during the evaluation period of 2013 to 2014 in this study. All working nurses in the SBS-installed ward were answered the paper-based evaluation, for complete enumeration survey. Inpatients were voluntary participated to deliver the online questionnaire on the SBS menu. We also explored system log data including page calls and usage time from December 2013 to 2015. Regarding the relationship of overall satisfaction of the SBS with patient's characteristics, patient's education status and degree of familiarity with the smart device were statistically significant. From the analysis of system logs, Personalized My Menu(28.0%) was the most frequently used menu item (except for TV and Internet entertainment service use of 62.7%),it provides individual health information, such as laboratory test results, hospital fee check, message logs, daily medication information, and meal information. Next frequently used menus were information support(4.9%) which deliver hospital guide and health information and convenience service ordering(4.4%) such as meal order, bed sheet change. Satisfaction survey results and log data results show that the personalized service enhances the user satisfaction during hospital admission. Our post-implementation experience and subsequent assessment of SBS system is capable of providing insights into improving the hospital information system and service contents
Hetrick, Byron; Lee, Kristin; Joseph, Simpson
Recognition of stop codons by class I release factors is a fundamental step in the termination phase of protein synthesis. Since premature termination is costly to the cell, release factors have to efficiently discriminate between stop and sense codons. In order to understand the mechanism of discrimination between stop and sense codons, we developed a new, pre-steady state kinetic assay to monitor the interaction of RF1 with the ribosome. Our results show that RF1 associates with similar association rate constants to ribosomes programmed with a stop or sense codons. However, dissociation of RF1 from sense codons is as much as three orders of magnitude faster than from stop codons. Interestingly, the affinity of RF1 for ribosomes programmed with different sense codons does not correlate with the defects in peptide release. Thus, discrimination against sense codons is achieved, both, by increasing the dissociation rates and by decreasing the rate of peptide release. These results suggest that sense codons inhibit conformational changes necessary for RF1 to stably bind to the ribosome and catalyze peptide release. PMID:19874047
Konyshev, V A
The correlations between genetic codes of amino acids and pathways of synthesis and catabolism of carbon backbone of amino acids are considered. Codes of amino acids which are synthesized from oxoacids of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and glyoxalic cycle via transamination without any additional chemical reactions, are initiated with guanine (alanine, glutamic and aspartic acids, glycine). Codons of amino acids which are formed on the branches of glycolysis at the level of compounds with three carbon atoms, begin with uracil (phenylalanine, serine, leucine, tyrosine, cysteine, tryptophan). Codes of amino acids formed from aspartate begin with adenine (methionine, isoleucine, threonine, asparagine, lysine, serine), while those of the amino acids formed from the compounds with five carbon atoms (glutamic acid and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) begin with cytosine (arginine, proline, glutamine, histidine). The second letter of codons is linked to catabolic pathways of amino acids: most of amino acids entering glycolysis and the Krebs cycle through even-numbered carbon compounds, have adenine and uracil at the second position of codes (A-U type); most of amino acids entering the glycolysis and the Krebs cycle via odd-numbered carbon compounds, have codons with guanine and cytidine at the second position (G-C type). The usage of purine and pyrimidine as the third letter of weak codones in most of amino acids is linked to the enthropy of amino acid formation. A hypothesis claiming that the linear genetic code was assembled from the purine and pyrimidine derivatives which have acted as participants of primitive control of amino acid synthesis and catabolism, is suggested.
Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition--such as GC-biased gene conversion--contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position.
Tautz, D; Nigro, L
To study the microevolutionary processes shaping the evolution of the segmentation gene hunchback (hb) from Drosophila melanogaster, we cloned and sequenced the gene from 12 isofemale lines representing wild-type populations of D. melanogaster, as well as from the closely related species Drosophila sechellia, Drosophila orena, and Drosophila yakuba. We find a relatively low degree of sequence variation in D. melanogaster (theta = 0.0017), which is, however, consistent with its chromosomal location in a region of low recombination. Tests of neutrality do not reject a neutral-evolution model for the whole region. However, pairwise tests with different subregions indicate that there is a relative excess of polymorphic sites in the leader and the intron. Codon usage pattern analysis shows a particularly biased codon usage in the highly conserved regions, which is in line with the hypothesis that selection on translational accuracy is the driving force behind such a bias. A comparison of the expression pattern of hb in different sibling species of D. melanogaster reveals some regulatory changes in D. yakuba, which could be interpreted as changes in the timing of secondary expression domains.
Ross, Katherine; Heiny, Elizabeth; Conner, Sandra; Spener, Patricia; Pineda, Roberta
1) To describe the use of occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT) and speech-language pathology (SLP) services in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), 2) to describe predictors of early therapy usage, and 3) to test the hypothesis that more NICU-based therapy will relate to better neurobehavioral outcomes. Seventy-nine infants born ≤32 weeks gestation had therapy interventions, as standard of care, tracked across NICU hospitalization. Infants received neurobehavioral testing prior to NICU discharge. All (100%) received OT and PT, and 41 (51%) received SLP. The average age at initiation of OT, PT, and SLP was 30.4±1.4, 30.3±1.4, and 35.9±2.3 weeks postmenstrual age, respectively. Infants received therapy an average of 1.8±.4, 1.8±.4 and 1.1±.5 times per week for OT, PT and SLP, respectively. There were 56 different therapeutic interventions performed. There was overlap in the interventions provided by different NICU therapists; however, interventions unique to each discipline were identified. More therapy was not related to better neurobehavioral outcomes, but rather more frequent therapy could be attributed to more complex medical conditions (p<0.05). Early therapy services in the NICU can start early in gestation and continue routinely until NICU discharge in order to optimize outcomes. These findings can aid our understanding of how neonatal therapy services are implemented in a level IV NICU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keeling, Kim M.; Xue, Xiaojiao; Gunn, Gwen; Bedwell, David M.
Nonsense suppression therapy encompasses approaches aimed at suppressing translation termination at in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs, also known as nonsense mutations) to restore deficient protein function. In this review, we examine the current status of PTC suppression as a therapy for genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. We discuss what is currently known about the mechanism of PTC suppression as well as therapeutic approaches under development to suppress PTCs. The approaches considered include readthrough drugs, suppressor tRNAs, PTC pseudouridylation, and inhibition of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. We also discuss the barriers that currently limit the clinical application of nonsense suppression therapy and suggest how some of these difficulties may be overcome. Finally, we consider how PTC suppression may play a role in the clinical treatment of genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. PMID:24773318
Lacan, Philippe; Aubry, Martine; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain
We report here two new beta(0)-thalassemic mutations. In the first case, a deletion of two nucleotides (-CC) at codon 142 was found in a French Caucasian woman. In the second case, an insertion of a single nucleotide (+T) at codon 45 was found in a Turkish girl. In both cases, no dominant thalassemia-like phenotype was observed.
All species studied to date demonstrate a preference for certain codons over other synonymous codons (codon bias), a preference which is also observed for pairs of codons (di-codon bias). Previous studies using poliovirus and influenza virus as models have demonstrated the ability to cause attenuat...
Behringer, Megan G; Hall, David W
Introns occasionally remain in mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs) due to splicing errors and the translated, aberrant proteins that result represent a metabolic cost and may have other deleterious consequences. The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway degrades aberrant mRNAs, which it recognizes by the presence of an in-frame premature termination codon (PTC). We investigated whether selection has shaped the location of PTCs in introns to reduce waste and facilitate NMD. We found across seven model organisms, that in both first and last introns, PTCs occur earlier in introns than expected by chance, suggesting that selection favors earlier position. This pattern is more pronounced in species with larger effective population sizes. The pattern does not hold for last introns in the two mammal species, however, perhaps because in these species NMD is not initiated from 3'-terminal introns. We conclude that there is compelling evidence that the location of PTCs is shaped by selection for reduced waste and efficient degradation of aberrant mRNAs. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.
