Sample records for coffee roasting process

  1. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  2. REMPI-TOFMS for on-line monitoring and controlling the coffee roasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Zimmermann, Ralf; Kettrup, Antonius

    2001-08-01

    REMPI@266nm-TOFMS is used for on-line analysis of the coffee roasting process. Volatile and flavor active compounds of coffee were ionized by REMPI@266nm and monitored on-line and in real-time by TOFMS during the coffee roasting process. The phenol and 4-vinylguaiacol time-intensity profiles, for example, show typical behavior for different roasting temperatures and provide an indicator to the achieved degree of roasting. The impact of the moisture level of the green coffee beans on the time shift of a typical (commercial) roasting time, correlates with REMPI-TOFMS measurements and literature data.

  3. Recognition of Roasted Coffee Bean Levels using Image Processing and Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, T. H.; Andayani, U.

    2017-03-01

    The coffee beans roast levels have some characteristics. However, some people cannot recognize the coffee beans roast level. In this research, we propose to design a method to recognize the coffee beans roast level of images digital by processing the image and classifying with backpropagation neural network. The steps consist of how to collect the images data with image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method and finally normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The values of decimal scaling features become an input of classifying in backpropagation neural network. We use the method of backpropagation to recognize the coffee beans roast levels. The results showed that the proposed method is able to identify the coffee roasts beans level with an accuracy of 97.5%.

  4. A further tool to monitor the coffee roasting process: aroma composition and chemical indices.

    PubMed

    Ruosi, Manuela R; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Liberto, Erica

    2012-11-14

    Coffee quality is strictly related to its flavor and aroma developed during the roasting process, that, in their turn, depend on variety and origin, harvest and postharvest practices, and the time, temperature, and degree of roasting. This study investigates the possibility of combining chemical (aroma components) and physical (color) parameters through chemometric approaches to monitor the roasting process, degree of roasting, and aroma formation by analyzing a suitable number of coffee samples from different varieties and blends. In particular, a correlation between the aroma composition of roasted coffee obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS and degree of roasting, defined by the color, has been researched. The results showed that aroma components are linearly correlated to coffee color with a correlation factor of 0.9387. The study continued looking for chemical indices: 11 indices were found to be linearly correlated to the color resulting from the roasting process, the most effective of them being the 5-methylfurfural/2-acetylfuran ratio (index).

  5. Modeling and validation of heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during the coffee roasting process using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Torres, Beatriz; Hernández-Pérez, José Alfredo; Sierra-Espinoza, Fernando; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during roasting were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical equations for heat and mass transfer inside the coffee bean were solved using the finite volume technique in the commercial CFD code Fluent; the software was complemented with specific user-defined functions (UDFs). To experimentally validate the numerical model, a single coffee bean was placed in a cylindrical glass tube and roasted by a hot air flow, using the identical geometrical 3D configuration and hot air flow conditions as the ones used for numerical simulations. Temperature and humidity calculations obtained with the model were compared with experimental data. The model predicts the actual process quite accurately and represents a useful approach to monitor the coffee roasting process in real time. It provides valuable information on time-resolved process variables that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, but critical to a better understanding of the coffee roasting process at the individual bean level. This includes variables such as time-resolved 3D profiles of bean temperature and moisture content, and temperature profiles of the roasting air in the vicinity of the coffee bean.

  6. Stability of ochratoxin A (OTA) during processing and decaffeination in commercial roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Nehad, E A; Farag, M M; Kawther, M S; Abdel-Samed, A K M; Naguib, K

    2005-08-01

    The fate of ochratoxin A (OTA) during the processing of artificially contaminated green coffee beans, the effect of decaffeination on the production of OTA in green and roasted coffee beans, and the effect of caffeine on the growth and OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus were studied. The data indicated that the roasting, milling and decoction (brewing and Turkish coffee making) processes caused different percentage reductions in OTA. Decaffeinated samples showed a significantly higher concentration of OTA production than the caffeinated ones. A significantly higher percentage of OTA was reduced when the decaffeination process was performed before roasting treatment. Caffeine at 1.0 and 2.0% concentrations completely prevented OTA production and completely inhibited A. ochraceus growth in YES medium after 3-21 days.

  7. Furan in roasted, ground and brewed coffee

    PubMed

    Gruczyńska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Majewska, Ewa; Tarnowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular hot beverage in the world. The annual coffee production in 2010, 2014 and 2016 was 8.1, 9.0 and 9.3 million tons respectively. There are more than 100 coffee species, but only two of them: Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) have gained commercial importance. During roasting of green coffee beans not only desirable compounds are formed, that exert positive influence on the taste and flavour of coffee, but also small quantities of undesirable ones. Furan (C4H4O) is one of the latter. Furan is a volatile compound (boiling temp. of 31.4 oC) formed during thermal processing of food. The toxicity of furan has been well documented and it is classified as “possible human carcinogen” (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for furan formation during food processing. It can be formed from carbohydrates, amino acids by their thermal degradation or thermal re-arrangement and by oxidation of ascorbic acid and polyunsaturated acids and carotenoids. High concentrations of furan have been reported in coffee, baked and roasted food and in food subjected to preserving in cans and jars. Furan levels in brewed coffee are typically near or below 120 μg/L, but it can approach thousands μg/kg in roasted whole beans or ground coffee. The highest concentration of furan in roasted coffee reaches the level of 7000 μg/kg. Taking into account that coffee is the most popular hot drink, it becomes the main contributor to furan exposure from dietary sources for adults. In this article the published scientific papers concerned with the presence of furan in roasted non-brewed and brewed coffee have been reviewed. The formation mechanisms and occurrence of furan in coffee and the harmful influence of furan on the consumer health have been discussed.

  8. Studies on acrylamide levels in roasting, storage and brewing of coffee.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Ingo; Ternité, Ruediger; Wilkens, Jochen; Hoenicke, Katrin; Guenther, Helmut; van der Stegen, Gerrit H D

    2006-11-01

    The content of acrylamide in coffee reaches a peak early in the roasting process, reflecting occurrence of both formation and destruction of acrylamide during roasting. Levels of acrylamide in the fully roasted product are a small fraction of the peak reached earlier. Glucose and moisture in green coffee do not show a significant correlation with acrylamide in roasted coffee. Pre-roasting levels of asparagine show a correlation only in Arabica coffee. The main factors affecting the level of acrylamide in roasted coffee appear to be the Arabica/Robusta ratio, with Robusta giving higher levels; time and degree of roast, with both shorter and lighter roasting at the edges of the normal roasting range giving higher levels; storage condition and time, with clear reduction at ambient storage. This storage reduction of acrylamide followed second order reaction kinetics with an activation energy of 73 KJ/mole. The acrylamide in roasted coffee is largely extracted into the brew and stable within usual time of consumption. As these four main factors also substantially affect the sensorial characteristics of the brew, and as modifications of the process have to comply with the consumer-accepted boundaries of taste profiles, only small effects on the acrylamide level are expected to be achievable.

  9. Characterization of galactomannan derivatives in roasted coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2006-05-03

    In this work, the galactomannans from roasted coffee infusions were purified by 50% ethanol precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and phenylboronic acid-immobilized Sepharose chromatography. Specific enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-(1-->4)-D-mannan backbone allowed us to conclude that the galactomannans of roasted coffee infusions are high molecular weight supports of low molecular weight brown compounds. Also, the molecular weight of the brown compounds linked to the galactomannan increases with the increase of the coffee degree of roast. The reaction pathways of galactomannans during the coffee roasting process were inferred from the detection of specific chemical markers by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Maillard reaction, caramelization, isomerization, oxidation, and decarboxylation pathways were identified by detection of Amadori compounds, 1,6-beta-anhydromannose, fructose, glucose, mannonic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, and arabinonic acid in the reducing end of the obtained oligosaccharides. The implication of the several competitive reaction pathways is discussed and related to the structural changes of the galactomannans present in the roasted coffee infusions.

  10. Effect of vacuum roasting on acrylamide formation and reduction in coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; Verardo, Giancarlo; Munari, Marina; Mirolo, Giorgio; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Coffea arabica beans were roasted in an oven at 200 °C for increasing lengths of time under vacuum (i.e. 0.15 kPa). The samples were then analysed for colour, weight loss, acrylamide concentration and sensory properties. Data were compared with those obtained from coffee roasted at atmospheric pressure (i.e. conventional roasting), as well as at atmospheric pressure for 10 min followed by vacuum treatment (0.15 kPa; i.e. conventional-vacuum roasting). To compare the different treatments, weight loss, colour and acrylamide changes were expressed as a function of the thermal effect received by the coffee beans during the different roasting processes. Vacuum-processed coffee with medium roast degree had approximately 50% less acrylamide than its conventionally roasted counterpart. It was inferred that the low pressure generated inside the oven during the vacuum process exerted a stripping effect preventing acrylamide from being accumulated. Vacuum-processed coffee showed similar colour and sensory properties to conventionally roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  12. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  13. Aroma recovery from roasted coffee by wet grinding.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, J; Thomann, D; Perren, R; Escher, F

    2010-01-01

    Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Freshly roasted coffee as well as old, completely degassed coffee was ground in order to estimate the relationship of internal carbon dioxide pressure in freshly roasted coffee with the aroma loss during grinding. The release of volatile aroma substances during grinding was found to be related to the internal carbon dioxide pressure, and wet grinding with cold water was shown to minimize losses of aroma compounds by trapping them in water. Due to the high solubility of roasted coffee in water, the use of wet-grinding equipment is limited to processes where grinding is followed by an extraction step. Combining grinding and extraction by the use of hot water for wet grinding resulted in considerable losses of aroma compounds because of the prolonged heat impact. Therefore, a more promising two-step process involving cold wet grinding and subsequent hot extraction in a closed system was introduced. The yield of aroma compounds in the resulting coffee was substantially higher compared to conventionally ground coffee. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Ramalakshmi, K; Nagaraju, V D

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was made to minimise the loss of volatile from roasted coffee beans by coating with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Whey protein concentrate. Coffee volatiles were analysed by Gas chromatography and 14 major compounds were identified and compared in this study. Results showed an increase in the relative area of major volatile compounds in coated roasted coffee beans when compared with unroasted coffee beans for consecutive two months. Moreover, effect of coating on textural properties and non-volatiles were also analysed. The results have indicated that edible coatings preserve the sensory properties of roasted coffee beans for a longer shelf life and cellulose derivatives, as an edible coating, exhibited the best protecting effect on roasted coffee beans.

