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Sample records for coffee enema-induced colitis

  1. Coffee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-22

    ISS043E128431 (04/22/2015) --- The International Space Station employs one of the most complex water recycling systems ever designed, reclaiming waste water from astronauts and the environment and turning it into potable water. NASA astronaut Scott Kelly tweeted out this image of part of the innovative device with this remark: " Recycle Good to the last drop! Making pee potable and turning it into coffee on @space station. #NoPlaceLikeHome"

  2. Randomised clinical trial: a herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee charcoal compared with mesalazine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis--a double-blind, double-dummy study.

    PubMed

    Langhorst, J; Varnhagen, I; Schneider, S B; Albrecht, U; Rueffer, A; Stange, R; Michalsen, A; Dobos, G J

    2013-09-01

    The herbal treatment with myrrh, dry extract of chamomile flowers and coffee charcoal has anti-inflammatory and antidiarrhoeal potential and might benefit patients with UC. Aminosalicylates are used as standard treatment for maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). To compare the efficacy of the two treatments in maintaining remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. We performed a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy study over a 12-month period in patients with UC. Primary endpoint was non-inferiority of the herbal preparation as defined by mean Clinical Colitis Activity Index (CAI-Rachmilewitz). Secondary endpoints were relapse rates, safety profile, relapse-free times, endoscopic activity and faecal biomarkers. A total of 96 patients (51 female) with inactive UC were included. Mean CAI demonstrated no significant difference between the two treatment groups in the intention-to-treat (P = 0.121) or per-protocol (P = 0.251) analysis. Relapse rates in total were 22/49 patients (45%) in the mesalazine treatment group and 25/47 patients (53%) in the herbal treatment group (P = 0.540). Safety profile and tolerability were good and no significant differences were shown in relapse-free time, endoscopy and faecal biomarkers. The herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile extract and coffee charcoal is well tolerated and shows a good safety profile. We found first evidence for a potential efficacy non-inferior to the gold standard therapy mesalazine, which merits further study of its clinical usefulness in maintenance therapy of patients with ulcerative colitis. EudraCT-Number 2007-007928-18. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ulcerative colitis care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Ulcerative colitis symptoms can vary, depending on the severity of inflammation ... children, failure to grow Most people with ulcerative colitis have mild to moderate symptoms. The course of ulcerative colitis may vary, with ...

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... colitis URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000259.htm Pseudomembranous colitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pseudomembranous colitis refers to swelling or inflammation of ...

  5. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... of coffee beans reduces amounts of the chemical chlorogenic acid. Therefore, green coffee beans have a higher level of chlorogenic acid compared to regular, roasted coffee beans. Chlorogenic acid ...

  6. Ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - ... Clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of nonhospitalized ulcerative colitis: the Toronto consensus. Gastroenterology . ...

  7. Distinct kinetics in the frequency of peripheral CD4+ T cells in patients with ulcerative colitis experiencing a flare during treatment with mesalazine or with a herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile, and coffee charcoal.

    PubMed

    Langhorst, Jost; Frede, Annika; Knott, Markus; Pastille, Eva; Buer, Jan; Dobos, Gustav J; Westendorf, Astrid M

    2014-01-01

    We found the first evidence of the efficacy of a herbal treatment with myrrh, dry extract of chamomile flowers, and coffee charcoal for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the impact of the herbal treatment on the CD4+ T-cell compartment, which is essential for both the induction of UC and the maintenance of tolerance in the gut, is not well understood. To analyze the frequency and functional phenotype of CD4+ T cells and of immune-suppressive CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells (Tregs) in healthy control subjects, patients with UC in remission, and patients with clinical flare of UC. Patients in clinical remission were treated with either mesalazine or the herbal preparation for 12 months. The frequencies of whole CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25med effector T cells, and Tregs and the expression of Foxp3 within the CD4+CD25hig Tregs were determined by flow cytometry at 6 time points. We determined the suppressive capability of Tregs from healthy control subjects and from patients in remission or clinical flare. A total of 79 patients (42 women, 37 men; mean age, 48.5 years; 38 with clinical flare) and 5 healthy control subjects were included in the study. At baseline the frequencies of whole CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25med effector cells, and Tregs did not differ between the two treatment groups and the healthy control subjects. In addition, patients with UC in sustained clinical remission showed no alteration from baseline after 1, 3, 6, 9, or 12 months of either treatment. In contrast, CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25med effector T cells, and Tregs demonstrated distinctly different patterns at time points pre-flare and flare. The mesalazine group showed a continuous but not statistically significant increase from baseline to pre-flare and flare (p = ns). In the herbal treatment group, however, the percentage of the CD4+ T cells was lower at pre-flare than at baseline. This decrease was completely reversed after flare, when a significant increase was seen (CD4+CD25med pre-flare/flare p

  8. Distinct Kinetics in the Frequency of Peripheral CD4+ T Cells in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Experiencing a Flare during Treatment with Mesalazine or with a Herbal Preparation of Myrrh, Chamomile, and Coffee Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Langhorst, Jost; Frede, Annika; Knott, Markus; Pastille, Eva; Buer, Jan; Dobos, Gustav J.; Westendorf, Astrid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background We found the first evidence of the efficacy of a herbal treatment with myrrh, dry extract of chamomile flowers, and coffee charcoal for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the impact of the herbal treatment on the CD4+ T-cell compartment, which is essential for both the induction of UC and the maintenance of tolerance in the gut, is not well understood. Aim To analyze the frequency and functional phenotype of CD4+ T cells and of immune-suppressive CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells (Tregs) in healthy control subjects, patients with UC in remission, and patients with clinical flare of UC. Methods Patients in clinical remission were treated with either mesalazine or the herbal preparation for 12 months. The frequencies of whole CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25med effector T cells, and Tregs and the expression of Foxp3 within the CD4+CD25hig Tregs were determined by flow cytometry at 6 time points. We determined the suppressive capability of Tregs from healthy control subjects and from patients in remission or clinical flare. Results A total of 79 patients (42 women, 37 men; mean age, 48.5 years; 38 with clinical flare) and 5 healthy control subjects were included in the study. At baseline the frequencies of whole CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25med effector cells, and Tregs did not differ between the two treatment groups and the healthy control subjects. In addition, patients with UC in sustained clinical remission showed no alteration from baseline after 1, 3, 6, 9, or 12 months of either treatment. In contrast, CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25medeffector T cells, and Tregs demonstrated distinctly different patterns at time points pre-flare and flare. The mesalazine group showed a continuous but not statistically significant increase from baseline to pre-flare and flare (p = ns). In the herbal treatment group, however, the percentage of the CD4+ T cells was lower at pre-flare than at baseline. This decrease was completely reversed after flare, when a significant increase was seen (CD4

  9. Pseudomembranous Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Priya D.; Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Tang, Derek M.; von Rosenvinge, Erik C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon characterized by elevated yellow-white plaques that coalesce to form pseudomembranes on the mucosa. Patients with the condition commonly present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and leukocytosis. Because pseudomembranous colitis is often associated with C. difficile infection, stool testing and empiric antibiotic treatment should be initiated when suspected. When results of C. difficile testing are negative and symptoms persist despite escalating empiric treatment, early gastroenterology consultation and lower endoscopy would be the next step in the appropriate clinical setting. If pseudomembranous colitis is confirmed endoscopically, colonic biopsies should be obtained, as histology can offer helpful clues to the underlying diagnosis. The less common non-C. difficile causes of pseudomembranous colitis should be entertained, as a number of etiologies can result in this condition. Examples include Behcet’s disease, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, other infections organisms (e.g. bacteria, parasites, viruses), and a handful of drugs and toxins. Pinpointing the correct underlying etiology would better direct patient care and disease management. Surgical specialists would be most helpful in colonic perforation, gangrenous colon, or severe disease. PMID:25769243

  10. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis and episcleritis associated with poorly controlled ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Jeffrey J; Adams, Megan; Trevino, Julian

    2017-01-30

    A man aged 56 years with a history of ulcerative colitis (UC) status postsubtotal colectomy was hospitalised with fevers, dry cough, eye redness and a new bloody, mucoid rectal discharge. 2 months prior to admission, the dermatologist had started him on dapsone for subcorneal pustular dermatosis but did not recognise that he had recently self-discontinued mesalamine enemas, inducing a flare of his UC. After a thorough inpatient evaluation, including flexible sigmoidoscopy, active UC involving the rectal stump was determined to be driving his dermatological and ophthalmological findings. By reinstituting mesalamine enemas, control of his UC was achieved and the extraintestinal manifestations of his inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resolved. This case illustrates the importance of careful history taking and of early recognition of extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in order to appropriately target treatment and prevent unnecessary morbidity. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Coffee intake.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ischemic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Montessori, Gino; Liepa, Egils V.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty cases of ischemic colitis are reviewed; 19 were obtained from autopsy files and the diagnosis in one was made from a surgical specimen. The majority of the patients were elderly with generalized arteriosclerosis. In approximately two-thirds of the patients the ischemic colitis was precipitated by preceding trauma, operation or congestive heart failure. Clinically, ischemic colitis is characterized by abdominal pain, distension and bleeding per rectum. Perforation of large bowel may occur. The lesions tend to be localized around the splenic flexure and junction of the descending and sigmoid colon, and in cases following aortic graft surgery the rectum is involved. Microscopically, there is necrosis, hemorrhage and ulceration. In less severe cases the mucosa only is affected. Cases with perforation show necrosis of all layers. It is considered that ischemic colitis is comparatively frequent and should be distinguished from other inflammatory conditions of the colon. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:5308923

  13. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... colitis is most common in North America and Western Europe; however the prevalence is increasing in other ... 3 links) Encyclopedia: Ulcerative Colitis Encyclopedia: Ulcerative Colitis (Image) Health Topic: Ulcerative Colitis Additional NIH Resources (1 ...

  14. Microscopic colitis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Veress, B; Löfberg, R; Bergman, L

    1995-01-01

    The colorectal biopsy specimens from 30 patients with chronic watery diarrhoea but normal endoscopic and radiographic findings were studied by light microscopy, morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and two patients with electron microscopy. The histological changes in the colorectum were originally diagnosed in six patients as lymphocytic colitis and in 24 patients as collagenous colitis. The analysis of the specimens for this study could delineate three distinct groups of microscopic colitis: lymphocytic colitis (six patients), collagenous colitis without lymphocytic attack on the surface epithelium (seven patients), and a mixed form presenting with both thickening of the collagen plate and increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (17 patients). No transformation was seen from one type to another during follow up of six patients for four to seven years. Increased numbers of active pericryptal myofibroblasts were found with the electron microscope in one patient with mixed microscopic colitis showing also myofibroblasts entrapped within the collagen layer. Hitherto undescribed flat mucosa of the ileum was found in one patient with lymphocytic colitis and both flat mucosa and thickening of the collagen plate in the ileum were seen in one patient with the mixed form of the disease. In another patient with mixed microscopic colitis, normalisation of the colorectal morphology occurred after temporary loop ileostomy, followed by the reappearance of both diarrhoea, inflammation, and thickening of the collagen plate after the ileostomy was reversed. No association was found between non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption and collagenous or mixed microscopic colitis. The primary cause of microscopic colitis is probably an immunological reaction to luminal antigen/s, perhaps of ileal origin. The engagement of the pericryptal myofibroblasts in the disease process might result in the development of the various forms of microscopic colitis. An inverse

  15. Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

    PubMed

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  17. Lubiprostone induced ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Samo, Salih; Deepak, Parakkal; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2013-01-14

    Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of the causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is often multifactorial and more commonly encountered in the elderly. Several medications have been implicated in the development of colonic ischemia. We report a case of a 54-year old woman who presented with a two-hour history of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. The patient had recently used lubiprostone with close temporal relationship between the increase in the dose and her symptoms of rectal bleeding. The radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her condition improved without any serious complications after the cessation of lubiprostone. This is the first reported case of ischemic colitis with a clear relationship with lubiprostone (Naranjo score of 10). Clinical vigilance for ischemic colitis is recommended for patients receiving lubiprostone who are presenting with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.

  18. Lubiprostone induced ischemic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Samo, Salih; Deepak, Parakkal; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of the causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is often multifactorial and more commonly encountered in the elderly. Several medications have been implicated in the development of colonic ischemia. We report a case of a 54-year old woman who presented with a two-hour history of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. The patient had recently used lubiprostone with close temporal relationship between the increase in the dose and her symptoms of rectal bleeding. The radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her condition improved without any serious complications after the cessation of lubiprostone. This is the first reported case of ischemic colitis with a clear relationship with lubiprostone (Naranjo score of 10). Clinical vigilance for ischemic colitis is recommended for patients receiving lubiprostone who are presenting with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding. PMID:23345954

  19. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    PubMed

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  20. Reduced Coffee Consumption Among Individuals with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis but Not Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Craig; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Xie, Xiao; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Coffee consumption has been associated with decreased risk of liver disease and related outcomes. However, coffee drinking has not been investigated among patients with cholestatic autoimmune liver diseases, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and risk of PBC and PSC in a large North American cohort. Methods Lifetime coffee drinking habits were determined from responses to questionnaires from 606 patients with PBC, 480 with PSC, and 564 healthy volunteers (controls). Patients (those with PBC or PSC) were compared to controls utilizing the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and c2 method for discrete variables. Logistic regression was used to analyze the estimate the effects of different coffee parameters (time, frequency, and type of coffee consumption) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and education level. Results Patients with PBC and controls did not differ in coffee parameters. However, 24% of patients with PSC had never drank coffee compared to 16% of controls (P<.05), and only 67% were current drinkers compared with 77% of controls (P<.05). Patients with PSC also consumed fewer lifetime cups per month (45 vs 47 for controls, P<.05) and spent a smaller percentage of their lifetime of coffee drinking coffee (46.6% vs 66.7% for controls, P<.05). These differences remained significant in a multivariate model. Among PSC patients with concurrent ulcerative colitis, coffee protected against proctocolectomy (hazard ratio=0.34, P<.001). Conclusions Coffee consumption is lower among patients with PSC, but not PBC, compared to controls. PMID:24440215

  1. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  2. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    PubMed

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  4. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  5. And coffee too.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Boehmer, J

    1982-04-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two persons aged 11 to 80 were interviewed regarding whether and why they had tried and/or used coffee, tobacco, liquor, and marijuana. The attracting and capturing power of tobacco and marijuana registered as lower than those associated with coffee and liquor. A guilt/shame index was derived from avowed motives. Trying tobacco and liquor was associated with greater guilt/shame than that associated with coffee and marijuana. Most tobacco users offered motives that indicated continued guilt/shame, while the majority of the other users expressed contentment with their habits.

  6. Patients' perceptions on the impact of coffee consumption in inflammatory bowel disease: friend or foe?--a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Christiane; Wiegand, Sandra; Scharl, Sylvie; Scharl, Michael; Frei, Pascal; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fried, Michael; Sulz, Michael Christian; Wiegand, Nico; Rogler, Gerhard; Biedermann, Luc

    2015-08-12

    Environmental factors are an integral component in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is an increasing interest in nutritive components. While the potential disease-modifying role of coffee has been intensively investigated in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, the data on the potential impact on IBD is very limited. We aimed to determine the patients' perspective on coffee consumption in IBD. We conducted a questionnaire among IBD patients in Switzerland, assessing key questions regarding coffee consumption. Descriptive statistics including chi square testing were used for analysis of questionnaire data. Among a total of 442 patients 73% regularly consume coffee. 96% of patients attributing a positive and 91% of patients attributing no impact of coffee intake on IBD regularly drink coffee and surprisingly even 49% of those patients that assign a negative impact on disease symptoms. Among those patients refraining from regular coffee intake 62% are convinced that coffee adversely influences intestinal symptoms, significantly more in Crohn's disease (CD) than in ulcerative colitis (UC) (76% vs. 44%, p = 0.002). In total, 38% of all study subjects suppose that coffee has an effect on their symptoms of disease, significantly more in CD (54%) compared to UC patients (22%, p < 0.001). Moreover, while 45% of CD patients feel that coffee has a detrimental influence, only 20% of UC patients share this impression (p < 0.001). Two thirds of IBD patients regularly consume coffee. More than twice as many CD compared to UC patients attribute a symptom-modifying effect of coffee consumption, the majority a detrimental one. However, this negative perception does not result in abstinence from coffee consumption.

  7. Psychological factors in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1984-04-01

    Almost 50 years ago ulcerative colitis was included among the seven classical psychosomatic diseases. The psychodynamics and personality structures specific to ulcerative colitis sufferers were sought and the main-stay of treatment was psychotherapy. However, for the past decade the psychogenic approach to this disorder has been replaced by physiological and immunological explanations and treatments. The history of medical and psychogenic explanations and treatments of ulcerative colitis has been traced to the present. Ulcerative colitis remains a "riddle," as it was described almost 50 years ago, a complex disorder whose pattern is to flare up and subside, its cause and cure still unknown despite almost 100 years of study.

  8. [Immunopathology of ulcerative colitis and granulomatous colitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bläker, F

    1975-08-01

    There is no convincing evidence as yet for a key role of immunological processes in the pathogenesis of unspecific colitis. However clinical findings as well as immunological data do support the hypothesis that immune reactions are involved primarily or secondarily in the pathogenesis and the clinical course of ulcerative colitis and granulomatous colitis. In such patients a specific adaptation of humoral and cell-bound immune reactions against antigenic material from the colon and other tissues has been found in peripheral blood, lymphatic tissue and bowel wall. In this context it seems to be especially noteworthy, that lymphocytes taken from patients with colitis lead to disintegration of colon epithelial cells in vitro. This cytotoxic effect of the lymphocytes is lost after colectomy or remission of the disease. Ulcerative and granulomatous colitis do have many clinical and immunological peculiarities in common. This makes one think, that possibly the same noxious factors induce differential local reactions because of different hereditary disposition.

  9. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  10. Advances in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ament, M E; Berquist, W; Vargas, J

    1988-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is one of the two common chronic inflammatory bowel diseases which affect the colon of children. The disease can occur at any time during infancy and childhood and is far commoner than Crohn's disease of the colon in children less than 6 years old. The Jewish population outside of Israel is at far greater risk of developing the condition than any other ethnic group. The reason for this is unknown. The chances of a family member developing the condition is 2-3 times as great as in the general population. The etiology of the condition remains unknown; however, recent advances in the understanding of the immune mechanisms in the bowel and circulation indicate there are major immunological differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Intestinal B cells secrete enormously increased amounts of IgG1 and a lesser increase in IgG3 in ulcerative colitis whereas in Crohn's disease, all IgG subclasses are increased, but especially IgG2. Failure of the gut immune system to control antigen crossing the colonic mucosa may be the basis for the condition. The disease is classified as moderate to severe two thirds of children as opposed to less than one third of adults. Diagnostic testing must include 3 stool cultures negative for bacterial and viral pathogens, 3 stools negative for amebiasis, trichuriasis and other intestinal parasites and absence of clostridium difficile and its toxin in the stool. Flexible proctosigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy should be done in every case with biopsies. Barium enema is contraindicated in the severely ill patient. Major improvements in medical treatment being tested involve the development of nonabsorbable corticosteroid enemas and sulfapyridene-free forms of salicylazosulfapyridene for use in enema and oral form. Surgery for ulcerative colitis has made major advances with the development of the Koch pouch (internal ileostomy) and ileoproctostomy. Both procedures although associated with relatively high

  11. The solar-coffee connection

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, G.

    2000-04-01

    Coffee connoisseurs, when they quaff a cup of coffee or enjoy a jug of joe, don't generally consider the costs to the environment of their favorite beverage. But the fact is that traditional coffee production is hard on the environment, exacting a toll on the native forests and waterways of Central America and on the migratory birds of the western hemisphere. Coffee growing is the second greatest cause of rainforest destruction after cattle ranching, because a lot of trees are cut down to dry the freshly-picked coffee crop. But espresso-sipping environmentalists and an eco-conscious Joe Public can take comfort inmore » a promising new connection between solar energy and rainforest-friendly coffee--solar-dried coffee. And they can take pleasure in it too, because solar-dried coffee, according to virtually everyone who tries it, is the best-tasting coffee made. Considering that coffee is the second most-traded commodity next to oil, and the second most popular beverage in the world next to water, consumed by billions of people, any new process that reduces the environmental damage occasioned by coffee-growing and processing is significant.« less

  12. Diverticular colitis of the ascending colon preceding the onset of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Tetsu; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-06-30

    We present a case of diverticular colitis of the ascending colon preceding the onset of ulcerative colitis. A 58-year-old man presented with positive faecal occult blood test. Colonoscopy disclosed diverticular colitis of the ascending colon. After a year's follow-up, typical ulcerative colitis developed and diverticular colitis improved. Diverticular colitis is a newly established disorder of chronic segmental mucosal inflammation affected by diverticular disease. There is increasing recognition of such cases with diverticular colitis preceding ulcerative colitis. There may be a possible pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  14. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    ScienceCinema

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2018-01-16

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  15. [Topical therapy of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Rogler, G; Beglinger, C; Mottet, C; Seibold, F; Gross, V

    2011-11-16

    The availability of new topical preparations for the treatment of left sided ulcerative colitis ulcerosa offers a therapy optimization for many patients. Rectal application of steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is associated with fewer side effects and has a higher therapeutic efficacy in mild to moderate-active left-sided colitis as compared to a systemic therapy. Often it is argued that the patients' compliance is insufficient with a rectal therapy. However, with sufficient information on the proven advantages this is usually not the case. The rectal application of drugs in distal ulcerative colitis is suitable also for the maintenance of remission. Therefore the new therapy guidelines recommend topical therapy more than in former times. Subsequently, these manuscripts focussed specifically on the topical therapy of distal colitis, to elucidate that clear treatment advantages are present in daily practice.

  16. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p < 0.05). Caffeine in water had no effects on hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  17. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  18. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Fitton, J. Helen; Patel, Rahul P.; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore

  19. Autoimmune thyroid disease with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Modebe, O

    1986-06-01

    Two cases of co-existing thyroid disease and ulcerative colitis are reported. Thyroid disorder preceded ulcerative colitis in each case. The presence of acute colitis delayed and obscured the clinical diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in one case and the colitis could not be controlled until her thyrotoxicosis was treated. Although the specific factors involved in this relationship are now known, an interplay of immunological factors is most probable.

  20. [Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Pavlović-Calić, Nada

    2003-01-01

    There is an enigma of inflammatory bowel diseases, despite significant advantages during last 10 years in medicamentous and surgical treatment. Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are chronic with remissions and recidives. Crohns disease involves any part of digestive tube. Histological changes in ulcerative colitis are: inflammation of mucosa and submucosal tissue, crypt abscesses and ulcerations, pseudopolpys, bowel shortening and toxic megacolon in severe inflammation. In Crohns disease, transmural inflammation, "jumping lesions", deeper ulcerations, coble-stone mucosa, progressive fibrosis, granuloma with gigantic epithelial cells. ulcerative colitis: mesalazine, rectal 5-ASA and hydrocortisone enemas, surgery. Crohns disease: mesalazine and prednisolone. For terminal ilcitis, corticosteroid budesonid could be applied. Severe symptomatic disease: hospitalization, parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, prednisone, surgery in partial bowel obstruction, fistulas, abscessus, perforation.

  1. Surgical management of Crohn's colitis.

    PubMed

    Moir, Christopher R

    2007-08-01

    Crohn's disease in childhood is changing. The incidence is increasing, colonic disease is becoming more prevalent in younger children, and colon reconstruction is more acceptable. Genetic phenotypes are influencing decisions for surgery, and targeted immunotherapy has renewed hope for more durable remissions following less extensive resections. The tasks facing the surgeon evaluating a child with Crohn's colitis include confirming the specific diagnostic subtype and selecting the correct procedure. This chapter will review the unique aspects of pediatric Crohn's colitis and the increased complexity of surgical choice for this most challenging presentation. Recent success with less extensive surgery offers renewed hope for children with intractable colonic disease.

  2. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    PubMed

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  3. Behavioral Treatment of Mucous Colitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youell, Katherine J.; McCullough, James P.

    1975-01-01

    A 22-year-old female graduate student who suffered colitis attacks at the onset of therapy was apparently successfully treated by a procedure in which the therapist labeled antecedent stress events that appeared to be precipitating the attacks. The client was then taught a behavioral coping strategy to counter the stress events. (Author)

  4. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  5. [Coffee can protect against disease].

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, Kasper; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Tjønneland, Anne Marie

    2012-09-24

    A moderate daily intake of 3-4 cups of coffee has convincing protective effects against development of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The literature also indicates that moderate coffee intake reduces the risk of stroke, the overall risk of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, suicide and depression. However, pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety disorder and persons with a low calcium intake should restrain from moderate or high intake of coffee due to uncertainty regarding potential negative effects on pregnancy, anxiety and risk of osteoporosis, respectively.

  6. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  7. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-02

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Open Science- Space Coffee Cup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-11

    In low-gravity environments like the space station, fluids tend to get ‘sticky.’ Surface tension and capillary effects, which are overwhelmed by gravity on Earth, rule the day in space. As a result, coffee tends to cling to the walls of the cup. The zero-G coffee cup solves these problems by 'going with the flow': putting the strange behavior of fluid in microgravity to work.

  9. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  10. Use of Budesonide in the Treatment of Microscopic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tangri, Vikram; Chande, Nilesh

    2010-01-01

    Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, the two types of microscopic colitis, cause watery diarrhea. Budesonide, a glucocorticoid medication with limited systemic availability, is commonly used to treat these illnesses. Budesonide has proven efficacy in the induction of clinical remission in both collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Budesonide is effective as a maintenance drug for patients with collagenous colitis, but has not been studied for this indication in patients with lymphocytic colitis. This drug improves quality of life in patients while causing few mild adverse events. Budesonide is an effective treatment of microscopic colitis that is safe and well tolerated. PMID:20616427

  11. Ulcerative colitis masked by giant urticaria.

    PubMed

    Caroselli, C; Plocco, M; Pratticò, F; Bruno, C; Antonaglia, C; Rota, F; Curreli, I; Caroselli, A; Bruno, G

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of giant urticaria and ulcerative colitis is very infrequent. A 23 year-old female reported the initial eruption of short-lived cutaneous itchy weals on her arms. Then lesions ran together and became confluent, extending to her legs, followed by undefined abdominal pain and a slight increase of body temperature. Exams showed hystologically confirmed ulcerative colitis, with perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity. Ulcerative colitis therapy led not only to the remission of the colitic symptoms, but also to the prompt recovery of skin manifestations. Urticaria was the epiphenomenon of ulcerative colitis.

  12. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Studies of acrylamide level in coffee and coffee substitutes: influence of raw material and manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A

  14. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  15. Good news for coffee addicts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    Whether it's a basic Mr. Coffee or a gadget that sports a snazzy device for grinding beans on demand, the office coffee machine offers a place for serendipitous encounters that can improve the social aspect of work and generate new ideas. What's more, a steaming cup of joe may be as good for your health as it is for the bottom line, says Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the CEO of Partners Community HealthCare. Fears of coffee's carcinogenic effects now appear to be unfounded, and, in fact, the brew might even protect against some types of cancer. What's more, coffee may guard against Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia and somehow soften the blow of a heart attack. Of course, its role as a pick-me-up is well known. So there's no need to take your coffee with a dollop of guilt, especially if you ease up on the sugar, cream, double chocolate, and whipped-cream topping.

  16. Microscopic colitis: the tip of the iceberg?

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Paul A; Levi, A Jonathen; Domizio, Paula; Talbot, Ian C; Forbes, Alastair; Price, Ashley B

    2002-11-01

    The aims were to determine whether a wide variation exists between hospitals in the diagnosis of microscopic colitis and to assimilate clinical data. Retrospective study of 90 patients with microscopic colitis aged between 16 and 92 years from 11 hospitals in south-east England. A questionnaire was designed to collect relevant data from all patients in whom a new diagnosis of microscopic colitis had been made at the source hospital between January 1990 and December 1996. The inclusion criteria were presentation with watery diarrhoea, a normal endoscopy and a histological report of microscopic colitis. Histology slides were then requested and reviewed. Clinical data were analysed with reference to the confirmed diagnosis. The number of patients diagnosed at each hospital ranged between zero and 30, with a median of six. Sixty-eight patients had histological slides reviewed. The numbers of patients with a final reviewed diagnosis of collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis and microscopic colitis, type undesignated, were 37, 18 and seven respectively. In thirty-one patients (34%) there was a recent history of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These data confirm that there is wide hospital variation in the diagnosis of microscopic colitis. Furthermore, the small group with the undesignated type may be associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Toward systems epidemiology of coffee and health.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.

  18. Plasma cytokine levels in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Goral, Vedat; Celenk, Tahir; Kaplan, Abdurahman; Sit, Dede

    2007-06-01

    Some immunological factors are responsible in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. There is a relationship between cytokines and ulcerative colitis. In this study 20 ulcerative colitis patients (mean age 36.2 years old, 9 women, 11 men) and 20 healthy control groups (mean age 27.2 years old, 11 women, 9 men) were involved in the study. We established that IL-2Rsp, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were different at the patients and control groups (p < 0.005). TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta were similar at the both groups. According to these results, IL-2Rsp, IL-6, 11-8 and IL-10 play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. We consider that these cytokines are beneficial parameters in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ulcerative colitis.

  19. Current and emerging biologics for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2015-01-01

    Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are be-ing investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, infliximab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are be-ing used for treating ulcerative colitis. Recently, golimumab, another anti-TNF agent, and vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion therapy, have been approved for ulcerative colitis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, new medications such as tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, and etrolizumab, another anti-adhesion therapy, are emerging as therapeutic agents. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to select appropriate patient groups for these biologics and to improve the outcomes of ulcerative colitis treatment through appropriate medical usage.

  20. Ulcerative colitis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Koulentaki, M; Koutroubakis, I E; Petinaki, E; Tzardi, M; Oekonomaki, H; Mouzas, I; Kouroumalis, E A

    1999-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis and ulcerative colitis are two diseases with many features of autoimmunity. Thirteen cases of coexistence of the two diseases have been reported in the literature so far. Patients are usually younger and more often males than the ordinary primary biliary cirrhosis patient, while the colitis is mild and easily controllable. In a homogeneous population of 550,000 inhabitants of the island of Crete, 412 cases of ulcerative colitis and 82 individuals with primary biliary cirrhosis or autoimmune cholangitis have been identified. In two cases, coexistence of the two diseases was found. Immunological screening for AMA positivity in 150 ulcerative colitis sera disclosed no further cases. Prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis in ulcerative colitis patients seems at least 30 times higher than in the general population in our area. A possible immunological link between the two diseases is discussed.

  1. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current and Emerging Biologics for Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2015-01-01

    Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are being investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, infliximab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are being used for treating ulcerative colitis. Recently, golimumab, another anti-TNF agent, and vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion therapy, have been approved for ulcerative colitis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, new medications such as tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, and etrolizumab, another anti-adhesion therapy, are emerging as therapeutic agents. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to select appropriate patient groups for these biologics and to improve the outcomes of ulcerative colitis treatment through appropriate medical usage. PMID:25547087

  3. Study of a Monoclonal Antibody KHK4083 in Moderate Ulcerative Colitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-15

    Ulcerative Colitis; Digestive System Diseases; Colitis, Ulcerative; Colitis; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Colonic Diseases; Autoimmune Disease; Abdominal Pain

  4. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  5. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes

    PubMed Central

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413

  6. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  7. Gastroduodenitis associated with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kazutoshi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Nakano, Hiroki; Uchino, Motoi; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Hida, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is regarded as confined to the colorectum; however, there are several case reports showing upper gastrointestinal involvement. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of gastroduodenitis associated with UC (GDUC). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies was prospectively performed on 250 UC patients (134 men, 116 women; mean age, 42 years; 162 with colectomy, 163 with pancolitis). Criteria for GDUC were created on the basis of endoscopic and histological comparisons with non-UC controls, and the prevalence and characteristics were statistically analyzed. GDUC was defined endoscopically as friable mucosa (erosive or ulcerative mucosa with contact or spontaneous bleeding), granular mucosa (multiple white spots almost without a red halo), or, conditionally, multiple aphthae (multiple white spots surrounded by a red halo, clinically excluding other disorders such as Crohn's disease). The prevalence of GDUC was 19/250 (7.6%). The clinical characteristics included more extensive colitis, lower dose of prednisolone, higher prevalence of pouchitis, and longer postoperative period. In our population, the presence of pancolitis and a lower dose of prednisolone were significant risk factors for developing GDUC in multivariate analysis. The high prevalence of GDUC suggests that the gut inflammatory reaction in UC may not be restricted to the large intestine. Administered steroids might conceal GDUC, and more aggressive UC such as active pancolitis may be related to the development of GDUC.

  8. Factors precipitating acute ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Puri, A S; Chaubal, C C; Midha, Vandana

    2014-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation of a variable length of the colon starting from the rectum. The precise etiopathogenesis is unknown but it occurs in genetically susceptible individuals who manifest an abnormal immunological response against gut commensal bacteria. The disease course is-characterized by multiple spontaneous relapses and remissions. Two pathogens namely CMV and C. difficile have been associated with disease exacerbation in specific clinical situations. Whereas C. difficile may produce worsening of the disease in those exposed to broad spectrum antibiotics, CMV reactivation is seen only in patients with moderate to severe steroid refractory disease. The importance of these two super-infections can be gauged by the fact that both the ACG and the ECCO recommend testing for these two pathogens in appropriate clinical situations. The applicability of these guidelines in the Indian scenario has yet to be determined in view of the bacterial and parasitic infections endemic in tropical countries. The guidelines for diagnosis and management of these two super-infections in the presence of ulcerative colitis are discussed in this review.

  9. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  10. Say goodbye to coffee stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak Eral, H.; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2012-04-01

    Discussing ideas over a mug of coffee or tea is the lifeblood of science, but have you ever thought about the stains that can be inadvertently left behind? H Burak Eral, Dirk van den Ende and Frieder Mugele explain how these stains, which can be a major annoyance in some biology techniques, can be altered for the better using a technique called electrowetting.

  11. [Genetic and immunological basis for ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2005-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon. Results from many studies in people and animals of intestinal inflammation suggest that ulcerative colitis results from environmental factors triggering a loss of tolerance for normal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Although progress has been made in the overall management of the disease, there are few clinical data on biological agents in contrast to Crohn' s disease. Here, we discuss the genetic and immunological basis of ulcerative colitis including the recent findings.

  12. CMV colitis in early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, P R; Glynn, M; Sheaff, M; Aitken, C

    2000-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a well recognized complication of advanced HIV disease and is only rarely diagnosed in patients with normal immune function. A case of CMV colitis occurring in early HIV infection is described. Although CMV infection is normally confined to patients with advanced HIV disease, it is possible that a number of contributing factors may have led to clinical disease in this patient. CMV colitis is an important diagnosis to consider in all patients who present with a diarrhoeal illness associated with systemic features, regardless of underlying immunosuppression.

  13. [Cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent young male].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Eva; Grønbaek, Karin; Linnemann, Dorte

    2009-04-06

    A healthy young man was hospitalized due to fever, malaise and bloody stools for three weeks. The patient had a primary CMV infection based on biochemical, serological and ultrasonic results, and a colonoscopy was consistent with left-sided CMV colitis. He recovered spontaneously, though haematochezia remained present after six months. Development of IBD subsequent to CMV colitis has previously been described, and is now suspected in our patient. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with fever, elevated liver enzymes and bloody stools.

  14. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    PubMed

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717

  16. Overview on the mechanisms of coffee germination and fermentation and their significance for coffee and coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V

    2017-01-22

    Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.

  17. The economics of adalimumab for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.

  18. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Min; Zeng, Lu; Li, Lin-Jing; Mo, Li-Hua; Xie, Rui-Di; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules. After treating with SIT and CB, the clinical symptoms of UC were markedly suppressed as shown by reduced truncated Mayo scores and medication scores. The serum levels of specific IgE, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed. Treating with SIT alone or CB alone did not show appreciable improvement of the clinical symptoms of UC. UC with food allergy can be ameliorated by administration with SIT and butyrate-production probiotics.

  20. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  1. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  3. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  4. What every dentist should know about coffee.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging.

  5. Furan in roasted, ground and brewed coffee

    PubMed

    Gruczyńska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Majewska, Ewa; Tarnowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular hot beverage in the world. The annual coffee production in 2010, 2014 and 2016 was 8.1, 9.0 and 9.3 million tons respectively. There are more than 100 coffee species, but only two of them: Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) have gained commercial importance. During roasting of green coffee beans not only desirable compounds are formed, that exert positive influence on the taste and flavour of coffee, but also small quantities of undesirable ones. Furan (C4H4O) is one of the latter. Furan is a volatile compound (boiling temp. of 31.4 oC) formed during thermal processing of food. The toxicity of furan has been well documented and it is classified as “possible human carcinogen” (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for furan formation during food processing. It can be formed from carbohydrates, amino acids by their thermal degradation or thermal re-arrangement and by oxidation of ascorbic acid and polyunsaturated acids and carotenoids. High concentrations of furan have been reported in coffee, baked and roasted food and in food subjected to preserving in cans and jars. Furan levels in brewed coffee are typically near or below 120 μg/L, but it can approach thousands μg/kg in roasted whole beans or ground coffee. The highest concentration of furan in roasted coffee reaches the level of 7000 μg/kg. Taking into account that coffee is the most popular hot drink, it becomes the main contributor to furan exposure from dietary sources for adults. In this article the published scientific papers concerned with the presence of furan in roasted non-brewed and brewed coffee have been reviewed. The formation mechanisms and occurrence of furan in coffee and the harmful influence of furan on the consumer health have been discussed.

  6. Methamphetamine colitis: a rare case of ischemic colitis in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Stefan D; Hassinger, James P; Dozois, Eric J; Masuoka, Howard C

    2009-08-01

    Worldwide, methamphetamine (ie, "crystal meth") abuse is increasing, and is especially prevalent in rural America. However, ischemic colitis secondary to methamphetamine abuse has rarely been reported. We describe the case of a young man who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of ischemic colitis.