Brown, Alan; Shao, Sichen; Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S; Ramakrishnan, V
Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UAA, UAG or UGA. Release factors recognize stop codons in the ribosomal A-site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognize all three stop codons. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5-3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A-site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S ribosomal RNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A-site, where it is stabilized by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during transfer RNA selection to drive messenger RNA compaction. In this compacted mRNA conformation, stop codons are favoured by a hydrogen-bonding network formed between rRNA and essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination.
Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ramakrishnan, V.
Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UGA, UAA, or UAG. Release factors recognise stop codons in the ribosomal A site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases1. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognise all three stop codons2. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here, we present electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5 – 3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S rRNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A site, where it is stabilised by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during tRNA selection to drive mRNA compaction. Stop codons are favoured in this compacted mRNA conformation by a hydrogen-bonding network with essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination3,4. PMID:26245381
Weak triplet codon-anticodon interactions render ribosome-free translation unlikely. Some modern tRNAs read quadruplet codons (tetracodons), suggesting vestigial ribosome-free translation. Here, mitochondrial genomes are explored for tetracoded overlapping protein coding (tetra)genes. Occasional single tetracodons within regular mitochondrial genes coevolve positively/negatively with antisense tRNAs with predicted reduced/expanded anticodons (depending on taxon), suggesting complex tetra-decoding mechanisms. Transcripts of antisense tRNAs with unusual anticodons are more abundant than of homologues with regular anticodons. Assuming overlapping tetracoding with silent 4th tetracodon position, BLAST aligns 10 putative tetragenes spanning 17% of regular human mitochondrial protein coding tricodons with 14 GenBank proteins. Various tests including predicted peptide secondary structures, 3rd codon position (of the regular main frame of the protein coding gene) conservation against replicational deamination mutation gradients, and circular code usage (overlapping genes avoid using circular code codons) confirm tetracoding in these overlapping tetragenes with silent 4th position, but not for BLAST-predicted tetragenes assuming silent 2nd or 3rd positions. This converges with tetradecoding mechanisms that are more compatible with silent 4th, than at other, tetracodon positions. Tetracoding increases with (a) GC-contents, perhaps conserved or switched on in high temperature conditions; (b) usage of theoretically predicted 'tessera' tetracodons; (c) 12s rRNA stability; and d) antisense tRNA numbers with predicted expanded anticodons. Most detected tetragenes are not evolutionarily conserved, apparently reflect specific, transient adaptations. Tetracoding increases with mammal longevity.
Matsuda, Daiki; Mauro, Vincent P.
Factors affecting translation of mRNA contribute to the complexity of eukaryotic proteomes. In some cases, translation of a particular mRNA can generate multiple proteins. However, the factors that determine whether ribosomes initiate translation from the first AUG codon in the transcript, from a downstream codon, or from multiple sites are not completely understood. Various mRNA properties, including AUG codon-accessibility and 5′ leader length have been proposed as potential determinants that affect where ribosomes initiate translation. To explore this issue, we performed studies using synthetic mRNAs with two in-frame AUG codons−both in excellent context. Open reading frames initiating at AUG1 and AUG2 encode large and small isoforms of a reporter protein, respectively. Translation of such an mRNA in COS-7 cells was shown to be 5′ cap-dependent and to occur efficiently from both AUG codons. AUG codon-accessibility was modified by using two different elements: an antisense locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide and an exon-junction complex. When either element was used to mask AUG1, the ratio of the proteins synthesized changed, favoring the smaller (AUG2-initiated) protein. In addition, we observed that increased leader length by itself changed the ratio of the proteins and favored initiation at AUG1. These observations demonstrate that initiation codon selection is affected by various factors, including AUG codon-accessibility and 5′ leader length, and is not necessarily determined by the order of AUG codons (5′→3′). The modulation of AUG codon accessibility may provide a powerful means of translation regulation in eukaryotic cells. PMID:21124832
Rowe, G W; Trainor, L E
The relationship between degeneracy in the genetic code and the occurrence of a strong codon bias is examined, with particular reference to a group of viral genomes. The present paper shows how codon bias may have been imposed by thermodynamic considerations at the time the primitive DNA first formed in the primordial soup. Using a four-state Ising-like model with stacking interactions between successive base pairs, we show how primeval periodic DNA polymers could have arisen the remnants of which are still observed in codon biases today.
Whidden, Caroline E; Premaratne, Risintha G; Jayanetti, S Ravindra; Fernando, S Deepika
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been widely distributed in Sri Lanka for malaria control. Their effectiveness depends on proper utilisation and maintenance at the household level. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the patterns and predictive factors of LLIN maintenance and use in Anuradhapura district. Data was collected and analysed from 530 LLIN-owning households, selected by a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with proper maintenance at the household level. Hierarchical linear modelling identified factors associated with LLIN use the previous night. Almost 75% (377/504) of households had used all their LLINs the previous night, while 82.9% (418/504) had used at least one. Only 3.2% (15/474) were maintaining the LLIN in such a way as to maximise its insecticidal efficacy. Six variables were significantly associated (p<0.05) with use the previous night: more residents, fewer plain nets, reporting practical benefits of LLINs, conical shape, newer nets and lack of side effects. Two variables were significantly associated with proper maintenance: increasing level of education and taking safety precautions while washing. Results suggest LLIN practices could improve in settings of low malaria transmission if distribution programmes took into account recipient preferences, promoted LLIN use over plain nets, and emphasised the techniques and significance of proper net maintenance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kollmar, Martin; Mühlhausen, Stefanie
mRNA decoding by tRNAs and tRNA charging by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are biochemically separated processes that nevertheless in general involve the same nucleotides. The combination of charging and decoding determines the genetic code. Codon reassignment happens when a differently charged tRNA replaces a former cognate tRNA. The recent discovery of the polyphyly of the yeast CUG sense codon reassignment challenged previous mechanistic considerations and led to the proposal of the so-called tRNA loss driven codon reassignment hypothesis. Accordingly, codon capture is caused by loss of a tRNA or by mutations in the translation termination factor, subsequent reduction of the codon frequency through reduced translation fidelity and final appearance of a new cognate tRNA. Critical for codon capture are sequence and structure of the new tRNA, which must be compatible with recognition regions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The proposed hypothesis applies to all reported nuclear and organellar codon reassignments.
Kilaru, S; Schuster, M; Studholme, D; Soanes, D; Lin, C; Talbot, N J; Steinberg, G
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools to investigate intracellular dynamics and protein localization. Cytoplasmic expression of FPs in fungal pathogens allows greater insight into invasion strategies and the host-pathogen interaction. Detection of their fluorescent signal depends on the right combination of microscopic setup and signal brightness. Slow rates of photo-bleaching are pivotal for in vivo observation of FPs over longer periods of time. Here, we test green-fluorescent proteins, including Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP), enhanced GFP (eGFP) from Aequorea victoria and a novel Zymoseptoria tritici codon-optimized eGFP (ZtGFP), for their usage in conventional and laser-enhanced epi-fluorescence, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show that eGFP, expressed cytoplasmically in Z. tritici, is significantly brighter and more photo-stable than AcGFP. The codon-optimized ZtGFP performed even better than eGFP, showing significantly slower bleaching and a 20-30% further increase in signal intensity. Heterologous expression of all GFP variants did not affect pathogenicity of Z. tritici. Our data establish ZtGFP as the GFP of choice to investigate intracellular protein dynamics in Z. tritici, but also infection stages of this wheat pathogen inside host tissue.