  16. Time-Resolved Gravimetric Method To Assess Degassing of Roasted Coffee.

    PubMed

    Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Suzuki, Tomonori; Balsiger, Franz; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2018-05-30

    During the roasting of coffee, thermally driven chemical reactions lead to the formation of gases, of which a large fraction is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Part of these gases is released during roasting while part is retained inside the porous structure of the roasted beans and is steadily released during storage or more abruptly during grinding and extraction. The release of CO 2 during the various phases from roasting to consumption is linked to many important properties and characteristics of coffee. It is an indicator for freshness, plays an important role in shelf life and in packaging, impacts the extraction process, is involved in crema formation, and may affect the sensory profile in the cup. Indeed, and in view of the multiple roles it plays, CO 2 is a much underappreciated and little examined molecule in coffee. Here, we introduce an accurate, quantitative, and time-resolved method to measure the release kinetics of gases from whole beans and ground coffee using a gravimetric approach. Samples were placed in a container with a fitted capillary to allow gases to escape. The time-resolved release of gases was measured via the weight loss of the container filled with coffee. Long-term stability was achieved using a customized design of a semimicro balance, including periodic and automatic zero value measurements and calibration procedures. The novel gravimetric methodology was applied to a range of coffee samples: (i) whole Arabica beans and (ii) ground Arabica and Robusta, roasted to different roast degrees and at different speeds (roast air temperatures). Modeling the degassing rates allowed structural and mechanistic interpretation of the degassing process.

  17. In-line monitoring of the coffee roasting process with near infrared spectroscopy: Measurement of sucrose and colour.

    PubMed

    Santos, João Rodrigo; Viegas, Olga; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Rangel, António O S S; Lopes, João Almeida

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a real-time and in-situ analytical tool based on near infrared spectroscopy is proposed to predict two of the most relevant coffee parameters during the roasting process, sucrose and colour. The methodology was developed taking in consideration different coffee varieties (Arabica and Robusta), coffee origins (Brazil, East-Timor, India and Uganda) and roasting process procedures (slow and fast). All near infrared spectroscopy-based calibrations were developed resorting to partial least squares regression. The results proved the suitability of this methodology as demonstrated by range-error-ratio and coefficient of determination higher than 10 and 0.85 respectively, for all modelled parameters. The relationship between sucrose and colour development during the roasting process is further discussed, in light of designing in real-time coffee products with similar visual appearance and distinct organoleptic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanofiltration for concentration of roasted coffee extract: From bench to pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Quyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc

    2017-09-01

    This paper focused on the application of nanofiltration (NF) for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee processing. Three kinds of NF membranes were screened for separation capacity of total dry solid (TDS), polyphenols (PPs) and caffeine in roasted coffee extract and NF99 membrane showed the good performance for the NF of the extract. The crossflow NF with NF99 membrane at pilot scale was investigated for technical assessment of concentration of roasted coffee extract. Maximum theoretical concentration was estimated as 6.06. Recovery yields of TDS, PPs and caffeine were higher than 70% at 4.4 of concentration factor. The content of TDS in accumulative permeate was lower than 2.0 g/L. The fouling of NF was also solved by the suitable cleaning procedure with recovery index being 97.7%. Results of research indicate that it is feasible to apply NF for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee production.

  19. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; ADISA, AFOLABI; WOODHAM, CARA; SALEH, MAHMOUD

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g−1 for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g−1 for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g−1 for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g−1 for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  20. Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Flurin; Gloess, Alexia N; Keller, Marco; Wetzel, Andreas; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2012-03-01

    A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.

  1. The roasting process does not influence the extent of conjugation of coffee chlorogenic and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Renouf, Mathieu; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the bioavailability and metabolism of coffee compounds will contribute to identify the unknown biological mechanism(s) linked to their beneficial effects. The influence of the roasting process on the metabolism of coffee chlorogenic acids in humans was evaluated. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed four instant coffees namely, high roasted coffee (HRC), low roasted coffee (LRC), unroasted coffee (URC), and in vitro hydrolyzed unroasted coffee (HURC). The sum of areas under the curve (AUC) ranged from 8.65-17.6 to 30.9-126 µM/h (P < 0.05) for HRC, LRC, URC, and HURC, respectively. The AUC of HRC, LRC, and URC was correlated with the initial level of phenolic acids in the coffee drinks. Despite different absorption rates, the extent of conjugation was comparable between HRC, LRC, and URC coffees but different for HURC. The most abundant circulating metabolites during the first 5 H were dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate (CA3S) and isoferulic-3'-O-glucuronide (iFA3G). DHFA and 5-4-dihydro-m-coumaric acid (mDHCoA) were the main metabolites in the period of 5-24 H. The phenolic compounds after consumption of HURC were most rapidly absorbed (Tmax 1 H) compared with the other coffees (Tmax between 9 and 11 H). Using coffees with different degrees of roasting we highlighted that in spite of different absorption rates the extent of conjugation of phenolic acids was comparable. In addition, by using a hydrolyzed unroasted coffee we demonstrated an increased absorption of phenolic acids in the small intestine. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):259-267, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of roasting process on the energy transition and the crystalline structures of Arabica, Robusta, and Liberica coffee from Jambi Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdana, B. M.; Manihuruk, R.; Ashyar, R.; Heriyanti; Sutrisno

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the roasting process has been evaluated to determine of the energy transition and the crystalline structure of three types of coffee, Arabica, Robusta, and Liberica coffee both green and roasted coffee with the roasted temperature at 200°C and 230°C. The crystalline structure of the coffee was evaluated with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The result exposes that the three types of green coffee showed that an amorphous structure whereas the roasted coffee denotes a crystal structure of sucrose. The varied temperature in the roasting process leads to changes in the crystal structure shown by the peak shift of 2θ for all types of coffee. The added cations, such as Fe2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions on Liberica coffee induced of changes in the crystal structures, which are assigned by the peak shift, that imply of metal ions of the sucrose complexes happened in the solution, except for the addition of Mg2+ ion.

  3. Variability of single bean coffee volatile compounds of Arabica and robusta roasted coffees analysed by SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, Nicola; Whitworth, Martin B; Cui, Chenhao; Fisk, Ian D

    2018-06-01

    We report on the analysis of volatile compounds by SPME-GC-MS for individual roasted coffee beans. The aim was to understand the relative abundance and variability of volatile compounds between individual roasted coffee beans at constant roasting conditions. Twenty-five batches of Arabica and robusta species were sampled from 13 countries, and 10 single coffee beans randomly selected from each batch were individually roasted in a fluidised-bed roaster at 210 °C for 3 min. High variability (CV = 14.0-53.3%) of 50 volatile compounds in roasted coffee was obtained within batches (10 beans per batch). Phenols and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds generally had higher intra-batch variation, while ketones were the most uniform compounds (CV < 20%). The variation between batches was much higher, with the CV ranging from 15.6 to 179.3%. The highest variation was observed for 2,3-butanediol, 3-ethylpyridine and hexanal. It was also possible to build classification models based on geographical origin, obtaining 99.5% and 90.8% accuracy using LDA or MLR classifiers respectively, and classification between Arabica and robusta beans. These results give further insight into natural variation of coffee aroma and could be used to obtain higher quality and more consistent final products. Our results suggest that coffee volatile concentration is also influenced by other factors than simply the roasting degree, especially green coffee composition, which is in turn influenced by the coffee species, geographical origin, ripening stage and pre- and post-harvest processing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing polyphenols content and antioxidant activity in coffee beans according to origin and the degree of roasting

    PubMed

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Sadowska, Anna; Rakowska, Rita; Dębowska, Maria; Świderski, Franciszek; Świąder, Katarzyna

    The roasting stage constitutes a key component in the manufacturing process of natural coffee because temperature elicits changes in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and that Maillard-reaction compounds appear, thus affecting the product’s sensory and antioxidant properties. Actual contents of these compounds may depend on which region the coffee is cultivated as well as the extent to which the beans are roasted To determine polyphenols content and antioxidant activity in the ‘Arabica’ coffee type coming from various world regions of its cultivation and which have undergone industrial roasting. Also to establish which coffee, taking into account the degree of roasting (ie. light, medium and strong), is nutritionally the most beneficial The study material was natural coffee beans (100% Arabica) roasted to various degrees, as aforementioned, that had been cultivated in Brazil, Ethiopia, Columbia and India. Polyphenols were measured in the coffee beans by spectrophotometric means based on the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, whereas antioxidant activity was measured colourimetrically using ABTS+ cat-ionic radicals Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were found to depend both on the coffee’s origin and degree of roasting. Longer roasting times resulted in greater polyphenol degradation. The highest polyphenol concentrations were found in lightly roasted coffee, ranging 39.27 to 43.0 mg/g, whereas levels in medium and strongly roasted coffee respectively ranged 34.06 to 38.43 mg/g and 29.21 to 36.89 mg/g. Antioxidant activity however significantly rose with the degree of roasting, where strongly roasted coffee had higher such activity than lightly roasted coffee. This can be explained by the formation of Maillard-reaction compounds during roasting, leading then to the formation of antioxidant melanoidin compounds which, to a large extent, compensate for the decrease in polyphenols during roasting Polyphenols levels and antioxidant activities in the

  5. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  6. Investigation of CO2 precursors in roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of volatile marker compounds of common coffee roast defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ni; Liu, Chujiao; Liu, Xingkun; Degn, Tina Kreuzfeldt; Munchow, Morten; Fisk, Ian

    2016-11-15

    Coffee beans from the same origin were roasted using six time-temperature profiles, in order to identify volatile aroma compounds associated with five common roast coffee defects (light, scorched, dark, baked and underdeveloped). Thirty-seven volatile aroma compounds were selected on the basis that they had previously been identified as potent odorants of coffee and were also identified in all coffee brew preparations; the relative abundance of these aroma compounds was then evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with headspace solid phase micro extraction. Some of the 37 key aroma compounds were significantly changed in each coffee roast defect and changes in one marker compound was chosen for each defect type, that is, indole for light defect, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol for scorched defect, phenol for dark defect, maltol for baked defect and 2,5-dimethylfuran for underdeveloped defect. The association of specific changes in aroma profiles for different roast defects has not been shown previously and could be incorporated into screening tools to enable the coffee industry quickly identify if roast defects occur during production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Degrees on Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Systems in Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sukyoung; Jung, Soohan; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2018-03-16

    Coffee roasting affects the taste, color, and aroma of coffee. The Maillard reaction, a major reaction during the roasting process, produces melanoidin, which affects the overall antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee. In this experiment, coffee roasting was divided into four degrees: Light, Medium, City, and French. To examine the in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts with different roasting degrees, we used 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were pre-treated with coffee extracts for 10 days by oral gavage (300 mg/Kg.B.W). After the last pre-treatment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/Kg.B.W) was injected intraperitoneally for immune stimulation. Histopathological analysis showed that hepatic portal vein invasion and liver necrosis were severe in the LPS-treated group. However, these phenomena were greatly ameliorated when mice were pre-treated with Light- or Medium-roasted coffee extracts. Hepatic glutathione level was increased in the French group but decreased in the LPS-stimulated group. When mice were treated with LPS, mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was increased, whereas TNF-α expression was significantly reduced in the Light and Medium groups. Treatment with coffee extracts decreased the mRNA expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice stimulated by LPS, regardless of coffee roasting degrees. These effects decreased with the increasing coffee roasting degree. Results of luciferase reporter assay revealed that these effects of coffee extracts were transcriptionally regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the roasting degree affects the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts.