  7. Plant biochemistry: a naturally decaffeinated arabica coffee.

    PubMed

    Silvarolla, Maria B; Mazzafera, Paulo; Fazuoli, Luiz C

    2004-06-24

    The adverse side effects of caffeine have increased the market for decaffeinated coffee to about 10% of coffee consumption worldwide (http://www.ncausa.org), despite the loss of key flavour compounds in the industrial decaffeinating process. We have discovered a naturally decaffeinated Coffea arabica plant from Ethiopia, a species normally recognized for the high quality of its beans. It should be possible to transfer this trait to commercial varieties of arabica coffee plants by intraspecific hybridization--a process likely to be simpler than an interspecific hybridization strategy, which could require more than 30 years of breeding to fix the decaffeinated trait and would probably result in an inferior cup of coffee.

  8. Usefulness of colonoscopy in ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Maya, M; Ponferrada-Díaz, A; González-Asanza, C; Nogales-Rincón, O; Senent-Sánchez, C; Pérez-de-Ayala, V; Jiménez-Aleixandre, P; Cos-Arregui, E; Menchén-Fernández-Pacheco, P

    2010-07-01

    the ischemic colitis is intestinal the most frequent cause of ischemia. With this work we determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the usefulness of the colonoscopy in the patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed in our centre in relation to a change of therapeutic attitude. retrospective study in which were selected 112 patients diagnosed with ischemic colitis by colonoscopy and biopsy, in a period of five years. It was analyzed: age, sex, reason for examination, factors of cardiovascular risk, endoscopic degree of ischemia, change in the therapeutic attitude, treatment and outcome. the average age was of 73.64 + or - 12.10 years with an equal incidence in women (50.9%) and the men (49.1%). The associated factors were the HTA (61.1%), tobacco (37.2%) and antecedents of cardiovascular episode (52.2%). The most frequent reason for colonoscopy was rectorrhagia (53.6%) followed of the abdominal pain (30.4%), being urgent the 65.3%. Colonoscopy allowed a change in the therapeutic attitude in the 50 increasing in the urgent one to the 65.75%. Global mortality was of 27.67%. The serious ischemic colitis (25%) was more frequent in men (64.3%) in urgent indication (85.71%) and attends with high mortality (53.57%). Surgical treatment in the 57.14% was made with a good evolution in the 50%, whereas the patients with mild or moderate ischemic colitis had a better prognosis (favourable evolution in 80.95%) with smaller requirement of the surgical treatment (4.76%), p < 0.05. the colitis ischemic are more frequent in the older age. The most frequent symptoms are the rectorrhagia and the abdominal pain. The colonoscopy is a useful technique to evaluate the gravity and it induces a change of attitude according to the result of the same one. The evidence of a serious colitis supposed an increase of the necessity of surgery and worse prognosis.

  9. Surgery for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... output and control diarrhea. These foods include applesauce, bananas, or peanut butter. The psychological implications of a ... Buttermilk Coffee Applesauce Beets Cranberry juice Cooked fruits Bananas Food coloring Orange juice Cooked vegetables Boiled rice ...

  10. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  12. Unusual complication of toxic megacolon in typhoid colitis.

    PubMed

    Arun Babu, Thirunavukkarasu; Ananthakrishnan, Shanthi; Jayakumar, P; Kullu, Poonam

    2014-05-01

    Colitis is a rare manifestation of enteric fever in children. Toxic megacolon complicating typhoid colitis is even rarer and requires early recognition and aggressive management due to the high mortality associated with this condition. The authors report a rare case of Toxic megacolon secondary to typhoid colitis in a seven-year-old girl.

  13. Ulcerative colitis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment.

    PubMed

    Griffel, L H; Das, K M

    1996-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that affects the rectum and a variable length of contiguous colon. The disease is characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea during periods of exacerbation; these symptoms usually abate with treatment. The pathogenic mechanism of ulcerative colitis is believed to be an aberrant immune response in which antibodies are formed against colonic epithelial protein(s). The disease usually presents during the second and third decades of life, with a smaller peak after the age of 60 years. There is a genetic component to ulcerative colitis, with a higher incidence among family members and, particularly, first-degree relatives. Diagnosis depends on several factors, most notably symptoms, demonstration of uniformly inflamed mucosa beginning in the rectum, and exclusion of other causes of colitis, such as infection. There is no medical cure for ulcerative colitis, but medical therapy is effective and can improve or eliminate symptoms in more than 80% of patients. Surgery offers a cure but carries the high price of total colectomy. New surgical methods, such as ileoanal anastomosis, allow for maintenance of bowel continuity and better patient satisfaction.

  14. Differential Angiogenic Regulation of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chidlow, John H.; Langston, Will; Greer, James J.M.; Ostanin, Dmitry; Abdelbaqi, Maisoun; Houghton, Jeffery; Senthilkumar, Annamalai; Shukla, Deepti; Mazar, Andrew P.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract with unknown multifactorial etiology that, among other things, result in alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal microvasculature. Clinical observations of increased colon microvascular density during IBD have been made. However, there have been no reports investigating the physiological or pathological importance of angiogenic stimulation during the development of intestinal inflammation. Here we report that the dextran sodium sulfate and CD4+CD45RBhigh T-cell transfer models of colitis stimulate angiogenesis that results in increased blood vessel density concomitant with increased histopathology, suggesting that the neovasculature contributes to tissue damage during colitis. We also show that leukocyte infiltration is an obligatory requirement for the stimulation of angiogenesis. The angiogenic response during experimental colitis was differentially regulated in that the production of various angiogenic mediators was diverse between the two models with only a small group of molecules being similarly controlled. Importantly, treatment with the anti-angiogenic agent thalidomide or ATN-161 significantly reduced angiogenic activity and associated tissue histopathology during experimental colitis. Our findings identify a direct pathological link between angiogenesis and the development of experimental colitis, representing a novel therapeutic target for IBD. PMID:17148665

  15. Ischemic colitis related to sumatriptan overuse.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Joshua A; Hodge, Katherine D

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin-1 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 1) receptor agonists are first line agents for migraine headaches. Patients with refractory headaches may use supratherapeutic doses of these medications. Described is a case of ischemic colitis related to overuse of sumatriptan. A 35-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain without diarrhea or hematochezia. For several days prior she had been self-treating a refractory migraine headache with frequent doses of sumatriptan. She is a nonsmoker and took no oral contraceptives or other serotonin agonists. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed left-sided colitis. A colonoscopy with biopsy confirmed ischemic colitis and excluded inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previously published case reports have suggested an association between 5-HT 1 receptor agonists and ischemic colitis. These reports have been dismissed because the patients were taking oral contraceptives, serotonin agonists, or had other comorbidities. This healthy patient lacked risk factors for ischemia, is the youngest to be reported, and is the first without hematochezia. 5-HT 1 receptor agonists are generally considered safe. Ischemic colitis is a potentially serious complication of these agents. A retrospective review of 5-HT 1 receptor agonist users who have presented with acute onset abdominal pain or hematochezia is necessary to elucidate the incidence of this adverse event.

  16. Ulcerative colitis with acute pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuming; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Weisheng; Zhang, Zhuqing; Liu, Lina; Wang, Yingde; Meng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, are associated with a large number of extraintestinal manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations are infrequently seen in patients with IBD. Moreover, serositis including pleural and pericardial manifestations in UC is rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of UC with acute pleurisy in a 43-year-old man; review literature; and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnoses: Active duodenal ulcer was found using gastroscopy. Multiple ulcers in segmented pattern were noticed in the left hemi-colon using colonoscopy. An UC in active stage was confirmed subsequently by histology. Intervention: The patient was treated with bifidobacterium tetravaccine tablets, oral mesalazine and mesalazine enemas. The omeprazole and mucosal protective agents were given to treat the duodenal ulcer. Outcomes: As follow-up, the therapy including oral mesalazine and infliximab regularly was continued and the patient condition was stabilized. Main lesson: Pulmonary involvement should be considered in patients who develop pleurisy in UC. Infliximab is considered the better available treatment for patients presenting with pleurisy in UC. PMID:28746225

  17. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Elisabeth; Müller, Martina; Ott, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines) and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. PMID:24904202

  18. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Elisabeth; Müller, Martina; Ott, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines) and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC.

  19. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  20. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.

  1. Crohn's colitis perforation due to superimposed invasive amebic colitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdoğan, Mehmet; Küpelioğlu, Ali

    2006-06-01

    The clinical and microscopic appearances of inflammatory bowel disease may be very similar to those of amebic colitis. The coexistence of invasive amebiasis with inflammatory bowel disease may have disastrous results. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have a greater prevalence of amebiasis, but this association is more significant for ulcerative colitis. There have been very few reports in the literature presenting the superimposition of amebiasis on Crohn's disease. In this report, a rare case of Crohn's colitis with superimposed amebiasis resulting in colonic perforation is presented. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease traveling to endemic areas may benefit from receiving a course of prophylactic anti-amebic medication.

  2. A repellent against the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...

  3. Infliximab to treat severe ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Dídia Bisamra; de Souza Cury, Marcelo; Elias, Geraldo Vinicius Hemerly; Mizsputen, Sender Jankiel

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy was referred to our facility for management. The patient showed extensive ulcerative colitis since the age of 20 years and had failed therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid agents and azathioprine. The disease remained active despite treatment with steroids and cyclosporine. The clinical and endoscopic parameters were consistent with severe disease. Infectious precipitants were ruled out. Given the severity of the disease and in order to avoid a colectomy, we started the patient on infliximab therapy. A dramatic clinical and endoscopic response was observed and she remained in remission at the end of a 1-year follow-up period. We discuss findings in the literature regarding the use of infliximab therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis who have failed steroids and cyclosporine. PMID:19360923

  4. Spices Coffee : Innovation Strategy To Increase Quality On Powder Coffee Farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).

  5. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  6. CT findings in ulcerative, granulomatous, and indeterminate colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.M.; Marn, C.S.; Kirby, D.F.

    1984-08-01

    Eight patients with ulcerative colitis, three with colitis indeterminate, and 15 patients with Crohn disease were studied by computed tomography (CT) to establish CT criteria for each disorder in hopes of providing a new diagnostic perspective useful in the radiographic evaluation of inflammatory colitis. The CT findings in ulcerative colitis included thickening of the colon wall, which was characterized by inhomogeneous attenuation and a target appearance of the rectum, and proliferation of perirectal fat. Bowel wall thickening with homogeneous attenuation, fistula and abscess formation, and mesenteric abnormalities were observed in patients with Crohn colitis. Patients with colitis indeterminate showed colonicmore » changes on CT observed in both disorders. Initial experience suggests that CT can differentiate patients with well established ulcerative and Crohn colitis.« less

  7. TRPV2 in the development of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Issa, C M; Hambly, B D; Wang, Y; Maleki, S; Wang, W; Fei, J; Bao, S

    2014-11-01

    Colitis is still a significant disease challenge in humans, but its underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channel plays an important pathological role in host immunity, as deficiency of TRPV compromises host defence in vivo and in vitro. Using a DSS-induced colitis mouse model, the function of TRPV2 in the development of colitis was investigated, utilizing TRPV2(-/-) and Wt mice. Less severe colitis was observed in TRPV2(-/-) , compared to that of Wt mice, at the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical levels. Compared to Wt mice, reduced severity of colitis in TRPV2(-/-) mice may be due to less intestinal inflammation via reduced recruitment of macrophages. The TRPV2 pathway contributes to the development of colitis. These data provide useful information for potential therapeutic intervention in colitis patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (p<0.05). The levels of caffeine contained in X, Y, and Z coffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  9. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  10. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  11. Pyostomatitis vegetans. Clinical marker of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, P; Gomez-Garcia, F; Camacho-Alonso, F

    2012-03-01

    Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans (PV), a rare disorder of the skin and oral mucosa, is considered a highly specific marker for inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. We have presented the case of a patient with PV. This report emphasizes the relationship of PV to inflammatory bowel disease and the importance of the oral lesions as initial presenting signs of systemic disease or activity.

  12. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  13. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  14. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  15. Human coffee drinking: manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A; O'Keeffe, M; O'Leary, D; Russ, N

    1986-01-01

    In a residential research ward coffee drinking was studied in 9 volunteer human subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. A series of five experiments was undertaken to characterize adlibitum coffee consumption and to investigate the effects of manipulating coffee concentration, caffeine dose per cup, and caffeine preloads prior to coffee drinking. Manipulations were double-blind and scheduled in randomized sequences across days. When cups of coffee were freely available, coffee drinking tended to be rather regularly spaced during the day with intercup intervals becoming progressively longer throughout the day; experimental manipulations showed that this lengthening of intercup intervals was not due to accumulating caffeine levels. Number of cups of coffee consumed was an inverted U-shaped function of both coffee concentration and caffeine dose per cup; however, coffee-concentration and dose-per-cup manipulations did not produce similar effects on other measures of coffee drinking (intercup interval, time to drink a cup, within-day distribution of cups). Caffeine preload produced dose-related decreases in number of cups consumed. As a whole, these experiments provide some limited evidence for both the suppressive and the reinforcing effects of caffeine on coffee consumption. Examination of total daily coffee and caffeine intake across experiments, however, provides no evidence for precise regulation (i.e., titration) of coffee or caffeine intake. PMID:3958660

  16. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  17. Climate change impacts on coffee rust disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.

  18. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, T

    1992-01-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use. Images PMID:1441496

  20. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    PubMed

    Chou, T

    1992-11-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use.

  1. Color stability of restorative materials in response to Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe.

    PubMed

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe on the color stability of four different composite resins after a period of aging time 1, 7 and 30 days. Twenty specimens from each type of tested composite resin material were prepared. Five specimens from each tested material (Z350 XT, Artist, GC and Z250) was evaluated after storage in Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee, Nescafe and distil water (control) at 37°C in a dark container for 1, 7 and 30 days. Color measurement was done using colorimeter based on the CIE L* a* b* color scale. Color differences ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* among specimens immersed in distil water and staining coffee beverages were evaluated overtime. Mean values were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test with p < 0.05 as significance level. All tested composite resins showed increase color change after a period of 1, 7 and 30 days. The color change ΔE*ab , Δb* and Δa* exhibited by Arabic coffee, in Turkish coffee and Nescafe except Δa*. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab after 30 days was in group A Arabic coffee (ΔE > 1.5 perceivable) and not perceivable in group B Turkish coffee and group C Nescafe. For Δb* all materials discolored toward yellowness after 30 days except Arabic coffee group which shifted from yellowness toward blueness (Δb*> 1.5 perceivable). The effect of staining beverages on the resin composite materials increases with time of aging toward yellowness and not perceivable in all groups except with Arabic coffee which had highest effect after 30 days and the discoloration shifted from yellowness to blueness perceivable.

  2. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  3. Coffee Intake and Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David S; Liu, Lydia; Rimm, Eric B; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Coffee intake is suggested to have a positive impact on chronic diseases, yet its role in urological diseases such as erectile dysfunction (ED) remains unclear. We investigated the association of coffee intake with incidence of ED by conducting the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective analysis of 21,403 men aged 40-75 years old. Total, regular, and decaffeinated coffee intakes were self-reported on food frequency questionnaires. ED was assessed by mean values of questionnaires in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios for patients with incident ED (n = 7,298). No significant differences were identified for patients with incident ED after comparing highest (≥4 cups/day) with lowest (0 cups/day) categories of total (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11) and regular coffee intakes (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.13). When comparing the highest category with lowest category of decaffeinated coffee intake, we found a 37% increased risk of ED (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.73), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses also showed an association among current smokers (P trend = 0.005). Overall, long-term coffee intake was not associated with risk of ED in a prospective cohort study.

  4. [Coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Radzeviciene, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between coffee consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A case-control study included 234 cases with newly confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 468 controls who were free of the disease in 2001. Cases and controls were matched by gender and age (+/-5 years). Data on age, education level, occupation status, marital status, family history of diabetes, lifestyle (dietary habits, smoking habits, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, physical activity), and stress were collected via a questionnaire. Variables were retained in models as confounders when their inclusion changed the value of the OR by more than 10% in any exposure category. Conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P for trend was used. After adjustment for possible confounders (family history of diabetes, body mass index, eating speed, morning exercise, cigarette smoking, years of education, and stress), a statistically significant relationship was observed between type 2 diabetes mellitus and coffee consumption. Individuals consuming four or more cups of coffee per day were at lower risk of 2 diabetes mellitus (OR=0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.97) compared to those who consumed one or less than one cup of coffee per day. Habitual coffee consumption of four or more cups per day might be related to the lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Attracting Students to Fluid Mechanics with Coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500 mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180 mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

  7. Coffee harvest management by manipulation of coffee flowering with plant growth regulators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...

  8. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    other large food service organizations. The policy of adjusting the amount of R&G coffee used in brewing recipes according to consumer preferences , as...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee- like

  9. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  10. Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2017-04-05

    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.

  11. The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation. PMID:26592442

  12. The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-11-23

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation.

  13. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Samuel O.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Diehl, Nancy D.; Serie, Daniel J.; Custer, Kaitlynn M.; Arnold, Michelle L.; Wu, Kevin J.; Cheville, John C.; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Parker, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information usual coffee consumption habits, and they were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Results Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR=0.74; 95% CI=0.57–0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR=1.47; 95% CI=0.98–2.19). Furthermore, decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR=1.80; 95%CI=1.01–3.22). Conclusions Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations. PMID:28647866

  14. Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.

  15. Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Microscopic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Thomas G; Pardi, Darrell S

    2017-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, particularly in the elderly. The accompanying symptoms, which include abdominal pain and fatigue, can markedly impair patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic histologic findings of the colonic mucosa. This review focuses on the current approach to evaluation and management of patients with microscopic colitis. Although the incidence of microscopic colitis has been increasing over time, recent epidemiological studies show stabilization at 21.0-24.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Recent research has further expanded our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and emphasized the entity of drug-induced microscopic colitis and the association with celiac disease. Two recent randomized studies have confirmed the effectiveness of oral budesonide for both induction and maintenance treatment of microscopic colitis and is now endorsed by the American Gastroenterological Association as first-line treatment. The incidence of microscopic colitis has stabilized at just over 20 cases per 100,000 person-years. Celiac disease and drug-induced microscopic colitis should be considered in all patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis. There are a number of treatments available for patients with microscopic colitis; however, budesonide is the only option well studied in controlled trials and is effective for both induction and maintenance treatment.

  16. Isolated naratriptan-associated ischemic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nissan, George; Chaudhry, Priyanka; Rangasamy, Priya; Mudrovich, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman who developed histology- and colonoscopy-proven ischemic colitis with the use of naratriptan not exceeding the maximum 2 doses a day and 3 days per week and without a known medical or cardiovascular history. By exclusion of other causes of colonic ischemia, naratriptan was considered the sole causal agent. Discontinuation of naratriptan resulted in a complete clinical recovery. To date, our patient is the youngest known patient to develop ischemic colitis on isolated naratriptan in the setting of no known medical risk factors or predisposing medical condition. Even though triptans are commonly used for the abortive treatment of migraine headaches, such a reported side effect is rare; however, careful assessment and individual patient-based treatment is advised. PMID:27695179

  17. Ulcerative Colitis: Update on Medical Management.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Heba N; Dhere, Tanvi; Farraye, Francis A

    2015-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease whose pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes influences from genes, the environment, and the gut microbiome. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment have led to significant improvement in managing the disease. Disease monitoring with the use of therapeutic drug monitoring, stool markers, and assessment of mucosal healing have garnered much attention. The recent approval of vedolizumab for treatment of moderate to severe UC has been a welcome addition. Newer biologics, including those targeting the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) pathway, are on the horizon to add to the current armamentarium of anti-TNF alpha and anti-integrin therapies. The recent publication of the SCENIC consensus statement on surveillance and management of dysplasia in UC patients supports the use of chromoendoscopy over random biopsies in detecting dysplasia. This review highlights these recent advances along with others that have been made with ulcerative colitis.

  18. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    PubMed

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  19. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  20. Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete reservoirs on floor, view towards the west - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  1. Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee processing structure with the Santaella residence to the left - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  2. Planar view of northwest side of coffee processing structure No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of northwest side of coffee processing structure No. 1, view towards the southeast - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  3. Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  4. View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing structure (on left) with the Santaella residence (on right) - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  5. 10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE), LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATOR HALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF DEVICE ON OUTSIDE OF COFFEE HUSKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF DEVICE ON OUTSIDE OF COFFEE HUSKER THAT ADJUSTED ANGLE OF HUSKER VAT WALLS - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  7. View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the third floor with hopper and drum type dryer in background - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  8. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  9. Laparoscopic treatment of fulminant ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Bell, R L; Seymour, N E

    2002-12-01

    The complexity and risks of the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis are greater in patients with fulminant disease. Subtotal colectomy is frequently offered to such patients to control acute disease and restore immunological and nutritional status prior to a restorative procedure. The role of laparoscopy in this setting is poorly defined. The records of 18 patients with poorly controlled fulminant colitis on aggressive immunosuppressive therapy who underwent laparoscopic subtotal colectomy were reviewed. Postoperative complications occurred in six patients (33%). Postoperative length of stay was 5.0 +/- 0.3 days vs 8.8 +/- 1.8 days (p<0.05) for a group of six patients who had undergone open subtotal colectomy for the same indications. Systemic steroids were withdrawn in all patients, and 17 patients subsequently underwent proctectomy and pelvic pouch construction. The relatively high morbidity rate in these patients is likely related to their compromised status at the time of surgery. Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy in patients with fulminant ulcerative colitis allows for earlier hospital discharge, facilitates subsequent pelvic pouch, construction, and provides an excellent alternative to conventional two- and three-stage surgical treatment.

  10. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  11. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P < 0.05) recovered the expression of adiponectin. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the serum of mice with DSS colitis but decreased after melatonin injection. This study suggested that melatonin modulated adiponectin expression in colonic tissue and melatonin and adiponectin synergistically potentiated anti-inflammatory effects on colitis with sleep deprivation.

  12. Cultivating Civilization: The Age of the English Coffee House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the English coffee house was a social and economic institution that served as a daily newspaper and a center of commerce. Discusses coffee house origins, development, significance, and decline. Concludes that the coffee house served as a transition from medieval society to an age of rationality and industry. (CFR)

  13. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Coffee consumption has spread worldwide and differences in the raw bean consumption, in roasting conditions and in the extraction procedures used to prepare coffee brews result in a great diversity of chemical composition in the final product, the cup of coffee. Hence, beverage preparation is a fundamental step for enjoying the benefits of this…

  14. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  15. Coffee and caffeine intake and the risk of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lueth, Natalie A.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Robien, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory data suggests that caffeine or some components of coffee may cause DNA mutations and inhibit tumor suppressor mechanisms, leading to neoplastic growth. However, coffee consumption has not been clearly implicated in the etiology of human post-menopausal ovarian cancer. This study evaluated the relationship of coffee and caffeine intake with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a prospective cohort study of 29,060 postmenopausal women. The participants completed a mailed questionnaire that assessed diet and health history and were followed for ovarian cancer incidence from 1986 to 2004. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for four exposure variables: caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, total coffee and total caffeine to assess whether or not coffee or caffeine influences the risk of ovarian cancer. An increased risk was observed in the multivariate model for women who reported drinking five or more cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared to women who reported drinking none (HR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.10-2.95). Decaffeinated coffee, total coffee and caffeine were not statistically significantly associated with ovarian cancer incidence. Our results suggest that a component of coffee other than caffeine, or in combination with caffeine, may be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women who drink five or more cups of coffee a day. PMID:18704717

  16. Minimal size of coffee ring structure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoying; Ho, Chih-Ming; Wong, Tak-Sing

    2010-04-29

    A macroscopic evaporating water droplet with suspended particles on a solid surface will form a ring-like structure at the pinned contact line due to induced capillary flow. As the droplet size shrinks, the competition between the time scales of the liquid evaporation and the particle movement may influence the resulting ring formation. When the liquid evaporates much faster than the particle movement, coffee ring formation may cease. Here, we experimentally show that there exists a lower limit of droplet size, D(c), for the successful formation of a coffee ring structure. When the particle concentration is above a threshold value, D(c) can be estimated by considering the collective effects of the liquid evaporation and the particle diffusive motion within the droplet. For suspended particles of size approximately 100 nm, the minimum diameter of the coffee ring structure is found to be approximately 10 microm.

  17. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  18. Long-term natural history and complications of collagenous colitis.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2012-09-01

    Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis, a possibly heterogeneous disorder. Collagenous colitis most often appears to have an entirely benign clinical course that usually responds to limited treatment. Sometimes significant extracolonic disorders, especially arthritis, spondylitis, thyroiditis and skin disorders, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, dominate the clinical course and influence the treatment strategy. However, rare fatalities have been reported and several complications, some severe, have been attributed directly to the colitis. Toxic colitis and toxic megacolon may develop. Concomitant gastric and small intestinal inflammatory disorders have been described including celiac disease and more extensive collagenous inflammatory disease. Colonic ulceration has been associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, may evolve directly from collagenous colitis. Submucosal 'dissection', colonic fractures, or mucosal tears and perforation, possibly from air insufflation during colonoscopy, have been reported. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressures that may occur during radiological imaging of the colon. Neoplastic disorders of the colon may also occur during the course of collagenous colitis, including colon carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours (ie, carcinoids). Finally, lymphoproliferative disease has been reported.

  19. Lymphocytic colitis complicated by a mass in the terminal ileum.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chee-Kin

    2015-05-01

    Lymphocytic colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the bowel. The clinical course of lymphocytic colitis is believed to be benign with watery diarrhoea. We report herein what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of lymphocytic colitis complicated by a terminal ileal mass. A 23-year-old man presented with diarrhoea. Blind biopsies of samples taken from the terminal ileum, caecum and ascending colon showed features of lymphocytic colitis. He declined treatment with budesonide or 5-aminosalicylates. He presented 14 months later with pain over the right lumbar region and nausea. Computed tomographic enteroclysis showed a focal soft tissue enhancing mass at the terminal ileum. Excision of the soft tissue mass revealed that it was reactive nodular lymphoid hyperplasia with fibrous granulation tissue. In conclusion, an untreated lymphocytic colitis may result in the formation of an inflammatory mass lesion.

  20. Development of chronic colitis is dependent on the cytokine MIF.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Y P; Abadia-Molina, A C; Satoskar, A R; Clarke, K; Rietdijk, S T; Faubion, W A; Mizoguchi, E; Metz, C N; Alsahli, M; ten Hove, T; Keates, A C; Lubetsky, J B; Farrell, R J; Michetti, P; van Deventer, S J; Lolis, E; David, J R; Bhan, A K; Terhorst, C; Sahli, M A

    2001-11-01

    The cytokine macrophage-migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is secreted by a number of cell types upon induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because colitis is dependent on interplay between the mucosal immune system and intestinal bacteria, we investigated the role of MIF in experimental colitis. MIF-deficient mice failed to develop disease, but reconstitution of MIF-deficient mice with wild-type innate immune cells restored colitis. In addition, established colitis could be treated with anti-MIF immunoglobulins. Thus, murine colitis is dependent on continuous MIF production by the innate immune system. Because we found increased plasma MIF concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease, these data suggested that MIF is a new target for intervention in Crohn's disease.

  1. Enterotoxicity of a nonribosomal peptide causes antibiotic-associated colitis.

    PubMed

    Schneditz, Georg; Rentner, Jana; Roier, Sandro; Pletz, Jakob; Herzog, Kathrin A T; Bücker, Roland; Troeger, Hanno; Schild, Stefan; Weber, Hansjörg; Breinbauer, Rolf; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Högenauer, Christoph; Zechner, Ellen L

    2014-09-09

    Antibiotic therapy disrupts the human intestinal microbiota. In some patients rapid overgrowth of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca results in antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). We isolated and identified a toxin produced by K. oxytoca as the pyrrolobenzodiazepine tilivalline and demonstrated its causative action in the pathogenesis of colitis in an animal model. Tilivalline induced apoptosis in cultured human cells in vitro and disrupted epithelial barrier function, consistent with the mucosal damage associated with colitis observed in human AAHC and the corresponding animal model. Our findings reveal the presence of pyrrolobenzodiazepines in the intestinal microbiota and provide a mechanism for colitis caused by a resident pathobiont. The data link pyrrolobenzodiazepines to human disease and identify tilivalline as a target for diagnosis and neutralizing strategies in prevention and treatment of colitis.

  2. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    PubMed Central

    Urgert, R; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew-not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules-contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased risk of heart disease who drink large amounts of coffee should be advised to select brews low in diterpenes. PMID:9135590

  3. [Coffee can be beneficial for patients with liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Krag, Aleksander

    2014-10-20

    Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Consequently, it is important to consider the impact of coffee on health and disease. A daily intake of at least three cups of coffee is likely to have beneficial health effects, especially in patients at risk of liver diseases. Coffee has been associated with decreased liver inflammation, prevention of cirrhosis, reduced steatosis and lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is not yet possible to make clear recommendations, but coffee can likely be included as part of a healthy diet for patients with liver diseases.

  4. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical course of severe colitis: a comparison between Crohn’s Disease and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Sinagra, E; Orlando, A; Mocciaro, F; Criscuoli, V; Oliva, L; Maisano, S; Giunta, M; La Seta, F; Solina, G; Rizzo, A G; Leone, A; Tomasello, G; Cappello, F; Cottone, M

    2018-01-01

    Few data are available about the clinical course of severe colonic Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of this study is to describe the clinical course of severe Crohn’s colitis in a patient cohort with isolated colonic or ileocolonic CD, and to compare it with the clinical course of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC). Thirty-four patients with severe Crohn’s colitis were prospectively identified in our cohort of 593 consecutive hospitalized patients through evaluation of the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index score and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index. One hundred sixty-nine patients with severe ulcerative colitis were prospectively identified in our cohort of 449 consecutive hospitalized patients through evaluation of the Lichtiger score and the Truelove-Witts score. We evaluated the following data/aspects: response to steroids, response to biologics, colectomy rate in acute, colectomy rate during follow-up, megacolon and cytomegalovirus infection rate. We did not find significant differences in the response to steroids and to biologics, in the percentage of cytomegalovirus infection and of megacolon, while the rate of colectomy in acute turned out to be greater in patients with severe Crohn’s colitis compared to patients with severe UC, and this difference appeared to be the limit of statistical significance (Chi-squared 3.31, p = 0.069, OR 0.39); the difference between the colectomy rates at the end of the follow-up was also not significant. In the whole population, by univariate analysis, according to the linear regression model, a young age at diagnosis is associated with a higher overall colectomy rate (p = 0.024) and a higher elective colectomy rate (p = 0.022), but not with a higher acute colectomy rate, and an elevated ESR is correlated with a higher overall colectomy rate (p = 0.014) and a higher acute colectomy rate (p = 0.032), but not with a higher elective colectomy rate. This correlation was significant on multivariate analysis. The overall rate of

  6. Temporal comorbidity of mental disorder and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that rarely exists in isolation in affected patients. We examined the association of ulcerative colitis and International Classification of Diseases mental disorder, as well as the temporal comorbidity of three broad International Classification of Diseases groupings of mental disorders in patients with ulcerative colitis to determine if mental disorder is more likely to occur before or after ulcerative colitis. We used physician diagnoses from the regional health zone of Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern in that Calgary health zone (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients age younger than 1 year to age 92 years (2120 males, average age = 47 years; 2993 females, average age = 48 years) with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. The 16-year cumulative prevalence of ulcerative colitis was 0.0058%, or 58 cases per 10,000 persons (95% confidence interval = 56-60 per 10,000). Although the cumulative prevalence of mental disorder in the overall sample was 5390 per 10,000 (53.9%), we found that 4192 patients with ulcerative colitis (82%) also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. By annual rate of ulcerative colitis, patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depressive disorders was most likely to arise before ulcerative colitis (odds ratio = 1.87 for males; 2.24 for females). A temporal association was observed between specific groups of International Classification of Diseases mental disorder and ulcerative colitis, indicating a possible etiologic relationship between the disorders or their treatments, or both.

  7. Mice deficient in Muc4 are resistant to experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Rachagani, S; Sheinin, Y; Smith, L M; Gurumurthy, C B; Roy, H K; Batra, S K

    2016-05-19

    MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin normally expressed in the small and large intestine, is differentially expressed during inflammatory and malignant conditions of the colon. However, the expression pattern and the role of MUC4 in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) are inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the role of Muc4 during inflammatory and malignant conditions of the colon. Here, we generated Muc4(-/-) mice and addressed its role in colitis and colitis-associated CRC using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and azoxymethane (AOM)-DSS experimental models, respectively. Muc4(-/-) mice were viable, fertile with no apparent defects. Muc4(-/-) mice displayed increased resistance to DSS-induced colitis compared with wild-type (WT) littermates that was evaluated by survival rate, body weight loss, diarrhea and fecal blood score, and histological score. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is, CD3(+) lymphocytes and F4/80(+) macrophages was observed in the inflamed mucosa along with reduction in the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and anti-microbial genes Lysozyme M and SLPI in the colon of Muc4(-/-) mice compared with WT littermates. Compensatory upregulation of Muc2 and Muc3 mucins under basal and DSS treatment conditions partly explains the resistance observed in Muc4(-/-) mice. Accordingly, Muc4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor burden compared with WT mice assessed in a colitis-induced tumor model using AOM/DSS. An increased percentage of Ki67(+) nuclei was observed in the tumors from WT compared with Muc4(-/-) mice suggesting Muc4 to be critical in intestinal cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Taken together, we conclusively demonstrate for the first time the role of Muc4 in driving intestinal inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis using a novel Muc4(-/-) mouse model.

  8. Coffee consumption vs. cancer risk - a review of scientific data.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features.

  9. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  10. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  11. Cytokines, IBD and colitis-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Francescone, Ralph; Hou, Vivianty; Grivennikov, Sergei I.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are debilitating conditions that result in intestinal damage due to chronic inflammation. In addition, the perpetual state of inflammation predisposes individuals to the development of colitis associated cancer (CAC). Because of the immense immune cell infiltration into colon, cytokines produced by immune cells are major players in the initiation and progression of IBD and CAC. In this review, we will explore the functions of many key cytokines and their roles in IBD and CAC, as well as their influences on the immune system and stromal cells. Finally, we will briefly discuss current therapies and current clinical trials targeting cytokines in IBD. PMID:25563695

  12. Tranexamic acid therapy in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hollanders, D.; Thomson, Jean M.; Schofield, Phillip F.

    1982-01-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid was assessed in controlling bleeding in 12 patients with left-sided proctocolitis. The study was designed as a double-blind cross-over trial employing a dose of 4·5 g of tranexamic acid/day together with identical placebo. A statistically significant reduction in rectal bleeding was achieved in 50% of cases with a minimum of side effects. Sigmoidoscopic grading of rectal mucosal appearances was improved. Frequency of diarrhoea and stool consistency were not altered. Tranexamic acid may have a part to play in the management of selected patients with ulcerative colitis in whom bleeding is difficult to control with orthodox treatment. PMID:6980404

  13. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for Kona coffee authentication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jun, Soojin; Bittenbender, H C; Gautz, Loren; Li, Qing X

    2009-06-01

    Kona coffee, the variety of "Kona typica" grown in the north and south districts of Kona-Island, carries a unique stamp of the region of Big Island of Hawaii, U.S.A. The excellent quality of Kona coffee makes it among the best coffee products in the world. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and multivariate analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ground and brewed Kona coffee and blends made with Kona coffee. The calibration set of Kona coffee consisted of 10 different blends of Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 14 different farms in Hawaii and a non-Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 3 different sampling sites in Hawaii. Derivative transformations (1st and 2nd), mathematical enhancements such as mean centering and variance scaling, multivariate regressions by partial least square (PLS), and principal components regression (PCR) were implemented to develop and enhance the calibration model. The calibration model was successfully validated using 9 synthetic blend sets of 100% Kona coffee mixture and its adulterant, 100% non-Kona coffee mixture. There were distinct peak variations of ground and brewed coffee blends in the spectral "fingerprint" region between 800 and 1900 cm(-1). The PLS-2nd derivative calibration model based on brewed Kona coffee with mean centering data processing showed the highest degree of accuracy with the lowest standard error of calibration value of 0.81 and the highest R(2) value of 0.999. The model was further validated by quantitative analysis of commercial Kona coffee blends. Results demonstrate that FTIR can be a rapid alternative to authenticate Kona coffee, which only needs very quick and simple sample preparations.

  14. Coffee Ingestion Suppresses Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Kurata, Takao; Hamana, Yoshiki; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Inoue, Takashi; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2017-01-01

    Coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of coffee on pancreatic β-cells in the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment in mice. We examined the effect of coffee, caffeine, or decaffeinated coffee ingestion on STZ-induced hyperglycemia. After STZ injection in Exp. 1 and 2, serum glucose concentration and water intake in coffee ingestion (Coffee group) tended to be lowered or was significantly lowered compared to those in water ingestion (Water group) instead of coffee. In Exp. 1, the values for water intake and serum glucose concentration in caffeine ingestion (Caffeine group) were similar to those in the Water group. In Exp. 2, serum glucose concentrations in the decaffeinated coffee ingestion (Decaf group) tended to be lower than those in the Water group. Pancreatic insulin contents tended to be higher in the Coffee and Decaf groups than in the Water group (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 3, subsequently, we showed that coffee ingestion also suppressed the deterioration of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice which had been already injected with STZ. This study showed that coffee ingestion prevented the development of STZ-induced diabetes and suppressed hyperglycemia in STZ-diabetic mice. Caffeine or decaffeinated coffee ingestion did not significantly suppress STZ-induced hyperglycemia. These results suggest that the combination of caffeine and other components of decaffeinated coffee are needed for the preventive effect on pancreatic β-cell destruction. Coffee ingestion may contribute to the maintenance of pancreatic insulin contents.