Duan, Huikun; Wang, Haisong; Ma, Baicheng; Jiang, Pingzhe; Tu, Peipei; Ni, Zaizhong; Li, Xiaodan; Li, Miao; Ma, Xiaofeng; Wang, Bin; Wu, Ri; Li, Minggang
Irisin is a novel hormone which is related to many metabolic diseases. In order to illuminate the function and therapeutic effect of irisin, gaining active irisin is necessary. In this work, a codon-optimized irisin gene was designed according to Pichia pastoris synonymous codon usage bias and cloned into the pPIC9K expression vector. Sequencing result indicating that the sequence of irisin was consistent with the modified irisin and the irisin was in frame with α-factor secretion signal ATG. The plasmid pPIC9K-irisin was transformed into GS115 P. pastoris cells through electroporation. The positive transformants were screened on MD medium and analyzed by PCR. Five recombinant GS115/pPIC9K-irisin strains were obtained, but only one strain expressed irisin successfully. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were used to assess the expression level and purity of irisin. The irisin was also simply purified and the effect of pH value, methanol concentration and induction time on the production of irisin was investigated. The results showed that the best conditions of irisin expression were as follows: pH 6.0, 2.0% methanol and induction for 96 h. This work laid the basis for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of irisin, as well as development of irisin-based therapy.
Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M.; Studholme, D.; Soanes, D.; Lin, C.; Talbot, N.J.; Steinberg, G.
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools to investigate intracellular dynamics and protein localization. Cytoplasmic expression of FPs in fungal pathogens allows greater insight into invasion strategies and the host-pathogen interaction. Detection of their fluorescent signal depends on the right combination of microscopic setup and signal brightness. Slow rates of photo-bleaching are pivotal for in vivo observation of FPs over longer periods of time. Here, we test green-fluorescent proteins, including Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP), enhanced GFP (eGFP) from Aequorea victoria and a novel Zymoseptoria tritici codon-optimized eGFP (ZtGFP), for their usage in conventional and laser-enhanced epi-fluorescence, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show that eGFP, expressed cytoplasmically in Z. tritici, is significantly brighter and more photo-stable than AcGFP. The codon-optimized ZtGFP performed even better than eGFP, showing significantly slower bleaching and a 20–30% further increase in signal intensity. Heterologous expression of all GFP variants did not affect pathogenicity of Z. tritici. Our data establish ZtGFP as the GFP of choice to investigate intracellular protein dynamics in Z. tritici, but also infection stages of this wheat pathogen inside host tissue. PMID:26092799
Yang, Jin-ling; Gao, Li-li; Zhu, Ping; Hou, Qi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Wen-bo; Nie, Tao
Codon bias is an important factor which influences heterologous gene expression. Optimizing codon sequence could improve expression level of heterologous gene. In order to improve the expression level of BmK AngM1 gene encoding the analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris, the codon-optimized BmK AngM1 gene according to its cDNA sequence and the preference codon usage of P. pastoris were cloned into expression vector pPIC9K and then transformed into P. pastoris. The expersion of recombinant BmK AngM1 (rBmK AngM1) was inducced by methanol in the medium, and the expression level of the optimized BmK AngM1 gene was 3.7 times of the native one. These results suggested that the expression of BmK AngM1 in P. pastoris could be successfully improved by codon optimization.
Background Codon decoding time is a fundamental property of mRNA translation believed to affect the abundance, function, and properties of proteins. Recently, a novel experimental technology--ribosome profiling--was developed to measure the density, and thus the speed, of ribosomes at codon resolution. Specifically, this method is based on next-generation sequencing, which theoretically can provide footprint counts that correspond to the probability of observing a ribosome in this position for each nucleotide in each transcript. Results In this study, we report for the first time various novel properties of the distribution of codon footprint counts in five organisms, based on large-scale analysis of ribosomal profiling data. We show that codons have distinctive footprint count distributions. These tend to be preserved along the inner part of the ORF, but differ at the 5' and 3' ends of the ORF, suggesting that the translation-elongation stage actually includes three biophysical sub-steps. In addition, we study various basic properties of the codon footprint count distributions and show that some of them correlate with the abundance of the tRNA molecule types recognizing them. Conclusions Our approach emphasizes the advantages of analyzing ribosome profiling and similar types of data via a comparative genomic codon-distribution-centric view. Thus, our methods can be used in future studies related to translation and even transcription elongation. PMID:25572668
Zhang, Dinglin; Chen, Danfeng; Cao, Liaoran; Li, Guohui; Cheng, Hong
Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5' ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer.
Lind, Christoffer; Åqvist, Johan
Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit. PMID:27280974
Haen, Karri M; Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V
Three previously studied mitochondrial genomes of glass sponges (phylum Porifera, class Hexactinellida) contained single nucleotide insertions in protein coding genes inferred as sites of +1 translational frameshifting. To investigate the distribution and evolution of these sites and to help elucidate the mechanism of frameshifting, we determined eight new complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from glass sponges and examined individual mitochondrial genes from three others. We found nine new instances of single nucleotide insertions in these sequences and analyzed them both comparatively and phylogenetically. The base insertions appear to have been gained and lost repeatedly in hexactinellid mt protein genes, suggesting no functional significance for the frameshifting sites. A high degree of sequence conservation, the presence of unusual tRNAs, and a distinct pattern of codon usage suggest the "out-of-frame pairing" model of translational frameshifting. Additionally, we provide evidence that relaxed selection pressure on glass sponge mtDNA - possibly a result of their low growth rates and deep-water lifestyle - has allowed frameshift insertions to be tolerated for hundreds of millions of years. Our study provides the first example of a phylogenetically diverse and extensive usage of translational frameshifting in animal mitochondrial coding sequences.
GOVE, PHILIP B.
APPROPRIATE ENGLISH USAGE SHOULD NOT BE DETERMINED BY RIGID AND ARTIFICAL REGULATIONS SET UP BY SCHOLARS MORE INTERESTED IN DEMONSTRATING THEIR OWN SUPERIORITY THAN IN DESCRIBING THE WAY LANGUAGE IS ACTUALLY USED. INSTEAD, GOOD ENGLISH SHOULD REVEAL ITSELF AS "THE PRODUCT OF CUSTOM" AND SHOULD CHANGE WITH "THE ORGANIC LIFE OF THE LANGUAGE." THUS,…
Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Frost, Simon D. W; Grossman, Zehava; Gravenor, Michael B; Richman, Douglas D; Brown, Andrew J. Leigh
Several codon-based methods are available for detecting adaptive evolution in protein-coding sequences, but to date none specifically identify sites that are selected differentially in two populations, although such comparisons between populations have been historically useful in identifying the action of natural selection. We have developed two fixed effects maximum likelihood methods: one for identifying codon positions showing selection patterns that persist in a population and another for detecting whether selection is operating differentially on individual codons of a gene sampled from two different populations. Applying these methods to two HIV populations infecting genetically distinct human hosts, we have found that few of the positively selected amino acid sites persist in the population; the other changes are detected only at the tips of the phylogenetic tree and appear deleterious in the long term. Additionally, we have identified seven amino acid sites in protease and reverse transcriptase that are selected differentially in the two samples, demonstrating specific population-level adaptation of HIV to human populations. PMID:16789820
Barnes, Caroline Purcell; Olson, James N.