  9. Study of composition of espresso coffee prepared from various roast degrees of Coffea arabica L. coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr

    2016-05-15

    Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of roasting degree on the antioxidant activity of different Arabica coffee quality classes.

    PubMed

    Odžaković, Božana; Džinić, Natalija; Kukrić, Zoran; Grujić, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, because of its unique sensory properties and physiological properties. Coffee beverages represent a significant source of antioxidants in the consumers' diet and contribute significantly to their daily intake. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of different roasting degrees on the content of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in different quality classes of Arabica coffee. Samples of green Arabica coffee (Rio Minas) of two quality classes from two production batches were used for the research. Roasting was carried out at temperatures of 167, 175 and 171°C. The total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonol content (FC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) in the coffee extracts was determined. This research shows that TPC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in green coffee compared to TPC in roasted coffee, and TPC decreases as the roasting temperature increases. TFC and FC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in green coffee than in roasted coffee. Differences in TPC between the 1st and 2nd classes of Arabica coffee were not significant (P > 0.05), while differences in TFC were significant (P < 0.05) only for green coffee from the second production batch and differences in FC were significant (P < 0.05) for green coffee and for coffee roasted at 175°C. Roasting temperatures have different influences the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) of coffee and the highest antioxidant activity was determined in coffee roasted at 171°C. An exception was 1st class Arabica coffee roasted at 167°C (ABTS). All samples of 1st class Arabica coffee had higher antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) compared to 2nd class Arabica. This research shows that the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity of different quality classes of Arabica coffee are dependent on the degree of roasting. TPC decreases when the roasting temperature increases, while TFC

  11. Roasting has a distinct effect on the antimutagenic activity of coffee varieties.

    PubMed

    Priftis, Alexandros; Mitsiou, Dimitra; Halabalaki, Maria; Ntasi, Georgia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Kouretas, Demetrios

    Coffee is a highly consumed beverage throughout the world. Its popularity derives from its organoleptic properties that are a result of the roasting process. Roasting greatly alters a coffee bean's composition and possibly its bioactivity. In the current study, green as well as roasted extracts from both Coffea arabica (Brazil and Decaf) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) species were tested for their antimutagenic activity using the Ames test. In addition, a compositional analysis was conducted to identify the main components, mainly Chlorogenic acid isomers (CGA) and derivatives present in the extracts using UHPLC-ESI(±) and HRMS/MS methods According to the results, all extracts exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the oxidizing factor tert-Butyl hydroperoxide, a Reactive Oxygen Species-producing compound. Roasting had a distinct effect on the antimutagenic activity of coffee, enhancing it in the Brazil variety and having no effect in the Decaf and Robusta varieties. In addition, all coffee extracts exhibited reducing activity as well as the ability to scavenge (albeit differentially) both the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, implying that their potential antimutagenic effect can be partially attributed to their free radical scavenging activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael J; Hoppe Parr, Kimberly A; Anderson, Kim E; Cornish, Jim; Haapala, Matti; Greivell, John

    2017-01-01

    Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities. Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the workers' breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations. Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers' breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0.02 parts per million (ppm) in

  13. Alkylpyridiniums. 2. Isolation and quantification in roasted and ground coffees.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Richard H; Varga, Natalia; Milo, Christian; Schilter, Benoit; Vera, Francia Arce; Welti, Dieter H

    2002-02-27

    Recent model studies on trigonelline decomposition have identified nonvolatile alkylpyridiniums as major reaction products under certain physicochemical conditions. The quaternary base 1-methylpyridinium was isolated from roasted and ground coffee and purified by ion exchange and thin-layer chromatography. The compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectrometry techniques. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the alkaloid in coffee by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The formation of alkylpyridiniums is positively correlated to the roasting degree in arabica coffee, and highest levels of 1-methylpyridinium, reaching up to 0.25% on a per weight basis, were found in dark roasted coffee beans. Analyses of coffee extracts also showed the presence of dimethylpyridinium, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 mg/kg. This is the first report on the isolation and quantification of alkylpyridiniums in coffee. These compounds, described here in detail for the first time, may have an impact on the flavor/aroma profile of coffee directly (e.g., bitterness), or indirectly as precursors, and potentially open new avenues in the flavor/aroma modulation of coffee.

  14. Furan in coffee: pilot studies on formation during roasting and losses during production steps and consumer handling.

    PubMed

    Guenther, H; Hoenicke, K; Biesterveld, S; Gerhard-Rieben, E; Lantz, I

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of furan in some food products has already been known for a few decades, and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roasted coffee, which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment at roasting which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavour profile of a roasted coffee. The objective of this study is to provide data to allow a better understanding of the available data of furan in coffee, the kinetics of furan generated during roasting, and to estimate the reduction of furan levels afterwards due to subsequent processing steps and consumer handling. Finally, the study is meant as a contribution to establish exposure data on the basis of scientific data at the stage of coffee consumption. This paper shows that the formation of furan during roasting is dependent on roasting conditions and is, therefore, directly linked to achieving targeted flavour profiles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that modifications in process conditions potentially to reduce furan levels may have the opposite effect on other undesired reaction products of the roasting chemistry such as, for example, acrylamide. Due to the high volatility of furan, any subsequent processing step or consumer handling has an impact on the level of furan. As a guidance from this study and in consideration of the identified losses of each process and handling step on the basis of the trial conditions, it is estimated that only approximately 10% of the initially generated furan during roasting gets into the cup of coffee for consumption.

  15. The Impact of the Roast Levels of Coffee Extracts on their Potential Anticancer Activities.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Benigno E; Fong, Lisa E; Biju, Denny; Muharram, Alfeah; Davis, Isabel M; Vela, Klarisse O; Rios, Diana; Osorio-Camacena, Elena; Kaur, Baljit; Rojas, Sebastian M; Forester, Sarah C

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and contains numerous phytochemicals that are beneficial to consumer health. The phytochemical profile of coffee, however, can be affected by the roast level. In this study, we compared the effect of roasting level on the growth inhibitory activity of HT-29 (colon) and SCC-25 (oral) cancer cell lines. The different roasting stages selected for this study were green, cinnamon/blonde, city/medium, full city/medium-dark, and full city plus/dark. Cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of coffee extracts for 72 hr. Cell viability was quantified using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. It was found that the lighter roast extracts, Cinnamon in particular, reduced cell growth more than darker roast extracts. The Cinnamon extract had the greatest amount of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Relative levels of gallic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acid in the extracts were also compared. The Cinnamon coffee extract had the highest levels of gallic and caffeic acids, which have both been widely-regarded as bioactive phytochemicals. In conclusion, the consumption of lighter roasted coffee, may contribute to the prevention of certain types of cancer such as oral and colon. Chemical compounds in coffee may reduce the risk for certain types of cancers. These compounds may be particularly abundant in lighter roasted coffee. Therefore, lighter roasted coffee could contribute to the prevention of cancer through a healthy diet. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Comparison of antioxidant activity between green and roasted coffee beans using molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    PRIFTIS, ALEXANDROS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; KONSTANTINOPOULOS, KONSTANTINOS; TSITSIMPIKOU, CHRISTINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDES M.; TZATZARAKIS, MANOLIS N.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its pleasant taste and aroma. A number of studies have been performed to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of coffee consumption on human health and have shown that coffee exhibits potent antioxidant activity, which may be attributed mainly to its polyphenolic content. However, there is also evidence to suggest that coffee roasting (the procedure which turns green coffee beans to the dark, roasted ones from which the beverage derives) may alter the polyphenolic profile of the beans (e.g., via the Maillard reaction) and, concomitantly, their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of 13 coffee varieties was examined in both green and roasted coffee bean extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-eth-ylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging assays. In addition, 5 selected varieties were also examined for their protective effects against peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand cleavage. Finally, C2C12 murine myoblasts were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of the most potent extract in order to examine its effects on the cellular redox status by measuring the glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that, in 8 out of the 13 coffee varieties, roasting increased free radical scavenging activity as shown by DPPH and ABTS•+ assays. Moreover, we found that when one coffee variety was roasted for different amounts of time, the increase in the antioxidant activity depended on the roasting time. By contrast, in 5 varieties, roasting reduced the antioxidant activity. Similar differences between the roasted and green beans were also observed in the free radical-induced DNA strand cleavage assay. The observed differences in the antioxidant activity between the different coffee varieties may be attributed to their varying polyphenolic

  17. Furan levels in coffee as influenced by species, roast degree, and brewing procedures.

    PubMed

    Arisseto, Adriana Pavesi; Vicente, Eduardo; Ueno, Mariana Soares; Tfouni, Silvia Amélia Verdiani; Toledo, Maria Cecília De Figueiredo

    2011-04-13

    Brazilian green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species were roasted to light, medium, and dark roast degrees and analyzed in relation to furan content by using an in-house validated method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by headspace solid-phase microextraction. Furan was not detected in green coffees, whereas levels between 911 and 5852 μg/kg were found in the roasted samples. Higher concentrations were found in Coffea canephora species and darker ground coffees. Some of the potential furan precursors were observed in significant amounts in green coffee, especially sucrose and linoleic acid, but their concentrations could not be correlated to furan formation. Additionally, coffee brews were prepared from roasted ground coffees by using two different procedures, and furan levels in the beverages varied from <10 to 288 μg/kg. The factor that most influenced the furan content in coffee brew was the brewing procedure.