  15. Coupling of pollination services and coffee suitability under climate change.

    PubMed

    Imbach, Pablo; Fung, Emily; Hannah, Lee; Navarro-Racines, Carlos E; Roubik, David W; Ricketts, Taylor H; Harvey, Celia A; Donatti, Camila I; Läderach, Peter; Locatelli, Bruno; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

    2017-09-26

    Climate change will cause geographic range shifts for pollinators and major crops, with global implications for food security and rural livelihoods. However, little is known about the potential for coupled impacts of climate change on pollinators and crops. Coffee production exemplifies this issue, because large losses in areas suitable for coffee production have been projected due to climate change and because coffee production is dependent on bee pollination. We modeled the potential distributions of coffee and coffee pollinators under current and future climates in Latin America to understand whether future coffee-suitable areas will also be suitable for pollinators. Our results suggest that coffee-suitable areas will be reduced 73-88% by 2050 across warming scenarios, a decline 46-76% greater than estimated by global assessments. Mean bee richness will decline 8-18% within future coffee-suitable areas, but all are predicted to contain at least 5 bee species, and 46-59% of future coffee-suitable areas will contain 10 or more species. In our models, coffee suitability and bee richness each increase (i.e., positive coupling) in 10-22% of future coffee-suitable areas. Diminished coffee suitability and bee richness (i.e., negative coupling), however, occur in 34-51% of other areas. Finally, in 31-33% of the future coffee distribution areas, bee richness decreases and coffee suitability increases. Assessing coupled effects of climate change on crop suitability and pollination can help target appropriate management practices, including forest conservation, shade adjustment, crop rotation, or status quo, in different regions.

  16. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-02

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg -1 . In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg -1 ), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg -1 ) and tea (10-97 μg kg -1 ) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg -1 , and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  17. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-01-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749

  18. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  19. Setting the Stage for California Coffee Farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional coffee farming has occurred worldwide at equatorial latitudes below 25° under very specific growing conditions with acidic soils, warm temperatures and high humidity. Environmental conditions have been found to have large impacts on the quality and taste of the berry, which in turn affec...

  20. Assessing the damage at Mt. Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.C.; Macauley, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Mt. Coffee Hydroelectric Project was damaged during the Liberian civil unrest in early 1990`s. A team of engineers performed a damage assessment of the project with the hope that funding could be obtained to reconstruct the project. The damage done to the plant had far greater impacts to the country than merely the cost to rebuild the facility.

  1. The Coffee-Milk Mixture Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…

  2. Qualitative carbonyl profile in coffee beans through GDME-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for coffee preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Liliana; Valente, Inês M; Santos, João Rodrigo; Rodrigues, José A

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an analytical methodology for volatile carbonyl compounds characterization in green and roasted coffee beans was developed. The methodology relied on a recent and simple sample preparation technique, gas diffusion microextraction for extraction of the samples' volatiles, followed HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The experimental conditions in terms of extraction temperature and extraction time were studied. A profile for carbonyl compounds was obtained for both arabica and robusta coffee species (green and roasted samples). Twenty-seven carbonyl compounds were identified and further discussed, in light of reported literature, with different coffee characteristics: coffee ageing, organoleptic impact, presence of defective beans, authenticity, human's health implication, post-harvest coffee processing and roasting. The applied methodology showed to be a powerful analytical tool to be used for coffee characterization as it measures marker compounds of different coffee characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Furan Levels and Sensory Profiles of Commercial Coffee Products Under Various Handling Conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P < 0.05). In canned coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P < 0.05), suggesting that coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Quantification of coffee blends for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak) via metabolomics: A proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-07-01

    Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak), an animal-digested coffee with an exotic feature, carries a notorious reputation of being the rarest and most expensive coffee beverage in the world. Considering that illegal mixture of cheap coffee into civet coffee is a growing concern among consumers, we evaluated the use of metabolomics approach and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) prediction technique to quantify the degree of coffee adulteration. Two prediction sets, consisting of certified and commercial coffee, were made from a blend of civet and regular coffee with eleven mixing percentages. The prediction model exhibited accurate estimation of coffee blend percentage thus, successfully validating the prediction and quantification of the mixing composition of known-unknown samples. This work highlighted proof of concept of metabolomics application to predict degree of coffee adulteration by determining the civet coffee fraction in blends. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Beverage consumption and risk of ulcerative colitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia-Yan; Zhao, Qiu

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence between beverage consumption and the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to determine the role of beverage consumption in the development of UC. A systematic search was conducted in public databases to identify all relevant studies, and study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Sixteen studies were identified with a total of 3689 cases and 335,339 controls. Alcohol consumption showed no significant association with UC risk (RR for the highest vs the lowest consumption level: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.65-1.39). Coffee consumption tended to be inversely associated with UC risk (RR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.33-1.05), but it was not significant and confounded by smoking adjustment. Soft drinks consumption was associated with UC risk (RR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.30), and tea consumption was inversely associated with UC risk (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58-0.83). In conclusion, high consumption of soft drinks might increase the risk of UC, while tea consumption might decrease the risk.

  6. Prebiotics and synbiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Laurell, Axel; Sjöberg, Klas

    2017-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre". In total 17 studies on humans examining the effect of prebiotics in UC were found. Five major groups could be distinguished. Fructo-oligosaccharides were tried in six studies (mean 35 patients included, range 9-121). One study found a clinical response while two demonstrated indirect evidence of an effect. Germinated barley foodstuff was used in 8 studies (mean 38 patients, range 10-63). One study found an endoscopic response, while four noted a clinical response and two some indirect effects. Galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose and resveratrol were used in one study each (mean 48 patients, range 41-52). One study found an endoscopic response and one a clinical response. There is yet inadequate evidence - especially in humans - to support any particular prebiotic in the clinical management of UC. However, due to the bulk of evidence supporting the effect of the microbiota on colonic inflammation, there is enough potential to justify further high-quality clinical trials investigating this subject.

  7. Cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Rinaldo F; Castelli, Jussara B; Randi, Bruno A; Vieira, Ricardo D; Strabelli, Tânia M V

    2014-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous virus and its reactivation may lead to CMV end-organ disease (CMV EOD) in immunocompromised patients and also in immunocompetent patients when they are critically ill. We aimed to investigate the frequency and the clinical features of proven CMV EOD in previously non-immunosuppressed patients admitted to our institution. From January 2000 to March 2013, the records of all patients with a histopathological diagnosis of CMV EOD at our teaching hospital were reviewed retrospectively. CMV EOD was diagnosed histologically by the identification of true cytomegalic viral inclusion involving endothelial, stromal, and/or epithelial cells on hematoxylin and eosin staining, and was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemistry using specific antibody against CMV antigens. Immunocompromised patients were excluded. CMV EOD manifesting as colitis was diagnosed in 14 previously immunocompetent intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The mean age of the patients was 64 years. All had co-morbidities and developed shock before CMV EOD. The major manifestation was gastrointestinal bleeding. The in-hospital mortality rate was 71.4% despite specific treatment with ganciclovir. Despite being a rare condition, lower gastrointestinal bleeding in this profile of ICU patients could be the clinical manifestation of CMV colitis, and intensivists should be alert to this condition. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Paclitaxel-carboplatin induced radiation recall colitis.

    PubMed

    Kundak, Isil; Oztop, Ilhan; Soyturk, Mujde; Ozcan, Mehmet Ali; Yilmaz, Ugur; Meydan, Nezih; Gorken, Ilknur Bilkay; Kupelioglu, Ali; Alakavuklar, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Some chemotherapeutic agents can "recall" the irradiated volumes by skin or pulmonary reactions in cancer patients who previously received radiation therapy. We report a recall colitis following the administration of paclitaxel-containing regimen in a patient who had been irradiated for a carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A 63-year-old woman underwent a Wertheim operation because of uterine cervix carcinoma. After 8 years of follow-up, a local recurrence was observed and she received curative external radiotherapy (45 Gy) to the pelvis. No significant adverse events were observed during the radiotherapy. Approximately one year later, she was hospitalized because of metastatic disease with multiple pulmonary nodules, and a chemotherapy regimen consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The day after the administration of chemotherapy the patient had diarrhea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of the biopsy taken from rectal hyperemic lesions showed a radiation colitis. The symptoms reappeared after the administration of each course of chemotherapy and continued until the death of the patient despite the interruption of the chemotherapy. In conclusion, the probability of recall phenomena should be kept in mind in patients who received previously with pelvic radiotherapy and treated later with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  9. Ethnic Distribution of Microscopic Colitis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kevin; Genta, Robert M; Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2015-11-01

    A large electronic database of histopathology reports was used to study the ethnic distribution of microscopic colitis in the United States. Miraca Life Sciences is a nation-wide pathology laboratory that receives biopsy specimens submitted by 1500 gastroenterologists distributed throughout the United States. In a case-control study, the prevalence of microscopic colitis in 4 ethnic groups (East Asians, Indians, Hispanics, and Jews) was compared with that of all other ethnic groups (composed of American Caucasians and African Americans), serving as reference group. A total of 11,706 patients with microscopic colitis were included in the analysis. In all ethnic groups alike, microscopic colitis was more common in women than men (78% versus 22%, odds ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval = 3.26-3.55). In all ethnic groups, the prevalence of microscopic colitis showed a continuous age-dependent rise. Hispanic patients with microscopic colitis were on average younger than the reference group (59.4 ± 16.2 years versus 64.2 ± 13.8 years, P < 0.001). Jewish patients with microscopic colitis were slightly older than the reference group (65.6 ± 13.4 years, P = 0.015). Compared with the reference group (prevalence = 1.20%), microscopic colitis was significantly less common among patients of Indian (prevalence = 0.28%, odds ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.65), East Asian (0.22%, 0.19, 0.14-0.26), or Hispanic decent (0.48%, 0.40, 0.36-0.45) and significantly more common among Jewish patients (1.30%, 1.10, 1.01-1.21). Microscopic colitis shows striking variations of its occurrence among different ethnic groups. Such variations could point at differences in the exposure to environmental risk factors.

  10. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage

    PubMed Central

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

  11. Cytomegalovirus colitis: an unusual cause of diarrhoea in the immunocompetent.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S; Rodgers, A D; Tennant, D; Hayat, M

    2009-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is rarely reported in the immuno-competent adult and is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly ulcerative colitis (UC).  An index of suspicion in the appropriate setting is vital to diagnosing the condition. Undiagnosed CMV colitis has a significant morbidity.  A review of the natural history and diagnosis of CMV is followed by a discussion of the incidence, outcome and possible treatment of CMV in the immunocompetent patient. The possible association between CMV and IBD is also reviewed, and the question of whether this should have any bearing on treatment is discussed at some length.

  12. Ipilimumab associated colitis: an IpiColitis case series at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Pawan; Sultan, Mohamed; Charabaty, Aline J; Atkins, Michael B; Mattar, Mark C

    2015-04-14

    Although ipilimumab has been shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma and cause regression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the associated immune-related toxicities are of concern. The resultant T cell activation by this monoclonal antibody causes an increased immune response, which has been associated with many immune-regulated adverse effects. One of the most concerning effects is the development of colitis. Upwards to 8% of patients have been reported to develop colitis, with 5% being severe (Grades 3-4). While initial treatment of such adverse effects is generally comprised of supportive and symptomatic treatment, more severe cases warrant the use of high dose steroids. Furthermore, use of anti-TNF agents is usually reserved for those cases that prove to be refractory to steroids. We describe a systematic case review of seven patients who developed gastrointestinal symptoms following initiation of ipilimumab immunotherapy, and present the steps in their evaluation, treatment and outcomes at our institution.

  13. The Association Between CMV Viremia or Endoscopic Features and Histopathological Characteristics of CMV Colitis in Patients with Underlying Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Weixun; Lv, Hong; Wu, Dongsheng; Feng, Yunlu; Shu, Huijun; Jin, Meng; Hu, Lingling; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Dong; Chen, Jie; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been shown to be related to severe or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) flare-ups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic and pathological characteristics of CMV colitis in patients with UC and to assess the predictive value of the endoscopic and pathological features of CMV colitis. A total of 50 consecutive UC patients with CMV infection who were admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2015 were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five UC patients with CMV infection (50.0%) had concurrent CMV colitis. When the cutoff value was set at 1150 copies, the sensitivity and specificity of blood CMV DNAq polymerase chain reaction for predicting CMV colitis were 44.4% and 78.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of endoscopic punched-out ulcers, irregular ulcers, and cobblestone-like appearance were observed among the patients in the CMV colitis group than those in the non-CMV colitis group (52.0% versus 20.0%, 60.0% versus 16.0%, and 20.0% versus 0%, respectively, P < 0.05). The number of CMV inclusion bodies per high-power field was significantly higher in those with punch-out ulcerations (25.7% versus 60.0%, P < 0.05). A higher grade of pathological inflammation was observed in the CMV colitis group than in the control group (68.0% versus 44.0%). Characteristic endoscopic features with punch-out ulcers and high CMV viremia load may be useful for predicting the presence of CMV colitis in histology. Punch-out ulcers were found to be associated with a higher number of inclusion bodies on histology, suggesting a role of targeted biopsy for endoscopist.

  14. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  15. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  16. Characterization of Organic and Conventional Coffee Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro

    2000-11-12

    Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analyticalmore » methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants.« less

  17. The Hawaii Protocol for Scientific Monitoring of Coffee Berry Borer: a Model for Coffee Agroecosystems Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Melissa Anne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Fortna, Samuel; Aristizábal, Luis F; Manoukis, Nicholas C

    2018-03-19

    Coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol that is aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape. The cornerstone of this comprehensive monitoring system is timely georeferenced data collection on CBB movement, coffee berry infestation, mortality by the fungus Beauveria bassiana, and coffee plant phenology via a mobile electronic data recording application. This electronic data collection system allows field records to be georeferenced through built-in global positioning systems, and is backed by a network of weather stations and records of farm management practices. Comprehensive monitoring of CBB and host plant dynamics is an essential part of an area-wide project in Hawaii to aggregate landscape-level data for research to improve management practices. Coffee agroecosystems in other parts of the world that experience highly variable environmental and socioeconomic factors will also benefit from implementing this protocol, in that it will drive the development of customized integrated pest management (IPM) to manage CBB populations.

  18. The Hawaii Protocol for Scientific Monitoring of Coffee Berry Borer: a Model for Coffee Agroecosystems Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Melissa Anne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Fortna, Samuel; Aristizábal, Luis F.; Manoukis, Nicholas C.

    2018-01-01

    Coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol that is aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape. The cornerstone of this comprehensive monitoring system is timely georeferenced data collection on CBB movement, coffee berry infestation, mortality by the fungus Beauveria bassiana, and coffee plant phenology via a mobile electronic data recording application. This electronic data collection system allows field records to be georeferenced through built-in global positioning systems, and is backed by a network of weather stations and records of farm management practices. Comprehensive monitoring of CBB and host plant dynamics is an essential part of an area-wide project in Hawaii to aggregate landscape-level data for research to improve management practices. Coffee agroecosystems in other parts of the world that experience highly variable environmental and socioeconomic factors will also benefit from implementing this protocol, in that it will drive the development of customized integrated pest management (IPM) to manage CBB populations. PMID:29608152

  19. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

  20. Mindfulness May Be Helpful for People with Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the course of ulcerative colitis disease, markers of systemic or mucosal inflammation, or any psychological assessment except ... MBSR’s impact on areas such as disease course, systemic inflammation, stress response, and active (rather than inactive) ...

  1. Is appendectomy a causative factor in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Russel, M G; Stockbrügger, R W

    1998-06-01

    There are strong indicators that the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease should be regarded as multifactorial, involving an interaction between genetic and environmental factors which give rise to an inadequate immunological response. During the past decade at least seven case-control studies have shown an inverse association between appendectomy and ulcerative colitis. Conclusions have been that either ulcerative colitis protects against appendicitis, or appendectomy protects against ulcerative colitis. The immunological function of the appendix is not well known, but experimental studies suggest that the appendix is possibly an important site for priming of the cells involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Experimental and prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more insight in a possible relation between ulcerative colitis and the appendix.

  2. Etiology of Tetracycline-Associated Pseudomembranous Colitis in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Toshniwal, Renu; Fekety, Robert; Silva, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Tetracyclines were implicated in the 1950s in induction of protracted diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Because the pathogenetic mechanism of these illnesses has been questioned recently, we studied tetracycline in hamster models of antibiotic-associated colitis. Orogastric administration of tetracycline caused diarrhea and death, with evidence of hemorrhagic typhlitis. Filtrates of cecal contents were toxic when inoculated into normal hamsters and cell culture monolayers, and toxicity was neutralized with Clostridium sordellii antitoxin. Tetracycline-resistant C. difficile was cultured from stools of these hamsters, but Staphylococcus aureus was not isolated. The value of tetracycline for treatment or prevention of clindamycin-induced colitis in hamsters was also studied, and it was found that daily orogastric administration of tetracycline was poorly protective against clindamycin-induced colitis. PMID:485127

  3. Pharmacodynamic assessment of vedolizumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    McLean, Leon P; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-07-01

    Vedolizumab is an anti-integrin approved for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. By binding the α4β7-integrin heterodimer, vedolizumab blocks leukocyte translocation into gastrointestinal tissue. This review discusses the chemistry, pharmacologic properties, clinical efficacy, and safety of vedolizumab in ulcerative colitis. Other medications available for the treatment of ulcerative colitis are also discussed. Vedolizumab is a promising new agent for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Its mechanism of action differs from TNF-α inhibitors and immune suppressants, allowing it to be used in cases of TNF-α inhibitor failure or non-response, or as a first-line biologic drug. Available safety data suggests that vedolizumab is not associated with an increased risk of infection or malignancy; however, additional post-marketing data are required to confirm these initial reports. Vedolizumab is likely to be used in growing numbers of patients over the coming years.

  4. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories. PMID:24707159

  5. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    PubMed

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.

  7. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  8. Mice deficient in Muc4 are resistant to experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Das, S; Rachagani, S; Sheinin, Y; Smith, LM; Gurumurthy, CB; Roy, HK; Batra, SK

    2017-01-01

    MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin normally expressed in the small and large intestine, is differentially expressed during inflammatory and malignant conditions of the colon. However, the expression pattern and the role of MUC4 in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) are inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the role of Muc4 during inflammatory and malignant conditions of the colon. Here, we generated Muc4−/− mice and addressed its role in colitis and colitis-associated CRC using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and azoxymethane (AOM)-DSS experimental models, respectively. Muc4−/− mice were viable, fertile with no apparent defects. Muc4−/− mice displayed increased resistance to DSS-induced colitis compared with wild-type (WT) littermates that was evaluated by survival rate, body weight loss, diarrhea and fecal blood score, and histological score. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is, CD3+ lymphocytes and F4/80+ macrophages was observed in the inflamed mucosa along with reduction in the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and anti-microbial genes Lysozyme M and SLPI in the colon of Muc4−/− mice compared with WT littermates. Compensatory upregulation of Muc2 and Muc3 mucins under basal and DSS treatment conditions partly explains the resistance observed in Muc4−/− mice. Accordingly, Muc4−/− mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor burden compared with WT mice assessed in a colitis-induced tumor model using AOM/DSS. An increased percentage of Ki67+ nuclei was observed in the tumors from WT compared with Muc4−/− mice suggesting Muc4 to be critical in intestinal cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Taken together, we conclusively demonstrate for the first time the role of Muc4 in driving intestinal inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis using a novel Muc4−/− mouse model. PMID:26364605

  9. Ulcerative colitis presenting as leukocytoclastic vasculitis of skin.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sabiye; Ozaslan, Ersan; Topal, Firdevs; Albayrak, Levent; Kayhan, Burcak; Efe, Cumali

    2008-04-21

    A number of cutaneous changes are known to occur in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, perianal disease, erythematous eruptions, urticaria, and purpura. However, occurrence of skin manifestations prior to the development of ulcerative colitis is a rare occasion. Here, we report a case of ulcerative colitis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis in which the intestinal symptoms became overt 8 mo after the development of skin lesions.

  10. Ulcerative colitis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin.

    PubMed

    Tripodi Cutrì, F; Salerno, R; Lo Schiavo, A; Gravina, A G; Romano, M; Ruocco, E

    2009-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis may be associated with a number of skin lesions such as erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum. We here describe an unusual case of a 33-year-old-caucasian male with ulcerative colitis and skin lesions diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis. An initial treatment with oral deflazacort led to little benefit, while treatment with oral mesalazine caused remission of the skin and intestinal manifestations in 2 weeks.

  11. Collagenous colitis: histopathology and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Goff, J S; Barnett, J L; Pelke, T; Appelman, H D

    1997-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a chronic diarrheal disease characterized by a normal or near-normal mucosa endoscopically and microscopic inflammation in the lamina propria, surface epithelial injury and a thick subepithelial collagen layer. The symptoms of collagenous colitis vary in duration and intensity, and long periods of remission have been described, but long-term follow-up data are limited. Our goal was to determine the natural clinical history of collagenous colitis and to determine whether there was a relationship between histopathologic changes and course of disease. Cases were identified at the University of Michigan Hospitals using surgical pathology records before 1992. All charts, including medical records from other hospitals, were reviewed, and a telephone interview was conducted with each locatable patient (pt). Biopsy specimens were reviewed by two pathologists for degree of collagen layer thickness, epithelial damage, and inflammation. There were 31 patients (26 F, 5 M) with a mean age of 66 yr (range 33-83) and a mean duration of symptoms of 5.4 yr at the time of diagnosis. Of the 31 patients, 18 (56%) had some form of arthritis, and 22 (71%) were using NSAIDS regularly at the time of diagnosis. Follow-up interviews were conducted at least 2 yr after diagnosis (mean 3.5 yr, range 2-5 yr) with 27 of 31 patients (3 could not be located, 1 died). Two definable groups of patients were identified: (1) those with either spontaneous or treatment-related symptom resolution (63%), and (2) those with ongoing or intermittent symptoms requiring at least intermittent therapy (37%). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to sex, age, associated diseases, and use of medications. Patients with symptom resolution (mean duration 3.1 yr) had been treated with antidiarrheals (6), sulfasalazine (3), discontinuation of NSAIDS (3), reversal of jejunoilial bypass (1), or nothing (4). Those with ongoing symptoms experienced a wide range of

  12. Sickle cell-induced ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Camille L; Ménard, Geraldine E

    2009-07-01

    Sickle cell-induced ischemic colitis is a rare yet potentially fatal complication of sickle cell anemia. Frequent pain crises with heavy analgesia may obscure and prolong this important diagnosis. Our patient was a 29-year-old female with sickle cell disease who was admitted with left lower quadrant abdominal pain. A diagnostic workup, including chemistries, complete blood count, blood cultures, chest x-ray, computerized tomography scanning, and colonoscopy, was performed to identify the etiology of her symptoms. This case highlights the importance of differentiating simple pain crisis from more serious and life-threatening ischemic bowel. A review of the literature compares this case to others reported and gives a method for diagnosing and treating this complication of sickle cell disease.

  13. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-12-08

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity as measured by WC (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; p for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  14. Coffee: A Dietary Intervention on Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Irene; Casal, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Coffee beverages, prepared in a multitude of ways around the world, are increasingly part of our daily lives. Although considered an unhealthy beverage for decades, coffee is increasingly the headline of medical journals in association with a reduced risk for several diseases. What if this beverage could give us pleasure, while modulating mood and lowering the risk for several diseases of the modern society, including type 2 diabetes (T2D)? Based on the most recent epidemiological and research data, long-term consumption of coffee beverages is associated with a lower risk of developing T2D in healthy individuals, probably involving multiple mechanisms, with interventions on glucose homeostasis, antioxidant activity, and inflammatory biomarkers. Several coffee constituents potentially responsible for these effects are described, as well as the factors that make their presence highly variable, with interesting effects associated with chlorogenic acids, trigonelline and norharman. Due to the high number of compounds contained in coffee, we explore the potential synergic effect within the coffee matrix. Moreover, acute coffee consumption shows different health effects from those achieved on a long-term daily consumption, and not all coffee beverages are similar. Still, despite the huge amount or work developed in the last decade, the substances and mechanisms behind these protective effects on T2D are still to be fully elucidated, being therefore soon for dietary interventions based on coffee. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from cross-sectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day) against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1–12 weeks), have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (∼2/1 mmHg) when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fibre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension. PMID:19183744

  16. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    PubMed

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  17. Acute effect of coffee drinking on dynamic cerebral autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Ai; Washio, Takuro; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2016-05-01

    Drinking coffee causes caffeine-induced physiological alterations such as increases in arterial blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, cerebral vasoconstriction, etc., and these physiological alterations may be associated with a reduced risk of cerebral vascular disease. However, the effect of coffee drinking on dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that coffee drinking enhances dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Twelve healthy young subjects participated in the present study. After a 5 min baseline measurement in a semi-recumbent position on the hospital bed, each subject drank water (CON) as a placebo condition or coffee beverage (Coffee INT). Arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) were measured continuously throughout the experiment. At 30 min after the intake of either water or coffee, dynamic cerebral autoregulation was examined using a thigh cuffs occlusion and release technique. Each condition was randomly performed on a different day. Under Coffee INT condition, mean arterial blood pressure was increased (P = 0.01) and mean MCAv was decreased (P = 0.01) from the baseline. The rate of regulation (RoR), as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, during coffee condition was significantly higher than that during CON (P = 0.0009). The findings of the present study suggest that coffee drinking augments dynamic CBF regulation with cerebral vasoconstriction. This phenomenon may be associated with a reduction in the risk of cerebral vascular disease.

  18. Coffee and health: a review of recent human research.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Jane V; Frei, Balz

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.

  19. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Determination of acrylamide in coffee and coffee products by GC-MS using an improved SPE clean-up.

    PubMed

    Soares, C; Cunha, S; Fernandes, J

    2006-12-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine acrylamide (AA) in coffee and coffee products was developed. The method was based on two main purification steps: the first with ethanol and Carrez solutions in order to precipitate polysaccharides and proteins, respectively; and the second with a layered solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. The method is applicable to a wide range of coffee products. Twenty-six samples of different coffee products were analysed. The levels of AA were in the range 11.4-36.2 microg l-1 for 'espresso coffee' and 200.8-229.4 microg l-1 for coffee blends with cereals. The results indicate that the presence of cereals significantly increased the levels of AA.

  1. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15th day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. RESULTS: The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3rd and 5th days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6th day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0

  2. Onset of ulcerative colitis after thyrotoxicosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Laterza, L; Piscaglia, A C; Lecce, S; Gasbarrini, A; Stefanelli, M L

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that could be triggered by acute stressful events, such as gastrointestinal infections or emotional stress. We reported the case of the onset of an ulcerative colitis after a thyrotoxicosis crisis and reviewed the literature about the relationships between thyroid dysfunctions and ulcerative colitis. A 38-year-old woman was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis after her third thyrotoxicosis crisis, two years after the diagnosis of Graves' disease. In this case, thyrotoxicosis acted as a trigger for ulcerative colitis onset. Hyperthyroidism could be a trigger able to elicit ulcerative colitis in susceptible patients.

  3. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment

  4. Medical Therapy of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bürger, Martin; Schmidt, Carsten; Teich, Niels; Stallmach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Medical therapy of mild and moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) of any extent is evidence-based and standardized by national and international guidelines. However, patients with steroid-refractory UC still represent a challenge. Methods A literature search using PubMed (search terms: ulcerative colitis, therapy, new, 1-2008-2015) resulted in 821 publications. For the current article, 88 citations were extracted including 36 randomized controlled studies, 18 reviews, and 8 meta-analyses. Results In steroid-refractory UC, early intensive therapy using anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies or the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus is indicated in any case to prevent progression to a toxic megacolon and/or to avoid proctocolectomy. In patients with chronic disease activity, treatment with anti-TNF antibodies has a higher level of evidence than azathioprine therapy and should therefore be preferred. However, there is a subgroup of UC patients who may achieve prolonged steroid-free remission on azathioprine monotherapy. The importance of vedolizumab, a newly registered inhibiting antibody against integrin, has not yet been fully clarified since direct comparison studies are lacking, in particular in relation to anti-TNF antibodies. Conclusion There is a great need for additional innovative therapies, especially in cases of primary non-response or secondary loss of response to anti-TNF antibodies. New small molecules (Janus kinase inhibitors) are promising with an acceptable safety profile and efficacy in UC. Further, strategies that target the intestinal microbiome are currently considered for patients with active or relapsing UC, and may in the future open up new therapeutic options. PMID:26557831

  5. Characterization of Growth Hormone Resistance in Experimental and Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Soendergaard, Christoffer; Kvist, Peter Helding; Thygesen, Peter; Reslow, Mats; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Kopchick, John Joseph; Holm, Thomas Lindebo

    2017-09-23

    Growth hormone (GH) resistance may develop as a consequence of inflammation during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the specific role of the GH-insulin growth factor (IGF)-1-axis and/or the functional consequences of GH resistance in this condition are unclear. In situ hybridization targeting the GH receptor (GHR) and relevant transcriptional analyses were performed in patients with UC and in IL-10 knock-out mice with piroxicam accelerated colitis (PAC). Using cultured primary epithelial cells, the effects of inflammation on the molecular mechanisms governing GH resistance was verified. Also, the therapeutic potential of GH on mucosal healing was tested in the PAC model. Inflammation induced intestinal GH resistance in UC and experimental colitis by down-regulating GHR expression and up-regulating suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins. These effects are driven by pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6) as confirmed using primary epithelial cells. Treatment of experimental colitis with GH increased IGF-1 and body weight of the mice, but had no effects on colonic inflammation or mucosal healing. The high transcriptional similarity between UC and experimental colitis accentuates the formation of intestinal GH resistance during inflammation. Inflammation-induced GH resistance not only impairs general growth but induces a state of local resistance, which potentially impairs the actions of GH on mucosal healing during colitis when using long-acting GH therapy.

  6. Characterization of Growth Hormone Resistance in Experimental and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, Peter Helding; Thygesen, Peter; Reslow, Mats; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Kopchick, John Joseph; Holm, Thomas Lindebo

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) resistance may develop as a consequence of inflammation during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the specific role of the GH–insulin growth factor (IGF)-1-axis and/or the functional consequences of GH resistance in this condition are unclear. In situ hybridization targeting the GH receptor (GHR) and relevant transcriptional analyses were performed in patients with UC and in IL-10 knock-out mice with piroxicam accelerated colitis (PAC). Using cultured primary epithelial cells, the effects of inflammation on the molecular mechanisms governing GH resistance was verified. Also, the therapeutic potential of GH on mucosal healing was tested in the PAC model. Inflammation induced intestinal GH resistance in UC and experimental colitis by down-regulating GHR expression and up-regulating suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins. These effects are driven by pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6) as confirmed using primary epithelial cells. Treatment of experimental colitis with GH increased IGF-1 and body weight of the mice, but had no effects on colonic inflammation or mucosal healing. The high transcriptional similarity between UC and experimental colitis accentuates the formation of intestinal GH resistance during inflammation. Inflammation-induced GH resistance not only impairs general growth but induces a state of local resistance, which potentially impairs the actions of GH on mucosal healing during colitis when using long-acting GH therapy. PMID:28946616

  7. Hypersensitive prostaglandin and thromboxane response to hormones in rabbit colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Zipser, R.D.; Patterson, J.B.; Kao, H.W.

    1985-10-01

    Inflammation of the colon is associated with increased production of prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (Tx), and these eicosanoids may contribute to the inflammatory, secretory, and motility dysfunctions in colitis. To evaluate the potential role of peptide hormones in the enhanced eicosanoid release, colitis was established in rabbits by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrochlorobenzene and by an immune-complex-mediated reaction. PG and Tx were identified in the venous effluent of isolated perfused colons by radiochromatography after ( UC)arachidonic acid prelabeling, as well as by bioassay, and then quantitated by immunoassay. The two colitis models were morphologically similar. Basal release of PGE2,more » PGI2, and TxA2 was two- to threefold greater from colitis tissue than from control tissue. Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANG II) increased release of UC-labeled eicosanoids, whereas several gastrointestinal hormones had no effect. In control colons, BK and ANG II increased PGE2 and PGI2 release (by about 2-fold) but did not alter TxA2. In contrast, BK and ANG II markedly exaggerated the release of eicosanoids in colitis. Since BK and possibly ANG II are increased at sites of inflammation, the hypersensitive eicosanoid response to these peptides may augment the eicosanoid-mediated manifestations of colitis.« less

  8. Review article: Ulcerative colitis, smoking and nicotine therapy.

    PubMed

    Lunney, P C; Leong, R W L

    2012-12-01

    Smoking is the best-characterised environmental association of ulcerative colitis (UC). Smoking has been observed to exert protective effects on both the development and progression of UC. To examine the association between UC and smoking, possible pathogenic mechanisms and the potential of nicotine as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of UC. A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE, using the MeSH search terms 'ulcerative colitis' and 'smoking' or 'nicotine'. Relevant articles were identified through manual review. The reference lists of these articles were reviewed to include further appropriate articles. Ulcerative colitis is less prevalent in smokers. Current smokers with a prior diagnosis of UC are more likely to exhibit milder disease than ex-smokers and nonsmokers. There is conflicting evidence for smokers having reduced rates of hospitalisation, colectomy and need for oral corticosteroids and immunosuppressants to manage their disease. Multiple potential active mediators in smoke may be responsible for these clinical effects, including nicotine and carbon monoxide, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. Nicotine has demonstrated variable efficacy in the induction of remission in UC when compared to placebo and conventional medicines. Despite this, the high frequency of adverse events limits its clinical significance. Nicotine's application as a therapeutic treatment in ulcerative colitis is limited. Presently, it may be an option considered only in selected cases of acute ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional treatment options. This review also questions whether nicotine is the active component of smoking that modifies risk and inflammation in ulcerative colitis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Colitis detection on abdominal CT scans by rich feature hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Lay, Nathan; Wei, Zhuoshi; Lu, Le; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Colitis is inflammation of the colon due to neutropenia, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn disease), infection and immune compromise. Colitis is often associated with thickening of the colon wall. The wall of a colon afflicted with colitis is much thicker than normal. For example, the mean wall thickness in Crohn disease is 11-13 mm compared to the wall of the normal colon that should measure less than 3 mm. Colitis can be debilitating or life threatening, and early detection is essential to initiate proper treatment. In this work, we apply high-capacity convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals to detect potential colitis on CT scans. Our method first generates around 3000 category-independent region proposals for each slice of the input CT scan using selective search. Then, a fixed-length feature vector is extracted from each region proposal using a CNN. Finally, each region proposal is classified and assigned a confidence score with linear SVMs. We applied the detection method to 260 images from 26 CT scans of patients with colitis for evaluation. The detection system can achieve 0.85 sensitivity at 1 false positive per image.

  10. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  11. Interobserver variability and feasibility of polymerase chain reaction-based assay in distinguishing ischemic colitis from Clostridium difficile colitis in endoscopic mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Wiland, Homer O; Procop, Gary W; Goldblum, John R; Tuohy, Marion; Rybicki, Lisa; Patil, Deepa T

    2013-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays using stool samples are currently the most effective method of detecting Clostridium difficile. This study examines the feasibility of this assay using mucosal biopsy samples and evaluates the interobserver reproducibility in diagnosing and distinguishing ischemic colitis from C difficile colitis. Thirty-eight biopsy specimens were reviewed and classified by 3 observers into C difficile and ischemic colitis. The findings were correlated with clinical data. PCR was performed on 34 cases using BD GeneOhm C difficile assay. The histologic interobserver agreement was excellent (κ= 0.86) and the agreement between histologic and clinical diagnosis was good (κ = 0.84). All 19 ischemic colitis cases tested negative (100% specificity) and 3 of 15 cases of C difficile colitis tested positive (20% sensitivity). C difficile colitis can be reliably distinguished from ischemic colitis using histologic criteria. The C difficile PCR test on endoscopic biopsy specimens has excellent specificity but limited sensitivity.

  12. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  13. Induction of AhR-Mediated Gene Transcription by Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio

    2014-01-01

    Background Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. Methods HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. Results All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. Conclusions By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health. PMID:25007155

  14. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors <2 mg/g. For the single-bean calibration the r(2) values were between 0.85 and 0.93 with standard errors of cross validation of 0.8-1.6 mg/g depending upon calibration. The results showed it was possible to develop NIRS calibrations to estimate the caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  15. Loss of n-6 fatty acid induced pediatric obesity protects against acute murine colitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary influences may affect microbiome composition and host immune responses, thereby modulating propensity toward inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Dietary n-6 fatty acids have been associated with ulcetative colitis in prospective studies. However, the critical d...

  16. 38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with circular, cattle watering pond in left foreground and coffee mill in background right. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-1 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  17. A Poetry Coffee House: Creating a Cool Community of Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the sharing of writing through a coffee house--style poetry reading. Although this article focuses on a workshop and share activity used in a preservice teacher language arts and literacy course, it contains tips and ideas for implementing poetry coffee houses with elementary and secondary school students and preservice and…

  18. AVIAN RESOURCE USE IN DOMINICAN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS

    Treesearch

    JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE. JR; STEVEN C. LATTAA

    1998-01-01

    We quantified foraging behavior of 19 bird species in shade coffee plantations in the Dominican Republic to document and evaluate their use of food resources in the shade overstory relative to the coffee understory. All species were observed foraging in the Znga “era overstory, and 18 of the 19 species had median foraging heights significantly above the median maximum...

  19. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.