This study identifies specific nondrug alternatives most used to achieve a specific mood or state of consciousness alteration. Analysis showed social, physical, and risk-taking activities were used most frequently to achieve positive states and distracting activity, discussion with friend, and personal contemplation were used most frequently to…
Wang, Qing; Mei, Cui; Zhen, Honghua; Zhu, Jess
Gene expression is closely related to optimal vector-host system pairing in many prokaryotes. Redesign of the human cystatin C (cysC) gene using the preferred codons of the prokaryotic system may significantly increase cysC expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Specifically, cysC expression may be increased by removing unstable sequences and optimizing GC content. According to E. coli expression system codon preferences, the gene sequence was optimized while the amino acid sequence was maintained. The codon-optimized cysC (co-cysC) and wild-type cysC (wt-cysC) were expressed by cloning the genes into a pET-30a plasmid, thus transforming the recombinant plasmid into E. coli BL21. Before and after the optimization process, the prokaryotic expression vector and host bacteria were examined for protein expression and biological activation of CysC. The recombinant proteins in the lysate of the transformed bacteria were purified using Ni2+-NTA resin. Recombinant protein expression increased from 10% to 46% based on total protein expression after codon optimization. Recombinant CysC purity was above 95%. The significant increase in cysC expression in E. coli expression produced by codon optimization techniques may be applicable to commercial production systems. PMID:23093857
Ostrov, Nili; Landon, Matthieu; Guell, Marc; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Teramoto, Jun; Cervantes, Natalie; Zhou, Minerva; Singh, Kerry; Napolitano, Michael G; Moosburner, Mark; Shrock, Ellen; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Conway, Nicholas; Goodman, Daniel B; Gardner, Cameron L; Tyree, Gary; Gonzales, Alexandra; Wanner, Barry L; Norville, Julie E; Lajoie, Marc J; Church, George M
Recoding--the repurposing of genetic codons--is a powerful strategy for enhancing genomes with functions not commonly found in nature. Here, we report computational design, synthesis, and progress toward assembly of a 3.97-megabase, 57-codon Escherichia coli genome in which all 62,214 instances of seven codons were replaced with synonymous alternatives across all protein-coding genes. We have validated 63% of recoded genes by individually testing 55 segments of 50 kilobases each. We observed that 91% of tested essential genes retained functionality with limited fitness effect. We demonstrate identification and correction of lethal design exceptions, only 13 of which were found in 2229 genes. This work underscores the feasibility of rewriting genomes and establishes a framework for large-scale design, assembly, troubleshooting, and phenotypic analysis of synthetic organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin
RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.
Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf
RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.
Translation generally initiates with the AUG codon. While initiation at GUG and UUG is permitted in prokaryotes (Archaea and Bacteria), cases of CUG initiation were recently reported in human cells. The varying stringency in translation initiation between eukaryotic and prokaryotic domains largely stems from a fundamental problem for the ribosome in recognizing a codon at the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. Initiation factors specific to each domain of life evolved to confer stringent initiation by the ribosome. The mechanistic basis for high accuracy in eukaryotic initiation is described based on recent findings concerning the role of the multifactor complex (MFC) in this process. Also discussed are whether non-AUG initiation plays any role in translational control and whether start codon accuracy is regulated in eukaryotes. PMID:26779403
Winters, Mark A.; Merigan, Thomas C.
The T69D mutation in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene has been associated with reduced susceptibility to dideoxycytosine (ddC); however, several other mutations at codon 69 have been observed in antiretroviral drug-treated patients. The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database was interrogated and showed that 23% of patients treated with nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTI) had mutations at codon 69. These variants included T69N, -S, -A, -G, -E, -I, and -K mutations that were present in patients treated with NRTI but not in drug-naive patients. Treatment history information showed that a substantial percentage of these codon 69 changes occurred in patients administered non-ddC-containing regimens. Different and specific patterns of other RT gene mutations were associated with the various codon 69 mutations. Drug susceptibility assays showed that viral constructs containing codon 69 variants could have reduced susceptibility to ddC and other RT inhibitors. These results suggest that the T69D mutation is not the only codon 69 variant associated with drug resistance and that ddC is not the only drug affected. PMID:11451685
Heaphy, Stephen M; Mariotti, Marco; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Atkins, John F; Baranov, Pavel V
mRNA translation in many ciliates utilizes variant genetic codes where stop codons are reassigned to specify amino acids. To characterize the repertoire of ciliate genetic codes, we analyzed ciliate transcriptomes from marine environments. Using codon substitution frequencies in ciliate protein-coding genes and their orthologs, we inferred the genetic codes of 24 ciliate species. Nine did not match genetic code tables currently assigned by NCBI. Surprisingly, we identified a novel genetic code where all three standard stop codons (TAA, TAG, and TGA) specify amino acids in Condylostoma magnum We provide evidence suggesting that the functions of these codons in C. magnum depend on their location within mRNA. They are decoded as amino acids at internal positions, but specify translation termination when in close proximity to an mRNA 3' end. The frequency of stop codons in protein coding sequences of closely related Climacostomum virens suggests that it may represent a transitory state. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Lind, Christoffer; Sund, Johan; Åqvist, Johan
A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.
Masuda, Isao; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kita, Kiyoshi
Diverse mitochondrial (mt) genetic systems have evolved independently of the more uniform nuclear system and often employ modified genetic codes. The organization and genetic system of dinoflagellate mt genomes are particularly unusual and remain an evolutionary enigma. We determined the sequence of full-length cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mRNA of the earliest diverging dinoflagellate Perkinsus and show that this gene resides in the mt genome. Apparently, this mRNA is not translated in a single reading frame with standard codon usage. Our examination of the nucleotide sequence and three-frame translation of the mRNA suggest that the reading frame must be shifted 10 times, at every AGG and CCC codon, to yield a consensus COX1 protein. We suggest two possible mechanisms for these translational frameshifts: a ribosomal frameshift in which stalled ribosomes skip the first bases of these codons or specialized tRNAs recognizing non-triplet codons, AGGY and CCCCU. Regardless of the mechanism, active and efficient machinery would be required to tolerate the frameshifts predicted in Perkinsus mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of translational frameshifts in protist mitochondria and, by far, is the most extensive case in mitochondria.
Masuda, Isao; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kita, Kiyoshi
Diverse mitochondrial (mt) genetic systems have evolved independently of the more uniform nuclear system and often employ modified genetic codes. The organization and genetic system of dinoflagellate mt genomes are particularly unusual and remain an evolutionary enigma. We determined the sequence of full-length cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mRNA of the earliest diverging dinoflagellate Perkinsus and show that this gene resides in the mt genome. Apparently, this mRNA is not translated in a single reading frame with standard codon usage. Our examination of the nucleotide sequence and three-frame translation of the mRNA suggest that the reading frame must be shifted 10 times, at every AGG and CCC codon, to yield a consensus COX1 protein. We suggest two possible mechanisms for these translational frameshifts: a ribosomal frameshift in which stalled ribosomes skip the first bases of these codons or specialized tRNAs recognizing non-triplet codons, AGGY and CCCCU. Regardless of the mechanism, active and efficient machinery would be required to tolerate the frameshifts predicted in Perkinsus mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of translational frameshifts in protist mitochondria and, by far, is the most extensive case in mitochondria. PMID:20507907
Leroch, Michaela; Mernke, Dennis; Koppenhoefer, Dieter; Schneider, Prisca; Mosbach, Andreas; Doehlemann, Gunther; Hahn, Matthias
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants have been widely used in modern biology as reporters that allow a variety of live-cell imaging techniques. So far, GFP has rarely been used in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea because of low fluorescence intensity. The codon usage of B. cinerea genes strongly deviates from that of commonly used GFP-encoding genes and reveals a lower GC content than other fungi. In this study, we report the development and use of a codon-optimized version of the B. cinerea enhanced GFP (eGFP)-encoding gene (Bcgfp) for improved expression in B. cinerea. Both the codon optimization and, to a smaller extent, the insertion of an intron resulted in higher mRNA levels and increased fluorescence. Bcgfp was used for localization of nuclei in germinating spores and for visualizing host penetration. We further demonstrate the use of promoter-Bcgfp fusions for quantitative evaluation of various toxic compounds as inducers of the atrB gene encoding an ABC-type drug efflux transporter of B. cinerea. In addition, a codon-optimized mCherry-encoding gene was constructed which yielded bright red fluorescence in B. cinerea.
Williams, I.; Richardson, J.; Starkey, A.; Stansfield, I.