  18. Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Smrke, Samo; Goodman, Bernard A.; Keller, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants; some are present in the green bean, whereas others are generated during roasting. However, there is no single accepted analytical method for their routine determination. This paper describes the adaption of three complementary assays (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ABTS and ORAC) for the routine assessment of antioxidant capacity of beverages, their validation, and use for determining the antioxidant capacities of extracts from coffee beans at different stages in the roasting process. All assays showed a progressive increase in antioxidant capacity during roasting to a light roast state, consistent with the production of melanoidins having a higher antioxidant effect than the degradation of CGAs. However, the three assays gave different numbers for the total antioxidant capacity of green beans relative to gallic acid (GA), although the range of values was much smaller when chlorogenic acid (CGA) was used as reference. Therefore, although all three assays indicated that there was an increase in antioxidant activity during coffee roasting, and the large differences in responses to GA and CGA illustrate their different sensitivities to different types of antioxidant molecule. PMID:28234339

  19. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2013-10-15

    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid determination of benzo(a)pyrene in roasted coffee and coffee brew by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    de Kruijf, N.; Schouten, T.; van der Stegen, G.H.D.

    A rapid and reliable analytical method is presented for the determination of trace amounts of benzo(a)pyrene in roasted coffee, coffee brew, and spent grounds. Roasted coffee and spent grounds were extracted with acetone, followed by saponification and cyclohexane extraction. Coffee brew was extracted three times with cyclohexane, and the combined extracts were purified by chromatography on a silica gel column. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC with a 5-..mu..m Vydac reversed-phase 201 TPB 5 column and fluorescence detection under isocratic conditions. The benzo(a)pyrene levels in 55 roasted coffee samples, commercially available in the Netherlands, ranged from not detectable (<0.1 ..mu..g/kg)more » to 0.5 ..mu..g/kg. Coffee brews were prepared by two different methods from an over-roasted coffee sample with an elevated benzo(a)pyrene level of 2 ..mu..g/kg. These brews yielded benzo(a)pyrene contents of approximately 1 ng/L, indicating benzo(a)pyrene extraction yields of about 1% for both coffee preparation methods.« less

  1. Real-time monitoring of a coffee roasting process with near infrared spectroscopy using multivariate statistical analysis: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Catelani, Tiago A; Santos, João Rodrigo; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R; Lopes, João A

    2018-03-01

    This work proposes the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) based on principal component analysis (PCA) for real-time monitoring of the coffee roasting process. The main objective was the development of a MSPC methodology able to early detect disturbances to the roasting process resourcing to real-time acquisition of NIR spectra. A total of fifteen roasting batches were defined according to an experimental design to develop the MSPC models. This methodology was tested on a set of five batches where disturbances of different nature were imposed to simulate real faulty situations. Some of these batches were used to optimize the model while the remaining was used to test the methodology. A modelling strategy based on a time sliding window provided the best results in terms of distinguishing batches with and without disturbances, resourcing to typical MSPC charts: Hotelling's T 2 and squared predicted error statistics. A PCA model encompassing a time window of four minutes with three principal components was able to efficiently detect all disturbances assayed. NIR spectroscopy combined with the MSPC approach proved to be an adequate auxiliary tool for coffee roasters to detect faults in a conventional roasting process in real-time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of coffee roasting degree by using electronic nose and artificial neural network for off-line quality control.

    PubMed

    Romani, Santina; Cevoli, Chiara; Fabbri, Angelo; Alessandrini, Laura; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    An electronic nose (EN) based on an array of 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors was used, jointly with an artificial neural network (ANN), to predict coffee roasting degree. The flavor release evolution and the main physicochemical modifications (weight loss, density, moisture content, and surface color: L*, a*), during the roasting process of coffee, were monitored at different cooking times (0, 6, 8, 10, 14, 19 min). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of sensors data set (600 values per sensor). The selected PCs were used as ANN input variables. Two types of ANN methods (multilayer perceptron [MLP] and general regression neural network [GRNN]) were used in order to estimate the EN signals. For both neural networks the input values were represented by scores of sensors data set PCs, while the output values were the quality parameter at different roasting times. Both the ANNs were able to well predict coffee roasting degree, giving good prediction results for both roasting time and coffee quality parameters. In particular, GRNN showed the highest prediction reliability. Actually the evaluation of coffee roasting degree is mainly a manned operation, substantially based on the empirical final color observation. For this reason it requires well-trained operators with a long professional skill. The coupling of e-nose and artificial neural networks (ANNs) may represent an effective possibility to roasting process automation and to set up a more reproducible procedure for final coffee bean quality characterization. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Characterization of the polymerization of furfuryl alcohol during roasting of coffee.

    PubMed

    Swasti, Yuliana Reni; Murkovic, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The polymerization of furfuryl alcohol contributes to the formation of the brown colour in heated foods, in addition to the Maillard and caramelization reactions. During the heating of food, furfuryl alcohol is formed via the degradation of quinic acid or 1,2-enediols. Furfuryl alcohol is a mutagenic compound. In acidic conditions it is able to polymerize and form aliphatic polymers that show a brown colour. Herein we show that furfuryl alcohol polymerizes in a model system by incubating it in 1 M HCl at room temperature. Some of the reaction products are dimers, trimers, tetramers, and pentamers with methylene linkages. The degree of polymerization and the amount of those furfuryl alcohol oligomers increased with increasing reaction time. The results of this model system were used to characterize the polymerization of furfuryl alcohol which is produced during roasting of coffee. The coffee was roasted at 210 °C for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 min with a home coffee roaster. Furfuryl alcohol and its dimer were found in roasted coffee after 2 and 3 min of roasting respectively, reaching a maximum amount after 4 min. Perhaps due to further reactions, the dimeric furfuryl alcohol concentration starts to decrease after 4 min. We propose that the polymers of furfuryl alcohol contribute to the brown colour of roasted foods.

  4. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874–1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans. PMID:29671781

  5. Development of Noninvasive Classification Methods for Different Roasting Degrees of Coffee Beans Using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bingquan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhao, Yanru; He, Yong

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874⁻1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. The spectra of the regions of interest were manually extracted from the HSI images. Then, principal components analysis was employed to compress the spectral data and select the optimal wavelengths based on loading weight analysis. Meanwhile, the random frog (RF) methodology and the successive projections algorithm were also adopted to pick effective wavelengths from the spectral data. Finally, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was utilized to establish discriminative models using spectral reflectance and corresponding labeled classes for each degree of roast sample. The results showed that the LS-SVM model, established by the RF selecting method, with eight wavelengths performed very well, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.30%. In conclusion, HSI was illustrated as a potential technique for noninvasively classifying the roasting degrees of coffee beans and might have an important application for the development of nondestructive, real-time, and portable sensors to monitor the roasting process of coffee beans.

  6. Interactions of water with roasted and ground coffee in the wetting process investigated by a combination of physical determinations.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Maria-L; Rouvet, Martine; Gumy, Jean-C; Liardon, Rémy

    2007-04-18

    Three complementary techniques were used in this study to investigate the physical changes during wetting of roasted and ground coffee. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was found to provide indirect evidence of the presence of liquid water in the coffee particles. The effect of wetting on coffee closed porosity was studied by helium pycnometry, and finally, particle sizing was used to determine the swelling kinetics of coffee after wetting. Due to the solubilization of compounds, the presence of liquid water could be detected in the coffee cells by SEM. The technique was then used to investigate different water contents; for example, for roasted and ground coffee containing 1 g of water per gram of coffee on a dry basis, liquid water was present in cells only at the periphery of approximately 1.0 mm diameter particles. Coffee closed porosity decreased with increasing water content, as evidenced by pycnometry. For roasted and ground coffee containing 1 g of water per gram of coffee, results showed a closed porosity lower that 0.1 cm3/g ( approximately 20% of the closed porosity measured in dry particles). The decrease of closed porosity may be attributed to both (1) water filling cells' lumen and (2) plasticization of cell wall polymers, resulting in the matrix relaxation and increase of helium accessibility to the pores. Water binding to the matrix polymers was further investigated by calorimetric measurements. The integration of the endothermic peak of freezing water showed that approximately 0.15 g of water/g of coffee is nonfreezable water, that is, water bound to the matrix polymers. Finally, the use of particle sizing showed that the average volume of the coffee particles with 1 g of water/g of coffee increased by up to 20-23% at 10-15 min following wetting. Moisture diffusion coefficients in coffee particles [( approximately 2-3) x 10(-11) m2 s(-1)] were approximated by fitting the swelling curves with a model of diffusion. The observed results may give

  7. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-04-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  8. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T; Melot, Brent C; Speirs, Rory W; Hendon, Christopher H

    2016-04-18

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  9. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily. PMID:27086837

  10. In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-09-01

    Coffee, as a source of acrylamide, needs to be investigated in depth to understand the contribution of different precursors. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting. Coffee beans and model systems were used to monitor the accumulation of neo-formed carbonyls during heating through sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3,4-dideoxyosone, which were identified as the major sugar decomposition products in both roasted coffee and model systems. Among others, 2-octenal, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal were identified in relatively high quantities in roasted coffee. Formation and elimination of HMF in coffee during roasting had a kinetic pattern similar to those of acrylamide. Its concentration rapidly increased within 10 min followed by an exponential decrease afterward. The amount of lipid oxidation products tended to increase linearly during roasting. It was concluded from the results that roasting formed a pool of neo-formed carbonyls from sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation, and they play certain role on acrylamide formation in coffee.

  11. Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effects of columbia arabica coffee with different roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hee; Jeong, Hee Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin

    2013-03-01

    In vitro antioxidant activities and neuronal cell protective effects of ethanol extract from roasted coffee beans were investigated. Colombia arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) green beans were roasted to give medium (230°C, 10 min), city (230°C, 12 min) and french (230°C, 15 min) coffee beans. Total phenolics in raw green beans, medium, city and french-roasted beans were 8.81±0.05, 9.77±0.03, 9.92±0.04 and 7.76±0.01 mg of GAE/g, respectively. The content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, the predominant phenolic, was detected higher in medium-roasted beans than others. In addition, we found that extracts from medium-roasted beans particularly showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity on ABTS radical scavenging activity and FRAP assays. To determine cell viability using the MTT assay, extracts from medium-roasted beans showed higher protection against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity than others. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was also inhibited by the extracts due to prevention of lipid peroxidation using the malondialdehyde (MDA) assay from mouse whole brain homogenates. These data suggest that the medium-roasting condition to making tasty coffee from Columbia arabica green beans may be more helpful to human health by providing the most physiological phenolics, including 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids.