  20. Alkylpyridiniums. 2. Isolation and quantification in roasted and ground coffees.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Richard H; Varga, Natalia; Milo, Christian; Schilter, Benoit; Vera, Francia Arce; Welti, Dieter H

    2002-02-27

    Recent model studies on trigonelline decomposition have identified nonvolatile alkylpyridiniums as major reaction products under certain physicochemical conditions. The quaternary base 1-methylpyridinium was isolated from roasted and ground coffee and purified by ion exchange and thin-layer chromatography. The compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectrometry techniques. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the alkaloid in coffee by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The formation of alkylpyridiniums is positively correlated to the roasting degree in arabica coffee, and highest levels of 1-methylpyridinium, reaching up to 0.25% on a per weight basis, were found in dark roasted coffee beans. Analyses of coffee extracts also showed the presence of dimethylpyridinium, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 mg/kg. This is the first report on the isolation and quantification of alkylpyridiniums in coffee. These compounds, described here in detail for the first time, may have an impact on the flavor/aroma profile of coffee directly (e.g., bitterness), or indirectly as precursors, and potentially open new avenues in the flavor/aroma modulation of coffee.

  1. Conceptual study on maillardized dietary fiber in coffee.

    PubMed

    Silván, José Manuel; Morales, Francisco J; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2010-12-08

    There is a methodological and conceptual overlap between coffee melanoidins and dietary fiber. Green Uganda coffee beans were roasted in a range from 8.1 to 21.6% of weight loss to evaluate melanoidins and dietary fiber. Samples were characterized by color, moisture, solubility, water activity, carbohydrates, polyphenols, protein, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and melanoidins content. Hydroxymethylfurfural and chlorogenic acids were also measured as chemical markers of the extent of roasting. Melanoidins rapidly increased from 5.6 (light roasting) to 29.1 mg/100 mg soluble dry matter (dark roasting). A melanoidins-like structure was already present in green coffee that might overestimate up to 21.0% of the melanoidins content as determined by colorimetric methods. However, its contribution is variable and very likely depends on the method of drying applied to green coffee. SDF content (mg/100 mg soluble dry matter) gradually increased from 39.4 in green coffee to 64.9 at severe roasting conditions due to incorporation of neoformed colored structures and polyphenols. Then, SDF progressively turns to a maillardized structure, which increased from 11.0 to 45.0% according to the roasting conditions. It is concluded that the content of coffee melanoidins includes a substantial part of dietary fiber and also that coffee dietary fiber includes melanoidins. A conceptual discussion on a new definition of coffee melanoidins as a type of maillardized dietary fiber is conducted.

  2. Severe and Rapid Progression in Very Early-Onset Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshinao; Arai, Katsuhiro; Harayama, Shizuko; Nakazawa, Yumiko; Goto, Fumihiro; Maekawa, Takanobu; Tamura, Eiichiro; Uchiyama, Toru; Onodera, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease that leads to recurrent infection and hyper-inflammation, occasionally represented by CGD-associated colitis (CGD colitis). Although clinical symptoms of CGD colitis mimic those of ulcerative colitis (UC), there is no reliable standard measurement of disease activity or standard therapeutic strategy for CGD colitis. Here, we examined the clinical manifestation of CGD colitis based on severity using a noninvasive measure of disease activity, the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI), which has been validated and widely used for pediatric UC. Sixteen of 35 CGD patients, who were diagnosed with CGD colitis based on colonoscopic and histological findings, were examined using the PUCAI. Both the PUCAI and the physician global assessment (PGA) tool were retrospectively scored by reviewing medical records. Disease activity defined by PUCAI was correlated with PGA, and increased at diagnosis of CGD colitis, especially in patients who were younger than 6 years of age (very early-onset CGD colitis: VEO-CGD colitis) when diagnosed with CGD colitis. All severe patients had a more progressive form of VEO-CGD colitis. Unlike mild and moderate patients, severe patients required multidrug therapy of corticosteroids and immunomodulator/immunosuppressants, and some were eventually treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although the validation of PUCAI in CGD colitis should be considered for future use, our results indicate that noninvasive measures could be effective to measure disease activity and help to determine suitable treatment for CGD colitis. In patients with VEO-CGD colitis, multidrug therapy would need to be considered at an early stage on the basis of disease activity.

  3. Collagenous colitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis: a rare entity.

    PubMed Central

    Ekiz, Fuat; Coban, Sahin; Savas, Berna; Gören, Deniz; Ensari, Arzu; Ormeci, Necati

    2007-01-01

    Collagenous colitis has been associated with autoimmune diseases. Co-occurence of systemic sclerosis and collagenous colitis is particularly rare. Herein, we described a 65-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis whose diarrhea and abdominal cramping were due to collagenous colitis. We have reviewed the clinical and histopathological features of collagenous colitis with regard to its concomitance with systemic sclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17595940

  4. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hookman, Perry; Barkin, Jamie S

    2009-01-01

    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to two-thirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficile-associated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate

  5. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    PubMed

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  6. Sound of a cup with and without instant coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    An empty coffee cup, like an ancient Chinese two-tone bell, emits two distinctly different tones, depending upon where it is tapped. When it is filled with hot water, and some instant coffee is added, however, a whole new set of sounds is heard when the cup is tapped. The pitch rises an octave or more as the foam clears due to the dramatic change in the speed of sound in the bubble-filled liquid. A similar, but smaller, effect was noted in beer by Bragg [The World of Sound (1968)] and in hot chocolate by Crawford [Am. J. Phys. (1982)]. We describe the modes of vibration in a coffee cup and the sound emitted by a coffee cup as filled with instant coffee as the bubble density changes.

  7. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.

    PubMed

    Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell

    2014-05-28

    The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.

  8. Espresso coffee foam delays cooling of the liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho

    2017-04-01

    Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.

  9. Isotopes as Tracers of the Hawaiian Coffee-Producing Regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Green coffee bean isotopes have been used to trace the effects of different climatic and geological characteristics associated with the Hawaii islands. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ((MC)-ICP-SFMS and ICP-QMS) were applied to determine the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), sulfur (δ34S), and oxygen (δ18O), the isotope abundance of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), and the concentrations of 30 different elements in 47 green coffees. The coffees were produced in five Hawaii regions: Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Results indicate that coffee plant seed isotopes reflect interactions between the coffee plant and the local environment. Accordingly, the obtained analytical fingerprinting could be used to discriminate between the different Hawaii regions studied. PMID:21838232

  10. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  11. Altered intestinal absorption of L-thyroxine caused by coffee.

    PubMed

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Bartolone, Luigi; Pappalardo, Maria Angela; Russo, Antonia; Lapa, Daniela; Giorgianni, Grazia; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco

    2008-03-01

    To report eight case histories, and in vivo and in vitro studies showing coffee's potential to impair thyroxine (T4) intestinal absorption. Of eight women with inappropriately high or nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) when T4 was swallowed with coffee/espresso, six consented to the evaluation of their T4 intestinal absorption. This in vivo test was also administered to nine volunteers. In three separate tests, two 100 microg T4 tablets were swallowed with coffee, water, or water followed, 60 minutes later, by coffee. Serum T4 was assayed over the 4-hour period of the test. Two patients and two volunteers also agreed on having tested the intestinal absorption of T4 swallowed with solubilized dietary fibers. In the in vitro studies, classical recovery tests on known concentrations of T4 were performed in the presence of saline, coffee, or known T4 sequestrants (dietary fibers, aluminium hydroxide, and sucralfate). For the in vivo test, average and peak incremental rise of serum T4 (AIRST4 and PIRST4), time of maximal incremental rise of serum T4 (TMIRST4), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined. In patients and volunteers, the four outcome measures were similar in the water and water + coffee tests. In patients and volunteers, compared to water, coffee lowered AIRST4 (by 36% and 29%), PIRST4 (by 30% and 19%), and AUC (by 36% and 27%) and delayed TMIRST4 (by 38 and 43 minutes); bran was a superior interferer. In the in vitro studies, coffee was weaker than known T4 sequestrants. Coffee should be added to the list of interferers of T4 intestinal absorption, and T4 to the list of compounds whose absorption is affected by coffee.

  12. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  13. Decaffeinated coffee improves insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Reis, Caio E G; Paiva, Cicília L R Dos S; Amato, Angélica A; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana; Wassell, Sara; Bluck, Leslie J C; Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa H M

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have found coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this randomised, cross-over single-blind study was to investigate the effects of regular coffee, regular coffee with sugar and decaffeinated coffee consumption on glucose metabolism and incretin hormones. Seventeen healthy men participated in five trials each, during which they consumed coffee (decaffeinated, regular (containing caffeine) or regular with sugar) or water (with or without sugar). After 1 h of each intervention, they received an oral glucose tolerance test with one intravenous dose of [1-13C]glucose. The Oral Dose Intravenous Label Experiment was applied and glucose and insulin levels were interpreted using a stable isotope two-compartment minimal model. A mixed-model procedure (PROC MIXED), with subject as random effect and time as repeated measure, was used to compare the effects of the beverages on glucose metabolism and incretin parameters (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)). Insulin sensitivity was higher with decaffeinated coffee than with water (P<0·05). Regular coffee with sugar did not significantly affect glucose, insulin, C-peptide and incretin hormones, compared with water with sugar. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not statistically different after regular and decaffeinated coffee compared with water. Our findings demonstrated that the consumption of decaffeinated coffee improves insulin sensitivity without changing incretin hormones levels. There was no short-term adverse effect on glucose homoeostasis, after an oral glucose challenge, attributable to the consumption of regular coffee with sugar.

  14. A Prospective Investigation of Coffee Drinking and Endometrial Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Marc J.; Schaub, Jennifer A.; Xue, Xiaonan; Freedman, Neal D.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50–71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (Hazard Ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups=0.64, 95%CI, 0.51–0.80; Ptrend= 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup= 0.90, 95%CI, 0.86–0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup=0.93, 95%CI, 0.87–0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (Pinteraction=0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups= 0.54, 95%CI, 0.41–0.72; Ptrend=0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content. PMID:22021096

  15. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  16. Diversion colitis and pouchitis: A mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Kentaro; Kamimura, Kenya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Junji; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Terai, Shuji

    2018-01-01

    Diversion colitis is characterized by inflammation of the mucosa in the defunctioned segment of the colon after colostomy or ileostomy. Similar to diversion colitis, diversion pouchitis is an inflammatory disorder occurring in the ileal pouch, resulting from the exclusion of the fecal stream and a subsequent lack of nutrients from luminal bacteria. Although the vast majority of patients with surgically-diverted gastrointestinal tracts remain asymptomatic, it has been reported that diversion colitis and pouchitis might occur in almost all patients with diversion. Surgical closure of the stoma, with reestablishment of gut continuity, is the only curative intervention available for patients with diversion disease. Pharmacologic treatments using short-chain fatty acids, mesalamine, or corticosteroids are reportedly effective for those who are not candidates for surgical reestablishment; however, there are no established assessment criteria for determining the severity of diversion colitis, and no management strategies to date. Therefore, in this mini-review, we summarize and review various recently-reported treatments for diversion disease. We are hopeful that the information summarized here will assist physicians who treat patients with diversion colitis and pouchitis, leading to better case management. PMID:29713128

  17. Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann; Moonah, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Background Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Methodology and Principal Findings Articles reporting severe and fulminant forms of amebic colitis between 1991 and 2016 were collected. 525 records were screened to identify 24 cases for qualitative analysis associated with corticosteroid use. Cases arose from areas of high endemicity or travel to such areas. Most cases (14 of 24, 58%) were given corticosteroids for initially misdiagnosed colitis, mainly inflammatory bowel, resulting in rapid progression of disease. Nearly half of all cases underwent surgical intervention, and 25% of cases died, despite all patients eventually receiving treatment with metronidazole. The odds of death did not differ significantly by prior misdiagnosis, co-morbidities, bowel perforation or need for surgery. Conclusions and Significance Infection with E. histolytica should be considered prior to the administration of corticosteroids, in particular for patients residing in endemic areas or those with appropriate travel history, especially prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The development of preventative and treatment interventions are needed to improve outcomes of fulminant disease. PMID:27467600

  18. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, Johan; Wickbom, Anna; Hegedus, Agnes; Nyhlin, Nils; Hultgren Hörnquist, Elisabeth; Tysk, Curt

    2014-01-01

    Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, together constituting microscopic colitis, are common causes of chronic diarrhea. They are characterized clinically by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where characteristic histopathological findings are seen. Previously considered rare, they now have emerged as common disorders that need to be considered in the investigation of the patient with chronic diarrhea. The annual incidence of each disorder is five to ten per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence in 60- to 70-year-old individuals and a predominance of female patients in collagenous colitis. The etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood, and the current view suggests an uncontrolled mucosal immune reaction to various luminal agents in predisposed individuals. Clinical symptoms comprise chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fecal incontinence that may impair the patient’s health-related quality of life. An association is reported with other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis. The best-documented treatment, both short-term and long-term, is budesonide, which induces clinical remission in up to 80% of patients after 8 weeks’ treatment. However, after successful budesonide therapy is ended, recurrence of clinical symptoms is common, and the best possible long-term management deserves further study. The long-term prognosis is good, and the risk of complications, including colonic cancer, is low. We present an update of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of microscopic colitis. PMID:25170275

  19. [Spectroscopic methods applied to component determination and species identification for coffee].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-zhou; Xu, Li-li; Qin, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopic analysis was applied to the determination of the nutrient quality of ground, instant and chicory coffees. By using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), nine mineral elements were determined in solid coffee samples. Caffeine was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and organic matter was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Oxidation-reduction titration was utilized for measuring the oxalate. The differences between ground coffee and instant coffee was identified on the basis of the contents of caffeine, oxalate and mineral elements. Experimental evidence showed that, caffeine in instant coffee was 2-3 times higher than in ground coffee. Oxalate in instant coffee was significantly higher in ground coffee. Mineral elements of Mg, P and Zn in ground coffee is lower than in instant coffee, while Cu is several times higher. The mineral content in chicory coffee is overall lower than the instant coffee. In addition, we determined the content of Ti for different types of coffees, and simultaneously detected the elements of Cu, Ti and Zn in chicory coffee. As a fast detection technique, FTIR spectroscopy has the potential of detecting the differences between ground coffee and instant coffee, and is able to verify the presence of caffeine and oxalate.

  20. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  1. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  2. Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: current status and prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...

  3. [Ulcerative colitis: exceptional consequence after rituximab therapy].

    PubMed

    Sekkach, Y; Hammi, S; Elqatni, M; Fatihi, J; Badaoui, M; Elomri, N; Mekouar, F; Smaali, J; Jira, M; Amezyane, T; Abouzahir, A; Ghafir, D

    2011-09-01

    Possible adverse complications related to rituximab (RTX) are low, some of which are extremely rare. The authors describe one situation visibly waning exceptional treatment with RTX for SLE refractory to conventional therapies. The authors report a patient of 34 years followed for months for an illness in its bullous lupus, with cutaneous, articular, hematologic and immunologic. Given a corticosteroid resistance, several therapeutic background based hydroxychloroquine, cyclophosphamide and methotrexate, were initiated without any improvement. Immunomodulatory therapy type RTX was introduced to this form refractory at a rate of 375mg/m(2)/week. The waning of the second infusion, the patient presented a sudden intense abdominal pain syndrome, revealing an acute catarrhal appendicitis. At distance from the appendectomy, the consequences of which were favorable, treatment with RTX was resumed. In the aftermath of the third infusion, the patient presented in table tract marked by profuse watery diarrhea whose explorations reveal a morphological endoscopic appearance of erythematous, ulcerative colitis, reversible upon discontinuation of treatment. Histological data revealed important infiltrates composed mainly of CD8T lymphocytes. Gastrointestinal immunological consequences to the requirements of the targeted therapies deserved very careful and rigorous monitoring. However, at the slightest sign of digestive, a detailed morphological exploration is essential, to avoid in particular surgical emergency, evolution without treatment could engage in short-term vital prognosis. 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Budesonide for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Maisa I.; Herfarth, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Budesonide is a synthetic corticosteroid characterized by enhanced topical potency and limited systemic bioavailability. Its use in ulcerative colitis (UC) was limited to rectal preparations until recently when the new oral budesonide formulation incorporating the multi-matrix system technology was introduced. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current role of oral and rectal budesonide in managing UC patients Areas Covered In this paper, we described the chemical structure and pharmacologic characteristics of the different oral and rectal budesonide preparations, provided a summary of the published trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of budesonide in UC, and discussed the current status of its use in this population Expert Opinion Budesonide is effective in inducing remission in a subset of patients with mild-moderate UC. Nevertheless, the current evidence suggests inferiority of oral budesonide to 5-aminosalisylates (5-ASA) and systemic steroids, whereas rectal applications are comparable to other rectal steroid preparations but still inferior to rectal 5-ASA. In clinical practice, several issues need clarification including, its exact position in the line of induction agents; the role of combining budesonide and 5-ASAs; the role of combining oral and rectal budesonide; and the role of budesonide in maintenance therapy. PMID:27157244

  5. Budesonide for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Maisa I; Herfarth, Hans

    2016-08-01

    Budesonide is a synthetic corticosteroid characterized by enhanced topical potency and limited systemic bioavailability. Its use in ulcerative colitis (UC) was limited to rectal preparations until recently when the new oral budesonide formulation incorporating the multi-matrix system technology was introduced. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current role of oral and rectal budesonide in managing UC patients Areas covered: In this paper, we described the chemical structure and pharmacologic characteristics of the different oral and rectal budesonide preparations, provided a summary of the published trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of budesonide in UC, and discussed the current status of its use in this population Expert opinion: Budesonide is effective in inducing remission in a subset of patients with mild-moderate UC. Nevertheless, the current evidence suggests inferiority of oral budesonide to 5-aminosalisylates (5-ASA) and systemic steroids, whereas rectal applications are comparable to other rectal steroid preparations, but still inferior to rectal 5-ASA. In clinical practice, several issues need clarification including, its exact position in the line of induction agents; the role of combining budesonide and 5-ASAs; the role of combining oral and rectal budesonide; and the role of budesonide in maintenance therapy.

  6. Optimal management of collagenous colitis: a review

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Aoibhlinn

    2016-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is an increasingly recognized cause of chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by watery non-bloody diarrhea. As a lesser studied inflammatory bowel disease, many aspects of the CC’s natural history are poorly understood. This review discusses strategies to optimally manage CC. The goal of therapy is to induce clinical remission, <3 stools a day or <1 watery stool a day with subsequent improved quality of life (QOL). Antidiarrheal can be used as monotherapy or with other medications to control diarrhea. Budesonide therapy has revolutionized treatment and is superior to prednisone, however, the treatment is associated with high-relapse rates and the management of refractory disease is challenging. Ongoing trials will address the safety and efficacy of low-dose maintenance therapy. For those with refractory disease, case reports and case series support the role of biologic agents. Diversion of the fecal stream normalizes colonic mucosal changes and ileostomy may be considered where anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents are contraindicated. Underlying celiac disease, bile salt diarrhea, and associated thyroid dysfunction should be ruled out. The author recommends smoking cessation as well as avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories as well as other associated medications. PMID:26929656

  7. Maintenance therapy options for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, María; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-07-01

    Medical therapy is the cornerstone of the management of ulcerative colitis (UC) and the goal of the treatment is the induction and maintenance of remission. Mesalamine is the first line treatment in patients with mild to moderate UC. Despite having different formulations available, clinically significant differences in pharmacokinetics and exposure to these drugs have not been observed. Evidence supporting the efficacy of azathioprine and mercaptopurine for maintaining remission is UC patients come from both observational cohorts and clinical trials. The main limitation of the treatment with thiopurines is the onset of adverse events that occur in over one-third of patients. Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab are anti-TNF drugs, which are generally used for more severe or refractory cases. Finally, vedolizumab, a drug directed against the integrins α4β7 has been shown to be effective for the induction and maintenance of remission in moderate-to-severe UC patients. Several new drugs have enriched the therapeutic armamentarium of UC. Whether the administration of biologics earlier on in the course of the disease would have an impact on the natural history of the disease, avoiding the need for colectomy, remains unknown.

  8. Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    The association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been acknowledged. One of the most serious and life threatening consequences of UC is the development of CRC (UC-CRC). UC-CRC patients are younger, more frequently have multiple cancerous lesions, and histologically show mucinous or signet ring cell carcinomas. The risk of CRC begins to increase 8 or 10 years after the diagnosis of UC. Risk factors for CRC with UC patients include young age at diagnosis, longer duration, greater anatomical extent of colonic involvement, the degree of inflammation, family history of CRC, and presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. CRC on the ground of UC develop from non-dysplastic mucosa to indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and finally to invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy surveillance programs are recommended to reduce the risk of CRC and mortality in UC. Genetic alterations might play a role in the development of UC-CRC. 5-aminosalicylates might represent a favorable therapeutic option for chemoprevention of CRC. PMID:25469007

  9. [Metaplasic Paneth cells in ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Bedini, Oscar Alfredo; Naves, Ariel; San Miguel, Patricia; Quispe, Arturo; Guida, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Paneth cells are normally present in small intestine, but its appearance in other areas of the gastrointestinal tract is related to chronic inflammatory processes. In our study we retrospectively examined 29 patients with diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, from the files of Instituto de Histopatología de Rosario, and from the casuistry of two authors (O.B. and P.S.M.), during two years. Biopsies corresponded to rectal or sigmoid mucosa and were stained with H.E. Distal Paneth cells in rectum and/or sigmoid colon were found in 60% of patients. This finding was related to the time of evolution of the disease (median 7 years for patients with Paneth cells and 3 years for patients without Paneth cells). With more time of evolution, there were more number of affected crypts and more number of Paneth cells. Some of the patients with longer evolution had 2-5 crypts with Paneth cells (up to 11 Paneth cells). When the time of evolution of the disease was longer, we found an irregular distribution of Paneth cells, with migration from the depth of the crypt to highest crypt levels. There was a relationship between the number of Paneth cells and the degree of leukocyte infiltration of the mucosa. We observed a direct correlation of the presence of Paneth cells with the time of evolution of the disease and with the leukocyte infiltration of the mucosa.

  10. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089

  11. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:27293323

  12. Early lesion of palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Akihiko; Fujita, Hideki; Fukunaga, Yuki; Kenmochi, Yasuko; Ikenaka, Tatsuo; Mitomi, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD) is a rare clinical entity of unknown cause. It often coexists with various autoimmune or immunoreactive systemic diseases, and thus it has been reported under multiple names. We describe a patient with quiescent ulcerative colitis, who presented with recurrent small tender papules, nodules and erythematous plaques, located mainly on her hands, together with finger swelling and polyarthralgia. The histopathologic picture indicated an early stage of PNGD with focal degeneration of collagen fibers but without distinct granuloma formation. The differentiation from neutrophilic dermatoses was necessary because of dense and diffuse infiltration of neutrophils with leukocytoclastic debris throughout the dermis, and the association of ulcerative colitis. Dapsone monotherapy was effective in improving the clinical symptoms. PNGD is only rarely associated with ulcerative colitis, and this case suggests that the concept of PNGD, especially in its early stages, might be considered in the wide spectrum of neutrophilic dermatoses.

  13. Coffee versus Caffeine: Effects on Subjective and Behavioral Measures of Alertness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-12

    Mountain Dew and Sunkist Orange, simply add caffeine that is sold as a by-product of the decaffeination process by coffee companies (Gilbert, 1984...roasting process ) regardless of caffeine content, and both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee stimulate a much stronger gastric acid response than...with beverage ( decaffeinated coffee versus non- caf feinated herbal tea), thus exposing subjects to caffeine with and without coffee, and coffee with

  14. Recent advances in the management of radiation colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kountouras, Jannis; Zavos, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Radiation colitis, an insidious, progressive disease of increasing frequency, develops 6 mo to 5 years after regional radiotherapy for malignancy, owing to the deleterious effects of the latter on the colon and the small intestine. When dealing with radiation colitis and its complications, the most conservative modality should be employed because the areas of intestinal injury do not tend to heal. Acute radiation colitis is mostly self-limited, and usually, only supportive management is required. Chronic radiation colitis, a poorly predictable progressive disease, is considered as a precancerous lesion; radiation-associated malignancy has a tendency to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and to bear a dismal prognosis. Therefore, management of chronic radiation colitis remains a major challenge owing to the progressive evolution of the disease, including development of fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, partial obstruction, and cancer. Patients are commonly managed conservatively. Surgical intervention is difficult to perform because of the extension of fibrosis and alterations in the gut and mesentery, and should be reserved for intestinal obstruction, perforation, fistulas, and severe bleeding. Owing to the difficulty in managing the complications of acute and chronic radiation colitis, particular attention should be focused onto the prevention strategies. Uncovering the fibrosis mechanisms and the molecular events underlying radiation bowel disease could lead to the introduction of new therapeutic and/or preventive approaches. A variety of novel, mostly experimental, agents have been used mainly as a prophylaxis, and improvements have been made in radiotherapy delivery, including techniques to reduce the amount of exposed intestine in the radiation field, as a critical strategy for prevention. PMID:19109862

  15. Clinical Presentation of Ulcerative Colitis in Pakistani Adults.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mustafa; Abbas, Zaigham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical presentation and severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Pakistani adult patients. An observational study. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients who visited a gastroenterology clinic between 2008 and 2012. There were 54 patients diagnosed as UC. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Mean age at diagnosis of UC was 38.7 ± 11.8 years (median 36.5, range 18-64). The predominant presenting symptoms were mucus diarrhea in 49 (90.7%), gross blood in stools in 42 (77.8%), abdominal pain or cramps in 40 (74.1%) and weight loss in 15 (27.7%). Left-sided colitis was present in 23 (42.6%), pancolitis in 15 (27.8%), extensive colitis in 11 (20.4%), and proctitis in five (9.2%). The severity of UC as judged by the Mayo scoring system showed that 68.5% were suffering from moderate to severe disease while 31.5% had mild disease. The extra-intestinal manifestation were found only in seven patients; arthritis in five patients and anterior uveitis in two patients. The arthritis was unilateral and the sites were knee joint in three patients and sacroiliac joint in two patients. Ulcerative colitis presents in our adult patients may present at any age with no gender preponderance. The disease severity is moderate to severe in the majority of patients and more than half of them have left-sided colitis or pancolitis at the time of presentation. Extraintestinal manifestations were not common. Qureshi M, Abbas Z. Clinical Presentation of Ulcerative Colitis in Pakistani Adults. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):127-130.

  16. Ulcerative colitis in Kuwait: a review of 90 cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamali, Mohammed A; Kalaoui, Maher; Patty, Istivan; Hasan, Fuad; Khajah, Abdulkareem; Al-Nakib, Basil

    2003-01-01

    Chronic ulcerative colitis is a disease of unknown etiology. Its incidence is on the rise in various developing countries as has been reported in studies from South-East Asia and the Middle East. There seems to be significant differences in the pattern and the clinical course of this disease in our patient population. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence and the clinical course of the disease in Kuwait. This is a retrospective study of cases identified over a period of 14 years (1985-1999). Three hundred forty-six patients were identified to have chronic ulcerative colitis. Ninety patients were interviewed for this study. Chronic ulcerative colitis is being identified with increasing frequency. Our local incidence was 2.8 per 100,000 persons per year. The disease was seen in both sexes with equal frequency. It peaks at the third decade of life, with no second peak observed in the sixth decade. The disease was of mild to moderate severity in 93% of the cases. The distribution of the disease in the colon showed pancolitis in 45%, left-sided colitis in 14%, proctosigmoiditis in 21% and proctitis in 20%. Arthritis and arthralgia were the most frequent extraintestinal manifestation seen in 31%. Perianal disease, although rare in ulcerative colitis, was seen in 8%. Of interest is the fact that over 14 years of follow-up, none of our patients developed high-grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer. Four patients required total colectomy mainly due to failure of medical therapy. Chronic ulcerative colitis is occurring with increasing frequency similar to that seen in Western countries. The disease observed in our patient population was of mild to moderate severity, with fewer complications than reported in Western countries. It peaks in the third decade with no second peak. None of our patients developed high-grade dysplasia or colorectal carcinoma. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Ipilimumab-induced colitis in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Kara M; Gupta, Arjun; Rakshit, Sagar; Khanna, Sahil; Kottschade, Lisa A; Finnes, Heidi D; Papadakis, Konstantinos A; Loftus, Edward V; Raffals, Laura E; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-08-01

    Ipilimumab is used for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and is associated with serious immune-related colitis. We aimed to report the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of patients with ipilimumab-induced colitis. In this retrospective observational study, we identified patients with unresectable melanoma treated with ipilimumab between March 2011 and September 2013. Diarrhea was assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, v3.0. Colitis was defined by diarrhea (grade≥2) requiring steroids with or without endoscopic/histologic/radiologic evidence of colitis. A total of 103 patients with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab were identified. Of these, 30 patients (29%) developed diarrhea (all grades), and 23 patients (22%) developed colitis requiring systemic corticosteroid therapy. The median number of ipilimumab doses before onset of diarrhea was 2 (range, 1-4). Six of 23 patients responded to less than 1 mg/kg daily prednisone alone. Fifteen patients required high-dose oral and/or intravenous prednisone (1-2 mg/kg body weight). Six patients had diarrhea refractory to prednisone; five required rescue therapy with budesonide (9-12 mg daily) and one was treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg, three doses). There was one case of severe diarrhea (grade 3) treated successfully with high-dose budesonide (12 mg) monotherapy. Ipilimumab-induced colitis requires early and aggressive medical therapy. Most patients can be successfully managed with systemic corticosteroids. High-dose budesonide is an attractive steroid-sparing agent, however further studies of its efficacy in this setting are needed. Infliximab should be used in refractory cases to avoid colectomy. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Koutroubakis, I E; Kritikos, H; Mouzas, I A; Spanoudakis, S M; Kapsoritakis, A N; Petinaki, E; Kouroumalis, E A; Manousos, O N

    1998-05-01

    Common aetiopathogenic factors may explain the association of ulcerative colitis with autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. We report two cases of ulcerative colitis associated with idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus: one patient who developed ulcerative colitis 11 years after having been diagnosed as a case of systemic lupus erythematosus and one case of simultaneous appearance of the two diseases. The lupus clinical manifestations were in neither case correlated with the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The association between ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus is rare. Although a chance occurrence cannot be excluded it is possible that both conditions share some genetic or immunological defects.

  19. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Salomone, Federico; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation. PMID:28124992

  20. Habitual coffee consumption enhances attention and vigilance in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.

  1. Coffee and Depression: A Short Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic.

  2. Coffee consumption modulates inflammatory processes in an individual fashion.

    PubMed

    Muqaku, Besnik; Tahir, Ammar; Klepeisz, Philip; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Marlene; Schmetterer, Klaus; Gerner, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable. We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines, and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), LTC4, LTE4, and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant downregulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed. Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Espresso coffees, caffeine and chlorogenic acid intake: potential health implications.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Thomas W M; Stalmach, Angelique; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    HPLC analysis of 20 commercial espresso coffees revealed 6-fold differences in caffeine levels, a 17-fold range of caffeoylquinic acid contents, and 4-fold differences in the caffeoylquinic acid : caffeine ratio. These variations reflect differences in batch-to-batch bean composition, possible blending of arabica with robusta beans, as well as roasting and grinding procedures, but the predominant factor is likely to be the amount of beans used in the coffee-making/barista processes. The most caffeine in a single espresso was 322 mg and a further three contained >200 mg, exceeding the 200 mg day(-1) upper limit recommended during pregnancy by the UK Food Standards Agency. This snap-shot of high-street expresso coffees suggests the published assumption that a cup of strong coffee contains 50 mg caffeine may be misleading. Consumers at risk of toxicity, including pregnant women, children and those with liver disease, may unknowingly ingest excessive caffeine from a single cup of espresso coffee. As many coffee houses prepare larger volume coffees, such as Latte and Cappuccino, by dilution of a single or double shot of expresso, further study on these products is warranted. New data are needed to provide informative labelling, with attention to bean variety, preparation, and barista methods.

  4. Equine poisoning by coffee husk (Coffea arabica L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. Results Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0) and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56). The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p < 0.001) and urine (p < 0.001) of these animals were significantly greater at T56 than at T0. Conclusions It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses. PMID:22239973

  5. Equine poisoning by coffee husk (Coffea arabica L.).

    PubMed

    Delfiol, Diego Jose Z; Oliveira-Filho, Jose P; Casalecchi, Fernanda L; Kievitsbosch, Thatiane; Hussni, Carlos A; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Araujo, João P; Borges, Alexandre S

    2012-01-12

    In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0) and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56). The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p < 0.001) and urine (p < 0.001) of these animals were significantly greater at T56 than at T0. It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses.

  6. Aroma recovery from roasted coffee by wet grinding.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, J; Thomann, D; Perren, R; Escher, F

    2010-01-01

    Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Freshly roasted coffee as well as old, completely degassed coffee was ground in order to estimate the relationship of internal carbon dioxide pressure in freshly roasted coffee with the aroma loss during grinding. The release of volatile aroma substances during grinding was found to be related to the internal carbon dioxide pressure, and wet grinding with cold water was shown to minimize losses of aroma compounds by trapping them in water. Due to the high solubility of roasted coffee in water, the use of wet-grinding equipment is limited to processes where grinding is followed by an extraction step. Combining grinding and extraction by the use of hot water for wet grinding resulted in considerable losses of aroma compounds because of the prolonged heat impact. Therefore, a more promising two-step process involving cold wet grinding and subsequent hot extraction in a closed system was introduced. The yield of aroma compounds in the resulting coffee was substantially higher compared to conventionally ground coffee. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  8. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Stott-Miller, Marni; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer. Methods We investigated associations of pre-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption with risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date. Prostate cancer outcome events were identified using a detailed follow-up survey. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The analysis of coffee intake in relation to prostate cancer recurrence/progression included 630 patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years, during which 140 prostate cancer recurrence/progression events were recorded. Approximately 61% of patients consumed at least one cup of coffee per day. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.81; P for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14% of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Conclusion Results indicate that pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. This finding will require replication in larger studies. PMID:23907772

  9. Coffee intake and development of pain during computer work.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Vegard; Røe, Cecilie; Knardahl, Stein

    2012-09-03

    The present study sought to determine if subjects who had consumed coffee before performing a simulated computer office-work task found to provoke pain in the neck and shoulders and forearms and wrists exhibited different time course in the pain development than the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. Forty eight subjects all working fulltime, 22 with chronic shoulder and neck pain and 26 healthy pain-free subjects, were recruited to perform a computer-based office-work task for 90 min. Nineteen (40%) of the subjects had consumed coffee (1/2 -1 cup) on average 1 h 18 min before start. Pain intensity in the shoulders and neck and forearms and wrists was rated on a visual analogue scale every 15 min throughout the work task.During the work task the coffee consumers exhibited significantly lower pain increase than those who abstained from coffee. Subjects who had consumed coffee before starting a pain provoking office work task exhibited attenuated pain development compared with the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. These results might have potentially interesting implications of a pain-modulating effect of caffeine in an everyday setting. However, studies with a double blind placebo controlled randomized design are needed.

  10. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  11. Coffee and tea: perks for health and longevity?

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-11-01

    Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.

  12. Habitual Coffee Consumption Enhances Attention and Vigilance in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikić, Petar M.; Andrić, Branislav R.; Stojimirović, Biljana B.; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance. PMID:24895603

  13. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Federico; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2017-01-23

    Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.

  14. Bowel obsession syndrome in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Piero; Leandro, Gioacchino

    2007-01-01

    Gastroenterologists are often faced with the diagnostic problem of differentiating acute symptoms of ulcerative colitis from functional intestinal disorders. Bowel obsession syndrome (BOS) is an OCD-like, functional syndrome characterized by fear of fecal incontinence and compulsive behaviors of evacuation-checking. Only sparse case studies on treatment of BOS with antidepressants have been published. This is the first study on successful psychotherapy of a male patient with ulcerative colitis overlapping functional bowel symptoms and marked symptoms of BOS. Clinical recognition of BOS may help clinicians in differential diagnosis, prevent unnecessary investigations, and give patients the most appropriate treatment.

  15. Cutaneous sarcoidosis in a patient with ulcerative colitis on infliximab.

    PubMed

    Fok, Kum C; Ng, Watson W S; Henderson, Christopher J A; Connor, Susan J

    2012-07-01

    The advance of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy had dramatically changed the treatment algorithm of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This had significantly improved the quality of life for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).(1) However, side-effects of anti-TNF treatment were unavoidable with paradoxical inflammation (for example leucocytoclastic vasculitis and psoriasis) being well-known phenomena of anti-TNF therapy.(2) We report a case of infliximab induced cutaneous sarcoidosis in a patient with ulcerative colitis and review the literature. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Initial surgical management of ulcerative colitis in the biologic era.

    PubMed

    Geltzeiler, Cristina B; Lu, Kim C; Diggs, Brian S; Deveney, Karen E; Keyashian, Kian; Herzig, Daniel O; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L

    2014-12-01

    The initial minimum operation for ulcerative colitis is a total abdominal colectomy. Healthy patients may undergo proctectomy at the same time; however, for ill patients, proctectomy is delayed. Since the introduction of biologic medications in 2005, ulcerative colitis medical management has changed dramatically. We examined how operative management for ulcerative colitis has changed from the prebiologic to biologic eras. We conducted a retrospective review of data on patients with ulcerative colitis who were included in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. This study was conducted at a single university. A total of 1,547,852 patients with ulcerative colitis who were admitted to a US hospital from 1991 to 2011 were included in the study. We examined patients whose initial operation consisted of total abdominal colectomy without proctectomy versus a total proctocolectomy with or without a pouch. We also examined which operation was done at the time of the construction of an ileoanal pouch. Patients who underwent colectomy and pouch construction in the same hospitalization were compared with those who received pouch formation at a subsequent hospitalization. Ulcerative colitis-related admissions rose by 170% during the years examined, and the number of patients who required total abdominal colectomy increased by 44%. Total abdominal colectomy increased by 15%, as opposed to total proctocolectomy (p < 0.001). Pouch construction at a subsequent operation increased by 16% (p = 0.002). Since 2008, total abdominal colectomy has surpassed total proctocolectomy as the most common initial surgical intervention for ulcerative colitis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample is a retrospective database, and we were limited to examining the variables within it. Total abdominal colectomy is currently the most common initial operation for patients with ulcerative colitis, and an ileoanal pouch is more frequently constructed at a subsequent hospitalization. These trends coincide with

  17. Mesalamine treatment mimicking relapse in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hojsak, Iva; Pavić, Ana M; Kolaček, Sanja

    2014-11-01

    There are reports on mesalamine-induced bloody diarrhea mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) relapse, mostly in adults. Herein we present a case of a child with UC who developed relapse of hemorrhagic colitis related to mesalamine. A 10-year-old girl developed severe symptoms mimicking UC relapse 3 weeks after introduction of mesalamine therapy. After mesalamine was withdrawn, her symptoms improved, but deteriorated again during the challenge of mesalamine despite concomitant use of corticosteroids. This is the first case report on such a young child during the concomitant use of corticosteroids.