In-frame stop codons normally signal termination during mRNA translation, but they can be read as ‘sense’ (readthrough) depending on their context, comprising the 6 nt preceding and following the stop codon. To identify novel contexts directing readthrough, under-represented 5′ and 3′ stop codon contexts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by genome-wide survey in silico. In contrast with the nucleotide bias 3′ of the stop codon, codon bias in the two codon positions 5′ of the termination codon showed no correlation with known effects on stop codon readthrough. However, individually, poor 5′ and 3′ context elements were equally as effective in promoting stop codon readthrough in vivo, readthrough which in both cases responded identically to changes in release factor concentration. A novel method analysing specific nucleotide combinations in the 3′ context region revealed positions +1,2,3,5 and +1,2,3,6 after the stop codon were most predictive of termination efficiency. Downstream of yeast open reading frames (ORFs), further in-frame stop codons were significantly over-represented at the +1, +2 and +3 codon positions after the ORF, acting to limit readthrough. Thus selection against stop codon readthrough is a dominant force acting on 3′, but not on 5′, nucleotides, with detectable selection on nucleotides as far downstream as +6 nucleotides. The approaches described can be employed to define potential readthrough contexts for any genome. PMID:15602002
Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works. PMID:23658552
Wilson, A Peter R
Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report. Older agents remain active against some of the pathogens, although expectations of broad-spectrum cover for empirical treatment have risen. Education, expert advice on treatment and antimicrobial stewardship can produce significant reductions in use. More agents may need to be introduced onto the antibiotic formulary of the hospital, despite the poor quality of scientific studies in some cases.
Oberto, Anaïs, O.; Mantelet, Gregory; Wenger, Marc
TAP (Table Access Protocol promoted by IVOA) is available on SIMBAD web site since July 2012. We will have a look of all kinds of uses and try to figure out how people use it in SIMBAD. Thanks to ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language), everyone can write their own query using criteria on all data available in the database. In the SIMBAD database, more than 30 tables are available. It can be rather difficult to write a complex query. We will see how many joins between tables are used, and how many fields are used in the queries. The SIMBAD usage is going to change thanks to this new feature, a new way to search in the database.
Hecht, Ariel; Glasgow, Jeff; Bawazer, Lukmaan A.; Munson, Matthew S.; Cochran, Jennifer R.
Abstract Our understanding of translation underpins our capacity to engineer living systems. The canonical start codon (AUG) and a few near-cognates (GUG, UUG) are considered as the ‘start codons’ for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. Translation is typically not thought to initiate from the 61 remaining codons. Here, we quantified translation initiation of green fluorescent protein and nanoluciferase in E. coli from all 64 triplet codons and across a range of DNA copy number. We detected initiation of protein synthesis above measurement background for 47 codons. Translation from non-canonical start codons ranged from 0.007 to 3% relative to translation from AUG. Translation from 17 non-AUG codons exceeded the highest reported rates of non-cognate codon recognition. Translation initiation from non-canonical start codons may contribute to the synthesis of peptides in both natural and synthetic biological systems. PMID:28334756
Among our technological gadgets smartphones play the most important role, new generation devices offer other functions beyond calling (internet availability, computer games, music player, camera functions etc.) In everydays can be experienced that youth spend more and more time with their smartphones and despite the actuality of this issue there are no studies on the excessive smartphone usage in Hungary and we can find only a few international studies. Our goal is to examine smartphone usage in primary and secondary schools in Hajdu-Bihar county, Hungary and its relationship with personality traits. Our sample consist of 263 youth from primary and secondary schools. We measured the characteristics of smartphone using and attitudes with a Mobilephone Using Questionnare. Personality traits are measured with Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy Scale. The Child Behavior Checklist gives information about peer relationships, mental state and emotions. Average phone using time is 4,48 hours per day regarding the whole sample. This mean for boys is 3,40 hour for girls 5,39 hour. Average phone using time is higher at 16 (6,35 hour per day). The most frequent used applications are calling and visiting community sites. There is no connection between phone using and grades. The smartphone using time per day shows a significant positive relationship with Impulsivity, Anxiety and Depression, Attention deficits and Somatic problems within 17-19 ages. One of the explanation of excessive smartphone using may be the frequent visiting of community sites. Mobile phones in this case raise the availability of addictive object (community site) therefore contribute to the development of community site addiction. The connection with impulsivity, somatic problems and attention deficits refer to the anxiety reducing role of smartphones within 17-19 ages.
Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A; Temperley, Richard J; Smith, Paul M; Seneca, Sara H; Lightowlers, Robert N
The human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is a small, circular DNA duplex found in multi-copy in the mitochondrial matrix. It is almost fully transcribed from both strands to produce large polycistronic RNA units that are processed and matured. The 13 mtDNA-encoded polypeptides are translated from mt-mRNAs that have been matured by polyadenylation of their free 3'-termini. A patient with clinical features consistent with an mtDNA disorder was recently shown to carry a microdeletion, resulting in the loss of the termination codon for MTATP6 and in its juxtaposition with MTCO3. Cell lines from this patient exhibited low steady-state levels of RNA14, the bi-cistronic transcript encoding subunits 6 and 8 of the F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase, complex V, consistent with a decreased stability. Recent reports of 'non-stop' mRNA decay systems in the cytosol have failed to determine the fate of gene products derived from transcripts lacking termination codons, although enhanced decay clearly required the 'non-stop' transcripts to be translated. We wished to determine whether functional translation products could still be expressed from non-stop transcripts in the human mitochondrion. Although a minor defect in complex V assembly was noted in the patient-derived cell lines, the steady-state level of ATPase 6 was similar to controls, consistent with the pattern of de novo mitochondrial protein synthesis. Moreover, no significant difference in ATP synthase activity could be detected. We conclude that, in the absence of a functional termination codon, although mitochondrial transcripts are more rapidly degraded, they are also translated to generate stable polypeptides that are successfully integrated into functional enzyme complexes. PMID:14585098
Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key
To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100
Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M
"Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: the genetic code, codon, degenerate codons, protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA, anticodon, antiparallel orientation, wobble, unambiguous codons, ribosomes, initiation, elongation and termination of translation, peptidyl transferase, translocation, degenerate oligonucleotides, green…
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: the genetic code, codon, degenerate codons, protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA, anticodon, antiparallel orientation, wobble, unambiguous codons, ribosomes, initiation, elongation and termination of translation, peptidyl transferase, translocation, degenerate oligonucleotides, green…
Massey, Steven E
Stop codon reassignments are widely distributed in prokaryotic, eukaryotic and organellar genomes, but are remarkably convergent in terms of the stop codons and amino acids reassigned. Strikingly, the identities of stop codon reassignments are closely matched to the properties of naturally occurring nonsense suppressor (NONS) tRNAs, suggesting that pre-existing nonsense suppression in an ancestral tRNA facilitated the occurrence of stop codon reassignments. Here this idea is expanded, by exploring the mechanism by which the gene duplication of tRNAs has occurred, leading to the reassignment of stop codons. Two types of stop codon reassignment are identified: those that necessitate a tRNA gene duplication, and those that do not because a single tRNA can recognize the reassigned stop codon and the canonical codon(s) for the cognate amino acid. Where tRNA gene duplication has occurred, this implies a multi-functional ancestral NONS tRNA, followed by adaptive mutation in the anticodon of one of the gene duplicates to become complementary to the stop codon, constituting a clear example of escape from adaptive conflict. The best exemplar is the UAA+UAG - >gln reassignment, which has occurred 9 times independently in a diverse range of genomes, and appears to reflect the widespread occurrence of naturally occurring nonsense suppression of the UAA+UAG stop codons by glutamine tRNAs. Consideration of pre-existing tRNA functionality and the mechanism of gene duplication provide new insights into the process of stop codon reassignment.