  12. Fate of 14C-acrylamide in roasted and ground coffee during storage.

    PubMed

    Baum, Matthias; Böhm, Nadine; Görlitz, Jessica; Lantz, Ingo; Merz, Karl Heinz; Ternité, Rüdiger; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2008-05-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is formed during heating of carbohydrate rich foods in the course of the Maillard reaction. AA has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. Storage experiments with roasted coffee have shown that AA levels decrease depending on storage time and temperature. In the present study the fate of AA lost during storage of roasted and ground (R&G) coffee was studied, using 14C-labeled AA as radiotracer. Radiolabel was measured in coffee brew, filter residue, and volatiles. In the brew, total (14)C-label decreased during storage of R&G coffee, while activity in the filter residue built up concomitantly. [2,3-14C]-AA (14C-AA) was the only 14C-related water extractable low molecular compound in the brew detected by radio-HPLC. No formation of volatile 14C-AA-related compounds was detected during storage and coffee brewing. Close to 90% of the radiolabel in the filter residue (spent R&G coffee, spent grounds) remained firmly bound to the matrix, largely resisting extraction by aqueous ammonia, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, and sequential polyenzymatic digest. Furanthiols, which are abundant as aroma components in roasted coffee, have not been found to be involved in the formation of covalent AA adducts and thus do not contribute substantially to the decrease of AA during storage.

  13. Coffee, its roasted form, and their residues cause birth failure and shorten lifespan in dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Dieng, Hamady; Ellias, Salbiah Binti; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abang, Fatimah; Ghani, Idris Abd; Noor, Sabina; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Hipolito, Cirilo N; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-06-01

    In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process. We examined whether exposure to coffee during embryonic development could alter larval eclosion and lifespan of dengue vectors. A series of bioassays with different coffee forms and their residues indicated that larval eclosion responses of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were appreciably lower when embryonic maturation occurred in environments containing coffee, especially roasted coffee crude extract (RCC). In addition, the lifespan of adults derived from eggs that hatched successfully in a coffee milieu was reduced, but this effect was less pronounced with roasted and green coffee extracts (RCU and GCU, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggested that coffee and its residues have embryocidal activities with impacts that are carried over onto the adult lifespan of dengue vectors. These effects may significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of these insects. Reutilizing coffee waste in vector control may also represent a realistic solution to the issues associated with its pollution.

  14. Spectral identifiers from roasting process of Arabica and Robusta green beans using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirani, Ayu Puspa; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. World coffee consumption is around 70% comes from Arabica, 26% from Robusta , and the rest 4% from other varieties. Coffee beverages characteristics are related to chemical compositions of its roasted beans. Usually testing of coffee quality is subjectively tasted by an experienced coffee tester. An objective quantitative technique to analyze the chemical contents of coffee beans using LIBS will be reported in this paper. Optimum experimental conditions was using of 120 mJ of laser energy and delay time 1 μs. Elements contained in coffee beans are Ca, W, Sr, Mg, Na, H, K, O, Rb, and Be. The Calcium (Ca) is the main element in the coffee beans. Roasting process will cause the emission intensity of Ca decreased by 42.45%. In addition, discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the arabica and robusta variants, either in its green and roasted coffee beans. Observed identifier elements are Ca, W, Sr, and Mg. Overall chemical composition of roasted coffee beans are affected by many factors, such as the composition of the soil, the location, the weather in the neighborhood of its plantation, and the post-harvesting process of the green coffee beans (drying, storage, fermentation, and roasting methods used).

  15. Understanding the Effects of Roasting on Antioxidant Components of Coffee Brews by Coupling On-line ABTS Assay to High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Sebastian E W; Goodman, Bernard A; Keller, Marco; Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2017-03-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing antioxidant active compounds. During roasting the phytochemical composition of the coffee bean changes dramatically and highly polymeric substances are produced. Besides chlorogenic acids that are already present in green coffee beans, melanoidins show antioxidant capacity as well. To employ post-column derivatisation by coupling high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to an antioxidant assay to investigate the effect of roasting on the properties of antioxidant active compounds in coffee brews. We have investigated the antioxidant capacity of Coffea arabica (Arabica) and C. canephora (Robusta) beans that were roasted over the full spectrum of roast conditions (four roasting speeds to three roast degrees) by comparing the results from HPSEC coupled on-line to the ABTS assay with those from two batch assays, Folin Ciocalteu (FC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The antioxidant capacity showed a general decrease towards slower and darker roasted coffee for all three assays, indicative of heat degradation of active compounds. Hence, low molecular weight (LMW) compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) decreased progressively already from relatively mild roasting conditions. In contrast, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g. melanoidins) increased from light to dark roast degrees with lowering magnitude towards slower roasting profiles. By coupling HPSEC on-line to the ABTS assay we were able to separately quantify the contribution of HMW and LMW compounds to the total antioxidant capacity, increasing our understanding of the roast process. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Understanding the Effects of Roasting on Antioxidant Components of Coffee Brews by Coupling On‐line ABTS Assay to High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Sebastian E.W.; Goodman, Bernard A.; Keller, Marco; Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Schenker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing antioxidant active compounds. During roasting the phytochemical composition of the coffee bean changes dramatically and highly polymeric substances are produced. Besides chlorogenic acids that are already present in green coffee beans, melanoidins show antioxidant capacity as well. Objective To employ post‐column derivatisation by coupling high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to an antioxidant assay to investigate the effect of roasting on the properties of antioxidant active compounds in coffee brews. Methodology We have investigated the antioxidant capacity of Coffea arabica (Arabica) and C. canephora (Robusta) beans that were roasted over the full spectrum of roast conditions (four roasting speeds to three roast degrees) by comparing the results from HPSEC coupled on‐line to the ABTS assay with those from two batch assays, Folin Ciocalteu (FC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Results The antioxidant capacity showed a general decrease towards slower and darker roasted coffee for all three assays, indicative of heat degradation of active compounds. Hence, low molecular weight (LMW) compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) decreased progressively already from relatively mild roasting conditions. In contrast, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g. melanoidins) increased from light to dark roast degrees with lowering magnitude towards slower roasting profiles. Conclusion By coupling HPSEC on‐line to the ABTS assay we were able to separately quantify the contribution of HMW and LMW compounds to the total antioxidant capacity, increasing our understanding of the roast process. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28008674

  17. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference between coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  18. Extractability and structure of spent coffee ground polysaccharides by roasting pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Simões, Joana; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-08-14

    The coffee residue left after the preparation of the brew (spent coffee grounds - SCG) is very rich in polysaccharides, namely galactomannans and arabinogalactans, which are polymers that can be used as dietary fibre and present immunostimulatory activity. Considering the huge amount of SCG produced all over the world, the reutilisation of this by-product by its application as food ingredients is very promising. However, the yields of extraction of these polysaccharides tend to be very low, namely the galactomannans. Based on the observation that the yield of galactomannans extracted from the ground coffee to the brew increase when the coffee is roasted, in this study, with the aim of increasing the yield of these polysaccharides, the SCG was roasted and then extracted with hot water and alkali solutions. The roasting at 160°C promoted an increment of 15% in the yield of galactomannan extractions and further improvement of the yield of extraction until 56% of all galactomannans was achieved by alkali extractions at 60 and 120°C. In these samples the galactomannans still kept their characteristic structure, including the acetylation and branching, determined by sugar linkage analysis and mass spectrometry. The yield of extraction of arabinogalactans under these conditions was 54%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Time, Roasting Temperature, and Grind Size on Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid Concentrations in Cold Brew Coffee.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Megan; Rao, Niny Z

    2017-12-21

    The extraction kinetics and equilibrium concentrations of caffeine and 3-chlorogenic acid (3-CGA) in cold brew coffee were investigated by brewing four coffee samples (dark roast/medium grind, dark roast/coarse grind, medium roast/medium grind, medium roast/coarse grind) using cold and hot methods. 3-CGA and caffeine were found at higher concentrations in cold brew coffee made with medium roast coffees, rather than dark roast. The grind size did not impact 3-CGA and caffeine concentrations of cold brew samples significantly, indicating that the rate determining step in extraction for these compounds did not depend on surface area. Caffeine concentrations in cold brew coarse grind samples were substantially higher than their hot brew counterparts. 3-CGA concentrations and pH were comparable between cold and hot brews. This work suggests that the difference in acidity of cold brew coffee is likely not due to 3-CGA or caffeine concentrations considering that most acids in coffee are highly soluble and extract quickly. It was determined that caffeine and 3-CGA concentrations reached equilibrium according to first order kinetics between 6 and 7 hours in all cold brew samples instead of 10 to 24 hours outlined in typical cold brew methods.

  20. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  1. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Abelmann, Anders; Pierce, Jennifer S; Glynn, Meghan E; Henshaw, John L; McCarthy, Lauren A; Lotter, Jason T; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (roast combination and sample location, diketone concentrations during grinding were higher than those measured during roasting. During grinding, concentrations decreased with increased distance from the source. Measured concentrations of both diketones were higher during grinding of soft beans than hard beans. The results indicate that airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1) are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2) are likely to exceed some recommended

  2. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    PubMed

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Luethi, Regina; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2007-08-08

    Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes.