  18. TRPA1 and substance P mediate colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Engel, Matthias A; Leffler, Andreas; Niedermirtl, Florian; Babes, Alexandru; Zimmermann, Katharina; Filipović, Miloš R; Izydorczyk, Iwona; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Kichko, Tatjana I; Mueller-Tribbensee, Sonja M; Khalil, Mohammad; Siklosi, Norbert; Nau, Carla; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F; Reeh, Peter W

    2011-10-01

    The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and calcium channels, which control their release from extrinsic sensory neurons, have important roles in experimental colitis. We investigated the mechanisms of colitis in 2 different models, the involvement of the irritant receptor transient receptor potential of the ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), and the effects of CGRP and substance P. We used calcium-imaging, patch-clamp, and neuropeptide-release assays to evaluate the effects of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS) and dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt on neurons. Colitis was induced in wild-type, knockout, and desensitized mice. TNBS induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic substance P and CGRP, influx of Ca2+, and sustained ionic inward currents in colonic sensory neurons and transfected HEK293t cells. Analysis of mutant forms of TRPA1 revealed that TNBS bound covalently to cysteine (and lysine) residues in the cytoplasmic N-terminus. A stable sulfinic acid transformation of the cysteine-SH group, shown by mass spectrometry, might contribute to sustained sensitization of TRPA1. Mice with colitis had increased colonic neuropeptide release, mediated by TRPA1. Endogenous products of inflammatory lipid peroxidation also induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic neuropeptides; levels of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal increased in each model of colitis. Colitis induction by TNBS or dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt was inhibited or reduced in TRPA1-/- mice and by 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopro-pylphenyl)-acetamide, a pharmacologic inhibitor of TRPA1. Substance P had a proinflammatory effect that was dominant over CGRP, based on studies of knockout mice. Ablation of extrinsic sensory neurons prevented or attenuated TNBS-induced release of neuropeptides and both forms of colitis. Neuroimmune interactions control intestinal inflammation. Activation and sensitization of TRPA1 and release of substance P induce and

  19. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  20. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  1. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  2. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839

  3. Managing osteoporosis in ulcerative colitis: Something new?

    PubMed Central

    Piodi, Luca Petruccio; Poloni, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The authors revise the latest evidence in the literature regarding managing of osteoporosis in ulcerative colitis (UC), paying particular attention to the latest tendency of the research concerning the management of bone damage in the patient affected by UC. It is wise to assess vitamin D status in ulcerative colitis patients to recognize who is predisposed to low levels of vitamin D, whose deficiency has to be treated with oral or parenteral vitamin D supplementation. An adequate dietary calcium intake or supplementation and physical activity, if possible, should be guaranteed. Osteoporotic risk factors, such as smoking and excessive alcohol intake, must be avoided. Steroid has to be prescribed at the lowest possible dosage and for the shortest possible time. Moreover, conditions favoring falling have to been minimized, like carpets, low illumination, sedatives assumption, vitamin D deficiency. It is advisable to assess the fracture risk in all UC patient by the fracture assessment risk tool (FRAX® tool), that calculates the ten years risk of fracture for the population aged from 40 to 90 years in many countries of the world. A high risk value could indicate the necessity of treatment, whereas a low risk value suggests a follow-up only. An intermediate risk supports the decision to prescribe bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and a subsequent patient revaluation for treatment. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone densitometry can be used not only for BMD measurement, but also to collect data about bone quality by the means of trabecular bone score and hip structural analysis assessment. These two indices could represent a method of interesting perspectives in evaluating bone status in patients affected by diseases like UC, which may present an impairment of bone quality as well as of bone quantity. In literature there is no strong evidence for instituting pharmacological therapy of bone impairment in UC patients for clinical indications other than those that

  4. Update on the management of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Taher, Mohammad; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The present treatment goals for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) especially ulcerative colitis (UC) include rapid induction of clinical remission, steroid-free maintenance of clinical remission, mucosal healing and improvement of quality of life in UC patients. Immunomodulators have been reserved for steroid- dependent or steroid- refractory UC patients. Among these agents, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine should be used for maintenance of remission in quiescent UC. Calcineurin inhibitors can be prescribed as a short-term rescue therapy in steroid- refractory UC patients, but the long term efficacy of these agents remains unclear. According to retrospective studies, methotraxate is not recommended for inducing and maintaining remission in UC. Novel biological therapies targeting different specific immunological pathways continue to be developed and introduced for a variety of clinical scenarios in IBD. Infliximab is currently used for induction and maintenance therapy in patients who have moderately to severely active UC with an inadequate response to conventional agents such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, or immunomodulators. Other anti-TNF agents and biologic therapies are undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for their efficacy in IBD. Most patients who start biologics should continue treatment for the foreseeable future and potential consequences of discontinuation should be discussed with individual patients. Currently, data do not exist to administer biologics as first-line therapy in UC. Emerging data suggest that biologics may have the potential to prevent complications and limit disease progression. If such benefits are proven, biologics may be used in the future to modulate subclinical inflammation and to prevent the development of clinical disease.

  5. Predictors of Outcome in Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Matti; Knight, Jo; Dinani, Amreen; Xu, Wei; Stempak, Joanne M; Croitoru, Kenneth; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Cohen, Zane; McLeod, Robin S; Greenberg, Gordon R; Steinhart, A Hillary; Silverberg, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 80% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have intermittently active disease and up to 20% will require a colectomy, but little data available on predictors of poor disease course. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and genetic markers that can predict prognosis. Medical records of patients with UC with ≥5 years of follow-up and available DNA and serum were retrospectively assessed. Immunochip was used to genotype loci associated with immune mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs), inflammatory bowel diseases, and other single nucleotide polypmorphisms previously associated with disease severity. Serum levels of pANCA, ASCA, CBir1, and OmpC were also evaluated. Requirement for colectomy, medication, and hospitalization were used to group patients into 3 prognostic groups. Six hundred one patients with UC were classified as mild (n = 78), moderate (n = 273), or severe disease (n = 250). Proximal disease location frequencies at diagnosis were 13%, 21%, and 30% for mild, moderate, and severe UC, respectively (P = 0.001). Disease severity was associated with greater proximal extension rates on follow-up (P < 0.0001) and with shorter time to extension (P = 0.03) and to prednisone initiation (P = 0.0004). When comparing severe UC with mild and moderate UC together, diagnosis age >40 and proximal disease location were associated with severe UC (odds ratios = 1.94 and 2.12, respectively). None of the single nucleotide polypmorphisms or serum markers tested was associated with severe UC, proximal disease extension or colectomy. Older age and proximal disease location at diagnosis, but not genetic and serum markers, were associated with a more severe course. Further work is required to identify biomarkers that will predict outcomes in UC.

  6. Effect of coffee (caffeine) against human cataract blindness

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Shambhu D

    2016-01-01

    Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens. PMID:26869755

  7. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification.

    PubMed

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  8. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  9. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-02-03

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions.

  10. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  12. Differential expression of miR-31 between inflammatory bowel disease and microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Zijin; Osman, Hany; Watson, Rao; Nalbantoglu, Ilke; Lin, Jingmei

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and microscopic colitis (MC) are distinct entities. However, patients with intermittent episodes of IBD and MC that are encountered in a clinical setting puzzle clinicians and pathologists. This study examined whether microRNA assisted in the classification of IBD and MC. Small RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colon tissue and qRT-PCR was performed from cohorts of normal control (n=38), ulcerative colitis (n=36), Crohns disease (n=26), collagenous colitis (n=36), lymphocytic colitis (n=30), and patients with intermittent features of IBD and MC (n=6). Differential expression of miR-31 distinguished IBD (ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease) from MC (collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis), confirming the specificity of miR-31 expression in IBD (P=0.00001). In addition, expression of miR-31 was increased in collagenous colitis compared to that of lymphocytic colitis (P=0.010). Among 6 patients with alternating episodes of IBD and MC, one patient had matching miR-31 expression in different phases (lymphocytic colitis to ulcerative colitis, and then back to collagenous colitis). The other 5 patients had MC-like expression patterns in both MC and IBD episodes. In summary, IBD and MC have distinct miR-31 expression pattern. Therefore, miR-31 might be used as a biomarker to distinguish between IBD and MC in FFPE colonic tissue. In addition, miR-31 is differentially expressed in colonic tissue between lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, suggesting them of separate disease processes. Finally, patients with alternating IBD and MC episodes represent a diverse group. Among them, the majority demonstrates MC-like miR-31 expression pattern in MC phases, which seems unlikely to support the speculation of MC as an inactive form of IBD. Although the mechanisms deserve further investigation, microRNA is a potentially useful biomarker to differentiate IBD and MC.

  13. Levels of Antioxidant Activity and Fluoride Content in Coffee Infusions of Arabica, Robusta and Green Coffee Beans in According to their Brewing Methods.

    PubMed

    Wolska, J; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K; Szymkowiak, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2017-10-01

    Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland) were analyzed. Five different techniques of preparing drink were used: simple infusion, french press, espresso maker, overflow espresso and Turkish coffee. Antioxidant potential of coffee beverages was investigated spectrophotometrically by DPPH method. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Statistical analysis was performed using Stat Soft Statistica 12.5. Antioxidant activity of infusions was high (71.97-83.21% inhibition of DPPH) depending on coffee species and beverage preparing method. It has been shown that the method of brewing arabica coffee and green coffee significantly affects the antioxidant potential of infusions. The fluoride concentration in the coffee infusions changed depending, both, on the species and conditions of brewing, too (0.013-0.502 mg/L). Methods of brewing didn't make a difference to the antioxidant potential of robusta coffee, which had also the lowest level of fluoride among studied species. Except overflow espresso, the fluoride content was the highest in beverages from green coffee. The highest fluoride content was found in Turkish coffee from green coffee beans.

  14. [Massive multiplication of coffee (Coffee arabica L. cv. Catimor) through embryogenic cell suspension culture].

    PubMed

    Flermoso-Gallardo, L; Menóndez-Yuffá, A

    2000-01-01

    Cell suspensions offer several advantages as a system for massive propagation because of the high rates of multiplication, the higher homogeneity in the culture conditions and the possibility of automatization. In this study, different experimental conditions were analyzed to establish embryogenic cell suspension cultures of coffee. The best conditions to establish the embryogenic cell suspension cultures of coffee were as follows: coffee leaf sections were cultivated during 12 weeks (Stage I) in a solid medium with the Murashige and Skoog salts, 2 mg/l kinetin and 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (medium 1). Under these conditions the explants formed a callus tissue that was transferred to a liquid medium containing 5 mg/l of 6-benzylamlno-purine (medium 2). After 12 days in a shaking liquid medium (Stage II), the cultures were sieved and were maintained In the same media, which was renewed every eight days (Stage III). This method yielded 1884 embryos in 50 ml; placing the embryos under conditions for germination yielded plantlets of normal appearance.

  15. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  16. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p < .05) improved macroscopic and histologic scores, curtailed myeloperoxidase activity and diminished colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines and malondialdehyde. The protective effects of granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  17. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe Clostridium difficile colitis

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, J; Keates, S; Pothoulakis, C; Warny, M; Castagliuolo, I; LaMont, J; Kelly, C

    1997-01-01

    Background—Many individuals have serum antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins. Those with an impaired antitoxin response may be susceptible to recurrent, prolonged, or severe C difficile diarrhoea and colitis. 
Aims—To examine whether treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin might be effective in patients with severe pseudomembranous colitis unresponsive to standard antimicrobial therapy. 
Patients—Two patients with pseudomembranous colitis not responding to metronidazole and vancomycin were given normal pooled human immunoglobulin intravenously (200-300 mg/kg). 
Methods—Antibodies against C difficile toxins were measured in nine immunoglobulin preparations by ELISA and by cytotoxin neutralisation assay. 
Results—Both patients responded quickly as shown by resolution of diarrhoea, abdominal tenderness, and distension. All immunoglobulin preparations tested contained IgG against C difficile toxins A and B by ELISA and neutralised the cytotoxic activity of C difficile toxins in vitro at IgG concentrations of 0.4-1.6 mg/ml. 
Conclusion—Passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin may be a useful addition to antibiotic therapy for severe, refractory C difficile colitis. IgG antitoxin is present in standard immunoglobulin preparations and C difficile toxin neutralising activity is evident at IgG concentrations which are readily achieved in the serum by intravenous immunoglobulin administration. 

 Keywords: Clostridium difficile; toxin; diarrhoea; IgG; immunotherapy; antibiotic PMID:9378393

  18. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: Implications for College Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelphi, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews clinical patterns of inflammatory bowel disorders, establishes a perspective for recognizing ulcerative colitis, ulcerative proctitis, and Crohn's disease in relation to other bowel inflammations, and suggests some epidemiologic strategies for studying etiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of the diseases. (MJB)

  19. Myo-inositol reduces β-catenin activation in colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Emily M; Thompson, Corey A; Goretsky, Tatiana; Yang, Guang-Yu; Rodriguez, Luz M; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence A

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess dietary myo-inositol in reducing stem cell activation in colitis, and validate pβ-cateninS552 as a biomarker of recurrent dysplasia. METHODS We examined the effects of dietary myo-inositol treatment on inflammation, pβ-cateninS552 and pAkt levels by histology and western blot in IL-10-/- and dextran sodium sulfate-treated colitic mice. Additionally, we assessed nuclear pβ-cateninS552 in patients treated with myo-inositol in a clinical trial, and in patients with and without a history of colitis-induced dysplasia. RESULTS In mice, pβ-cateninS552 staining faithfully reported the effects of myo-inositol in reducing inflammation and intestinal stem cell activation. In a pilot clinical trial of myo-inositol administration in patients with a history of low grade dysplasia (LGD), two patients had reduced numbers of intestinal stem cell activation compared to the placebo control patient. In humans, pβ-cateninS552 staining discriminated ulcerative colitis patients with a history of LGD from those with benign disease. CONCLUSION Enumerating crypts with increased numbers of pβ-cateninS552 - positive cells can be utilized as a biomarker in colitis-associated cancer chemoprevention trials. PMID:28811707

  20. Myo-inositol reduces β-catenin activation in colitis.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Emily M; Thompson, Corey A; Goretsky, Tatiana; Yang, Guang-Yu; Rodriguez, Luz M; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence A

    2017-07-28

    To assess dietary myo-inositol in reducing stem cell activation in colitis, and validate pβ-catenin S552 as a biomarker of recurrent dysplasia. We examined the effects of dietary myo-inositol treatment on inflammation, pβ-catenin S552 and pAkt levels by histology and western blot in IL-10 -/- and dextran sodium sulfate-treated colitic mice. Additionally, we assessed nuclear pβ-catenin S552 in patients treated with myo-inositol in a clinical trial, and in patients with and without a history of colitis-induced dysplasia. In mice, pβ-catenin S552 staining faithfully reported the effects of myo-inositol in reducing inflammation and intestinal stem cell activation. In a pilot clinical trial of myo-inositol administration in patients with a history of low grade dysplasia (LGD), two patients had reduced numbers of intestinal stem cell activation compared to the placebo control patient. In humans, pβ-catenin S552 staining discriminated ulcerative colitis patients with a history of LGD from those with benign disease. Enumerating crypts with increased numbers of pβ-catenin S552 - positive cells can be utilized as a biomarker in colitis-associated cancer chemoprevention trials.

  1. Adolescents' Lived Experiences While Hospitalized After Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Susanne; Larsen, Lene; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are in a transitional phase of life characterized by major physical, emotional, and psychological challenges. Living with ulcerative colitis is experienced as a reduction of their life quality. Initial treatment of ulcerative colitis is medical, but surgery may be necessary when medical treatment ceases to have an effect. No research-based studies of adolescents' experience of the hospital period after surgery for ulcerative colitis exist. The objective of the study was to identify and describe adolescents' lived experiences while hospitalized after surgery for ulcerative colitis. This qualitative study was based on interviews with eight adolescents. Analysis and interpretation were based on a hermeneutic interpretation of meaning. Three themes were identified: Body: Out of order; Seen and understood; and Where are all the others? The adolescents experience a postoperative period characterized by physical and mental impairment. Being mentally unprepared for such challenges, they shun communication and interaction. The findings demonstrate the importance of individualized nursing care on the basis of the adolescent's age, maturity, and individual needs. Further study of adolescent patients' hospital stay, focusing on the implications of being young and ill at the same time, is needed. PMID:26425861

  2. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption dur...

  3. The application of molecular topology for ulcerative colitis drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Bellera, Carolina L; Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Talevi, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Although the therapeutic arsenal against ulcerative colitis has greatly expanded (including the revolutionary advent of biologics), there remain patients who are refractory to current medications while the safety of the available therapeutics could also be improved. Molecular topology provides a theoretic framework for the discovery of new therapeutic agents in a very efficient manner, and its applications in the field of ulcerative colitis have slowly begun to flourish. Areas covered: After discussing the basics of molecular topology, the authors review QSAR models focusing on validated targets for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, entirely or partially based on topological descriptors. Expert opinion: The application of molecular topology to ulcerative colitis drug discovery is still very limited, and many of the existing reports seem to be strictly theoretic, with no experimental validation or practical applications. Interestingly, mechanism-independent models based on phenotypic responses have recently been reported. Such models are in agreement with the recent interest raised by network pharmacology as a potential solution for complex disorders. These and other similar studies applying molecular topology suggest that some therapeutic categories may present a 'topological pattern' that goes beyond a specific mechanism of action.

  4. Bullous Pyoderma Gangrenosum With Subungual Involvement Associated With Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Aktaş Karabay, Ezgi; Aksu Cerman, Aslı; Kıvanc Altunay, İlknur; Yalçın, Özben

    2017-06-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory and ulcerative skin disease of unknown etiology characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of the dermis, mainly affecting the lower extremities. Bullous PG is a rare variant of this disease, usually associated with hematologic disorders. Here, we report a case of pathergy-positive bullous PG with subungual involvement associated with ulcerative colitis.

  5. Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitors and Microscopic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Law, Ernest H; Badowski, Melissa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Weems, Kimberly; Sanchez, Angelica; Lee, Todd A

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that is characterized by chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea. Concern regarding a potential association between proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and MC has recently emerged. We sought to systematically review and summarize the evidence for the potential association between PPIs and MC. We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar using the terms proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or esomeprazole), microscopic colitis, collagenous colitis, and lymphocytic colitis. Full-text, English-language reports of case reports/series, observational studies, experimental studies, and systematic reviews/meta-analyses published between January 2000 to August 2016 were included. Bibliographies from pertinent publications were reviewed for additional references. Outcome was defined as the development of biopsy-confirmed MC. A total of 19 publications were identified: 5 case control studies and 14 case reports/series (encompassing a total of 32 cases). All studies were limited by small sample sizes. Risk of MC by dose or specific PPI agent was not investigated in any of the studies. A review of the current body of evidence reveals a possible association between PPIs and MC. There is a need for large observational studies of high quality to examine the differential effect of specific PPIs and whether the magnitude of association is dose dependent. Given their widespread use, clinicians should routinely question whether patients are receiving unnecessary treatment with PPIs and discontinue therapy where appropriate.

  6. [Allergic colitis in exclusively breast-fed infants].

    PubMed

    Sierra Salinas, C; Blasco Alonso, J; Olivares Sánchez, L; Barco Gálvez, A; del Río Mapelli, L

    2006-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is induced by antigens present in cow's milk proteins in formula or human milk. In the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed in exclusively breast-fed infants. We performed a retrospective study of 13 infants diagnosed with allergic colitis in our unit between January 1997 and January 2004. All the infants had been exclusively breast-fed. In all patients, initial symptoms were digestive (12 with mucus and bloody stools). Onset of symptoms occurred at 0-3 months in 77 %. Laboratory data of the allergic compound were negative. The main locations were the descending and sigmoid colon (75 %). Biopsy demonstrated acute inflammation, with neutrophil infiltration and an increase in eosinophils. In all patients, initial treatment consisted of exclusion of cow's milk proteins from the mother's diet. Ten of the 13 patients showed no improvement, requiring exclusive administration of protein-free hydrolyzate. In 3 infants, breastfeeding was maintained (breastfeeding without cow's milk proteins plus hydrolyzate). Diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis is based on exclusion of other causes of specific colitis and typical endoscopic and ultrastructural findings. Moreover, a satisfactory response to dietary treatment must be demonstrated. This diagnosis should be considered in breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding without involvement of general health status.

  7. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD.

  8. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; ADISA, AFOLABI; WOODHAM, CARA; SALEH, MAHMOUD

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g−1 for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g−1 for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g−1 for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g−1 for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  10. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  11. Taverns and Coffee Houses: Adult Educational Institutions In Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents the concept of colonial taverns and coffee houses as adult education institutions. They were of great importance in the development of impressions, opinions, attitudes, and knowledge about agriculture, business, shipping, economics, community and world affairs, and recreation. (CT)

  12. [Coffee, its legend, history, and influence on human health].

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, H; Blahos, J; Janatová, J

    2009-01-01

    In the introductory part of this article the history/legend of coffee as well as its spread to different parts of the world including Europe is discussed. Data sofar available in literature do not give any convincing evidence regarding clear relationship between coffee and the etiopathogenesis of several diseases including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, osteoporosis, neurologic disorders and colorectal cancer. Favorable (protective) effects of coffee consumption against hepatocellular cancer have been repeatedly described. The autors discuss on todate findings about relationship between blood cholesterol and uric acid in literature and remind their own experience with different population groups in Harar, Ethiopia, where consumption of coffee is habitual in daily life of the inhabitants.

  13. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  14. Consumption of green coffee and the risk of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanlier, Nevin; Atik, Azize; Atik, Ilker

    2018-04-06

    Green coffee contains macro nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, fat, as well as minor components such as caffeine, trigonelin and chlorogenic acid. Phenolics, chlorogenic acids and brown pigments are sources of natural antixodants. High polypehonic materials found in green coffee and especially chlorogenic acid in it have an important place. It is considered that; green coffee has effects on body mass, blood glucose and lipid levels, blood pressure, prevention from cardiovascular diseases which is based on chlorogenic acid consisting antioxidant activity. However, many topics like toxicological effects, doses, amounts, usage in the body, advantages and disadvantages, etc. of these active molecules need to be examined. For these reasons this article was rewieved to evaluate health effects of green coffee.

  15. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  16. 44. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AND DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  17. 43. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AND DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. 42. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AND DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  19. All the Exquisite Details of a Coffee Mug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Dave M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a three-part exercise used in a first semester freshman composition class, intended to show students the world of details in even the most ordinary, everyday objects by having students write about a plastic coffee mug. (SR)

  20. Aflatoxin in detannin coffee and tea and its destruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, H A H

    2002-05-01

    The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.

  1. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmit, Stephanie L.; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), current evidence remains inconclusive. Methods We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of CRC in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing CRC [Odds Ratio (drinkers versus non-drinkers)=0.74; 95% CI: 0.64–0.86; P<0.001]. The inverse association was also observed for decaffeinated coffee consumption alone (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.68–0.99; P=0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.94; P=0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing CRC. Compared to <1 serving/day, intake of 1 to <2 servings/day (OR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.90; P<0.001), 2 to 2.5 servings/day (OR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.51–0.68; P<0.001), and >2.5 servings/day (OR=0.46; 95% CI: 0.39–0.54; P<0.001) were associated with significantly lower odds of CRC (Ptrend<0.001), and the dose-response trend was statistically significant for both colon and rectal cancers. Conclusions Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. Impact Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of CRC. PMID:27196095

  2. Coffee Ring Effect” in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Sharifzadeh, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The process of formation of Marx line is studied in this article. Various theories have been proposed previously, in order to explain the mechanisms which lead to the development of Marx line. These theories are based on the characteristics of stained area and do not pay attention to the behavior of dye solution itself on the surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the latter behavior and introduce a new theory based on it, in order to explain the process of the Marx line formation. This study also introduces “Coffee Ring Effect” and its possible applications in explaining some ophthalmological phenomena. The effect of dye solution's behavior on the beneath surface is adopted in order to propose a novel theory. This new hypothesis is called “Anionic Dye Deposition” which was based on “Coffee Ring Effect” phenomenon. For evaluation of this theory, Evaporation pattern of Rose Bengal and fluorescein were analyzed on different surfaces. Furthermore, the effect of tear meniscus alteration on lid margin staining is studied. During the evaporation process of dye solutions, it was observed that almost all of the solute was deposited at the edge of the drop on hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, in the study of lid margin staining, it is observed that tear meniscus alteration during gaze affects staining pattern. This observation invalidates former hypotheses which only focus on stained surface characteristics. According to the observations in this study, it is proposed that Marx line staining occurs as a result of “anionic dye deposition” due to evaporation. PMID:27057835

  3. Transdermal nicotine for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J; McDonald, J W D; Macdonald, J K

    2004-10-18

    Ulcerative colitis is largely a disease of nonsmokers. Intermittent smokers often experience improvement in their symptoms while smoking. Nonsmokers with ulcerative colitis who begin smoking may go into remission. Randomized controlled trials were developed to test the efficacy of transdermal nicotine for the induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. (1) To determine the efficacy of transdermal nicotine for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. (2) To assess adverse events associated with transdermal nicotine therapy for ulcerative colitis The MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched using the search criteria "ulcerative colitis" and "transdermal nicotine" or "nicotine" to identify relevant papers published between 1970 and December 2003. Manual searches of reference lists from potentially relevant papers were performed to identify additional studies. Abstracts from major gastroenterological meetings were searched to identify research submitted in abstract form only. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group Specialized Trials Register were also searched. We included only randomized controlled trials in which patients with active mild to moderate ulcerative colitis were randomly allocated to receive transdermal nicotine (15 to 25 mg/day) or a placebo or another treatment (corticosteroids or mesalamine). Data extraction and assessment of the methodological quality of each trial were independently performed by each author. Any disagreement among reviewers was resolved by consensus. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients achieving clinical or sigmoidoscopic remission as defined by the primary studies (e.g. no symptoms of ulcerative colitis), and expressed as a percentage of the patients randomized (intention to treat analysis). Secondary outcomes included clinical response, adverse events and withdrawal because of adverse events. Seven studies were identified, five of

  4. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  5. Recycling agroindustrial waste by lactic fermentations: coffee pulp silage

    SciTech Connect

    Carrizales, V.; Ferrer, J.

    1985-04-03

    This UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of coffee pulp for feed production covers (1) a process which can be adapted to existing coffee processing plants for drying the product once harvesting time has finished (2) unit operations involved: pressing (optional), silaging, liming and drying (3) experiments, results and discussion, bibliography, process statistics, and diagrams. Additional references: storage, biotechnology, lime, agricultural wastes, recycling, waste utilization.

  6. Schistosoma japonicum ova maintains epithelial barrier function during experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chen-Mei; Zhao, Yuan; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Shun-Cai

    2011-11-21

    To evaluate the impacts of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) ova on the tight junction barriers in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group; TNBS(+)ova(-) group and TNBS(+)ova(+) group. TNBS was used intracolonic to induce colitis and mice of the TNBS(+)ova(+) group were pre-exposed to S. japonicum ova as a prophylactic intervention. Colon inflammation was quantified using following variables: mouse mortality, weight loss, colon extent and microscopic inflammation score. Serum expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ were assessed to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response. NOD2 and its mRNA were also tested. Bacterial translocations were tested by culturing blood and several tissues. ZO-1 and occludin were chosen as the representations of tight junction proteins. Both the proteins and mRNA were assessed. Ova pre-treatment contributed to the relief of colitis and decreased the mortality of the models. NOD2 expression was significantly downregulated when pretreated with the ova. The TNBS injection caused a significant downregulation of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA together with their proteins in the colon; ova pre-exposure reversed these alterations. Treatment with S. japonicum ova in the colitis model caused lower intestinal bacterial translocation frequency. S. japonicum ova can maintain epithelial barrier function through increasing tight junction proteins, thus causing less exposure of NOD2 to the luminal antigens which may activate a series of inflammatory factors and induce colitis.

  7. Therapeutic action of ghrelin in a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Chorny, Alejo; Delgado, Mario

    2006-05-01

    Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide with potential endogenous anti-inflammatory activities ameliorating some pathologic inflammatory conditions. Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by severe T helper cell (Th)1-driven inflammation of the colon. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of ghrelin in a murine model of colitis. We examined the anti-inflammatory action of ghrelin in the colitis induced by intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Diverse clinical signs of the disease were evaluated, including weight loss, diarrhea, colitis, and histopathology. We also investigated the mechanisms involved in the potential therapeutic effect of ghrelin, such as inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1-type response, and regulatory factors. Ghrelin ameliorated significantly the clinical and histopathologic severity of the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis; abrogating body weight loss, diarrhea, and inflammation; and increasing survival. The therapeutic effect was associated with down-regulation of both inflammatory and Th1-driven autoimmune response through the regulation of a wide spectrum of inflammatory mediators. In addition, a partial involvement of interluekin-10/transforming growth factor-beta1-secreting regulatory T cells in this therapeutic effect was demonstrated. Importantly, the ghrelin treatment was therapeutically effective in established colitis and avoided the recurrence of the disease. Our data demonstrate novel anti-inflammatory actions for ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract, ie, the capacity to deactivate the intestinal inflammatory response and to restore mucosal immune tolerance at multiple levels. Consequently, ghrelin administration represents a novel possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of Crohn's disease and other Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

  8. Lymphocytic Colitis: Pathologic predictors of response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Setia, Namrata; Alpert, Lindsay; van der Sloot, Kimberley Wj; Colussi, Dora; Stewart, Kathleen O; Misdraji, Joseph; Khalili, Hamed; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2018-02-13

    While the presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis with surface epithelial damage is a unifying feature of lymphocytic colitis, there are non-classical features that create morphologic heterogeneity between cases. Limited data are available on the significance of these secondary histologic features. Cases of lymphocytic colitis diagnosed between 2002 and 2013 were identified using the Research Patient Data Registry of a tertiary referral center. Diagnostic biopsy slides were reviewed and evaluated for histologic features of lymphocytic colitis. Clinical data including type of therapy and response to treatment were collected. Chi-square (or Fischer's exact test) and logistic regression analysis were used where appropriate. Thirty-two cases of lymphocytic colitis with complete clinical data and slides available for review were identified. The mean age was 56.4 years, and the female-to-male ratio was 3:2. Eleven (11) patients improved with minimal intervention (Group 1), 14 patients responded to steroid therapy (Group 2), and 7 patients responded to mesalamine, bismuth subsalicylate and/or cholestyramine therapy (Group 3). Histologic differences in the characteristics of the subepithelial collagen table (p=0.018), the severity of lamina propria inflammation (p=0.042) and the presence of eosinophil clusters (p=0.016) were seen between groups 2 and 3. Patients in group 1 were more likely to have mild crypt architectural distortion in their biopsies than patients in groups 2 and 3. Lymphocytic colitis is a heterogeneous disease and the evaluation of histologic factors may help identify various subtypes and predict therapy response. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Eosinophil-mediated signalling attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Fillon, Sophie A; Hosford, Lindsay; Harris, Rachel; Fernando, Shahan D; Jedlicka, Paul; Iwamoto, Ryo; Jacobsen, Elizabeth; Protheroe, Cheryl; Eltzschig, Holger K; Colgan, Sean P; Arita, Makoto; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice. Design Acute colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone to C57BL/6J (control) or eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice. Eosinophils were also depleted from mice using antibodies against interleukin (IL)-5 or by grafting bone marrow from PHIL mice into control mice. Colon tissues were collected and analysed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR; lipids were analysed by mass spectroscopy. Results Eosinophil-deficient mice developed significantly more severe colitis, and their colon tissues contained a greater number of neutrophils, than controls. This compensatory increase in neutrophils was accompanied by increased levels of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which attract neutrophils. Lipidomic analyses of colonic tissue from eosinophil-deficient mice identified a deficiency in the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediator 10, 17- dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (diHDoHE), namely protectin D1 (PD1). Administration of an exogenous PD1-isomer (10S, 17S-DiHDoHE) reduced the severity of colitis in eosinophil-deficient mice. The PD1-isomer also attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and inducible NO-synthase in colons of mice. Finally, in vitro assays identified a direct inhibitory effect of PD1-isomer on neutrophil transepithelial migration. Conclusions Eosinophils exert a protective effect in acute mouse colitis, via production of anti-inflammatory lipid

  10. Espresso coffee residues: a valuable source of unextracted compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cardoso, Maria M; Fernandes, Luana; Oliveira, Marta; Mendes, Eulália; Baptista, Paula; Morais, Simone; Casal, Susana

    2012-08-15

    Espresso spent coffee grounds were chemically characterized to predict their potential, as a source of bioactive compounds, by comparison with the ones from the soluble coffee industry. Sampling included a total of 50 samples from 14 trademarks, collected in several coffee shops and prepared with distinct coffee machines. A high compositional variability was verified, particularly with regard to such water-soluble components as caffeine, total chlorogenic acids (CGA), and minerals, supported by strong positive correlations with total soluble solids retained. This is a direct consequence of the reduced extraction efficiency during espresso coffee preparation, leaving a significant pool of bioactivity retained in the extracted grounds. Besides the lipid (12.5%) and nitrogen (2.3%) contents, similar to those of industrial coffee residues, the CGA content (478.9 mg/100 g), for its antioxidant capacity, and its caffeine content (452.6 mg/100 g), due to its extensive use in the food and pharmaceutical industries, justify the selective assembly of this residue for subsequent use.

  11. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of volatile marker compounds of common coffee roast defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ni; Liu, Chujiao; Liu, Xingkun; Degn, Tina Kreuzfeldt; Munchow, Morten; Fisk, Ian

    2016-11-15

    Coffee beans from the same origin were roasted using six time-temperature profiles, in order to identify volatile aroma compounds associated with five common roast coffee defects (light, scorched, dark, baked and underdeveloped). Thirty-seven volatile aroma compounds were selected on the basis that they had previously been identified as potent odorants of coffee and were also identified in all coffee brew preparations; the relative abundance of these aroma compounds was then evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with headspace solid phase micro extraction. Some of the 37 key aroma compounds were significantly changed in each coffee roast defect and changes in one marker compound was chosen for each defect type, that is, indole for light defect, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol for scorched defect, phenol for dark defect, maltol for baked defect and 2,5-dimethylfuran for underdeveloped defect. The association of specific changes in aroma profiles for different roast defects has not been shown previously and could be incorporated into screening tools to enable the coffee industry quickly identify if roast defects occur during production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood pressure in relation to coffee and caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and coffee is of major interest given its widespread consumption and the public health burden of high BP. Yet, there is no specific recommendation regarding coffee intake in existing hypertension guidelines. The lack of a definitive understanding of the BP-coffee relationship is partially attributable to issues that we discuss in this review, issues such as acute vs. chronic effects, genetic and smoking effect modifications, and coffee vs. caffeine effects. We also present evidence from meta-analyses of studies on the association of BP with coffee intake. The scope of this review is limited to the latest advances published with a specific focus on caffeine, acknowledging that caffeine is only one among numerous components in coffee that may influence BP. Finally, considering the state of the research, we propose a mechanism by which the CYP1A2 gene and enzyme influence BP via inhibition of the adenosine receptor differentially in smokers and non-smokers.

  15. Protective effects of black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Isik, F; Tunali Akbay, Tugba; Yarat, A; Genc, Z; Pisiriciler, R; Caliskan-Ak, E; Cetinel, S; Altıntas, A; Sener, G

    2011-03-01

    The pathogenesis and treatment of ulcerative colitis remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil on rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with 8-cm-long cannula under ether anesthesia to rats in colitis group and colitis + black cumin oil group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. Black cumin oil (BCO, Origo "100% natural Black Cumin Seed Oil," Turkey) was given to colitis + black cumin oil group by oral administration during 3 days, 5 min after colitis induction. Saline was given to control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment, macroscopic lesions were scored and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels, collagen content, and tissue factor, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase activities. Tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6], lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that black cumin oil decreased the proinflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. BCO, by preventing inflammatory status in the blood, partly protected colonic tissue against experimental ulcerative colitis.