Jack, Benjamin R.; Boutz, Daniel R.; Paff, Matthew L.; Smith, Bartram L.; Bull, James J.; Wilke, Claus O.
A general means of viral attenuation involves the extensive recoding of synonymous codons in the viral genome. The mechanistic underpinnings of this approach remain unclear, however. Using quantitative proteomics and RNA sequencing, we explore the molecular basis of attenuation in a strain of bacteriophage T7 whose major capsid gene was engineered to carry 182 suboptimal codons. We do not detect transcriptional effects from recoding. Proteomic observations reveal that translation is halved for the recoded major capsid gene, and a more modest reduction applies to several coexpressed downstream genes. We observe no changes in protein abundances of other coexpressed genes that are encoded upstream. Viral burst size, like capsid protein abundance, is also decreased by half. Together, these observations suggest that, in this virus, reduced translation of an essential polycistronic transcript and diminished virion assembly form the molecular basis of attenuation. PMID:28698233
Simões, João; Bezerra, Ana R; Moura, Gabriela R; Araújo, Hugo; Gut, Ivo; Bayes, Mónica; Santos, Manuel A S
The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients, and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions, CUG sites incorporate leucine (3% of the times) and serine (97% of the times) on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT) strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations) followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1) gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p) to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.
Simões, João; Bezerra, Ana R.; Moura, Gabriela R.; Araújo, Hugo; Gut, Ivo; Bayes, Mónica; Santos, Manuel A. S.
The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients, and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions, CUG sites incorporate leucine (3% of the times) and serine (97% of the times) on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT) strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations) followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1) gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p) to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans. PMID:27065968
Cebrat, S.; Dudek, M. R.; Gierlik, A.; Kowalczuk, M.; Mackiewicz, P.
We have analyzed third position in codons and have observed strong long-range correlations along DNA sequence. We have shown that the correlations are caused mostly by asymmetric replication. In the analysis, we have used a DNA walk (spider analysis Cebrat et al., Microbial Comparative Genomics 2(4) (1997) 259-268) in two-dimensional space [A-T,G-C]. The particular case of the E.coli sequence has been studied in detail.
In this study, the effect of photograph usage in history education to the students' achievement was tried to be identified. In the study which was done with a pre-test post-test control group design, a frame was tried to be established between the experimental group and the analytical usage of the photograph, the control group's courses were done…
Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L
The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.
Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz
In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215
Nie, Lihua; Lavinder, Jason J.; Sarkar, Mohosin; Stephany, Kimberly; Magliery, Thomas J.
A general combinatorial mutagenesis strategy using common DMT-protected mononucleotide phosphoramidites and a single orthogonally-protected trinucleotide phosphoramidite (Fmoc-TAG) was developed to scan a gene with the TAG amber stop codon with complete synthetic control. In combination with stop-codon suppressors that insert natural (e.g., alanine) or unnatural (e.g., p-benzoylphenylalanine or Bpa) amino acids, a single DNA library can be used to incorporate different amino acids for diverse purposes. Here, we scanned TAG codons through part of the gene for a model four-helix bundle protein, Rop, which regulates the copy number of ColE1 plasmids. Alanine was incorporated into Rop for mapping its binding site using an in vivo activity screen, and subtle but important differences from in vitro gel-shift studies of Rop function are evident. As a test, Bpa was incorporated using a Phe14 amber mutant isolated from the scanning library. Surprisingly, Phe14Bpa Rop is weakly active, despite the critical role of Phe14 in Rop activity. Bpa is a photoaffinity label unnatural amino acid that can form covalent bonds with adjacent molecules upon UV irradiation. Irradiation of Phe14Bpa-Rop, which is a dimer in solution like wild-type Rop, results in covalent dimers, trimers and tetramers. This suggests that Phe14Bpa Rop weakly associates as a tetramer in solution and highlights the use of Bpa crosslinking as a means of trapping weak and transient interactions. PMID:21452871
Lütcke, H A; Chow, K C; Mickel, F S; Moss, K A; Kern, H F; Scheele, G A
The influence of the nucleotide at position -3 relative to the AUG initiation codon on the initiation of protein synthesis was studied in two different in vitro translation systems using synthetic mRNAs. The four mRNAs, transcribed from cDNAs directed by an SP6 promoter, were identical except for mutations at nucleotide -3. In each case, translation of mRNAs produced a single protein of Mr = 12,600. Relative translational efficiencies showed a hierarchy in the reticulocyte lysate system (100, 85, 61 and 38% for A, G, U and C in position -3, respectively) but no differences in the wheat germ system. Differential mRNA degradation or polypeptide chain elongation were excluded as causes of the differences observed in translation in the reticulocyte lysate. mRNA competition increased the differences observed in translational efficiencies in reticulocyte lysate but showed no effect in wheat germ. Analysis of 61 plant and 209 animal mRNA sequences revealed qualitative and quantitative differences between the consensus sequences surrounding AUG initiation codons. Whereas the consensus sequence for animals was CACCAUG that for plants was AACAAUGGC. Both the structural and functional findings suggest that the factors which select AUG initiation codons in plants and animals differ significantly. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3556162
Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz
In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes.
Howard, Michael T.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Anderson, Christine B.; Hatfield, Dolph L.
Incorporation of selenium into ∼25 mammalian selenoproteins occurs by translational recoding whereby in-frame UGA codons are redefined to encode the selenium containing amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Here we applied ribosome profiling to examine the effect of dietary selenium levels on the translational mechanisms controlling selenoprotein synthesis in mouse liver. Dietary selenium levels were shown to control gene-specific selenoprotein expression primarily at the translation level by differential regulation of UGA redefinition and Sec incorporation efficiency, although effects on translation initiation and mRNA abundance were also observed. Direct evidence is presented that increasing dietary selenium causes a vast increase in ribosome density downstream of UGA-Sec codons for a subset of selenoprotein mRNAs and that the selenium-dependent effects on Sec incorporation efficiency are mediated in part by the degree of Sec-tRNA[Ser]Sec Um34 methylation. Furthermore, we find evidence for translation in the 5′-UTRs for a subset of selenoproteins and for ribosome pausing near the UGA-Sec codon in those mRNAs encoding the selenoproteins most affected by selenium availability. These data illustrate how dietary levels of the trace element selenium can alter the readout of the genetic code to affect the expression of an entire class of proteins. PMID:23696641
Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Balgi, Aruna D.; Zimmerman, Carla; Choi, Kunho; Shidmoossavee, Fahimeh S.; Tan, Jason S.; Bergeaud, Célia; Krause, Alexandra; Flibotte, Stéphane; Shimizu, Yoko; Anderson, Hilary J.; Mouly, Vincent; Jan, Eric; Pfeifer, Tom; Jaquith, James B.; Roberge, Michel
Nonsense mutations introduce premature termination codons and underlie 11% of genetic disease cases. High concentrations of aminoglycosides can restore gene function by eliciting premature termination codon readthrough but with low efficiency. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified compounds that potentiate readthrough by aminoglycosides at multiple nonsense alleles in yeast. Chemical optimization generated phthalimide derivative CDX5-1 with activity in human cells. Alone, CDX5-1 did not induce readthrough or increase TP53 mRNA levels in HDQ-P1 cancer cells with a homozygous TP53 nonsense mutation. However, in combination with aminoglycoside G418, it enhanced readthrough up to 180-fold over G418 alone. The combination also increased readthrough at all three nonsense codons in cancer cells with other TP53 nonsense mutations, as well as in cells from rare genetic disease patients with nonsense mutations in the CLN2, SMARCAL1 and DMD genes. These findings open up the possibility of treating patients across a spectrum of genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. PMID:27407112
Yap, Von Bing; Huttley, Gavin A.