  4. Identification and in vitro cytotoxicity of ochratoxin A degradation products formed during coffee roasting.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Benedikt; Königs, Maika; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-07-23

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A is degraded by up to 90% during coffee roasting. In order to investigate this degradation, model heating experiments with ochratoxin A were carried out, and the reaction products were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Two ochratoxin A degradation products were identified, and their structure and absolute configuration were determined. As degradation reactions, the isomerization to 14-(R)-ochratoxin A and the decarboxylation to 14-decarboxy-ochratoxin A were identified. Subsequently, an analytical method for the determination of these compounds in roasted coffee was developed. Quantification was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS and the use of stable isotope dilution analysis. By using this method for the analysis of 15 coffee samples from the German market, it could be shown that, during coffee roasting, the ochratoxin A diastereomer 14-(R)-ochratoxin A was formed in amounts of up to 25.6% relative to ochratoxin A. The decarboxylation product was formed only in traces. For toxicity evaluations, first preliminary cell culture assays were performed with the two new substances. Both degradation products exhibited higher IC50 values and caused apoptotic effects with higher concentrations than ochratoxin A in cultured human kidney epithelial cells. Thus, these cell culture data suggest that the degradation products are less cytotoxic than ochratoxin A.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of roasting on the structure of coffee galactomannans using model oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana S P; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Simões, Joana; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2011-09-28

    The roasting process induces structural changes in coffee galactomannans. To know more about the reaction pathways that occur during the roasting of coffee, mannosyl and galactomannosyl oligosaccharides, having a degree of polymerization (DP) between 3 and 4, were used as models for galactomannans. These compounds were dry-heated under air atmosphere from room temperature to 200 °C, being maintained at 200 °C for different periods of time. The roasted materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, MALDI-MS, and ESI-MSn) and methylation analysis. In the MS spectra were identified several [M+Na]+ ions belonging to a series from a single hexose to 10 hexose residues ([Hex1-10+Na]+). The ions corresponding to their respective mono- and tridehydrated derivatives ([Hex2-10-H2O+Na]+ and [Hex2-10-3H2O+Na]+, respectively) were also identified. ESI-MSn as well as deuterium-labeling and alditol derivatization experiments showed that the tridehydrations occur at the reducing end of the oligosaccharides. The identification of (1→2)- and (1→6)-linked mannose residues and (1→4)-linked glucose residues by methylation analysis allowed the conclusion that transglycosylation and isomerization reactions occur during dry thermal processing.

  6. Survey on acrylamide in roasted coffee and barley and in potato crisps sold in Italy by a LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Rastelli, Silvia; Mulazzi, Annalisa; Pietri, Amedeo

    2017-12-01

    A survey on the occurrence of acrylamide (AA) in roasted coffee, barley, and potato crisps was carried out using an intra-lab validated liquid chromatography (LC)-MS (mass spectrometry)/MS method. Over the years 2015-2016, 66 samples of coffee, 22 of roasted barley, and 22 of potato crisps were collected from retail outlets in Italy. AA was detected in almost all samples. In roasted coffee, the level exceeded 450 µg kg -1 , the limit recommended by the European Commission (EC), in 36.4% of the samples. In roasted barley, mean contamination was slightly lower than in coffee and no sample exceeded the EC limit of 2000 µg kg -1 . The AA contamination in potato crisps was remarkable. A percentage of 36.4 (n = 8) showed a value higher than the EC limit of 1000 µg kg -1 . Considering the average consumption of coffee and potato crisps by Italian people, AA exposure is significant and should be decreased.

  7. Regularly consuming a green/roasted coffee blend reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; García-Diz, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo-Clemente, Laura

    2018-02-01

    Preventive health effects of coffee could have a widespread impact on public health. Green coffee has more phenols than roasted, and thus is healthier, although with less acceptable organoleptic properties. Therefore, the effects of regularly consuming a green/roasted coffee blend (35/65) on the main components of MetS in humans were evaluated. A crossover, randomized, controlled study was performed in 25 normocholesterolaemic and 27 hypercholesterolaemic men and women aged 18-45 years with BMI 18-25 kg/m 2 . Three servings/day of the blend, providing 510.6 mg hydroxycinnamic acids and 121.2 mg caffeine/day, were consumed versus a control drink, during 8 weeks each. Polyphenol and methylxanthine-rich foods were restricted along the study. At the beginning (baseline) and end of the control and coffee interventions, blood samples were collected and glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin and visfatin were analysed; waist circumference, %body fat, and blood pressure were measured and dietary records and physical activity questionnaires completed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) in both groups as well as %body fat (p = 0.001) which may be related to the lower leptin (p = 0.001), PAI-1 (p < 0.001) and resistin (p = 0.034) levels in the two groups after coffee consumption. Glucose concentration (p = 0.030) and insulin resistance (p = 0.011; HOMA-IR) also decreased, as well as triglyceride levels (p = 0.017), so that the reduction was much greater in the hypercholesterolaemics (group effect, p = 0.027). Regular consumption of the green/roasted coffee blend may be recommended to healthy and hypercholesterolaemic subjects to prevent MetS, as it produces positive effects on blood pressure, glucose and triglyceride levels.

  8. Study of acrylamide in coffee using an improved liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method: Investigation of colour changes and acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting.

    PubMed

    Senyuva, Hamide Z; Gökmen, Vural

    2005-03-01

    An improved analytical method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee is described using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS). A variety of instant, ground and laboratory roasted coffee samples were analysed using this method. The sample preparation entails extraction of acrylamide with methanol, purification with Carrez I and II solutions, evaporation and solvent change to water, and clean-up with an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The chromatographic conditions allowed separation of acrylamide and the remaining matrix co-extractives with accurate and precise quantification of acrylamide during MS detection in SIM mode. Recoveries for the spiking levels of 50, 100, 250 and 500?microg/kg ranged between 99 and 100% with relative standard deviations of less than 2%. The effects of roasting on the formation of acrylamide and colour development were also investigated at 150, 200 and 225 degrees C. Change in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) a* colour value was found to show a good correlation with the change in acrylamide. CIE a* and acrylamide data was fitted to a non-linear logarithmic function for the estimation of acrylamide level in coffee. Measured acrylamide levels in commercial roasted coffees compared well with the predicted acrylamide levels from the CIE a* values.

  9. The Classification of Ground Roasted Decaffeinated Coffee Using UV-VIS Spectroscopy and SIMCA Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulia, M.; Asnaning, A. R.; Suhandy, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an investigation on the classification between decaffeinated and non- decaffeinated coffee samples using UV-VIS spectroscopy and SIMCA method was investigated. Total 200 samples of ground roasted coffee were used (100 samples for decaffeinated coffee and 100 samples for non-decaffeinated coffee). After extraction and dilution, the spectra of coffee samples solution were acquired using a UV-VIS spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-VIS, Thermo Scientific, USA) in the range of 190-1100 nm. The multivariate analyses of the spectra were performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The SIMCA model showed that the classification between decaffeinated and non-decaffeinated coffee samples was detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Freshness indices of roasted coffee: monitoring the loss of freshness for single serve capsules and roasted whole beans in different packaging.

    PubMed

    Glöss, Alexia N; Schönbächler, Barbara; Rast, Markus; Deuber, Louis; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    With the growing demand for high-quality coffee, it is becoming increasingly important to establish quantitative measures of the freshness of coffee, or the loss thereof, over time. Indeed, freshness has become a critical quality criterion in the specialty coffee scene, where the aim is to deliver the most pleasant flavor in the cup, from highest quality beans. A series of intensity ratios of selected volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of coffee (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were revisited, with the aim to establish robust indicators of freshness of coffee - called freshness indices. Roasted whole beans in four different packaging materials and four commercial capsule systems from the Swiss market were investigated over a period of up to one year of storage time. These measurements revealed three types of insight. First, a clear link between barrier properties of the packaging material and the evolution of selected freshness indices was observed. Packaging materials that contain an aluminum layer offer better protection. Second, processing steps prior to packaging are reflected in the absolute values of freshness indices. Third, differences in the standard deviations of freshness-indices for single serve coffee capsule systems are indicative of differences in the consistency among systems, consistency being an important quality attribute of capsules.

  11. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    PubMed

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  12. Static headspace analysis using polyurethane phases--application to roasted coffee volatiles characterization.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, C; Portugal, F C M; Nogueira, J M F

    2012-01-30

    Static headspace sorptive extraction using polyurethane foams (HSSE(PU)) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is proposed for volatile analysis. The application of this novel analytical approach to characterize the volatiles profile from roasted coffee samples, selected as model system, revealed remarkable advantages under convenient experimental conditions. The comparison of HSSE(PU) with other well-established procedures, such as headspace sorptive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane (HSSE(PDMS)) and headspace solid phase microextraction using carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers (HS-SPME(CAR/PDMS)), showed that the former presented much higher capacity, sensitivity and even selectivity, where larger abundance and number of roasted coffee volatile compounds (e.g. furans, pyrazines, ketones, acids and pyrroles) could be achieved, under similar experimental conditions. The data presented herein proved, for the first time, that PU foams present great performance for static headspace sorption-based procedures, showing to be an alternative polymeric phase for volatile analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of analytical conditions for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guatemala-Morales, Guadalupe María; Beltrán-Medina, Elisa Alejandra; Murillo-Tovar, Mario Alfonso; Ruiz-Palomino, Priscilla; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique

    2016-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of significant interest due to their genotoxicity in humans. PAHs quantification in coffee is complex since some of its compounds interfere in the chromatographic analysis, which hinders the reliable determination of the PAHs. Analytical conditions for the ultrasound extraction, purification and quantification of 16 PAHs in roasted coffee were studied. The better extraction efficiency of benzo[a]pyrene (68%) from ground-roasted coffee was achieved with a solvent ratio of Hex:MC (9:1 v/v) and three extraction periods of 20 min, followed by alkaline saponification and purification of the extracts. The detection limits were 0.85-39.32 ng mL(-1), and the quantification limits from 2.84 to 131.05 ng mL(-1), obtained for fluoranthene and chrysene, respectively. The extraction was effective for most of the analytes, with recoveries of 39.8% dibenzo[ah]anthracene and 69.0% benzo[b]fluoranthene. For coffee roasted in a spouted bed reactor, the summation of the 16 PAHs ranged from 3.5 to 16.4 μg kg(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mepiquat: A Process-Induced Byproduct in Roasted Cereal-Based Foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Stadler, Richard H; Wermann, Silke; Hofmann, Jocelyne; Theurillat, Viviane; Combremont, Raphaël; Delatour, Thierry

    2016-02-10

    Mepiquat, a growth regulator widely used in agriculture, is also known as a process-induced byproduct formed in coffee from natural constituents during heat treatments such as roasting. This study examines mepiquat formation in cereal-based foodstuffs treated at sufficiently high temperature to trigger methyl transfer reactions that involve glycine betaine and choline naturally present in cereals. Color measurements of roasted barley grains revealed a correlation between thermal treatment and mepiquat content. Trials at industrial scale on instant beverages composed of roasted cereals demonstrated significant increases in mepiquat during the thermal process (in the range of 140-205 μg/kg in final products). A targeted survey of commercial products showed mepiquat in the range 69-381 μg/kg in powdered cereal instant drinks and 42-168 μg/kg in mugicha tea, a roasted barley infusion. These findings will not significantly affect the exposure of consumers to mepiquat due to the low amounts detected.