  16. Opposing roles of nuclear receptor HNF4α isoforms in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Vuong, Linh M; Chen, Gang; Briançon, Nadege; Bolotin, Eugene; Lytle, Christian; Nair, Meera G; Sladek, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    HNF4α has been implicated in colitis and colon cancer in humans but the role of the different HNF4α isoforms expressed from the two different promoters (P1 and P2) active in the colon is not clear. Here, we show that P1-HNF4α is expressed primarily in the differentiated compartment of the mouse colonic crypt and P2-HNF4α in the proliferative compartment. Exon swap mice that express only P1- or only P2-HNF4α have different colonic gene expression profiles, interacting proteins, cellular migration, ion transport and epithelial barrier function. The mice also exhibit altered susceptibilities to experimental colitis (DSS) and colitis-associated colon cancer (AOM+DSS). When P2-HNF4α-only mice (which have elevated levels of the cytokine resistin-like β, RELMβ, and are extremely sensitive to DSS) are crossed with Retnlb-/- mice, they are rescued from mortality. Furthermore, P2-HNF4α binds and preferentially activates the RELMβ promoter. In summary, HNF4α isoforms perform non-redundant functions in the colon under conditions of stress, underscoring the importance of tracking them both in colitis and colon cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10903.001 PMID:27166517

  17. Variability of single bean coffee volatile compounds of Arabica and robusta roasted coffees analysed by SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, Nicola; Whitworth, Martin B; Cui, Chenhao; Fisk, Ian D

    2018-06-01

    We report on the analysis of volatile compounds by SPME-GC-MS for individual roasted coffee beans. The aim was to understand the relative abundance and variability of volatile compounds between individual roasted coffee beans at constant roasting conditions. Twenty-five batches of Arabica and robusta species were sampled from 13 countries, and 10 single coffee beans randomly selected from each batch were individually roasted in a fluidised-bed roaster at 210 °C for 3 min. High variability (CV = 14.0-53.3%) of 50 volatile compounds in roasted coffee was obtained within batches (10 beans per batch). Phenols and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds generally had higher intra-batch variation, while ketones were the most uniform compounds (CV < 20%). The variation between batches was much higher, with the CV ranging from 15.6 to 179.3%. The highest variation was observed for 2,3-butanediol, 3-ethylpyridine and hexanal. It was also possible to build classification models based on geographical origin, obtaining 99.5% and 90.8% accuracy using LDA or MLR classifiers respectively, and classification between Arabica and robusta beans. These results give further insight into natural variation of coffee aroma and could be used to obtain higher quality and more consistent final products. Our results suggest that coffee volatile concentration is also influenced by other factors than simply the roasting degree, especially green coffee composition, which is in turn influenced by the coffee species, geographical origin, ripening stage and pre- and post-harvest processing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Walnut phenolic extract inhibits nuclear factor kappaB signaling in intestinal epithelial cells, and ameliorates experimental colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Choi, Youn-I; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Choi, Sang Woon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae

    2018-05-09

    Walnuts (Juglans regia) are known to have anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects. However, little information is available on the effects of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) on intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colon cancer. COLO205 cells were pretreated with WPE and then stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In the acute colitis model, wild type mice (C57BL/6) were administered 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days. In the chronic colitis model, interleukin (IL)-10 -/- mice were administered with either the vehicle or WPE (20 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 2 weeks. In an inflammation-associated tumor model, wild type mice were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane followed by three cycles of 2% DSS for 5 days and 2 weeks of free water consumption. WPE significantly inhibited IL-8 and IL-1α expression in COLO205 cells. WPE attenuated both the TNF-α-induced IκB phosphorylation/degradation and NF-κB DNA binding activity. The administration of oral WPE significantly reduced the severity of colitis in both acute and chronic colitis models, including the IL-10 -/- mice. In immunohistochemical staining, WPE attenuated NF-κB signaling in the colons of both colitis models. Finally, WPE also significantly reduced tumor development in a murine model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). WPE ameliorates acute and chronic colitis and CAC in mice, suggesting that WPE may have potentials for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Development and validation of a matrix solid-phase dispersion method to determine acrylamide in coffee and coffee substitutes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina M Dias; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Fernandes, José Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of a new method based on a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) sample preparation procedure followed by GC-MS for determination of acrylamide levels in coffee (ground coffee and brewed coffee) and coffee substitute samples. Samples were dispersed in C(18) sorbent and the mixture was further packed into a preconditioned custom-made ISOLUTE bilayered SPE column (C(18)/Multimode; 1 g + 1 g). Acrylamide was subsequently eluted with water, and then derivatized with bromine and quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode. The MSPD/GC-MS method presented a LOD of 5 microg/kg and a LOQ of 10 microg/kg. Intra and interday precisions ranged from 2% to 4% and 4% to 10%, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the method, 11 samples of ground and brewed coffee and coffee substitutes were simultaneously analyzed by the developed method and also by a previously validated method based in a liquid-extraction (LE) procedure, and the results were compared showing a high correlation between them.

  20. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  1. Influence of conjunctive use of coffee effluent and fresh water on performance of robusta coffee and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Salakinkop, S R; Shivaprasad, P

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of treated coffee effluent irrigation on performance of established robusta coffee, nutrient contribution and microbial activities in the soil. The results revealed that the field irrigated with coffee effluent from aerobic tank having COD of 1009 ppm, did not affect the yield of clean coffee (1309 kg/ha) and it was statistically similar (on par) with the plots irrigated with fresh water (1310 kg/ha) with respect to clean coffee yield. Effluent irrigation increased significantly the population bacteria, yeast, fungi, actinomycetes and PSB (122, 52, 12, 34 and 6 x 104/g respectively)) in the soil compared to the soil irrigated with fresh water (87, 22, 5, 24 and 2 x 10(4)/g respectively). The organic carbon (2.60%), available nutrients in the soil like P (57.2 kg/ha), K (401.6 kg/ha, Ca (695.3 ppm), S (5.3 ppm),Cu (4.09 ppm) and Zn(4.78 ppm) were also increased due to effluent irrigation compared to fresh water irrigation. Thus analysis of coffee effluent for major and minor plant nutrients content revealed its potential as source of nutrients and water for plant growth.

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and cancer of the colon and rectum: a review of epidemiological studies, 1990-2003.

    PubMed

    Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2004-10-01

    The literature from 1990 to 2003 on the relation between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and colorectal cancer risk has been reviewed. For the relation with coffee, three cohort (517 total cases) and nine case-control studies (7555 cases) analysed colon cancer; three cohort (307 cases) and four case-control studies (2704 cases) rectal cancer; six case-control studies (854 cases) colorectal cancer. For colon cancer most case-control studies found risk estimates below unity; the results are less clear for cohort studies. No relation emerged for rectal cancer. A meta-analysis, including five cohort and twelve case-control studies, reported a pooled relative risk of 0.76 (significant). Any methodological artefact is unlikely to account for the consistent inverse association in different countries and settings. Plausible biological explanations include coffee-related reductions of cholesterol, bile acids and neutral sterol secretion in the colon; antimutagenic properties of selected coffee components; increased colonic motility. Decaffeinated coffee was not related to either colon or rectal cancer in three case-control studies. No overall association between tea and either colon or rectal cancer risk emerged in seven cohort (1756 total cases of colon, 759 of rectal and 60 of colorectal cancer) and 12 case-control studies (8058 cases of colon, 4865 of rectal, 604 of colorectal cancer).

  4. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood and atherosclerosis later in life: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Loria, Catherine M; Steffen, Lyn M; Zhou, Xia; van Horn, Linda; Siscovick, David S; Jacobs, David R; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    To determine the association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood with the presence and progression of coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque and carotid intima-media thickness later in life. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a cohort of 5115 white and black adults who were aged 18 to 30 years when they completed a baseline clinic examination from 1985 to 1986. Subsequent examinations were conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years later. After multivariable adjustment, no association was observed between average coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine consumption (years 0 and 7) and presence of CAC (score, >0 Agatston units at year 15 or 20), CAC progression (incident CAC at year 20 or increase in CAC score by ≥20 Agatston units), or high carotid intima-media thickness (>80th percentile, year 20). However, tea consumption displayed a nonsignificant trend for an inverse association with CAC (P=0.08 for trend) and an inverse association with CAC progression (P=0.04 for trend) but no association with high carotid intima-media thickness (P>0.20 for trend). Stratification of the coffee analyses by sex, race, or smoking yielded similar nonsignificant patterns. We observed no substantial association between coffee or caffeine intake and coronary and carotid atherosclerosis. However, our results suggested an inverse association between tea and CAC but not carotid atherosclerosis.

  5. Colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai in patients with ulcerative colitis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Satoru; Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Akira; Hamada, Yasuhiko; Katsurahara, Masaki; Horiki, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Misaki; Shimoyama, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Kusunoki, Masato

    2018-03-16

    Orally administered Qing-dai, called indigo naturalis in Latin, is reportedly useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We herein describe two patients with ulcerative colitis who developed colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai. In Case 1, a 35-year-old man developed colitis similar to ischemic colitis with bloody stool that recurred each time he ingested Qing-dai. He had no signs of recurrence upon withdrawal of Qing-dai. In Case 2, a 43-year-old woman underwent ileocecal resection for treatment of an intussusception 2 months after beginning oral administration of Qing-dai. Edema and congestion but no ulceration were present in the mucosa of the resected specimen. Both patients exhibited abdominal pain with bloody diarrhea, and abdominal computed tomography showed marked wall edema affecting an extensive portion of the large bowel.

  6. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    PubMed

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Angiogenesis blockade as a new therapeutic approach to experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel; Spencer, David M; Beck, Ivy; Doñate, Fernando; Plunkett, Marian L; de la Motte, Carol; Redline, Raymond; Shaw, David E; Levine, Alan D; Mazar, Andrew P; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Background Neoangiogenesis is a critical component of chronic inflammatory disorders. Inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective treatment in animal models of inflammation, but has not been tested in experimental colitis. Aim To investigate the effect of ATN‐161, an anti‐angiogenic compound, on the course of experimental murine colitis. Method Interleukin 10‐deficient (IL10−/−) mice and wild‐type mice were kept in ultra‐barrier facilities (UBF) or conventional housing, and used for experimental conditions. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)‐treated mice were used as a model of acute colitis. Mice were treated with ATN‐161 or its scrambled peptide ATN‐163. Mucosal neoangiogenesis and mean vascular density (MVD) were assessed by CD31 staining. A Disease Activity Index (DAI) was determined, and the severity of colitis was determined by a histological score. Colonic cytokine production was measured by ELISA, and lamina propria mononuclear cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation. Result MVD increased in parallel with disease progression in IL10−/− mice kept in conventional housing, but not in IL10−/− mice kept in UBF. Angiogenesis also occurred in DSS‐treated animals. IL10−/− mice with established disease treated with ATN‐161, but not with ATN‐163, showed a significant and progressive decrease in DAI. The histological colitis score was significantly lower in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in scrambled peptide‐treated mice. Inhibition of angiogenesis was confirmed by a significant decrease of MVD in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in ATN‐163‐treated mice. No therapeutic effects were observed in the DSS model of colitis. ATN‐161 showed no direct immunomodulatory activity in vitro. Conclusion Active angiogenesis occurs in the gut of IL10−/− and DSS‐treated colitic mice and parallels disease progression. ATN‐161 effectively decreases angiogenesis as well as clinical severity and histological inflammation in IL10

  8. Coffee consumption and risk of fractures: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huifang; Yao, Ke; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Taixiang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have indicated higher risk of fractures among coffee drinkers. To quantitatively assess the association between coffee consumption and the risk of fractures, we conducted this meta-analysis. Material and methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for prospective studies reporting the risk of fractures with coffee consumption. Quality of included studies was assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa scale. We conducted a meta-analysis and a cumulative meta-analysis of relative risk (RR) for an increment of one cup of coffee per day, and explored the potential dose-response relationship. Sensitivity analysis was performed where statistical heterogeneity existed. Results We included 10 prospective studies covering 214,059 participants and 9,597 cases. There was overall 3.5% higher fracture risk for an increment of one cup of coffee per day (RR = 1.035, 95% CI: 1.019-1.052). Pooled RRs were 1.049 (95% CI: 1.022-1.077) for women and 0.910 (95% CI: 0.873-0.949) for men. Among women, RR was 1.055 (95% CI: 0.999-1.114) for younger participants, and 1.047 (95% CI: 1.016-1.080) for older ones. Cumulative meta-analysis indicated that risk estimates reached a stabilization level (RR = 1.035, 95% CI: 1.019-1.052), and it revealed a positive dose-response relationship between coffee consumption and risk of fractures either for men and women combined or women specifically. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests an overall harm of coffee intake in increasing the risk of fractures, especially for women. But current data are insufficient to reach a convincing conclusion and further research needs to be conducted. PMID:23185185

  9. Coffee, Caffeine, and Risk of Depression Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; Pan, An; Okereke, Olivia I.; Willett, Walter C; O’Reilly, Éilis J; Koenen, Karestan; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Caffeine is the world’s most widely used central nervous system stimulant, with about 80% consumed in form of coffee. However, studies that analyzed prospectively the relation of coffee or caffeine consumption and depression risk are scarce. Methods A total of 50,739 U.S. women (mean age=63 years) free from depressive symptoms at baseline (1996) were prospectively followed until 2006. Caffeine and coffee consumption, and other caffeinated and decaffeinated beverages, were obtained from validated questionnaires completed between 1980 through 2002 and computed as cumulative average of consumption with a 2-year latency applied. Clinical depression was defined as reporting both physician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use. Relative risks of clinical depression were estimate using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results During 10 years of follow-up (1996–2006), 2,607 incident cases of depression were identified. Compared to women consuming caffeinated coffee less frequently (≤1 cup/wk), multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.95) for those consuming 2–3 cups/d and 0.80 (95%CI, 0.64 to 0.99; P trend <0.001) for those consuming ≥4 cups/d. Multivariate relative risk for depression was 0.80 (95%CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P trend=0.02) for women in the highest (≥550 mg/d) vs. lowest (<100 mg/d) of the 5 caffeine consumption categories. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with depression risk. Conclusions In this large longitudinal study we found that depression risk decreases with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether usual caffeinated coffee consumption may contribute to depression prevention. PMID:21949167

  10. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparison of green coffee beans volatiles chemical composition of Hainan main area].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Suo; Chu, Zhong; Gu, Feng-Lin; Lu, Min-Quan; Lu, Shao-Fang; Wu, Gui-Ping; Tan, Le-He

    2013-02-01

    Chemical component of Hainan green coffee beans was analyzed with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the discrepancy between two green coffee beans was differentiated through the spectrum database retrieval and retention index of compound characterization. The experimental results show that: the chemical composition of Wanning coffee beans and Chengmai coffee beans is basically the same. The quantity of analyzed compound in Wanning area coffee is 91, and in Chengmai area coffee is 106, the quantity of the same compound is 66, and the percent of the same component is 75.52%. The same compounds accounted for 89.86% of the total content of Wanning area coffee, and accounted for 85.70% of the total content of Chengmai area coffee.

  12. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  13. NIH study finds that coffee drinkers have lower risk of death

    Cancer.gov

    Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,

  14. Effect of roasting degree on the antioxidant activity of different Arabica coffee quality classes.

    PubMed

    Odžaković, Božana; Džinić, Natalija; Kukrić, Zoran; Grujić, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, because of its unique sensory properties and physiological properties. Coffee beverages represent a significant source of antioxidants in the consumers' diet and contribute significantly to their daily intake. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of different roasting degrees on the content of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in different quality classes of Arabica coffee. Samples of green Arabica coffee (Rio Minas) of two quality classes from two production batches were used for the research. Roasting was carried out at temperatures of 167, 175 and 171°C. The total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonol content (FC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) in the coffee extracts was determined. This research shows that TPC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in green coffee compared to TPC in roasted coffee, and TPC decreases as the roasting temperature increases. TFC and FC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in green coffee than in roasted coffee. Differences in TPC between the 1st and 2nd classes of Arabica coffee were not significant (P > 0.05), while differences in TFC were significant (P < 0.05) only for green coffee from the second production batch and differences in FC were significant (P < 0.05) for green coffee and for coffee roasted at 175°C. Roasting temperatures have different influences the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) of coffee and the highest antioxidant activity was determined in coffee roasted at 171°C. An exception was 1st class Arabica coffee roasted at 167°C (ABTS). All samples of 1st class Arabica coffee had higher antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) compared to 2nd class Arabica. This research shows that the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity of different quality classes of Arabica coffee are dependent on the degree of roasting. TPC decreases when the roasting temperature increases, while TFC

  15. Ulcerative colitis precipitated by a verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Farina, C; Caprioli, A; Luzzi, I; Sonzogni, A; Goglio, A

    1995-12-01

    The aetiology of ulcerative colitis remains unknown, despite extensive research into likely causes, such as infections, diet, environmental factors, immunological or genetic defects, psychomotor disorders, and abnormalities of mucin. We report here a case of ulcerative colitis in which the first episode of the disease was associated with serologic evidence of infection by verocytotoxin (VT)-producing O157 Escherichia coli (VTEC), possibly the trigger factor of a previously silent ulcerative colitis. Although histological reports of ulcerative colitis associated with VTEC infection are sporadically reported, the trigger role of VTEC in precipitating, aggravating or prolonging this pathology should be more fully elucidated.

  16. Pharmaceutical Activation or Genetic Absence of ClC-2 Alters Tight Junctions During Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Younggeon; Pridgen, Tiffany A; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported that the ClC-2 chloride channel has an important role in regulation of tight junction barrier function during experimental colitis, and the pharmaceutical ClC-2 activator lubiprostone initiates intestinal barrier repair in ischemic-injured intestine. Thus, we hypothesized that pharmaceutical ClC-2 activation would have a protective and therapeutic effect in murine models of colitis, which would be absent in ClC-2 mice. We administered lubiprostone to wild-type or ClC-2 mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2, 4, 5-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. We determined the severity of colitis and assessed intestinal permeability. Selected tight junction proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, whereas proliferative and differentiated cells were examined with special staining and immunohistochemistry. Oral preventive or therapeutic administration of lubiprostone significantly reduced the severity of colitis and reduced intestinal permeability in both DSS and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Preventive treatment with lubiprostone induced significant recovery of the expression and distribution of selected sealing tight junction proteins in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In addition, lubiprostone reduced crypt proliferation and increased the number of differentiated epithelial cells. Alternatively, when lubiprostone was administered to ClC-2 mice, the protective effect against DSS colitis was limited. This study suggests a central role for ClC-2 in restoration of barrier function and tight junction architecture in experimental murine colitis, which can be therapeutically targeted with lubiprostone.

  17. Membranous nephropathy associated with familial chronic ulcerative colitis in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ridder, Regina M; Kreth, Hans W; Kiss, Eva; Gröne, Hermann J; Gordjani, Nader

    2005-09-01

    Glomerulonephritis is a rare complication in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a case of membranous nephropathy (MN) in a 12.6-year-old girl with chronic ulcerative colitis. The girl was referred to the hospital with bloody diarrhea and arthralgia. Routine urinalysis showed 1 g/m(2) protein excretion in 24 h. Serum ANCA titers were positive. The diagnoses were confirmed by coloscopy and kidney biopsy. The patient's mother had also suffered from ulcerative colitis in adolescence. Proteinuria normalized under treatment with prednisone (60 mg/m(2)/day) and azathioprine, which was initiated to treat the colitis. Chronic ulcerative colitis can be associated with glomerulonephritis.

  18. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification of BRCA1 Breast Cancer Risk by Coffee Consumption: Potential Mechanisms for Biologic Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    engineered mice for the animal study to determine whether coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine prevents BRCA1 hereditary breast cancer. We...have bred the necessary genetically engineered mice for the animal study to determine whether coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine prevents BRCA1...participates in the regulation of DNA repair. As the repair process concludes, gamma H2AX is removed from the surrounding region. We were interested in

  20. Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

    PubMed

    Ware, Jennifer J; Tanner, Julie-Anne; Taylor, Amy E; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-10-01

    Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual-level data from the UK Biobank and in-vitro experiments of candidate compounds. The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in-vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6. Two-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = -1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.88 to -0.09]. However, in-vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = -1.72 to 2.12). Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette

  1. Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Jennifer J.; Tanner, Julie‐Anne; Taylor, Amy E.; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J.; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. Design We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual‐level data from the UK Biobank and in‐vitro experiments of candidate compounds. Setting The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. Participants The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. Measurements In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in‐vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p‐coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA‐expressed human CYP2A6. Findings Two‐sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = −1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.88 to −0.09]. However, in‐vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = –1.72 to 2.12). Conclusions Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin

  2. Coffee consumption and mortality in women with cardiovasculardisease123

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Li, Tricia Y; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Hu, Frank B; van Dam, Rob M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coffee is commonly consumed among populations of all ages and conditions. The few studies that have examined the association between coffee consumption and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have obtained conflicting results. Objective: The objective was to assess the association between filtered caffeinated coffee consumption and all-cause and CVD mortality during up to 24 y of follow-up in women with CVD from the Nurses’ Health Study. Design: The Nurses’ Health Study included 11,697 women. Coffee consumption was first assessed in 1980 with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then repeatedly every 2–4 y. Cumulative consumption was calculated with all available FFQs from the diagnosis of CVD to the end of the follow-up in 2004 to assess long-term effects. In addition, the most recent coffee measurement was related to mortality in the subsequent 2 y to assess shorter-term effects. Analyses were performed by using Cox regression models. Results: We documented 1159 deaths, of which 579 were due to CVD. The relative risks [RRs (95% CI)] of all-cause mortality across categories of cumulative coffee consumption [<1 cup (240 mL or 8 oz)/mo, 1 cup/mo to 4 cups/wk, 5–7 cups/wk, 2–3 cups/d, and ≥4 cups/d] were 1, 1.04 (0.86, 1.27), 1.13 (0.95, 1.36), 1.01 (0.86, 1.18), and 1.18 (0.89, 1.56), respectively (P for trend = 0.91). The RRs of CVD mortality across the same categories of coffee intake were 1, 0.99 (0.75, 1.31), 1.03 (0.80, 1.35), 0.97 (0.78, 1.21), and 1.25 (0.85, 1.84), respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similarly, caffeine intake was not associated with total or CVD mortality. Finally, we observed no association of the most recent coffee and caffeine intakes with total and CVD mortality in the subsequent 2 y. Conclusion: Consumption of filtered caffeinated coffee was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality in women with CVD. PMID:21562090

  3. Unusual presentation of pheochromocytoma with ischemic sigmoid colitis and stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Florence; Thai, Ah Chuan; Cheah, Wei Keat; Mukherjee, J J

    2009-10-01

    A 45-year-old woman with poorly controlled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with left iliac fossa pain, constipation alternating with diarrhea, and weight loss. She had been diagnosed with idiopathic cardiomyopathy five years previously. Echocardiogram had shown a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 35%; coronary angiogram was normal. Colonoscopy revealed sigmoid colitis with stenosis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 5 cm right adrenal tumor. Twenty-four hour urinary free catecholamines and fractionated metanephrine excretion values were elevated, confirming pheochromocytoma. Her colitis resolved after one month of adrenergic blockade. Repeat echocardiogram showed improvement of LVEF to 65%. After laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, the patient's hypertension resolved, and diabetic control improved. Timely management avoided further morbidity and potential mortality in our patient.

  4. [Immunological aspects of ulcerative colitis. Treatment with disodium cromoglycate].

    PubMed

    Cavallini, L; Marchi, S; Spisni, L; Li Calzi, M

    1980-01-01

    The various components of the normal intestinal immunological system have been examined, i.e. immunocompetent cells (isolated and in clusters) and humoral factors. The modifications observed in this system during ulcerous colitis are then analysed, mention being made of the various pathogenetic interpretations that have been put forward to explain this condition. The pharmacology and action mechanism of DSCG are then examined. This drug has been in use for some years in the treatment of a number of extraintestinal and immuno-allergic based conditions and, recently, of some enteropathis attributed to food allergies. The reported results of using DSCG in ulcerous colitis are then reviewed. They would appear to be fairly encouraging.

  5. Evaluation of eight cephalosporins in hamster colitis model.

    PubMed Central

    Ebright, J R; Fekety, R; Silva, J; Wilson, K H

    1981-01-01

    Eight commonly used cephalosporins were evaluated in the hamster colitis mode. They were all found to cause hemorrhagic cecitis and death within 10 days of being given as subcutaneous or oral challenges. Necropsy findings were indistinguishable from clindamycin-induced cecitis. Bacteria-free cecal filtrate obtained from hamsters dying of cephalosporin-induced cecitis contained toxin similar or identical to hat produced by Clostridium difficile isolated from the cecum of a hamster. Daily oral administration of poorly absorbed cephalosporins protected hamsters from clindamycin-induced cecitis and death as long as the cephalosporins were continued. The absorbable cephalosporins were ineffective in protecting hamsters from clindamycin-induced cecitis. This difference probably relates to the lower concentrations of absorbable cephalosporins maintained in the ceca of the hamsters. The possible correlation of these findings to human cases of cephalosporin-induced pseudomembranous colitis is discussed. PMID:6973951

  6. Induction of colitis in young rats by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Vicario, María; Crespí, Mar; Franch, Angels; Amat, Concepció; Pelegrí, Carme; Moretó, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly rose with 5% DSS and most animals died after the fifth day. With 1 and 2% DSS, the severity of mucosal lesions was also high on day 7, the animals showing leukocytosis and anemia. At 0.5% DSS, leukocytosis and mild colonic lesions were induced. This concentration of DSS significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity and goblet cell number in the colon, indicating mucosal inflammation. Since food consumption was not reduced by 0.5% DSS, we suggest that this protocol can be used to study the effects of dietary supplements on intestinal inflammatory processes.

  7. Induction of Colitis in Young Rats by Dextran Sulfate Sodium.

    PubMed

    Vicario, María; Crespí, Mar; Franch, Àngels; Amat, Concepció; Pelegrí, Carme; Moretó, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly rose with 5% DSS and most animals died after the fifth day. With 1 and 2% DSS, the severity of mucosal lesions was also high on day 7, the animals showing leukocytosis and anemia. At 0.5% DSS, leukocytosis and mild colonic lesions were induced. This concentration of DSS significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity and goblet cell number in the colon, indicating mucosal inflammation. Since food consumption was not reduced by 0.5% DSS, we suggest that this protocol can be used to study the effects of dietary supplements on intestinal inflammatory processes.

  8. Outcome measurement in clinical trials for Ulcerative Colitis: towards standardisation

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Rachel M; Warren, Bryan F; Altman, Douglas G; Abreu, Maria T; Travis, Simon PL

    2007-01-01

    Clinical trials on novel drug therapies require clear criteria for patient selection and agreed definitions of disease remission. This principle has been successfully applied in the field of rheumatology where agreed disease scoring systems have allowed multi-centre collaborations and facilitated audit across treatment centres. Unfortunately in ulcerative colitis this consensus is lacking. Thirteen scoring systems have been developed but none have been properly validated. Most trials choose different endpoints and activity indices, making comparison of results from different trials extremely difficult. International consensus on endoscopic, clinical and histological scoring systems is essential as these are the key components used to determine entry criteria and outcome measurements in clinical trials on ulcerative colitis. With multiple new therapies under development, there is a pressing need for consensus to be reached. PMID:17592647

  9. Pyoderma gangrenosum and ulcerative colitis in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Alese, Olatunji B; Irabor, David O

    2008-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare inflammatory skin condition, characterized by progressive and recurrent skin ulceration. There may be rapidly enlarging, painful ulcers with undermined edges and a necrotic, hemorrhagic base. Disorders classically associated with pyoderma gangrenosum include rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, paraproteinemia and myeloproliferative disorders. There have been some reports of the occurrence of pyoderma gangrenosum in Africa, and in Nigeria, but only one specifically reported pyoderma gangrenosum in association with ulcerative colitis. We report on a 45-year-old man who presented with pyoderma gangrenosum associated with ulcerative colitis; the second report in Nigeria. The skin lesions were managed with daily honey wound dressings. Oral dapsone and prednisolone were started. The frequency of the bloody diarrhea decreased, and was completely resolved by the second week after admission. The ulcers also showed accelerated healing. The goal of therapy is directed towards the associated systemic disorder, if present.

  10. Approach to cytomegalovirus infections in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is common in patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), and may ref lect exacerbation of mucosal inf lammation and/or administration of immunosuppressants. The question of whether CMV is an active pathogen or ‘an innocent bystander’ in the exacerbation of UC remains controversial. Patients with UC exacerbated by reactivated CMV experience worse prognoses than those without CMV reactivation and antiviral therapy significantly reduces the need for colectomy in patients with severe UC and high-grade CMV infection, indicating that CMV plays a role in UC prognosis. Therefore, the CMV status of patients on immunosuppressants, particularly those with steroid-refractory or -dependent UC, should be tested. When CMV is detected, be performed based on should adequate treatment the extent of the viral load and the presence of certain clinical features including a large ulcer. Anti-tumor necrosis factor agents may be useful for treating CMV colitis complicating UC. PMID:28490715

  11. Electrostatic control of the coffee stain effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, Alex; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The ``coffee stain effect,'' as first explained by Deegan et al. 1997, has received a great deal of attention amongst modellers and experimentalists in recent years, perhaps due in part to its obvious casual familiarity. However, it maintains interest because of its intriguing reliance on an interplay of a trio of effects: contact line pinning, inhomogeneous mass flux, and resulting capillarity-driven flow. What is more, the effect, and especially its suppression or reversal, find applications in fields as diverse as sample recovery, mass spectroscopy and the printing of Organic LEDs. We examine the motion a nanoparticle-laden droplet deposited on a precursor film, incorporating the effects of capillarity, concentration-dependent rheology, together with a heated substrate and resultant mass flux and Marangoni effects. We allow the substrate to act as an electrode and incorporate a second electrode above the droplet. The potential difference together with a disparity in electrical properties between the two regions results in electrical (Maxwell) stresses at the interface. We show via lubrication theory and via direct numerical simulations that the ring effect typically observed may be suppressed or augmented via appropriate use of electric fields. EPSRC DTG

  12. Malachite Green Adsorption by Spent Coffee Grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamimie Atirah Mat, Siti; Zati Hanani Syed Zuber, Sharifah; Rahim, Siti Kartini Enche Ab; Sohaimi, Khairunissa Syairah Ahmad; Halim, Noor Amirah Abdul; Fauziah Zainudin, Nor; Aida Yusoff, Nor; Munirah Rohaizad, Nor; Hidayah Ishak, Noor; Anuar, Adilah; Sarip, Mohd Sharizan Md

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the ability of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions was studied. Batch adsorption tests were carried out to observe the effect of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of malachite green and adsorbent dosage on the removal of dye. The results obtained show that the percentage of dye removal will decreased with the increased of initial concentration of dye in the range of 50 mg/L to 250 mg/L. Besides, percentage removal of dye was also found to be increased as the contact time increased until it reached equilibrium condition. The results also showed that the adsorbent dosage in range of 0.2 g to 1.0 g is proportional to the percentage removal of malachite green dye. Study on the kinetic adsorption and isotherm adsorption has also been investigated. The adsorption isotherm data were described by Langmuir isotherm with high-correlation coefficients while the experimental data showed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model was the best model for the adsorption of MG by SCG with the coefficients of correlation R2 > 0.9978.

  13. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%.

  14. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol in a coffee model system.

    PubMed

    Albouchi, Abdullatif; Murkovic, Michael

    2018-03-15

    The production of furfuryl alcohol from green coffee during roasting and the effect of multiple parameters on its formation were studied employing HPLC-DAD. Results show that coffee produces furfuryl alcohol in larger quantities (418µg/g) compared to other beans or seeds (up to 132µg/g) roasted under the same conditions. The kinetics of furfuryl alcohol production resemble those of other process contaminants (e.g., HMF, acrylamide) produced in coffee roasting, with temperature and time of roasting playing significant roles in quantities formed. Different coffee species yielded different amounts of furfuryl alcohol. The data point out that the amounts of furfuryl alcohol found in roasted coffee do not reflect the total amounts produced during roasting because great amounts of furfuryl alcohol (up to 57%) are evaporating and released to the atmosphere during roasting. Finally the effect of the moisture content on furfuryl alcohol formation was found to be of little impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of CO2 precursors in roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrete Element Model for Suppression of Coffee-Ring Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ting; Lam, Miu Ling; Chen, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-02-01

    When a sessile droplet evaporates, coffee-ring effect drives the suspended particulate matters to the droplet edge, eventually forming a ring-shaped deposition. Because it causes a non-uniform distribution of solid contents, which is undesired in many applications, attempts have been made to eliminate the coffee-ring effect. Recent reports indicated that the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed by a mixture of spherical and non-spherical particles with enhanced particle-particle interaction at air-water interface. However, a model to comprehend the inter-particulate activities has been lacking. Here, we report a discrete element model (particle system) to investigate the phenomenon. The modeled dynamics included particle traveling following the capillary flow with Brownian motion, and its resultant 3D hexagonal close packing of particles along the contact line. For particles being adsorbed by air-water interface, we modeled cluster growth, cluster deformation, and cluster combination. We found that the suppression of coffee-ring effect does not require a circulatory flow driven by an inward Marangoni flow at air-water interface. Instead, the number of new cluster formation, which can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of non-spherical particles and the overall number of microspheres, is more dominant in the suppression process. Together, this model provides a useful platform elucidating insights for suppressing coffee-ring effect for practical applications in the future.

  18. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  19. In vitro enzymic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids in coffee.

    PubMed

    da Encarnação, Joana Amarante; Farrell, Tracy L; Ryder, Alexandra; Kraut, Nicolai U; Williamson, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is rich in quinic acid esters of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) but also contains some free phenolic acids. A proportion of phenolic acids appear in the blood rapidly after coffee consumption due to absorption in the small intestine. We investigated in vitro whether this appearance could potentially be derived from free phenolic acids in instant coffee or from hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids by pancreatic or brush border enzymes. We quantified six free phenolic acids in instant coffees using HPLC-DAD-mass spectrometry. The highest was caffeic acid, but all were present at low levels compared to the chlorogenic acids. Roasting and decaffeination significantly reduced free phenolic acid content. We estimated, using pharmacokinetic modelling with previously published data, that the contribution of these compounds to small intestinal absorption is minimal. Hydrolysis of certain chlorogenic acids was observed with human-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and with porcine pancreatin, which showed maximal rates on 3- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. The amounts of certain free phenolic acids in coffee could only minimally account for small intestinal absorption based on modelling. The hydrolysis of caffeoylquinic, but not feruloylquinic acids, by enterocyte and pancreatic esterases is potentially a contributing mechanism to small intestinal absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Characterization and Spectral Monitoring of Coffee Lands in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Maciel, D. A.; Gonçalves, T. G.; Dantas, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI) and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI). The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  1. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords "coffee" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism" in "Title/Abstract/Keywords", with no language and date restriction. According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ≥5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  2. Placebo caffeine reduces withdrawal in abstinent coffee drinkers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Llewellyn; Boakes, Robert A; Colagiuri, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Expectancies have been shown to play a role in the withdrawal syndrome of many drugs of addiction; however, no studies have examined the effects of expectancies across a broad range of caffeine withdrawal symptoms, including craving. The purpose of the current study was to use caffeine as a model to test the effect of expectancy on withdrawal symptoms, specifically whether the belief that one has ingested caffeine is sufficient to reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms and cravings in abstinent coffee drinkers. We had 24-h abstinent regular coffee drinkers complete the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (CWSQ) before and after receiving decaffeinated coffee. One-half of the participants were led to believe the coffee was regular caffeinated coffee (the 'Told Caffeine' condition) and one-half were told that it was decaffeinated (the 'Told Decaf' condition). Participants in the Told Caffeine condition reported a significantly greater reduction in the factors of cravings, fatigue, lack of alertness and flu-like feelings of the CWSQ, than those in the Told Decaf condition. Our results indicated that the belief that one has consumed caffeine can affect caffeine withdrawal symptoms, especially cravings, even when no caffeine was consumed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: reducing excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R M; Rubinoff, A

    1979-01-01

    Excessive coffee drinking can have deleterious effects because of the large amounts of caffeine that are ingested. Caffeine is thought to be addicting, and prolonged and excessive use can lead to caffeinism, a condition that has serious behavioral and physiological side effects. The present study developed and evaluated a treatment program to reduce excessive daily coffee drinking to moderate and presumably safer levels. Three habitual coffee drinkers received individualized changing criterion programs that systematically and gradually reduced their daily caffeine intake. The coffee drinkers were required to self-monitor and plot their daily intake of caffeine. They received monetary prizes for not exceeding the treatment phase criteria and forfeited a portion of their pretreatment deposit when they did. Their coffee drinking decreased from almost nine cups per day (over 1100 mg of caffeine) during baseline to less than three cups per day (less than 343 mg) at the end of treatment or a reduction of 69%. The treatment effect was maintained during a 10-month follow-up, averaging a 67% reduction from baseline. The program appears to be a reasonable method of reducing and then maintaining daily caffeine intake at less harmful levels. PMID:511802

  4. Characterization of galactomannan derivatives in roasted coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2006-05-03

    In this work, the galactomannans from roasted coffee infusions were purified by 50% ethanol precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and phenylboronic acid-immobilized Sepharose chromatography. Specific enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-(1-->4)-D-mannan backbone allowed us to conclude that the galactomannans of roasted coffee infusions are high molecular weight supports of low molecular weight brown compounds. Also, the molecular weight of the brown compounds linked to the galactomannan increases with the increase of the coffee degree of roast. The reaction pathways of galactomannans during the coffee roasting process were inferred from the detection of specific chemical markers by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Maillard reaction, caramelization, isomerization, oxidation, and decarboxylation pathways were identified by detection of Amadori compounds, 1,6-beta-anhydromannose, fructose, glucose, mannonic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, and arabinonic acid in the reducing end of the obtained oligosaccharides. The implication of the several competitive reaction pathways is discussed and related to the structural changes of the galactomannans present in the roasted coffee infusions.

  5. Acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine in coffee substitutes and instant coffees.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Jacolot, Philippe; Helou, Cynthia; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2014-04-01

    Sensitive analytical methods were developed and validated for the quantification of acrylamide, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 24 commercial coffee substitutes (CSs) and 12 instant coffees (ICs). Acrylamide levels varied widely from 200 to 4940 µg kg(-1) with higher levels in CSs. Only two out of 24 CSs had a level of acrylamide above the indicative value set for this food category by the European Commission (4000 µg kg(-1)). None of the ICs tested in this study exceeded the indicative value set for this foodstuff (900 µg kg(-1)). CML ranged from 0.17 to 47 mg kg(-1) and it increased in proportion to the protein content of the samples. The highest concentrations were found in IC partly due to the relatively high protein content of this food group. HMF was the most abundant neoformed compound (NFC) found in the tested commercial samples. It was found between 0.59 and 13 g kg(-1). Among other food categories IC and CS could appear to be major contributors to the exposure to NFCs if consumed on a daily basis. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the acrylamide formation during processing and to determine the daily intake level of frequent consumers of these products.