Estimation of natural selection on protein-coding sequences is a key comparative genomics approach for de novo prediction of lineage-specific adaptations. Selective pressure is measured on a per-gene basis by comparing the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions to the rate of synonymous substitutions. All published codon substitution models have been time-reversible and thus assume that sequence composition does not change over time. We previously demonstrated that if time-reversible DNA substitution models are applied in the presence of changing sequence composition, the number of substitutions is systematically biased towards overestimation. We extend these findings to the case of codon substitution models and further demonstrate that the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of substitution tends to be underestimated over three data sets of mammals, vertebrates, and insects. Our basis for comparison is a nonstationary codon substitution model that allows sequence composition to change. Goodness-of-fit results demonstrate that our new model tends to fit the data better. Direct measurement of nonstationarity shows that bias in estimates of natural selection and genetic distance increases with the degree of violation of the stationarity assumption. Additionally, inferences drawn under time-reversible models are systematically affected by compositional divergence. As genomic sequences accumulate at an accelerating rate, the importance of accurate de novo estimation of natural selection increases. Our results establish that our new model provides a more robust perspective on this fundamental quantity. PMID:28175284
Xia, Xuhua; Wang, Huaichun; Xie, Zheng; Carullo, Malisa; Huang, Huang; Hickey, Donal
Previous studies have argued that, given the AT-rich nature of stop codons, the length and CG% of coding sequences (CDSs) should be positively correlated. This prediction is generally supported empirically by prokaryotic genomes. However, the correlation is weak for a number of species, with 4 species showing a negative correlation. Here we formulate a more general hypothesis incorporating selection against cytosine (C) usage to explain the lack of strong positive correlation between the length and GC% of CDSs. Two factors contribute to the selection against C usage in long CDSs. First, C is the least abundant nucleotide in the cell, and a long CDS should have fewer Cs to increase transcription efficiency. Second, C is prone to mutation to U/T and selection for increased reliability should reduce C usage in long CDSs. Empirical data from prokaryotic genomes lend strong support for this new hypothesis.
Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich; Kolodkina, Valentina Leonidovna; Khrustaleva, Tatyana Aleksandrovna
In this work we described a bacterial open reading frame with two different directions of nucleotide usage biases in its two parts. The level of GC-content in third codon positions (3GC) is equal to 40.17 ± 0.22% during the most of the length of Corynebacterium diphtheriae spaC gene. However, in the 3'-end of the same gene (from codon #1600 to codon #1873) 3GC level is equal to 64.61 ± 0.91%. Using original methodology ('VVTAK Sliding window' and 'VVTAK VarInvar') we approved that there is an ongoing mutational AT-pressure during the most of the length of spaC gene (up to codon #1599), and there is an ongoing mutational G-pressure in the 3′-end of spaC. Intragenic promoters predicted by three different methods may be the cause of the differences in preferable types of nucleotide mutations in spaC parts because of their autonomous transcription.
Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De
α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.
Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Shizhen
NADH oxidases (NOXs) play an important role in maintaining balance of NAD+/NADH by catalyzing cofactors regeneration. The expression of nox gene from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21 (DE3)) was studied. Two strategies, the high AT-content in the region adjacent to the initiation codon and codon usage of the whole gene sequence consistent with the host, obtained the NOX activity of 59.9 U/mg and 73.3 U/mg (crude enzyme), with enhanced expression level of 2.0 and 2.5-folds, respectively. Purified NOX activity was 213.8 U/mg. Gene fusion of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and NOX formed bifuctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of glycerol coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Kinetic parameters of the GDH-NOX for each substrate, glycerol and NADH, were calculated as Vmax(Glycerol) 20 μM/min, Km(Glycerol) 19.4 mM, Vmax (NADH) 12.5 μM/min and Km (NADH) 51.3 μM, respectively, which indicated the potential application of GDH-NOX for quick glycerol analysis and dioxyacetone biosynthesis. PMID:26115038
Forster, Anthony C
Synthetic biology is a powerful experimental approach, not only for developing new biotechnology applications, but also for testing hypotheses in basic biological science. Here, examples from our research using the best model system, Escherichia coli, are reviewed. New evidence drawn from synthetic biology has overturned several long-standing hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of transcription and translation: (i) all native aminoacyl-tRNAs are not equally efficient in translation at equivalent concentrations; (ii) accommodation is not always rate limiting in translation, and may not be for any aminoacyl-tRNA; (iii) proline is the only N-alkyl-amino acid in the genetic code not because of special suitability for protein structure, but because of its comparatively high nucleophilicity; (iv) the usages of most sense codons in E. coli do not correlate with cognate tRNA abundances and (v) class II transcriptional pausing and termination by T7 RNA polymerase cannot be assumed to occur in vivo based on in vitro data. Implications of these conclusions for the biotechnology field are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Background KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 are established predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. Previous studies suggest that KRAS codon 61 and 146 mutations may also predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. However, clinicopathological, molecular, and prognostic features of colorectal carcinoma with KRAS codon 61 or 146 mutation remain unclear. Methods We utilized a molecular pathological epidemiology database of 1267 colon and rectal cancers in the Nurse’s Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61 and 146 (assessed by pyrosequencing), in relation to clinicopathological features, and tumor molecular markers, including BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), LINE-1 methylation, and microsatellite instability (MSI). Survival analyses were performed in 1067 BRAF-wild-type cancers to avoid confounding by BRAF mutation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute mortality hazard ratio, adjusting for potential confounders, including disease stage, PIK3CA mutation, CIMP, LINE-1 hypomethylation, and MSI. Results KRAS codon 61 mutations were detected in 19 cases (1.5%), and codon 146 mutations in 40 cases (3.2%). Overall KRAS mutation prevalence in colorectal cancers was 40% (=505/1267). Of interest, compared to KRAS-wild-type, overall, KRAS-mutated cancers more frequently exhibited cecal location (24% vs. 12% in KRAS-wild-type; P < 0.0001), CIMP-low (49% vs. 32% in KRAS-wild-type; P < 0.0001), and PIK3CA mutations (24% vs. 11% in KRAS-wild-type; P < 0.0001). These trends were evident irrespective of mutated codon, though statistical power was limited for codon 61 mutants. Neither KRAS codon 61 nor codon 146 mutation was significantly associated with clinical outcome or prognosis in univariate or multivariate analysis [colorectal cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81, 95% confidence
Imamura, Yu; Lochhead, Paul; Yamauchi, Mai; Kuchiba, Aya; Qian, Zhi Rong; Liao, Xiaoyun; Nishihara, Reiko; Jung, Seungyoun; Wu, Kana; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Wang, Yaoyu E; Peng, Shouyong; Bass, Adam J; Haigis, Kevin M; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji
KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 are established predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. Previous studies suggest that KRAS codon 61 and 146 mutations may also predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. However, clinicopathological, molecular, and prognostic features of colorectal carcinoma with KRAS codon 61 or 146 mutation remain unclear. We utilized a molecular pathological epidemiology database of 1267 colon and rectal cancers in the Nurse's Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61 and 146 (assessed by pyrosequencing), in relation to clinicopathological features, and tumor molecular markers, including BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), LINE-1 methylation, and microsatellite instability (MSI). Survival analyses were performed in 1067 BRAF-wild-type cancers to avoid confounding by BRAF mutation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute mortality hazard ratio, adjusting for potential confounders, including disease stage, PIK3CA mutation, CIMP, LINE-1 hypomethylation, and MSI. KRAS codon 61 mutations were detected in 19 cases (1.5%), and codon 146 mutations in 40 cases (3.2%). Overall KRAS mutation prevalence in colorectal cancers was 40% (=505/1267). Of interest, compared to KRAS-wild-type, overall, KRAS-mutated cancers more frequently exhibited cecal location (24% vs. 12% in KRAS-wild-type; P < 0.0001), CIMP-low (49% vs. 32% in KRAS-wild-type; P < 0.0001), and PIK3CA mutations (24% vs. 11% in KRAS-wild-type; P < 0.0001). These trends were evident irrespective of mutated codon, though statistical power was limited for codon 61 mutants. Neither KRAS codon 61 nor codon 146 mutation was significantly associated with clinical outcome or prognosis in univariate or multivariate analysis [colorectal cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-2.26 for
Dempster, Niall J; Risk, Rachel; Clark, Ross; Meddings, Robert N
We conducted a survey of urologists to document their patterns of app usage and perceptions of app quality, and to assess their interest in future app usage. The survey was sent to all urologists on the mailing list of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) (n=1613). A total of 115 responses were received (a response rate of 7%). Most respondents (89%) owned mobile devices capable of downloading apps. Most respondents (79%) used apps and about half (49%) used urological apps; the latter accessed a mean of 2.4 urological apps per month. Significantly more younger (defined as <45 years old) than older urologists used urological apps (P<0.001). Respondents' perception of the overall quality of apps produced for both urologists and patients was relatively low. The respondents' interest in future app usage was strong. There was greatest interest in apps such as logbooks or revalidation ones (87%), reference apps (86%) and ones which aided decision-making (85%). There was considerable support for the implementation of measures to provide urological app quality assurance; most respondents believed app peer review (78%) and validation (78%) would be beneficial and 48% supported regulatory oversight. There appears to be a need for high quality urological apps and opportunities therefore exist for national urological associations and academic units to lead developments.
Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.
Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)
Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.
Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)
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Carlini, David B; Makowski, Matthew
The relationship between preferred codon use (PCU), developmental mode, and gene ontology (GO) was investigated in a sample of nine insect species with sequenced genomes. These species were selected to represent two distinct modes of insect development, holometabolism and hemimetabolism, with an aim toward determining whether the differences in developmental timing concomitant with developmental mode would be mirrored by differences in PCU in their developmental genes. We hypothesized that the developmental genes of holometabolous insects should be under greater selective pressure for efficient translation, manifest as increased PCU, than those of hemimetabolous insects because holometabolism requires abundant protein expression over shorter time intervals than hemimetabolism, where proteins are required more uniformly in time. Preferred codon sets were defined for each species, from which the frequency of PCU for each gene was obtained. Although there were substantial differences in the genomic base composition of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects, both groups exhibited a general preference for GC-ending codons, with the former group having higher PCU averaged across all genes. For each species, the biological process GO term for each gene was assigned that of its Drosophila homolog(s), and PCU was calculated for each GO term category. The top two GO term categories for PCU enrichment in the holometabolous insects were anatomical structure development and cell differentiation. The increased PCU in the developmental genes of holometabolous insects may reflect a general strategy to maximize the protein production of genes expressed in bursts over short time periods, e.g., heat shock proteins. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 686-698, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Guo, Feng-Biao; Yu, Xiu-Juan
Background The nucleotide compositional asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in bacterial genomes has been the subject of intensive study in the past few years. It is interesting to mention that almost all bacterial genomes exhibit the same kind of base asymmetry. This work aims to investigate the strand biases in Chlamydia muridarum genome and show the potential of the Z curve method for quantitatively differentiating genes on the leading and lagging strands. Results The occurrence frequencies of bases of protein-coding genes in C. muridarum genome were analyzed by the Z curve method. It was found that genes located on the two strands of replication have distinct base usages in C. muridarum genome. According to their positions in the 9-D space spanned by the variables u1 – u9 of the Z curve method, K-means clustering algorithm can assign about 94% of genes to the correct strands, which is a few percent higher than those correctly classified by K-means based on the RSCU. The base usage and codon usage analyses show that genes on the leading strand have more G than C and more T than A, particularly at the third codon position. For genes on the lagging strand the biases is reverse. The y component of the Z curves for the complete chromosome sequences show that the excess of G over C and T over A are more remarkable in C. muridarum genome than in other bacterial genomes without separating base and/or codon usages. Furthermore, for the genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, in which distinct base and/or codon usages have been observed, closer phylogenetic distance is found compared with other bacterial genomes. Conclusion The nature of the strand biases of base composition in C. muridarum is similar to that in most other bacterial genomes. However, the base composition asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in C. muridarum is more significant than that in other bacteria. It
Both natural selection and mutational biases contribute to variation in codon usage bias within Drosophila species. This study addresses the cause of codon bias differences between the sibling species, Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Under a model of mutation-selection-drift, variation in mutational processes between species predicts greater base composition differences in neutrally evolving regions than in highly biased genes. Variation in selection intensity, however, predicts larger base composition differences in highly biased loci. Greater differences in the G+C content of 34 coding regions than 46 intron sequences between D. melanogaster and D. simulans suggest that D. melanogaster has undergone a reduction in selection intensity for codon bias. Computer simulations suggest at least a fivefold reduction in N(e)s at silent sites in this lineage. Other classes of molecular change show lineage effects between these species. Rates of amino acid substitution are higher in the D. melanogaster lineage than in D. simulans in 14 genes for which outgroup sequences are available. Surprisingly, protein sizes are larger in D. melanogaster than in D. simulans in the 34 genes compared between the two species. A substantial fraction of silent, replacement, and insertion/deletion mutations in coding regions may be weakly selected in Drosophila. PMID:8913769
Detanico, Thiago; Phillips, Matthew; Wysocki, Lawrence J.
In systemic autoimmunity, autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens (Ags) often arise by somatic hypermutation (SHM) that converts AGT and AGC (AGY) Ser codons into Arg codons. This can occur by three different single-base changes. Curiously, AGY Ser codons are far more abundant in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of IgV-region genes than expected for random codon use or from species-specific codon frequency data. CDR AGY codons are also more abundant than TCN Ser codons. We show that these trends hold even in cartilaginous fishes. Because AGC is a preferred target for SHM by activation-induced cytidine deaminase, we asked whether the AGY abundance was solely due to a selection pressure to conserve high mutability in CDRs regardless of codon context but found that this was not the case. Instead, AGY triplets were selectively enriched in the Ser codon reading frame. Motivated by reports implicating a functional role for poly/autoreactive specificities in antiviral antibodies, we also analyzed mutations at AGY in antibodies directed against a number of different viruses and found that mutations producing Arg codons in antiviral antibodies were indeed frequent. Unexpectedly, however, we also found that AGY codons mutated often to encode nearly all of the amino acids that are reported to provide the most frequent contacts with Ag. In many cases, mutations producing codons for these alternative amino acids in antiviral antibodies were more frequent than those producing Arg codons. Mutations producing each of these key amino acids required only single-base changes in AGY. AGY is the only codon group in which two-thirds of random mutations generate codons for these key residues. Finally, by directly analyzing X-ray structures of immune complexes from the RCSB protein database, we found that Ag-contact residues generated via SHM occurred more often at AGY than at any other codon group. Thus, preservation of AGY codons in antibody genes appears to have been
Gaber, R F; Culbertson, M R
A genetic approach has been used to establish the molecular basis of 4-base codon recognition by frameshift suppressor tRNA containing an extra nucleotide in the anticodon. We have isolated all possible base substitution mutations at the position 4 (N) in the 3'-CCCN-5' anticodon of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae frameshift suppressor glycine tRNA encoded by the SUF16 gene. Base substitutions at +1 frameshift sites in the his4 gene have also been obtained such that all possible 4-base 5'-GGGN-3' codons have been identified. By testing for suppression in different strains that collectively represent all 16 possible combinations of position 4 nucleotides, we show that frameshift suppression does not require position 4 base pairing. Nonetheless, position 4 interactions influence the efficiency of suppression. Our results suggest a model in which 4-base translocation of mRNA on the ribosome is directed primarily by the number of nucleotides in the anticodon loop, whereas the resulting efficiency of suppression is dependent on the nature of position 4 nucleotides. Images PMID:6390183