  15. A dark brown roast coffee blend is less effective at stimulating gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers compared to a medium roast market blend.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of (β) N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Identification of crypto- and neochlorogenic lactones as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Honda, Sari; Miura, Yukari; Masuda, Akiko; Masuda, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity has been found in boiling water extracts from roasted coffee beans. Therefore, assay-guided purification of the extracts was performed using size-exclusion column chromatography, and subsequently with reversed phase HPLC to afford lactone derivatives of chlorogenic acids. Among the tested lactones, crypto- and neochlorogenic lactones showed potent XO inhibitory activities compared with three major chlorogenic acids found in coffee beans. These XO inhibitory lactones may ameliorate gout and hyperuricemia in humans who drink coffee.

  17. Roasting intensity of naturally low-caffeine Laurina coffee modulates glucose metabolism and redox balance in humans.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Mazzucco, Sara; Situlin, Roberta; Mohorko, Nina; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala; Petelin, Ana; Tence, Marcello; Pišot, Rado; Navarini, Luciano; Biolo, Gianni

    2016-09-01

    Coffee consumption is negatively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. Coffee roasting can greatly modify the quality-quantitative characteristics of bioactive compounds. We compared the effects of two different roasting intensities of the same naturally low-caffeine Arabica coffee variety (Laurina) on glucose and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. We performed a double-blind, crossover intervention study. Fourteen healthy male volunteers consumed four cups daily of light roasted coffee (LRC) and dark roasted coffee (DRC), each for 1 wk (intervention period 1 and 2 respectively). One wk washout, with total abstinence from coffee and other possible caffeine sources, preceded each intervention. Data were collected at the end of washout and intervention periods. Changes between washout and intervention periods in glucose concentrations at 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test, were significantly lower after DRC than LRC intake (-0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.03). Changes in β-cell function, assessed as insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2, were significantly greater after DRC than LRC (34.7 ± 25.0 and -18.8 ± 21.0, P = 0.03). The initial (30 min) post-oral glucose tolerance test area under the curve of glucagon-like peptide-1 was 24± 9% greater (P = 0.03) after DRC than LRC. LRC or DRC did not affect insulin sensitivity. Changes from basal of reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in erythrocytes were significantly greater after DRC than LRC (+1437 ± 371 and -152 ± 30, P < 0.05). The omega-3 index in erythrocyte membranes was 16± 4% greater (P < 0.001) after DRC than LRC. DRC consumption improved postload glucose metabolism by increasing incretin and insulin secretions. DRC compared to LRC improved redox balance and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, we suggest greater metabolic benefits related to DRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of acrylamide level in coffee and coffee substitutes: influence of raw material and manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    significant negative correlation was observed between acrylamide levels and the intensity of colour in roasted coffee; this was not the case however for instant coffee. It was demonstrated that roasting process had the most significant effect on acrylamide levels in natural coffee, however there were no relationships found with coffee species. Due to the high acrylamide levels demonstrated in coffee substitutes, recommended amounts should be defined and manufacturers should be obliged to reduce such levels in these products.

  19. Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Ongo, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers' business protection and customers' rights safeguard. Differentiation of coffees on the basis of geographical origin is still a challenging issue, though possible by means of chemical techniques [1]. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles [2]. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, Electronic Noses (ENs) could be interesting candidates for distinguishing the geographical provenience by exploiting differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is directed toward the characterization of green and roasted coffees samples according to their geographical origin.

  20. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A pilot study of NMR-based sensory prediction of roasted coffee bean extracts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be considered a kind of "magnetic tongue" for the characterisation and prediction of the tastes of foods, since it provides a wealth of information in a nondestructive and nontargeted manner. In the present study, the chemical substances in roasted coffee bean extracts that could distinguish and predict the different sensations of coffee taste were identified by the combination of NMR-based metabolomics and human sensory test and the application of the multivariate projection method of orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS). In addition, the tastes of commercial coffee beans were successfully predicted based on their NMR metabolite profiles using our OPLS model, suggesting that NMR-based metabolomics accompanied with multiple statistical models is convenient, fast and accurate for the sensory evaluation of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative carbonyl profile in coffee beans through GDME-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for coffee preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Liliana; Valente, Inês M; Santos, João Rodrigo; Rodrigues, José A

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an analytical methodology for volatile carbonyl compounds characterization in green and roasted coffee beans was developed. The methodology relied on a recent and simple sample preparation technique, gas diffusion microextraction for extraction of the samples' volatiles, followed HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The experimental conditions in terms of extraction temperature and extraction time were studied. A profile for carbonyl compounds was obtained for both arabica and robusta coffee species (green and roasted samples). Twenty-seven carbonyl compounds were identified and further discussed, in light of reported literature, with different coffee characteristics: coffee ageing, organoleptic impact, presence of defective beans, authenticity, human's health implication, post-harvest coffee processing and roasting. The applied methodology showed to be a powerful analytical tool to be used for coffee characterization as it measures marker compounds of different coffee characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol in a coffee model system.

    PubMed

    Albouchi, Abdullatif; Murkovic, Michael

    2018-03-15

    The production of furfuryl alcohol from green coffee during roasting and the effect of multiple parameters on its formation were studied employing HPLC-DAD. Results show that coffee produces furfuryl alcohol in larger quantities (418µg/g) compared to other beans or seeds (up to 132µg/g) roasted under the same conditions. The kinetics of furfuryl alcohol production resemble those of other process contaminants (e.g., HMF, acrylamide) produced in coffee roasting, with temperature and time of roasting playing significant roles in quantities formed. Different coffee species yielded different amounts of furfuryl alcohol. The data point out that the amounts of furfuryl alcohol found in roasted coffee do not reflect the total amounts produced during roasting because great amounts of furfuryl alcohol (up to 57%) are evaporating and released to the atmosphere during roasting. Finally the effect of the moisture content on furfuryl alcohol formation was found to be of little impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of NMR-Based Metabolomics To Chemically Characterize the Roasting Process of Chicory Root.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Zhang, Mimin; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-08-16

    Roasted chicory root (Cichorium intybus) has been widely accepted as the most important coffee substitute. In this study, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis was performed to monitor the substantial changes in the composition of chicory root during the roasting process. A detailed signal assignment of dried raw and roasted chicory roots was carried out using 1 H, 13 C, 1 H- 1 H DQF-COSY, 1 H- 13 C edited-HSQC, 1 H- 13 C CT-HMBC, and 1 H- 13 C HSQC-TOCSY NMR spectra. On the basis of the signal assignments, 36 NMR-visible components were monitored simultaneously during roasting. Inulins, sucrose, and most of the amino acids were largely degraded during the roasting process, whereas monosaccharides decreased at the beginning and then increased until the dark roasting stage. Acetamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, di-d-fructose dianhydride, and norfuraneol were newly formed during roasting. Furthermore, a principal component analysis score plot indicated that similar chemical composition profiles could be achieved by roasting the chicory root either at a higher firepower for a shorter time or at a lower firepower for a longer time.

  5. Rapid mixed mode solid phase extraction method for the determination of acrylamide in roasted coffee by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Munari, Marina; Anese, Monica; Verardo, Giancarlo

    2012-12-15

    In this work, a rapid and reliable purification method based on a single mixed solid phase extraction (SPE) column, for the determination of acrylamide in roasted coffee by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, was developed. Deuterium labelled d(3)-acrylamide was used as internal standard. Acrylamide was extracted by 10 mL of water and the extract purified by a single SPE column consisting of 0.5 g of an in-house prepared mixture of C18, strong cation (SCX) and anion exchange (SAX) sorbents in the ratio 2/1.5/1.5 (w/w/w). The amount of the three sorbents was optimised in order to eliminate the main interfering compounds present in coffee extracts, such as melanoidins, trigonelline, chlorogenic acids and caffeine. The SPE procedure was very simple and consisted of pushing 1 mL of an aqueous coffee extract through the SPE column followed by 1 mL of water which was collected for the analysis. The method was tested on six samples of roasted coffee of different composition and roasting level. The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (n=6), was lower than 5%. The recovery of acrylamide at three spiked levels ranged from 92% to 95%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 5 and 16 μg kg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NMR-driven identification of anti-amyloidogenic compounds in green and roasted coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Ciaramelli, Carlotta; Palmioli, Alessandro; De Luigi, Ada; Colombo, Laura; Sala, Gessica; Riva, Chiara; Zoia, Chiara Paola; Salmona, Mario; Airoldi, Cristina

    2018-06-30

    To identify food and beverages that provide the regular intake of natural compounds capable of interfering with toxic amyloidogenic aggregates, we developed an experimental protocol that combines NMR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, in vitro biochemical and cell assays to detect anti-Aβ molecules in natural edible matrices. We applied this approach to investigate the potential anti-amyloidogenic properties of coffee and its molecular constituents. Our data showed that green and roasted coffee extracts and their main components, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and melanoidins, can hinder Aβ on-pathway aggregation and toxicity in a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Coffee extracts and melanoidins also counteract hydrogen peroxide- and rotenone-induced cytotoxicity and modulate some autophagic pathways in the same cell line. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Steam pressure treatment of defective Coffea canephora beans improves the volatile profile and sensory acceptance of roasted coffee blends.

    PubMed

    Kalschne, Daneysa Lahis; Viegas, Marcelo Caldeira; De Conti, Antonio José; Corso, Marinês Paula; Benassi, Marta de Toledo

    2018-03-01

    Between 15 and 20% of Brazilian coffee production corresponds to defective beans (PVA), which decreases the quality of the coffee brew. Steam treatment has been reported as an alternative to improve the volatile profile and cup quality of coffee. The aim of this study was to propose a steam treatment of defective Coffea canephora beans to improve the volatile profile of the roasted coffee. The sensory impacts of adding steamed coffee (SC) in Coffea arabica blends were evaluated. The steam treatments studied modified the volatile profile of roasted SCs, increasing the contents of acetoin, benzyl alcohol, maltol, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-furfurylthiol, and 5-methylfurfural and decreasing the contents of 4-ethylguaiacol, isovaleric acid, methional, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Among the evaluated parameters, the best condition to maximized the content of the volatiles with a potential positive impact and minimize those with a potential negative impact was 5bar/16min (SC 5). The thresholds of consumer rejection and of detection indicate that up to 30% SC 5 can be added to a high cup quality Coffea arabica coffee without perception or rejection of the coffee brew. A blend of 30% of SC 5 and 70% of Coffea arabica was well accepted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage

    PubMed Central

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

  9. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    PubMed

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees.