  6. Immunological studies in ulcerative colitis. IV. Origin of autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Lagercrantz, R; Hammarström, S; Perlmann, P; Gustafsson, B E

    1968-12-01

    The incidence and height of antibody titers to colon, assayed by indirect hemagglutination with a heat stable colon extract from germ free rats, is significantly higher in sera from patients with ulcerative colitis than in those from healthy controls or from patients with amebic liver abscess or dysentery. While sera from ulcerative colitis patients and controls are indistinguishable in regard to incidence and height of antibody titers to Forsman antigen, Staphylococcus aureus S 209, Clostridium difficile, and several common strains of E. coli, they have elevated titers and increased incidence of antibodies to a heat stable antigen of E. coli O14. Patients with amebic dysentery have normal titers of such antibodies. Absorption of patients' sera with E. coli O14 antigen inhibits the colon directed hemagglutination reaction in approximately 30% of the cases tested. Likewise, the anti-E. coli O14 reaction can sometimes be inhibited with the colon extract. Other E. coli strains and other bacteria are inactive or have only weak inhibitory activity. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments show that germ free rat colon and E. coli O14 contain common structures, depicted by antibodies in the patients' sera. This pattern of reactivity closely resembles that seen in rats made autoimmune to colon by injection of newborn rabbit colon. E. coli O14 is known to carry a heterogenetic antigen present in lower concentration (or activity) in most Enterobacteriaceae. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments with rabbit antisera to E. coli O14 suggest that the antigen common for E. coli O14 and colon is related to this heterogenetic antigen. The findings imply that this antigen, which is constantly present in low concentrations in the human colon, may give rise to anticolon antibody formation in ulcerative colitis through breakage of tolerance. Since this antigen is present in healthy individuals as well, additional factors are required to explain the induction of anti

  7. [Simultaneous occurrence of ulcerative colitis and psoriasis in childhood].

    PubMed

    Hidvégi, E; Arató, A; Szönyi, L

    1995-06-04

    Authors report of a 10 years old girl who at age 2 showed signs of psoriasis and after 8 years typical symptoms of ulcerative colitis manifested. In connection with this case the association of two diseases is emphasized which may be explained by the similarity of genetic and immunological factors in both disorder. It is accentuated that at the observation of enteral symptoms in patients with psoriasis the possibility of non specific inflammatory bowel disease has also to be considered.

  8. AOM/DSS Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parang, Bobak; Barret, Caitlyn W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer. PMID:27246042

  9. A budesonide prodrug accelerates treatment of colitis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, N; Friend, D R; Fedorak, R N

    1994-01-01

    Although oral glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice for moderate to severe ulcerative pancolitis, their systemic side effects and adrenal suppression account for considerable morbidity. An oral glucocorticoid-conjugate (prodrug), budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide, which is not absorbed in the small intestine but is hydrolysed by colonic bacterial and mucosal beta-glucuronidase to release free budesonide into the colon was synthesised. The objective of this study was to compare treatment with budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide with treatment with free budesonide by examining: (1) the healing of experimental colitis and (2) the extent of adrenal suppression. Pancolitis was induced with 4% acetic acid. Animals were then randomised to receive oral therapy for 72 hours with (1) budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide, (2) free budesonide, or (3) vehicle. Drug efficacy and colitic healing was determined by measuring gross colonic ulceration, myeloperoxidase activity, and in vivo colonic fluid absorption. Adrenal suppression was determined by measuring plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and serum corticosterone. Vehicle-treated colitis animals had gross ulceration, increased myeloperoxidase activity, and net colonic fluid secretion. Treatment with oral budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide accelerated all measures of colitis healing at a fourfold lower dose than did free budesonide. Furthermore, treatment with budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide did not result in adrenal suppression whereas free budesonide treatment did. A newly synthesised orally administered glucocorticoid-conjugate accelerates colitis healing with limited adrenal suppression. Development of an orally administered colon-specific steroid delivery system represents a novel approach to inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID:7959202

  10. Allergic Colitis With Pneumatosis Intestinalis in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Helena; Turner, Troy W S

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory causes of bloody diarrhea during infancy include necrotizing enterocolitis and allergic colitis, often due to cow's milk protein. We report this case of cow's milk protein allergy, managed successfully with elimination of dietary antigen, to highlight the unusual finding of pneumatosis intestinalis on abdominal x-ray, a radiographic hallmark associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. Detailed patient's history, clinical presentation, and physical examinations are discussed for cow's milk protein allergy and necrotizing enterocolitis.

  11. Takayasu's Disease in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chae, Myung Joon; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lee, Soo Yeon; Jang, Duck Hyun; Hyun, Joo Yong; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Myoung Hwan

    2013-02-01

    A 35-year-old Korean man with a 10-year history of ulcerative colitis (UC) presented with pain and swelling of the right neck. The patient was diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis (TA) and had human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B-52, which is frequently found in patients having both UC and Takayasu's disease concurrently on HLA analysis. This case is the first report of a patient with both TA and UC in Korea, to the best of our knowledge.

  12. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid therapy in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Salter, R. H.; Read, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    On the supposition that excessive fibrinolysis at the rectal mucosal level may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, 11 patients with this condition, in whom rectal bleeding was the predominant feature, were given a course of epsilon-aminocaproic acid therapy. Six patients responded dramatically to this treatment, there was a partial response in two, no effect in two others, and one patient found it necessary to discontinue the treatment after 48 hours because of the severity of side effects. PMID:5311202

  13. Systematic review: colitis associated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; De Felice, K M; Loftus, E V; Khanna, S

    2015-08-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) has an important role in T-cell regulation, proliferation and tolerance. Anti-CTLA-4 agents, such as ipilimumab and tremelimumab, have been shown to prolong overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma, and their use is being investigated in the treatment of other malignancies. Their novel immunostimulatory mechanism, however, predisposes patients to immune-related adverse effects, of which gastrointestinal effects such as diarrhoea and colitis are the most common. To discuss the existing literature and summarise the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of anti-CTLA-4-associated colitis, and to present a management algorithm for it. We searched PubMed for studies published through October 2014 using the terms 'anti-CTLA,' 'ipilimumab,' 'tremelimumab,' 'colitis,' 'gastrointestinal,' 'immune-related adverse effect,' 'immunotherapy,' 'melanoma,' and 'diarrhoea.' Watery diarrhoea is commonly associated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy (27-54%), and symptoms occur within a few days to weeks of therapy. Diffuse acute and chronic colitis are the most common findings on endoscopy (8-22%). Concomitant infectious causes of diarrhoea must be evaluated. Most cases may be successfully managed with discontinuation of anti-CTLA-4 and conservative therapy. Those with persistent grade 2 and grade 3/4 diarrhoea should undergo endoscopic evaluation and require corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroid-resistant cases may respond to anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy such as infliximab. Surgery is reserved for patients with bowel perforation or failure of medical therapy. Given the increasing use of anti-CTLA-4 therapy, clinicians must be aware of related adverse events and their management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ipilimumab-induced acute severe colitis treated by infliximab.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Cecile; Gornet, Jean M; Monsel, Gentiane; Allez, Matthieu; Bertheau, Philippe; Bagot, Martine; Lebbé, Celeste; Viguier, Manuelle

    2013-06-01

    Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 antibody) is a new tool for the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients that has led to an improvement in survival rates worldwide. New types of toxicities have been described with ipilimumab called 'immune-related adverse events' or irAEs. Here, we report an acute and steroid resistant case of ipilimumab-induced colitis treated with infliximab in a melanoma stage IV AJCC patient. The patient presented with acute grade 3 diarrhea after the second perfusion of ipilimumab. After the administration of intravenous steroids, the patient continued to have grade 2 diarrhea with erythematous mucous with several ulceration sites on rectosigmoidoscopy. Infliximab perfusion (5 mg/kg) was performed and resulted in resolution of symptoms within 2 days with complete healing was observed by rectal sigmoidoscopy on day 7. After failure of two further lines of chemotherapy, the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis of stage IVM1C melanoma. Treatment algorithms exist for the management of these digestive adverse events; however, some points remain unclear. No predictive marker for the occurrence of this digestive toxicity has been validated to date. Modes of administration of steroids and dosage are not clearly defined, except in cases of acute abdomen; surgery is difficult to propose for patients with a poor prognosis. Infliximab is another option for the treatment of steroid-resistant ipilimumab-induced colitis but its use in metastatic melanoma raises questions of its possible impact on the evolution of cancer. We reviewed at least 19 cases published of infliximab administration for ipilimumab-mediated colitis. Unfortunately, tolerance and cancer evolution have scarcely been reported. Thus, because more patients are being treated with CTLA-4 blockade, management of ipilimumab-induced colitis requires further studies.

  15. Mitochondrial gene polymorphisms that protect mice from colitis.

    PubMed

    Bär, Florian; Bochmann, Wiebke; Widok, Andrea; von Medem, Kilian; Pagel, Rene; Hirose, Misa; Yu, Xinhua; Kalies, Kathrin; König, Peter; Böhm, Ruwen; Herdegen, Thomas; Reinicke, Anna T; Büning, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Fellermann, Klaus; Ibrahim, Saleh; Sina, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Dysregulated energy homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa frequently is observed in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Intestinal tissues from these patients have reduced activity of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex, so mitochondrial dysfunction could contribute to the pathogenesis of UC. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which OXPHOS activity could be altered. We used conplastic mice, which have identical nuclear but different mitochondrial genomes, to investigate activities of the OXPHOS complex. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6J wild-type (B6.B6) and 3 strains of conplastic mice (B6.NZB, B6.NOD, and B6.AKR) by administration of dextran sodium sulfate or rectal application of trinitrobenzene sulfonate. Colon tissues were collected and analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemical analysis, and immunoblot analysis; we also measured mucosal levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species, OXPHOS complex activity, and epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. We identified mice with increased mucosal OXPHOS complex activities and levels of ATP. These mice developed less-severe colitis after administration of dextran sodium sulfate or trinitrobenzene sulfonate than mice with lower mucosal levels of ATP. Colon tissues from these mice also had increased enterocyte proliferation and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB activity, which have been shown to protect the mucosal barrier-defects in these processes have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Variants in mitochondrial DNA that increase mucosal levels of ATP protect mice from colitis. Increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells could be a therapeutic approach for UC. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ulcerative colitis in apes: A comparison with the human disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, G B; Keymer, I F

    1975-04-01

    The pathological changes in the colons of two young gorillas and an adult orang-utan which developed diarrhoea and died, are described. Since no causative agents could be identified and the changes were indistinguishable from the active phase of ulcerative colitis in humans, these cases were considered examples of this disease in apes. Evidence of early healing was found in one case and the suitability of apes and monkeys as possible animal models of the human disease is discussed.

  17. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference between coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  18. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  19. Land use change on coffee farms in southern Guatemala and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35% loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53% lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha(-1) was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha(-1)) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha(-1)). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  20. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  1. Developing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers for the identification of Coffee germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages that represent a multibillion dollar global industry. Accurate identification of coffee cultivars is essential for efficient management, exchange and use of coffee genetic resources. So far a universal platform that can allow data comparison across...

  2. Estimation of U content in coffee samples by fission-track counting

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.K.; Lal, N.; Nagpaul, K.K.

    1985-06-01

    Because coffee is consumed in large quantities by humans, the authors undertook the study of the uranium content of coffee as a continuation of earlier work to estimate the U content of foodstuffs. Since literature on this subject is scarce, they decided to use the well-established fission-track-counting technique to determine the U content of coffee.

  3. La Selva and the Magnetic Pull of Markets: Organic Coffee-Growing in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen Contreras

    1995-01-01

    A confederation of 10 coffee producers from southern Mexico seeks to improve the lives and incomes of participants by taking advantage of the lucrative organic coffee market. A farmer-to-farmer extension approach teaches over 200 participants to improve the quality and production of coffee in a manner that conserves natural resources and…

  4. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  5. Associations of coffee, tea, and caffeine intake with coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular events

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Mul...

  6. Differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi among three coffee cultivars in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Ligia Lebrón; Jean D. Lodge; Paul Bayman

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is important for growth of coffee (Coffea arabica), but differences among coffee cultivars in response to mycorrhizal interactions have not been studied. We compared arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) extraradical hyphae in the soil and diversity of AM fungi among three coffee cultivars, Caturra, Pacas, and Borbon, at three farms in...

  7. Dietary protein intakes and risk of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Rashvand, Samaneh; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) is rising in populations with western-style diet, rich in fat and protein, and low in fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary protein intakes and the risk of developing incident UC. Sixty two cases of UC and 124 controls were studied using country-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Group comparisons by each factor were done using χ2 test, and significance level was set at α= 0.05. Logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding variables was carried out. Univariate analysis suggested positive associations between processed meat, red meat and organ meat with risk of ulcerative colitis. Comparing highest versus lowest categories of consumption, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis accounting for potential confounding variables indicated that patients who consumed a higher amount of processed meat were at a higher risk for developing UC (P value for trend= 0.02). Similarly, patients who consumed higher amounts of red meat were at a higher risk for UC (P value for trend= 0.01). The highest tertile of intake of organ meat was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis with a statistically significant trend across tertiles (P value for trend= 0.01) when adjusted. In this case-control study we observed that higher consumptions of processed meat, red meat and organ meat were associated with increased risk for UC.

  8. Does Lymphocytic Colitis Always Present with Normal Endoscopic Findings?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Ro, Youngouk; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Although normal endoscopic findings are, as a rule, part of the diagnosis of microscopic colitis, several cases of macroscopic lesions (MLs) have been reported in collagenous colitis, but hardly in lymphocytic colitis (LC). The aim of this study was to investigate the endoscopic, clinical, and histopathologic features of LC with MLs. Methods A total of 14 patients with LC who were diagnosed between 2005 and 2010 were enrolled in the study. Endoscopic, clinical, and histopathologic findings were compared retrospectively according to the presence or absence of MLs. Results MLs were observed in seven of the 14 LC cases. Six of the MLs exhibited hypervascularity, three exhibited exudative bleeding and one exhibited edema. The patients with MLs had more severe diarrhea and were taking aspirin or proton pump inhibitors. More intraepithelial lymphocytes were observed during histologic examination in the patients with MLs compared to the patients without MLs, although this difference was not significant. The numbers of mononuclear cells and neutrophils in the lamina propria were independent of the presence or absence of MLs. Conclusions LC does not always present with normal endoscopic findings. Hypervascularity and exudative bleeding are frequent endoscopic findings in patients with MLs. PMID:25167800

  9. Dexpanthenol enemas in ulcerative colitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E V; Tremaine, W J; Nelson, R A; Shoemaker, J D; Sandborn, W J; Phillips, S F; Hasan, Y

    1997-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that topical administration of pantothenic acid, a precursor of coenzyme A, might result in increased tissue levels of coenzyme A, improvement of fatty acid oxidation, and amelioration of ulcerative colitis. In an open-label pilot study, three patients with active left-sided ulcerative colitis received nightly enemas that contained 1,000 mg of dexpanthenol for 4 weeks. Before and after the study, patients submitted stool specimens for short-chain fatty acid analysis and urine collections for measurement of pantothenic acid and dicarboxylic acids; they also underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy for procurement of biopsy specimens for histologic examination and measurement of colonic coenzyme A activity. A clinical disease activity index and histologic disease activity index were used to assess response. Despite increases in urinary pantothenic acid, no significant changes were found in colonic tissue coenzyme A concentrations, fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, or urinary dicarboxylic acid concentrations. Moreover, no significant changes in clinical or histologic disease activity were noted. Although stool frequency and rectal bleeding remained unchanged, all patients noted increased abdominal cramping, and one patient had an increased extent of disease. Topically administered dexpanthenol seems to be absorbed, but at the dose used in this study, it did not influence concentrations of colonic coenzyme A activity, fecal short-chain fatty acids, or clinical response in patients with active left-sided ulcerative colitis.

  10. Ischemic colitis in five points: an update 2013.

    PubMed

    Rania, Hefaiedh; Mériam, Sabbah; Rym, Ennaifer; Hyafa, Romdhane; Amine, Attaoui; Najet, Bel Hadj; Lassad, Gharbi; Mohamed, Taher Khalfallah

    2014-05-01

    Ischemic colitis is the most common form of intestinal ischemia. The presence of diarrhea and mild lower gastrointestinal bleeding should guide the diagnosis. Although many laboratory tests and radiographic images may suggest the diagnosis, colonic endoscopic with histological analysis of biopsies is the gold standard for identification of colonic ischemia. aim : The aim of this study was to resume in 5 points: the epidemiology, the clinical features, the diagnostic approach and the management of ischemic colitis in five points. methods: Review of literature. results: Incidence of ischemic colitis was between 3 and 10%. The clinical presentation is predominated by the non gangrenous form associating abdominal pain, tenderness, diarrhea and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The most frequent causes are represented by systemic hypoperfusion. Laboratory tests can orientate the diagnosis but are unspecific. Radiographic images based on computed tomography or more recently magnetic resonance imaging may suggest the diagnosis, but the confirmation will be given by endoscopic visualization of colonic mucosa with histological analysis of biopsies. Conservative treatment is the most often sufficient to improve colonic lesions. Surgical treatment is reserved for perforations and strictures. The incidence of colonic ischemia is difficult to ascertain. The diagnosis is usually made by medical history, examination, and endoscopy which have become the diagnostic procedure of choice. A high index of suspicion and prompt management are essential for optimum outcomes in patients with colonic ischemia.

  11. [Aseptic cutaneous breast abscesses associated with ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Sallé de Chou, C; Ortonne, N; Hivelin, M; Wolkenstein, P; Chosidow, O; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with a broad range of cutaneous lesions. Herein we report the first case of aseptic skin abscesses associated with ulcerative colitis. Since March 2008, a 40-year-old woman presented with bilateral mammary abscesses, relapsing despite repeated antibiotic treatment. She was followed for ulcerative colitis diagnosed in 2011 by means of a rectal biopsy. Despite four surgical procedures, there was no improvement in her mammary abscesses and bilateral mastectomy was then proposed because of the persistent symptoms. Her general state of health remained stable. Clinically, there were bilateral inflammatory nodes with fistulae and pus. These lesions were extremely painful. Mild inflammatory syndrome was noted, but the immunological tests revealed nothing of note. Bacteriological, parasitological and mycological tests on biopsy specimens were negative. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the dermis and subcutis with altered polymorphonuclear cells and epithelioid granuloma. The CT-scan showed no other remote lesions. The final diagnosis was cutaneous aseptic abscess syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis. Colchicine 1mg/day was initiated and resulted in regression of the skin lesions, with complete remission at one year of follow-up. Aseptic abscess syndrome must be considered in the event of recurrent aseptic cutaneous abscesses which may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Surgery should be avoided and treatment should be based on suitable drug therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Vedolizumab as a Treatment for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Christina; Kornbluth, Asher

    2014-12-01

    The management of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has become increasingly complex. With the current utilization of immunosuppressive therapies earlier in the disease course for patients presenting with moderate to severe disease, there is a great need for additional biologic agents targeting inflammatory mediators other than anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) agents. Although anti-TNF agents have positively impacted the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, many patients can lose their response or develop intolerance to these agents over time through the formation of antidrug antibodies. Furthermore, a sizeable percentage of patients are primary nonresponders to anti-TNF drugs. Vedolizumab (Entyvio, Takeda Pharmaceuticals), a monoclonal antibody to the α4β7 integrin, inhibits gut lymphocyte trafficking and has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe agent for the treatment of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This article reviews the clinical trial evidence and rationale for the use of vedolizumab in moderate to severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  13. Surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis in the biologic therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Alberto; Zoccali, Marco; Costa, Stefano; Troci, Albert; Contessini-Avesani, Ettore; Fichera, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Recently introduced in the treatment algorithms and guidelines for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, biological therapy is an effective treatment option for patients with an acute severe flare not responsive to conventional treatments and for patients with steroid dependent disease. The reduction in hospitalization and surgical intervention for patients affected by ulcerative colitis after the introduction of biologic treatment remains to be proven. Furthermore, these agents seem to be associated with increase in cost of treatment and risk for serious postoperative complications. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the surgical treatment of choice in ulcerative colitis patients. Surgery is traditionally recommended as salvage therapy when medical management fails, and, despite advances in medical therapy, colectomy rates remain unchanged between 20% and 30%. To overcome the reported increase in postoperative complications in patients on biologic therapies, several surgical strategies have been developed to maintain long-term pouch failure rate around 10%, as previously reported. Surgical staging along with the development of minimally invasive surgery are among the most promising advances in this field. PMID:22563165

  14. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  15. Oral Delivery of Nanoparticles Loaded With Ginger Active Compound, 6-Shogaol, Attenuates Ulcerative Colitis and Promotes Wound Healing in a Murine Model of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Xu, Changlong; Liu, Dandan; Han, Moon Kwon; Wang, Lixin; Merlin, Didier

    2018-01-24

    Oral drug delivery is the most attractive pathway for ulcerative colitis [UC] therapy, since it has many advantages. However, this strategy has encountered many challenges, including the instability of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract [GT], low targeting of disease tissues, and severe adverse effects. Nanoparticles capable of colitis tissue-targeted delivery and site-specific drug release may offer a unique and therapeutically effective system that addresses these formidable challenges. We used a versatile single-step surface-functionalising technique to prepare PLGA/PLA-PEG-FA nanoparticles loaded with the ginger active compound, 6-shogaol [NPs-PEG-FA/6-shogaol]. The therapeutic efficacy of NPs-PEG-FA/6-shogaol was evaluated in the well-established mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium [DSS]-induced colitis. NPs-PEG-FA exhibited very good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequent cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that NPs-PEG-FA could undergo efficient receptor-mediated uptake by colon-26 cells and activated Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. In vivo, oral administration of NPs-PEG-FA/6-shogaol encapsulated in a hydrogel system [chitosan/alginate] significantly alleviated colitis symptoms and accelerated colitis wound repair in DSS-treated mice by regulating the expression levels of pro-inflammatory [TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS] and anti-inflammatory [Nrf-2 and HO-1] factors. Our study demonstrates a convenient, orally administered 6-shogaol drug delivery system that effectively targets colitis tissue, alleviates colitis symptoms, and accelerates colitis wound repair. This system may represent a promising therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. How the variance of some extraction variables may affect the quality of espresso coffees served in coffee shops.

    PubMed

    Severini, Carla; Derossi, Antonio; Fiore, Anna G; De Pilli, Teresa; Alessandrino, Ofelia; Del Mastro, Arcangela

    2016-07-01

    To improve the quality of espresso coffee, the variables under the control of the barista, such as grinding grade, coffee quantity and pressure applied to the coffee cake, as well as their variance, are of great importance. A nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to obtain information on the changes in chemical attributes of espresso coffee (EC) as a function of the variability of extraction conditions. During extraction, the changes in volume were well described by a logistic model, whereas the chemical attributes were better fit by a first-order kinetic. The major source of information was contained in the grinding grade, which accounted for 87-96% of the variance of the experimental data. The variability of the grinding produced changes in caffeine content in the range of 80.03 mg and 130.36 mg when using a constant grinding grade of 6.5. The variability in volume and chemical attributes of EC is large. Grinding had the most important effect as the variability in particle size distribution observed for each grinding level had a profound effect on the quality of EC. Standardization of grinding would be of crucial importance for obtaining all espresso coffees with a high quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Coffee husk waste for fermentation production of mosquitocidal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Abidha, S

    2011-12-01

    Coffee husk waste (CHW) discarded as bio-organic waste, from coffee industries, is rich in carbohydrates. The current study emphasizes the management of solid waste from agro-industrial residues for the production of biopesticides (Bacillus sphaericus, and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis), to control disease transmitting mosquito vectors. An experimental culture medium was prepared by extracting the filtrates from coffee husk. A conventional culture medium (NYSM) also was prepared. The studies revealed that the quantity of mosquitocidal toxins produced from CHW is at par with NYSM. The bacteria produced in these media, were bioassayed against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti) and it was found that the toxic effect was statistically comparable. Cost-effective analysis have revealed that, production of biopesticides from CHW is highly economical. Therefore, the utilization of CHW provides dual benefits of effective utilization of environmental waste and efficient production of mosquitocidal toxins.

  18. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  19. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Varun K; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J; Quigley, Brian C; Farris, Alton B; Norvell, J P

    2016-10-01

    Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease.

  20. Probiotics for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Mallon, P; McKay, D; Kirk, S; Gardiner, K

    2007-10-17

    Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition affecting the colon with an incidence of approximately 10-20 per 100,000 per year. No existing intervention is effective in all patients with a proportion requiring colectomy. There are significant proportion of patients who experience adverse effects with current therapies. Consequently, new alternatives for the treatment of UC are constantly being sought. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements that may beneficially affect the host by improving intestinal microbial balance, enhancing gut barrier function and improving local immune response. To assess the efficacy of probiotics compared with placebo or standard medical treatment (5-aminosalicylates, sulfasalazine or corticosteroids) for the induction of remission in active ulcerative colitis. A comprehensive search for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT's) was carried out using MEDLINE (1966-January 2006), EMBASE (January 1985- 2006) and CENTRAL. The Cochrane IBD/FBD Review Group Specialised Trials Registrar was also searched. The Australasian Medical Index, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and the Japan Information Centre of Science and Technology File on Science, Technology and Medicine (JICST-E) were also used to identify abstracts. Conference proceedings from the Falk Symposium, Digestive Disease Week (DDW) and the United European Digestive Disease week were hand-searched. Authors of relevant studies and drug companies were contacted regarding ongoing or unpublished trials that may be relevant to the review. Randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of probiotics compared to standard treatments in the induction of remission of active ulcerative colitis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for analysis. Data were analysed using RevMan 4.2.7. A formal meta-analysis was not preformed due to differences in probiotics, outcomes and

  1. Essential roles of high-mobility group box 1 in the development of murine colitis and colitis-associated cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Shin; Hikiba, Yohko; Shibata, Wataru

    2007-08-24

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor released extracellularly as a proinflammatory cytokine. We measured the HMGB1 concentration in the sera of mice with chemically induced colitis (DSS; dextran sulfate sodium salt) and found a marked increase. Inhibition of HMGB1 by neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody resulted in reduced inflammation in DSS-treated colons. In macrophages, HMGB1 induces several proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, which are regulated by NF-{kappa}B activation. Two putative sources of HMGB1 were explored: in one, bacterial factors induce HMGB1 secretion from macrophages and in the other, necrotic epithelial cells directly release HMGB1. LPS induced a small amountmore » of HMGB1 in macrophages, but macrophages incubated with supernatant prepared from necrotic cells and containing large amounts of HMGB1 activated NF-{kappa}B and induced IL-6. Using the colitis-associated cancer model, we demonstrated that neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody decreases tumor incidence and size. These observations suggest that HMGB1 is a potentially useful target for IBD treatment and the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.« less

  2. Management of Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis, Part 2: Acute Severe Colitis; An Evidence-based Consensus Guideline from ECCO and ESPGHAN.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dan; Ruemmele, Frank M; Orlanski-Meyer, Esther; Griffiths, Anne M; Carpi, Javier Martin de; Bronsky, Jiri; Veres, Gabor; Aloi, Marina; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Braegger, Christian P; Assa, Amit; Romano, Claudio; Hussey, Séamus; Stanton, Michael; Pakarinen, Mikko; de Ridder, Lissy; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Croft, Nick; Navas-López, Víctor Manuel; Wilson, David C; Lawrence, Sally; Russell, Richard K

    2018-05-30

    Acute severe colitis (ASC) is one of the few emergencies in paediatric gastroenterology. Tight monitoring and timely medical and surgical interventions may improve outcomes and minimize morbidity and mortality. We aimed to standardize daily treatment of ASC in children through detailed recommendations and practice points which are based on a systematic review of the literature and consensus of experts. These guidelines are a joint effort of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). Fifteen predefined questions were addressed by working subgroups. An iterative consensus process, including two face-to-face meetings, was followed by voting by the national representatives of ECCO and all members of the Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Porto group of ESPGHAN (43 voting experts). A total of 24 recommendations and 43 practice points were endorsed with a consensus rate of at least 91% regarding diagnosis, monitoring and management of ASC in children. A summary flowchart is presented based on daily scoring of the Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI). Several topics have been altered since the previous 2011 guidelines and from those published in adults. These guidelines standardize the management of ASC in children in an attempt to optimize outcomes of this intensive clinical scenario.

  3. Tobacco use, occupation, coffee, various nutrients, and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Cook, G M; Esteve, J; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1980-04-01

    In a Canadian population-based case-control study of 480 males and 152 female case-control pairs, the relative risk for development of bladder cancer for ever used versus never used cigarettes was 3.9 for males and 2.4 for females, with a dose-response relationship in both sexes. A reduced risk was associated with the use of filter cigarettes compared to nonfilter cigarettes. After control for cigarette usage, a significant risk was noted for male pipe smokers. For male ex-smokers the risk after 15 years of no smoking was less than one-half that of current male smokers. Bladder cancer risk was found for workers in the chemical, rubber, photographic, petroleum, medical, and food processing industries among males and for workers occupationally exposed to dust or fumes among both sexes. Bladder cancer risk was elevated for males consuming all types of coffee, regular coffee, and instant coffee and for females consuming instant coffee, but no dose-response relationship was found. Risk was found for males consuming water from nonpublic supples but not for females. No risk was observed in males or females consuming nitrate-containing foods, beverages other than coffee, or fiddlehead greens. Hair dye usage in females and phenacetin usage in males and females carried no risk. Divergent findings by area for aspirin suggested that an overall association was not causal. Reevaluation of the data on artificial sweeteners confirmed a significant bladder cancer risk in males and a dose-response relationship. The cumulated population attributable risk for bladder cancer was 90% for males from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and exposure to nonpublic water supplies and 29% for females from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and instant coffee consumption.

  4. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Coffee and caffeine intake and male infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Elena; Viganò, Paola; Cipriani, Sonia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Bulfoni, Alessandro; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-06-24

    Semen quality, a predictor of male fertility, has been suggested declining worldwide. Among other life style factors, male coffee/caffeine consumption was hypothesized to influence semen parameters, but also sperm DNA integrity. To summarize available evidence, we performed a systematic review of observational studies on the relation between coffee/caffeine intake and parameters of male fertility including sperm ploidy, sperm DNA integrity, semen quality and time to pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed up to November 2016 (MEDLINE and EMBASE). We included all observational papers that reported the relation between male coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes: 1. semen parameters, 2. sperm DNA characteristics, 3. fecundability. All pertinent reports were retrieved and the relative reference lists were systematically searched in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. We retrieved 28 papers reporting observational information on coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes. Overall, they included 19,967 men. 1. Semen parameters did not seem affected by caffeine intake, at least caffeine from coffee, tea and cocoa drinks, in most studies. Conversely, other contributions suggested a negative effect of cola-containing beverages and caffeine-containing soft drinks on semen volume, count and concentration. 2. As regards sperm DNA defects, caffeine intake seemed associated with aneuploidy and DNA breaks, but not with other markers of DNA damage. 3. Finally, male coffee drinking was associated to prolonged time to pregnancy in some, but not all, studies. The literature suggests that caffeine intake, possibly through sperm DNA damage, may negatively affect male reproductive function. Evidence from epidemiological studies on semen parameters and fertility is however inconsistent and inconclusive. Well-designed studies with predefined criteria for semen analysis, subject selection, and life style habits

  6. Pulverization of coffee silverskin extract as a source of antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Kusumocahyo, S. P.; Widiputri, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is waste from coffee roasting process that has a value as source of antioxidant. In this research, two types of variant coffee Robusta and Arabica CS were extracted for their phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The extraction was done at 40°C for 60 minutes using hydroalcoholic solvent. The phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Robusta CS extract were 816.75 ± 63.24 mg GAE/L and 32.82 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 54.80% inhibition respectively, while for Arabica CS extract were 473.51 ± 56.70 mg GAE/L, 18.58 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 26.30% inhibition respectively. Thus, the Robusta coffee silverskin extract has higher value of total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee silverskin extract. To produce high antioxidant powder of CS extract, the effect of drying method (freeze drying and spray drying) affecting the phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The effect of evaporation prior to both drying processes was also evaluated. Evaporation caused up to 23% of total phenolic content degradation. Spray drying resulted in dried CS extract with degradation of total phenolic content up to 17%. On the other hand, freeze drying resulted no major degradation of total phenolic content. However, the coffee silverskin extract can be directly spray dried without evaporation resulting in higher amount of phenolic content in the powder than the one which was evaporated first.

  7. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; Pan, An; Okereke, Olivia I; Willett, Walter C; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Koenen, Karestan; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-09-26

    Caffeine is the world's most widely used central nervous system stimulant, with approximately 80% consumed in the form of coffee. However, studies that analyze prospectively the relationship between coffee or caffeine consumption and depression risk are scarce. A total of 50,739 US women (mean age, 63 years) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (in 1996) were prospectively followed up through June 1, 2006. Consumption of caffeine was measured from validated questionnaires completed from May 1, 1980, through April 1, 2004, and computed as cumulative mean consumption with a 2-year latency period applied. Clinical depression was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use. Relative risks of clinical depression were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 10 years of follow-up (1996-2006), 2607 incident cases of depression were identified. Compared with women consuming 1 or less cup of caffeinated coffee per week, the multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.95) for those consuming 2 to 3 cups per day and 0.80 (0.64-0.99; P for trend<.001) for those consuming 4 cups per day or more. Multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P for trend=.02) for women in the highest (≥550 mg/d) vs lowest (<100 mg/d) of the 5 caffeine consumption categories. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with depression risk. In this large longitudinal study, we found that depression risk decreases with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether usual caffeinated coffee consumption can contribute to depression prevention.

  8. Performance of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Nygård, Ottar; Ueland, Per M

    2018-05-15

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and studies suggest that drinking coffee has beneficial health effects. The phytohormone trigonelline is present in large amounts in coffee beans, and circulating concentrations of trigonelline have been shown to be positively related to dietary intake of coffee and to increase significantly after the consumption of a bolus dose of coffee. We cross-sectionally investigated the utility of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting. We secondarily investigated if coffee intake is related to plasma concentrations of vitamin B-3 (niacin) forms. In a Norwegian cohort of 3503 participants, we combined questionnaire data on the number of cups of coffee consumed per day with plasma trigonelline to evaluate trigonelline as a marker of coffee intake. The suitability of plasma trigonelline to discriminate those not consuming from those consuming coffee was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Plasma collected at 2 time points 1 y apart was used to determine the within-person reproducibility of trigonelline. We found that plasma trigonelline concentrations increased strongly with increasing amounts of coffee consumed. ROC analysis showed that trigonelline had an area under the curve of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.94) for distinguishing coffee abstainers from coffee drinkers. Plasma trigonelline had a good within-person reproducibility (0.66; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.68) for samples collected 1 y apart. The amount of coffee consumed was not associated with plasma concentrations of the niacin vitamers nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide. Plasma trigonelline performs well as a marker of coffee intake. Data used in this study were derived from the clinical trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00354081.

  9. Coffee Consumption Habits and the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Panza, Francesco; Imbimbo, Bruno P; D'Introno, Alessia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Misciagna, Giovanni; Guerra, Vito; Osella, Alberto; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Sabbá, Carlo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Scafato, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to ±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (<1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.08). Finally, there was no significant association between subjects with higher levels of coffee consumption (>2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI.

  10. Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jinnie J; Qin, FeiFei; Hedlin, Haley K; Chang, Tara I; Bird, Chloe E; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2016-01-01

    The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial. We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2-3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension. During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all). In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women12

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jinnie J; Qin, FeiFei; Hedlin, Haley K; Chang, Tara I; Bird, Chloe E; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2016-01-01

    Background: The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial. Objective: We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Design: In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2–3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension. Results: During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all). Conclusion: In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women. PMID:26657046

  12. Vedolizumab for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Bickston, Stephen J; Behm, Brian W; Tsoulis, David J; Cheng, Jianfeng; MacDonald, John K; Khanna, Reena; Feagan, Brian G

    2014-08-08

    Cellular adhesion molecules play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, making selective blockade of these molecules a promising therapeutic strategy. Vedolizumab, a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, inhibits adhesion and migration of leukocytes into the gastrointestinal tract by binding the alpha4beta7 integrin. Animal studies have suggested that vedolizumab may be a useful therapy for ulcerative colitis. This updated systematic review summarizes the current evidence on the use of vedolizumab for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. The primary objectives were to determine the efficacy and safety of vedolizumab used for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. A computer-assisted search for relevant studies (inception to 15 June 2014) was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL. References from published articles and conference proceedings were searched to identify additional citations. Randomized controlled trials comparing vedolizumab to placebo or a control therapy for induction or maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis were included. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias for each trial. The primary outcomes were failure to induce clinical remission and relapse. Secondary outcomes included failure to induce a clinical response, failure to induce endoscopic remission, failure to induce an endoscopic response, quality of life, adverse events, serious adverse events and withdrawal due to adverse events. We calculated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each outcome. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. The overall quality of the evidence supporting the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE criteria. Four studies (606 patients) were included. All of the studies were rated as having a low risk of bias. Pooled analyses revealed that vedolizumab was significantly superior to placebo for induction

  13. Wake up and smell the coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, T.R.

    1994-04-01

    Early in 1991, Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE G) began investigating various ways to retain businesses and industries in New Jersey. Other organizations were trying, or investigating, different business-retention techniques, many of which centered around surveys to determine businesses' major concerns and problems. Around the same time, PSE G was part of a team that was working to save the Maxwell House Coffee Plant in Hoboken, NJ. General Foods, the parent company of Maxwell House, had determined that they no longer needed the capacity of both the Hoboken facility and a facility in Florida. In the course ofmore » responding to Maxwell House, many concerns and problems were uncovered, many of which had been developing for some time. The team responded to each issue and proposed innovative solutions, but Maxwell House decided against Hoboken in favor of Florida. It became apparent that retaining a company that had begun the relocation process would be extremely difficult. PSE G's Marketing Services and Area Development Department and the New Jersey Department of Commerce and Economic Development jointly established the Business Enhancement Program (BEP) in the spring of 1991. Realizing that business concerns had to be confronted before they became major issues, the program was designed as an ongoing communication network. The BEP is committed to addressing business problems or concerns in a timely and professional manner. Not all concerns can be solved to the complete satisfaction of the company. However, the program strives to provide appropriate assessment of the issues and to demonstrate that the business is valued and appreciated in New Jersey.« less

  14. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shao-Bo; Weng, Hong; Zhou, Meng; Duan, Xiao-Li; Shen, Xian-Feng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk remains controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose–response association between long-term coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase from January 1996 through February 10, 2015 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Prospective cohort studies in which authors reported effect sizes and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric cancer for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from eligible studies were aggregated using a random effect model. All analyses were carried out using the STATA 12.0 software. Nine studies involving 15 independent prospective cohorts were finally included. A total of 2019 incident cases of gastric cancer were ascertained among 1,289,314 participants with mean follow-up periods ranging from 8 to 18 years. No nonlinear relationship of coffee consumption with gastric cancer risk was indentified (P for nonlinearity = 0.53; P for heterogeneity = 0.004). The linear regression model showed that the combined relative risk (RR) of every 3 cups/day increment of total coffee consumption was 1.07 (95% CI = 0.95–1.21). Compared with the lowest category of coffee consumption, the RR of gastric cancer was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.90–1.55) for the highest (median 6.5 cups/day) category, 1.06 (95% CI = 0.85–1.32) for the second highest category (median 3.5 cups/day), and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.79–1.20) for the third highest category (median 1.5 cups/day). Subgroup analysis showed an elevated risk in the US population (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.75) and no adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.08–2.59) for 6.5 cups/day. Current evidence indicated there was no nonlinear association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk. However, high

  15. Gas chromatographic determination of formaldehyde in coffee via thiazolidine derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Reece, C.A.; Shibamoto, T.

    Thiazolidine formed from trace quantities of formaldehyde in an aqueous solution containing cysteamine at pH 8 was extracted with chloroform and subsequently analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a fused silica capillary column and a thermionic nitrogen-phosphorus specific detector. Recoveries of formaldehyde from the aqueous solutions at levels lower than 1 ppm were slightly over 100%. Quantitative analysis of formaldehyde in commercial brewed and instant coffees showed 3.4-4.5 ppm in the brewed and 10-16.3 ppm in the instant coffee.

  16. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Data on the association between coffee consumption and risk of stroke are sparse. We assessed the association between coffee consumption and the risk of stroke over 24 years of follow-up in women. Methods and Results We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 83,076 women in the Nurses' Health Study without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or cancer at baseline. Coffee consumption was first assessed in 1980, and then repeatedly every 2-4 years; with follow-up through 2004. We documented 2280 strokes of which 426 were hemorrhagic strokes, 1224 ischemic strokes, and 630 undetermined. In multivariable Cox regression models with adjustment for age, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, aspirin use, and dietary factors, the relative risks (RRs) of stroke across categories of coffee consumption (<1 cup/mo, 1/mo-4/wk, 5-7/wk, 2-3/d, and ≥4/d) were: 1, 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.15), 0.88 (0.77-1.02), 0.81 (0.70-0.95), and 0.80 (0.64-0.98); p for trend= 0.003. After further adjustment for high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes the inverse association remained significant. The association was stronger among never and past smokers [RR (95% CI) for ≥4 cups/d vs. <1 cup/mo: 0.57 (0.39-0.84)] than among current smokers [RR (95% CI) for ≥4 cups/d vs. <1 cup/mo: 0.97 (0.63-1.48)]. Other drinks containing caffeine, such as tea and caffeinated soft drinks, were not associated with stroke. Decaffeinated coffee was associated with a trend towards lower risk of stroke after adjustment for caffeinated coffee consumption [RR (95% CI) for 2 or more cups/d vs. <1 cup/mo: 0.89 (0.73-1.08); p for trend= 0.05]. Conclusions Long-term coffee consumption was not associated with an increased risk of stroke in women. In contrast, our data suggest that coffee consumption may modestly reduce risk of stroke. PMID:19221216

  17. Dr. William O. Coffee and his absorption cure for cataract.

    PubMed

    Ferry, A P

    1989-08-01

    Dr. William O. Coffee was an ophthalmologist who conducted an office and mail-order practice in the Midwest from the 1880s until 1927. His main stock in trade was a self-discovered absorption cure for a variety of ocular diseases, with particular emphasis on the medical cure of cataracts. Dr. Coffee's career was a checkered one, marked by dubious credentials, exuberant self-promotion, unlikely and exaggerated claims of medical successes, plagiarism, and rejection by the medical "establishment." Certain parallels may be drawn between his activities and some currently observed practices in ophthalmology.

  18. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p < 0.01; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.54) with a greater amount lifted during D + C compared with DEC (p < 0.01), CAF (p ≤ 0.05), and PLA (p ≤ 0.05) conditions. Total weight lifted during the COF condition was significantly greater than that lifted under PLA (p < 0.01), although not significantly greater than the amount of weight lifted during the DEC condition (p = 0.082). No significant differences were observed in total weight lifted in the bench press protocol between conditions (p = 0.186; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.17). Significant differences in HR (p < 0.01; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.39) but not RPE (squat: p = 0.690; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07; bench press: p = 0.165; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18) and felt arousal (p = 0.056; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.24) were observed between conditions. Coffee and

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of chlorogenic acid on the IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells and the dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis symptoms in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Satsu, Hideo; Bae, Min-Jung; Zhao, Zhaohui; Ogiwara, Haru; Totsuka, Mamoru; Shimizu, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CHA) is an antioxidant polyphenol prevalent in human diet, with coffee, fruits, and vegetables being its main source. Effects of CHA and CHA metabolites were evaluated on the IL-8 production in human intestinal Caco-2 cells induced by combined stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and H2O2. CHA and caffeic acid (CA) inhibited TNFα- and H2O2-induced IL-8 production. We also examined the in vivo effects of CHA and CA using dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. CHA attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, diarrhea, fecal blood, and shortening of colon and dramatically improved colitis histological scores. Furthermore, increases in the mRNA expression of colonic macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and IL-1β, which were induced by DSS, were significantly suppressed by CHA supplementation. These results suggest that dietary CHA use may aid in the prevention of intestinal inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Processing Conditions During Manufacture on Retronasal-Aroma Compounds from a Milk Coffee Drink.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Michio; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Miyazi, Kazuhiro; Kono, Masaya; Imayoshi, Yuriko; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    To develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee retaining the original coffee flavor, the effects of processing conditions during manufacture on retronasal-arma (RA) compounds from the milk coffee were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an RA simulator (RAS). Thirteen of 46 detected compounds in the RAS effluent (RAS compounds) decreased significantly following pH adjustment of coffee (from pH 5.1 to 6.8) and 5 compounds increased. RAS compounds from coffee tended to decrease through the pH adjustment and subsequent sterilization. Significantly higher amounts of 13 RAS compounds were released from the milk coffee produced using a blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process without the pH adjustment than from that using a blending-before-sterilization (BBS) process with the pH adjustment. In BAS-processed milk coffee, significantly lower amounts of 8 high-volatility compounds and 1H-pyrrole were released from coffee containing infusion-sterilized (INF) milk than from coffee containing plate-sterilized (PLT) milk, whereas 3 low-volatility compounds were released significantly more from coffee using PLT milk. Principal component analysis revealed that the effect of the manufacturing process (BAS, BBS, or homemade (blending unsterilized coffee without pH adjustment with sterilized milk)) on milk coffee volatiles was larger than that of the sterilization method (INF or PLT) for milk, and that the sterilization method could result in different RAS volatile characteristics in BAS and homemade processes. In conclusion, a BAS process was found to be superior to a BBS process for the manufacture of an RTD milk coffee that retains volatile characteristics similar to that of a homemade milk coffee. Ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee manufactured using the conventional blending-before-sterilization process does not retain its original coffee flavor due to pH adjustment of the coffee during the process. The new blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process

  1. Effect of brewing technique and particle size of the ground coffee on sensory profiling of brewed Dampit robusta coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibrianto, K.; Febryana, Y. R.; Wulandari, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of different brewing techniques with the use of appropriate particle size standard of Apresiocoffee cafe (Category 1) compared to the difference brewing techniques with the use of the same particle size (coarse) (Category 2) of the sensory attributes Dampit robusta coffee. Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method was applied in this study, and the data was analysed by ANOVA General Linier Model (GLM) on Minitab-16. The influence of brewing techniques (tubruk, French-press, drips, syphon) and type of particle size ground coffee (fine, medium, coarse) were sensorially observed. The result showed that only two attributes, including bitter taste, and astringent/rough-mouth-feel were affected by brewing techniques (p-value <0.05) as observed for brewed coarse coffee powder.

  2. Ulcerative colitis from patients' viewpoint: a review of two Internet surveys.

    PubMed

    Dudley-Brown, Sharon; Baker, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis negatively impacts patients' quality of life, but little is known about which aspects of patients' lives are affected, how patients' perceptions compare with patients with other chronic conditions, and how these perceptions compare with those of gastroenterologists. This review discusses two recent Internet surveys: (1) the Ulcerative Colitis: New Observations on Remission Management And Lifestyle (UC:NORMAL) and (2) the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America studies. The surveys revealed that the major impact ulcerative colitis has on patients includes frequent disease manifestations, a substantial psychological burden, and disruption to daily activities. This was more evident in patients with ulcerative colitis than those with migraine, asthma, or rheumatoid arthritis. Physicians' perceptions were considerably different from those of patients, as physicians believed that the disease had a lesser impact on patient quality of life. Furthermore, patients and physicians also identified nonadherence to prescribed medication as a major concern in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Improved communication and education is needed to address nonadherence and poor health related quality of life in patients living with ulcerative colitis. The influence of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses on physicians, nurses, and patients may help improve adherence and long-term disease outcomes, including patients' health related quality of life. The nurse practitioner, working with both patients who have ulcerative colitis and the physicians who care for these patients, is uniquely placed to address these needs.

  3. Outbreak of acute colitis on a horse farm associated with tetracycline-contaminated sweet feed.

    PubMed Central

    Keir, A A; Stämpfli, H R; Crawford, J

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of a group of horses to tetracycline-contaminated feed resulted in acute colitis and subsequent death in one horse and milder diarrhea in 3 others. The most severely affected animal demonstrated clinical and pathological findings typical of colitis X. The other herdmates responded well to administration of zinc bacitracin. PMID:10572668

  4. Metastatic cutaneous involvement of granulomatous colitis in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Nicole; Patel, Vishal; Tlougan, Brook; Mencin, Ali; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela; Morel, Kimberly D; Lauren, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a hemorrhagic diathesis due to platelet dysfunction, and lysosomal ceroid accumulation that can cause a Crohn's-like granulomatous colitis and pulmonary fibrosis. We report peristomal and vulvar cutaneous involvement of the granulomatous colitis in HPS. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Colorectal cancers in ulcerative colitis from a low-prevalence area for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Devendra; Shah, Sudeep; Deshmukh, Abhijit; Abraham, Philip; Joshi, Anand; Gupta, Tarun; Deshpande, Ramesh; Khandagale, Varun; George, Siji

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the incidence and risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with ulcerative colitis from a low prevalence region for CRC. METHODS: Our prospective database yielded a cohort of 430 patients [age: 44 ± 14.6 years; 248 men (57.7%)] with ulcerative colitis (median disease duration 6, range: 1-39 years) for analysis. Of these, 131 (30.5%) had left-sided colitis and 159 (37%) extensive colitis. Patients with histologically confirmed CRC within the segment with colitis were compared with those without CRC, to determine the risk factors for the development of CRC. RESULTS: Twelve patients (2.8%) developed CRC. The overall incidence density was 3.56/1000 patient-years of disease - 3/1000 in the first 10 years, 3.3/1000 at 10 to 20 years, and 7/1000 at > 20 years. Three of our 12 patients developed CRC within 8 years of disease onset. On univariate analysis, extensive colitis, longer duration of disease, and poor control of disease were associated with development of CRC. On multivariate analysis, duration of disease and extent of colitis remained significant. CONCLUSION: CRC occurred in 2.8% of patients with ulcerative colitis in our population - an incidence density similar to that in Western countries in spite of a low overall prevalence of colon cancer in our population. The risk increased with extent and duration of disease. PMID:25834332

  6. Flight Activity and Field Infestation Relationships for Coffee Berry Borer in Commercial Coffee Plantations in Kona and Kau Districts, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Arthurs, Steven

    2017-12-05

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest. Approximately 1 million CBB were captured, with the highest activity (e.g., >500 CBB/trap/wk) in December through February, coinciding with end of main regional harvesting periods. Relatively high activity (>250 CBB/trap/wk) was also observed during berry development, in May and June (Kona) and June and July (Kau). Field infestation rates were higher overall in Kau (9.6 ± 1.1%) compared with coffee plantations in Kona (4.7 ± 0.4%). Linear regression investigated relationships between CBB trap data and berry infestation rates. Trap catch data generally correlated better with the proportion of shallow entries (AB position) compared with deeper penetrations (CD position) or total infestation. Pearson correlation coefficients based on different parameters (i.e., region, altitude, and berry phenology) revealed positive and mostly significant correlations between these variables (R values 0.410 to 0.837). Timing peak flight activity of CBB with insecticide applications will help coffee growers improve pest control. The ability of trap data to calculate reliable economic (action) thresholds for the CBB is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  8. Woody plant diversity and structure of shade-grown-coffee plantations in northern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pinto, L; Romero-Alvarado, Y; Caballero-Nieto, J; Segura Warnholtz, G

    2001-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee is an agricultural system that contains some forest-like characteristics. However, structure and diversity are poorly known in shade coffee systems. In 61 coffee-growers' plots of Chiapas, Mexico, structural variables of shade vegetation and coffee yields were measured, recording species and their use. Coffee stands had five vegetation strata. Seventy seven woody species mostly used as wood were found (mean density 371.4 trees per hectare). Ninety percent were native species (40% of the local flora), the remaining were introduced species, mainly fruit trees/shrubs. Diametric distribution resembles that of a secondary forest. Principal Coordinates Analysis grouped plots in four classes by the presence of Inga, however the majority of plots are diverse. There was no difference in equitability among groups or coffee yields. Coffee yield was 835 g clean coffee per shrub, or ca. 1,668 kg ha-1. There is a significant role of shade-grown coffee as diversity refuge for woody plants and presumably associated fauna as well as an opportunity for shade-coffee growers to participate in the new biodiversity-friendly-coffee market.

  9. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    PubMed

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of coffee for the presence of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Denis; Roach, John A G; Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M

    2004-04-07

    A variety of popular instant, ground, and brewed coffees were analyzed using a modified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method specifically developed for the determination of acrylamide in foods. Coffee test portions were spiked with 13C3-labeled acrylamide as an internal standard prior to their extraction and cleanup. Ground coffees (1 g) and instant coffees (0.5 g) were extracted by shaking with 9 mL of water for 20 min. Brewed coffee test portions (9 mL) were taken through the cleanup procedure without further dilution with extraction solvent. Coffee test portions were cleaned up by passing 1.5 mL first through an Oasis HLB (hydrophilic/lipophilic copolymer sorbent) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and then a Bond Elut-Accucat (cation and anion exchange sorbent) SPE cartridge. The cleaned up extracts were analyzed by positive ion electrospray LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data was used to detect, confirm, and quantitate acrylamide. The limit of quantitation of the method was 10 ng/g for ground and instant coffees and 1.0 ng/mL for brewed coffee. The levels of acrylamide ranged from 45 to 374 ng/g in unbrewed coffee grounds, from 172 to 539 ng/g in instant coffee crystals, and from 6 to 16 ng/mL in brewed coffee.

  11. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions.

  12. Acute effects of coffee on skin blood flow and microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Tesselaar, Erik; Nezirevic Dernroth, Dzeneta; Farnebo, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Vasodilatation during iontophoresis of ACh was significantly stronger after intake of caffeinated coffee compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (1.26±0.20PU/mmHg vs. 1.13±0.38PU/mmHg, P<0.001). Forearm CVC before and after PORH were not affected by caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. After intake of caffeinated coffee, a more pronounced decrease in CVC in the fingertip was observed compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (-1.36PU/mmHg vs. -0.52PU/mmHg, P=0.002). Caffeine, as ingested by drinking caffeinated coffee acutely improves endothelium-dependent microvascular responses in the forearm skin, while endothelium-independent responses to PORH and SNP iontophoresis are not affected. Blood flow in the fingertip decreases markedly during the first hour after drinking caffeinated coffee compared to decaffeinated coffee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  14. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in coffee.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert C; Jang, Eric B; Follett, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. Although it is already present in most of the world's major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent reintroductions that might include hyperparasites or improve the genetic base of existing populations. Green coffee is shipped around the world for custom blending and roasting and such shipments carry the risk of spreading H. hampei. We used heavily infested coffee berries as a surrogate for green coffee to test the freezing tolerance of H. hampei. After freezing, all life stages of H. hampei were dissected from coffee berries and mortality was assessed. Counting all life stages, > 15,000 insects were measured in this study. A temperature of approximately -15 degrees C (range, -13.9 to -15.5) for 48 h provided 100% control of all life stages. A logit regression model predicted < or = 1 survivor in a million for treatments of -20 degrees C for 5 d or -15 degrees C for 6 d. A freezing treatment for green coffee might be more economical and acceptable compared with fumigation with methyl bromide, especially for small-scale and organic growers and millers in Hawaii who ship green coffee beans to other islands for custom roasting. Freezing treatments could also be used to kill H. hampei in coffee seeds before export with minimal effects on seed germination if coffee seeds are first dried to critical water content levels in accordance with published methods.

  15. The Big Rust and the Red Queen: Long-Term Perspectives on Coffee Rust Research.

    PubMed

    McCook, Stuart; Vandermeer, John

    2015-09-01

    Since 2008, there has been a cluster of outbreaks of the coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) across the coffee-growing regions of the Americas, which have been collectively described as the Big Rust. These outbreaks have caused significant hardship to coffee producers and laborers. This essay situates the Big Rust in a broader historical context. Over the past two centuries, coffee farmers have had to deal with the "curse of the Red Queen"-the need to constantly innovate in the face of an increasing range of threats, which includes the rust. Over the 20th century, particularly after World War II, national governments and international organizations developed a network of national, regional, and international coffee research institutions. These public institutions played a vital role in helping coffee farmers manage the rust. Coffee farmers have pursued four major strategies for managing the rust: bioprospecting for resistant coffee plants, breeding resistant coffee plants, chemical control, and agroecological control. Currently, the main challenge for researchers is to develop rust control strategies that are both ecologically and economically viable for coffee farmers, in the context of a volatile, deregulated coffee industry and the emergent challenges of climate change.

  16. Antioxidant property of coffee components: assessment of methods that define mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Kitts, David D

    2014-11-19

    Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property, coupled with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages, has led to the understanding that coffee is a major contributor to dietary antioxidant intake. Brewed coffee is a complex food matrix with numerous phytochemical components that have antioxidant activity capable of scavenging free radicals, donating hydrogen and electrons, providing reducing activity and also acting as metal ion pro-oxidant chelators. More recent studies have shown that coffee components can trigger tissue antioxidant gene expression and protect against gastrointestinal oxidative stress. This paper will describe different in vitro, cell-free and cell-based assays that both characterize and compare the antioxidant capacity and mechanism of action of coffee and its bioactive constituents. Moreover, evidence of cellular antioxidant activity and correlated specific genomic events induced by coffee components, which are relevant to antioxidant function in both animal and human studies, will be discussed.

  17. Furan levels in coffee as influenced by species, roast degree, and brewing procedures.

    PubMed

    Arisseto, Adriana Pavesi; Vicente, Eduardo; Ueno, Mariana Soares; Tfouni, Silvia Amélia Verdiani; Toledo, Maria Cecília De Figueiredo

    2011-04-13

    Brazilian green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species were roasted to light, medium, and dark roast degrees and analyzed in relation to furan content by using an in-house validated method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by headspace solid-phase microextraction. Furan was not detected in green coffees, whereas levels between 911 and 5852 μg/kg were found in the roasted samples. Higher concentrations were found in Coffea canephora species and darker ground coffees. Some of the potential furan precursors were observed in significant amounts in green coffee, especially sucrose and linoleic acid, but their concentrations could not be correlated to furan formation. Additionally, coffee brews were prepared from roasted ground coffees by using two different procedures, and furan levels in the beverages varied from <10 to 288 μg/kg. The factor that most influenced the furan content in coffee brew was the brewing procedure.

  18. Coffee consumption and human health--beneficial or detrimental?--Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ranheim, Trine; Halvorsen, Bente

    2005-03-01

    Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Infection of specific strains of Streptococcus mutans, oral bacteria, confers a risk of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Ayuchi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Wada, Koichiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Katayama, Kazufumi; Yoneda, Masato; Higurashi, Takuma; Nomura, Ryota; Hokamura, Kazuya; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Umemura, Kazuo; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Atsushi; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Although oral bacteria-associated systemic diseases have been reported, association between Streptococcus mutans, pathogen of dental caries, and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been reported. We investigated the effect of various S. mutans strains on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. Administration of TW295, the specific strain of S. mutans, caused aggravation of colitis; the standard strain, MT8148 did not. Localization of TW295 in hepatocytes in liver was observed. Increased expression of interferon-γ in liver was also noted, indicating that the liver is target organ for the specific strain of S. mutans-mediated aggravation of colitis. The detection frequency of the specific strains in UC patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Administration of the specific strains of S. mutans isolated from patients caused aggravation of colitis. Infection with highly-virulent specific types of S. mutans might be a potential risk factor in the aggravation of UC. PMID:22451861

  20. Coffee reduces the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Oliver I; Allgar, Victoria; Wong, Kenneth Y-K

    2016-11-01

    Habitual coffee consumption is protective against coronary heart disease in women; however, it is not clear whether such cardioprotection is conferred on those who have already experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether coffee consumption affected mortality after AMI. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies that examined the relationship between coffee intake and mortality after an AMI. Using a defined-search strategy, electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched for papers published between 1946 and 2015. Two eligible studies investigating post-AMI mortality risk against coffee consumption were identified and assessed using set criteria. Combined, these studies recruited a total of 3271 patients and 604 died. The hazard ratios for the following experimental groups were defined: light coffee drinkers (1-2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers, heavy coffee drinkers (>2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers. A statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between coffee drinking and mortality; all three groups showed a significant reduction in risk ratio. Light coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.94, P=0.008]; heavy coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45-0.65, P<0.00001); and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.83, P<0.0001). Drinking coffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality.

  1. Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Nurses’ Health Study12

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jason J; Crous-Bou, Marta; Giovannucci, Edward; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee is an important source of antioxidants, and consumption of this beverage is associated with many health conditions and a lower mortality risk. However, no study, to our knowledge, has examined whether varying coffee or caffeine consumption levels are associated with telomere length, a biomarker of aging whose shortening can be accelerated by oxidative stress. Objective: We performed a large comprehensive study on how coffee consumption is associated with telomere length. Methods: We used data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of female nurses that began in 1976. We examined the cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and telomere length in 4780 women from the NHS. Coffee consumption information was obtained from validated food-frequency questionnaires, and relative telomere length was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain ORs when the telomere length outcome was dichotomized at the median. Linear regression was used for tests of trend with coffee consumption and telomere length as continuous variables. Results: Higher total coffee consumption was significantly associated with longer telomeres after potential confounding adjustment. Compared with non-coffee drinkers, multivariable ORs for those drinking 2 to <3 and ≥3 cups of coffee/d were, respectively, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.68) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.78) (P-trend = 0.02). We found a significant linear association between caffeine consumption from all dietary sources and telomere length (P-trend = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders, but not after additionally adjusting for total coffee consumption (P-trend = 0.37). Conclusions: We found that higher coffee consumption is associated with longer telomeres among female nurses. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence of coffee consumption on telomeres

  2. Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Enteric Glia Restores Electrogenic Ion Transport in Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    MacEachern, Sarah J.; Patel, Bhavik A.; Keenan, Catherine M.; Dicay, Michael; Chapman, Kevin; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Savidge, Tor C.; Beck, Paul L.; MacNaughton, Wallace K.; Sharkey, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Disturbances in the control of ion transport lead to epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with colitis. Enteric glia regulate intestinal barrier function and colonic ion transport. However, it is not clear whether enteric glia are involved in the epithelial hypo-responsiveness. We investigated enteric glial regulation of ion transport in mice with trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid- or dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and in Il10−/− mice. Methods Electrically-evoked ion transport was measured in full-thickness segments of colon from CD1 and Il10−/− mice with or without colitis in Ussing chambers. Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed using amperometry. Bacterial translocation was investigated in the liver, spleen and blood of mice. Results Electrical stimulation of the colon evoked a tetrodotoxin-sensitive chloride secretion. In mice with colitis, ion transport almost completely disappeared. Inhibiting inducible NO synthase (NOS2), but not neuronal NOS (NOS1), partially restored the evoked secretory response. Blocking glial function with fluoroacetate, which is not a NOS2 inhibitor, also partially restored ion transport. Combined NOS2 inhibition and fluoroacetate administration fully restored secretion. Epithelial responsiveness to vasoactive intestinal peptide was increased after enteric glial function was blocked in mice with colitis. In colons of mice without colitis, NO was produced in the myenteric plexus almost completely via NOS1. NO production was increased in mice with colitis, compared to mice without colitis; a substantial proportion of NOS2 was blocked by fluoroacetate administration. Inhibition of enteric glial function in vivo reduced the severity of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid -induced colitis and associated bacterial translocation. Conclusions Increased production of NOS2 in enteric glia contributes to the dysregulation of intestinal ion transport in mice with colitis. Blocking enteric glial function in these

  3. Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Enteric Glia Restores Electrogenic Ion Transport in Mice With Colitis.

    PubMed

    MacEachern, Sarah J; Patel, Bhavik A; Keenan, Catherine M; Dicay, Michael; Chapman, Kevin; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Savidge, Tor C; Beck, Paul L; MacNaughton, Wallace K; Sharkey, Keith A

    2015-08-01

    Disturbances in the control of ion transport lead to epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with colitis. Enteric glia regulate intestinal barrier function and colonic ion transport. However, it is not clear whether enteric glia are involved in epithelial hyporesponsiveness. We investigated enteric glial regulation of ion transport in mice with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- or dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and in Il10(-/-) mice. Electrically evoked ion transport was measured in full-thickness segments of colon from CD1 and Il10(-/-) mice with or without colitis in Ussing chambers. Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed using amperometry. Bacterial translocation was investigated in the liver, spleen, and blood of mice. Electrical stimulation of the colon evoked a tetrodotoxin-sensitive chloride secretion. In mice with colitis, ion transport almost completely disappeared. Inhibiting inducible NO synthase (NOS2), but not neuronal NOS (NOS1), partially restored the evoked secretory response. Blocking glial function with fluoroacetate, which is not a NOS2 inhibitor, also partially restored ion transport. Combined NOS2 inhibition and fluoroacetate administration fully restored secretion. Epithelial responsiveness to vasoactive intestinal peptide was increased after enteric glial function was blocked in mice with colitis. In colons of mice without colitis, NO was produced in the myenteric plexus almost completely via NOS1. NO production was increased in mice with colitis, compared with mice without colitis; a substantial proportion of NOS2 was blocked by fluoroacetate administration. Inhibition of enteric glial function in vivo reduced the severity of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis and associated bacterial translocation. Increased production of NOS2 in enteric glia contributes to the dysregulation of intestinal ion transport in mice with colitis. Blocking enteric glial function in these mice restores epithelial barrier function and reduces

  4. Cathelicidin Signaling via the Toll-Like Receptor Protects Against Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David Quan; Chen, Jeremy; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Hing, Tressia C; Law, Ivy; Ho, Samantha; Ichikawa, Ryan; Zhao, Dezheng; Xu, Hua; Gallo, Richard; Dempsey, Paul; Cheng, Genhong; Targan, Stephan R; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Cathelicidin (encoded by Camp) is an anti-microbial peptide in the innate immune system. We examined whether macrophages express cathelicidin in colons of mice with experimental colitis and patients with inflammatory bowel disease; we investigated its signaling mechanisms. Methods Quantitative, real-time, reverse transcription PCR, bacterial 16S PCR, immunofluorescence, and small interfering (si)RNA analyses were performed. Colitis was induced in mice using sodium dextran sulfate (DSS); levels of cathelicidin were measured in human primary monocytes. Results Expression of cathelicidin increased in the inflamed colonic mucosa of mice with DSS-induced colitis, compared with controls. Cathelicidin expression localized to mucosal macrophages in inflamed colon tissues of patients and mice. Exposure of human primary monocytes to E coli DNA induced expression of Camp mRNA, which required signaling by ERK; expression was reduced by siRNAs against toll-like receptor (TLR)9 and MyD88. Intracolonic administration of bacterial DNA to wild-type mice induced expression of cathelicidin in colons of control mice and mice with DSS-induced colitis. Colon expression of cathelicidin was significantly reduced in TLR9 −/− mice with DSS-induced colitis. Compared with wild-type mice, Camp −/− mice developed a more severe form of DSS-induced colitis, particularly after intracolonic administration of E coli DNA. Expression of cathelicidin from bone marrow-derived immune cells regulated DSS induction of colitis in transplantation studies in mice. Conclusions Cathelicidin protects against colitis induction in mice. Increased expression of cathelicidin in monocytes and experimental models of colitis involves activation of TLR9–ERK signaling by bacterial DNA. This pathway might be involved in pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. PMID:21762664

  5. Effects of Coffee Management Intensity on Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  6. Improvement of vegetables elemental quality by espresso coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Morais, Simone; Mendes, Eulália; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula; Casal, Susana

    2014-04-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are usually disposed as common garbage, without specific reuse strategies implemented so far. Due to its recognised richness in bioactive compounds, the effect of SCG on lettuce's macro- and micro-elements was assessed to define its effectiveness for agro industrial reuse. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with different amounts of fresh and composted spent coffee, and potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper were analysed. A progressive decrease on all lettuce mineral elements was verified with the increase of fresh spent coffee, except for potassium. In opposition, an increment of lettuce's essential macro-elements was verified when low amounts of composted spent coffee were applied (5%, v/v), increasing potassium content by 40%, manganese by 30%, magnesium by 20%, and sodium by 10%, of nutritional relevance This practical approach offers an alternative reuse for this by-product, extendable to other crops, providing value-added vegetable products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching Transport Phenomena around a Cup of Coffee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean Stephane

    2007-01-01

    The very common situation of waiting for the cooling of a cup of coffee is addressed through a conventional engineering approach, where several important concepts of heat and mass transfer are used. A numerical and analytical solution of the differential equations of the problem are proposed, and assessed by comparing to simple experiments.…

  8. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  9. Evaluation of an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Stewart, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers, using electromyography and questionnaire survey techniques. Nicaraguan researchers were involved in the study so that they could gain hands-on experience with ergonomics research and applications, and eventually be the specialists conducting ergonomics interventions in Nicaraguan workplaces. Coffee harvesting activities were studied individually and physical hazards were identified accordingly. The results showed decreased muscle loading on the erector spinae muscle and improved comfort reporting in the back region compared to the commonly used baskets. This fulfils the design objective of a newly developed bag that was used in the intervention to reduce physical workload on the coffee harvesting workers. Workers' opinion survey results showed some issues related to the size of the new bag and the lumbar-shoulder belt mechanism. This information can be used in the modification of the bag in the next design. Key players in the process have been identified. Stimulating ergonomics activities in developing countries is suggested by many experts. This study provided an example from coffee workers in Nicaragua. Commonly used job evaluation procedures and physical load quantification methods were used. Ergonomics researchers and practitioners in developing countries may do similar projects on their own in the future.

  10. Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Tea and coffee contain bioactive compounds and both beverages have recently been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, US. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by five-year age groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among controls, 19% and 58% consumed at least one cup per day of tea and coffee, respectively. The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage. Conclusions: Our results contribute further evidence that tea consumption may be a modifiable exposure that reduces PCa risk. PMID:23412806

  11. Water and coffee in beverage container during STS-9 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-28

    STS009-126-456 (28 Nov 1983) --- Water and coffee in beverage container during STS-9 flight. An extra amount of hydrogen in the H2O is believed to be the reason for the bubbling, distended effect in the container.

  12. Green coffee seed residue: A sustainable source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Castro, A C C M; Oda, F B; Almeida-Cincotto, M G J; Davanço, M G; Chiari-Andréo, B G; Cicarelli, R M B; Peccinini, R G; Zocolo, G J; Ribeiro, P R V; Corrêa, M A; Isaac, V L B; Santos, A G

    2018-04-25

    Oil extraction from green coffee seeds generates residual mass that is discarded by agribusiness and has not been previously studied. Bioactive secondary metabolites in coffee include antioxidant phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acids. Coffee seeds also contain caffeine, a pharmaceutically important methylxanthine. Here, we report the chemical profile, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity of hydroethanolic extracts of green Coffea arabica L. seed residue. The extracts of the green seeds and the residue have similar chemical profiles, containing the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Five monoacyl and three diacyl esters of trans-cinnamic acids and quinic acid were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry. The residue extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH, ABTS, and pyranine assays and low cytotoxicity. Thus, coffee oil residue has great potential for use as a raw material in dietary supplements, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, or as a source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Voss with coffee and snack in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-12

    ISS002-E-5532 (12 April 2001) --- Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, has a coffee and a snack at the table in the Zvezda / Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). This image was recorded with a digital still camera.

  14. Impacts of discarded coffee waste on human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A S; Mello, F V C; Thode Filho, S; Carpes, R M; Honório, J G; Marques, M R C; Felzenszwalb, I; Ferraz, E R A

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out. LE and SE induced mutagenicity in the TA98 Salmonella strain with and without exogenous metabolization (S9). In the TA100 only SE induced mutagenicity, what was observed without S9. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in HepG2 cell line after 3 and 24h of exposure to both extracts. No cytotoxic effects were observed in HepG2 cells by WST-1 assay. The EC50 values for the LE and SE were 1.5% and 11.26% for Daphnia similis, 0.12% and 1.39% for Ceriodaphnia dubia and 6.0% and 5.5% for Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Caffeine and several transition metals were found in both extracts. Coffee waste discarded in the environment may pose a risk to human and environmental health, since this compound can cause DNA damage and present toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Coffee Project Revisited: Teaching Research Skills to Forensic Chemists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamnett, Hilary J.; Korb, Ann-Sophie

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a new module design for teaching research skills to analytical chemists based on the use of a student-led, in-class experiment involving coffee. The module was redesigned in response to feedback from students, and aims to give them the skills they need to be productive in future research projects both within the institution…

  16. FAIR TRADE ETHANOL: FUEL PRODUCTION FROM COFFEE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coffee is an important crop for developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It provides essential income to millions of people, but the wastewater generated threatens the environment and human health. The basic needs in Nicaragua are enormous, similar to many other co...

  17. 40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks under building and pulled out to sun dry beans on terraces to the north and south of building. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-3 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  18. Coffee agroforestry for sustainability of Upper Sekampung Watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriani; Arifin, Bustanul; Zakaria, Wan Abbas; Hanung Ismono, R.

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of watershed management is to ensure the optimal hydrological and natural resource use for ecological, social and economic importance. One important adaptive management step in dealing with the risk of damage to forest ecosystems is the practice of agroforestry coffee. This study aimed to (1) assess the farmer's response to ecological service responsibility and (2) analyze the Sekampung watersheds management by providing environmental services. The research location was Air Naningan sub-district, Tanggamus, Lampung Province, Indonesia. The research was conducted from July until November 2016. Stratification random sampling based on the pattern of ownership of land rights is used to determine the respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that coffee farmers' participation in the practice of coffee agroforestry in the form of 38% shade plants and multiple cropping (62%). The logistic regression analysis indicated that the variables of experience and status of land ownership, and incentive-size plans were able to explain variations in the willingness of coffee growers to follow the scheme of providing environmental services. The existence of farmer with partnership and CBFM scheme on different land tenure on upper Sekampung has a strategic position to minimize the deforestation and recovery watersheds destruction.

  19. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Bidel, Siamak; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2007-11-15

    Several prospective studies have assessed the association between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but the results are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of incident PD among 29,335 Finnish subjects aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 102 men and 98 women developed an incident PD. The multivariate-adjusted (age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol and tea consumption, and history of diabetes) hazard ratios (HRs) of PD associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0, 1-4, and > or = 5 cups) were 1.00, 0.55, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.063) in men, 1.00, 0.50, and 0.39 (P for trend = 0.073) in women, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.40 (P for trend = 0.005) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex), respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of PD for subjects drinking > or = 3 cups of tea daily compared with tea nondrinkers was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.83). These results suggest that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. More tea drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Carbon Offset Forestry: Forecasting Ecosystem Effects (COFFEE) Project Implementation Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    COFFEE will evaluate the environmental impacts of implementing various COF practices by using the amount of total ecosystem C (TEC) sequestered in forests as the integrative response metric. These evaluations will be done for current-climate and future-climate scenarios and will...