    PubMed

    Farah, Adriana; de Paulis, Tomas; Moreira, Daniel P; Trugo, Luiz C; Martin, Peter R

    2006-01-25

    The market for decaffeinated coffees has been increasingly expanding over the years. Caffeine extraction may result in losses of other compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and, consequently, their 1,5-gamma-quinolactones (CGL) in roasted coffee. These phenolic compounds are important for flavor formation as well as the health effects of coffee; therefore, losses due to decaffeination need to be investigated. The present study evaluates the impact of decaffeination processing on CGA and CGL levels of green and roasted arabica coffees. Decaffeination produced a 16% average increase in the levels of total CGA in green coffee (dry matter), along with a 237% increase in CGL direct precursors. Different degrees of roasting showed average increments of 5.5-18% in CGL levels of decaffeinated coffee, compared to regular, a change more consistent with observed levels of total CGA than with those of CGL direct precursors in green samples. On the other hand, CGA levels in roasted coffee were 3-9% lower in decaffeinated coffee compared to regular coffee. Although differences in CGA and CGL contents of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffees appear to be relatively small, they may be enough to affect flavor characteristics as well as the biopharmacological properties of the final beverage, suggesting the need for further study.

  11. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  12. Monitoring single coffee bean roasting by direct volatile compound analysis with proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yener, Sine; Navarini, Luciano; Lonzarich, Valentina; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Bonn, Günther K; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-09-01

    This study applies proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of volatile compounds released from single coffee beans. The headspace volatile profiles of single coffee beans (Coffeea arabica) from different geographical origins (Brazil, Guatemala and Ethiopia) were analyzed via offline profiling at different stages of roasting. The effect of coffee geographical origin was reflected on volatile compound formation that was supported by one-way ANOVA. Clear origin signatures were observed in the formation of different coffee odorants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Catechol--an oviposition stimulant for cigarette beetle in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Atsuhiko; Kamada, Yuji; Kosaka, Yuji; Arakida, Naohiro; Hori, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, is a serious global pest that preys on stored food products. Larvae of the beetle cannot grow on roasted coffee beans or dried black or green tea leaves, although they oviposit on such products. We investigated oviposition by the beetles on MeOH extracts of the above products. The number of eggs laid increased with an increase in dose of each extract, indicating that chemical factors stimulate oviposition by the beetles. This was especially true for \\ coffee bean extracts, which elicited high numbers of eggs even at a low dose (0.1 g bean equivalent/ml) compared to other extracts. Coffee beans were extracted in hexane, chloroform, 1-butanol, MeOH, and 20% MeOH in water. The number of eggs laid was higher on filter papers treated with chloroform, 1-butanol, MeOH, and 20% MeOH in water extracts than on control (solvent alone) papers. The chloroform extract was fractionated by silica-gel column chromatography. Nine compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from an active fraction. Of these compounds, only a significant ovipositional response to catechol was observed.

  14. Release kinetics of volatile organic compounds from roasted and ground coffee: online measurements by PTR-MS and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Maria-L; Lindinger, Christian; Gumy, Jean-C; Liardon, Remy

    2007-12-12

    The present work shows the possibilities and limitations in modeling release kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from roasted and ground coffee by applying physical and empirical models such as the diffusion and Weibull models. The release kinetics of VOCs were measured online by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Compounds were identified by GC-MS, and the contribution of the individual compounds to different mass fragments was elucidated by GC/PTR-MS. Coffee samples roasted to different roasting degrees and ground to different particle sizes were studied under dry and wet stripping conditions. To investigate the accuracy of modeling the VOC release kinetics recorded using PTR-MS, online kinetics were compared with kinetics reconstituted from purge and trap samplings. Results showed that uncertainties in ion intensities due to the presence of isobaric species may prevent the development of a robust mathematical model. Of the 20 identified compounds, 5 were affected to a lower extent as their contribution to specific m/z intensity varied by <15% over the stripping time. The kinetics of these compounds were fitted using physical and statistical models, respectively, the diffusion and Weibull models, which helped to identify the underlying release mechanisms. For dry stripping, the diffusion model allowed a good representation of the release kinetics, whereas for wet stripping conditions, release patterns were very complex and almost specific for each compound analyzed. In the case of prewetted coffee, varying particle size (approximately 400-1200 microm) had no significant effect on the VOC release rate, whereas for dry coffee, the release was faster for smaller particles. The absence of particle size effect in wet coffee was attributed to the increase of opened porosity and compound diffusivity by solubilization and matrix relaxation. To conclude, the accurate modeling of VOC release kinetics from coffee allowed small variations in

  15. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  16. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717

  17. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    PubMed

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... of coffee beans reduces amounts of the chemical chlorogenic acid. Therefore, green coffee beans have a higher level of chlorogenic acid compared to regular, roasted coffee beans. Chlorogenic acid ...

  19. Mechanical behaviour of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) beans under loading compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalingging, R.; Herak, D.; Kabutey, A.; Sigalingging, C.

    2018-02-01

    The uniformity of the product of the grinding process depends on various factors including the brittleness of the roasted coffee bean and it affects the extraction of soluble solids to obtain the coffee brew. Therefore, the reaching of a certain degree of brittleness is very important for the grinding to which coffee beans have to be subjected to before brewing. The aims of this study to show the mechanical behaviour of Arabica coffee beans from Tobasa (Indonesia) with roasted using different roasting time (40, 60 and 80 minutes at temperature 174 °C) under loading compression 225 kN. Universal compression testing machine was used with pressing vessel diameter 60 mm and compression speed 10 mm min-1 with different initial pressing height ranging from 20 to 60 mm. The results showed that significant correlation between roasting time and the brittleness.

  20. Supercritical CO2 decaffeination of unroasted coffee beans produces melanoidins with distinct NF-κB inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yumin; Brown, Peter H; Hu, Kang; Black, Richard M; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Chu, Yi-Fang

    2011-09-01

    The supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process causes unroasted coffee beans to turn brown. Therefore, we suspected that the decaffeinated beans contained melanoidins. Decaffeinated unroasted coffee extract absorbed light at 405 nm with a specific extinction coefficient, K(mix 405 nm), of 0.02. Membrane dialysis (molecular weight cut-off, 12 to 14 kDa) increased the K(mix 405 nm) value 15 fold. Gel filtration chromatography showed that the high-MW fraction (MW > 12 kDa) had an elution profile closer to that of melanoidins of medium-roast coffee than to the corresponding fraction of unroasted coffee, indicating the presence of melanoidins in decaffeinated unroasted beans. Using murine myoblast C2C12 cells with a stably transfected nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase reporter gene, we found that the high-MW fraction of decaffeinated unroasted beans had an NF-κB inhibitory activity of IC(50) = 499 μg/mL, more potent than that of regular-roast coffee (IC(50) = 766 μg/mL). Our results indicate that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. We discovered the roasting effect of decaffeination process, reporting the discovery of melanoidins in green (unroasted) decaf coffee beans. Our results indicated that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO2-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. Our results offer new insights into the formation of bioactive coffee components during coffee decaffeination process. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Rapid and reliable QuEChERS-based LC-MS/MS method for determination of acrylamide in potato chips and roasted coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanović, S.; Đorđevic, V.; Jelušić, V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to verify the performance characteristics and fitness for purpose of rapid and simple QuEChERS-based LC-MS/MS method for determination of acrylamide in potato chips and coffee. LC-MS/MS is by far the most suitable analytical technique for acrylamide measurements given its inherent sensitivity and selectivity, as well as capability of analyzing underivatized molecule. Acrylamide in roasted coffee and potato chips wasextracted with water:acetonitrile mixture using NaCl and MgSO4. Cleanup was carried out with MgSO4 and PSA. Obtained results were satisfactory. Recoveries were in the range of 85-112%, interlaboratory reproducibility (Cv) was 5.8-7.6% and linearity (R2) was in the range of 0.995-0.999. LoQ was 35 μg kg-1 for coffee and 20 μg kg-1 for potato chips. Performance characteristic of the method are compliant with criteria for analytical methods validation. Presented method for quantitative determination of acrylamide in roasted coffee and potato chips is fit for purposes of self-control in food industry as well as regulatory controls carried out by the governmental agencies.

  2. Conceptual study on maillardized dietary fiber in coffee.

    PubMed

    Silván, José Manuel; Morales, Francisco J; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2010-12-08

    There is a methodological and conceptual overlap between coffee melanoidins and dietary fiber. Green Uganda coffee beans were roasted in a range from 8.1 to 21.6% of weight loss to evaluate melanoidins and dietary fiber. Samples were characterized by color, moisture, solubility, water activity, carbohydrates, polyphenols, protein, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and melanoidins content. Hydroxymethylfurfural and chlorogenic acids were also measured as chemical markers of the extent of roasting. Melanoidins rapidly increased from 5.6 (light roasting) to 29.1 mg/100 mg soluble dry matter (dark roasting). A melanoidins-like structure was already present in green coffee that might overestimate up to 21.0% of the melanoidins content as determined by colorimetric methods. However, its contribution is variable and very likely depends on the method of drying applied to green coffee. SDF content (mg/100 mg soluble dry matter) gradually increased from 39.4 in green coffee to 64.9 at severe roasting conditions due to incorporation of neoformed colored structures and polyphenols. Then, SDF progressively turns to a maillardized structure, which increased from 11.0 to 45.0% according to the roasting conditions. It is concluded that the content of coffee melanoidins includes a substantial part of dietary fiber and also that coffee dietary fiber includes melanoidins. A conceptual discussion on a new definition of coffee melanoidins as a type of maillardized dietary fiber is conducted.

  3. Quantification of volatile compounds released by roasted coffee by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2018-05-15

    The major objective of this exploratory study was to implement selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, as a method for the on-line quantification of the volatile organic compounds, VOCs, in the headspace of the ground roasted coffee. The optimal precursor ions and characteristic analyte ions were selected for real-time SIFT-MS quantification of those VOCs that are the most abundant in the headspace or known to contribute to aroma. NO + reagent ion reactions were exploited for most of the VOC analyses. VOC identifications were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS, coupled with solid-phase microextraction, SPME. Thirty-one VOCs were quantified, including several alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters and some heterocyclic compounds. Variations in the concentrations of each VOC in the seven regional coffees were typically less than a factor of 2, yet concentrations patterns characteristic of the different regional coffees were revealed by heat map and principal component analyses. The coefficient of variation in the concentrations across the seven coffees was typically below 24% except for furfural, furan, methylfuran and guaiacol. The SIFT-MS analytical method can be used to quantify in real time the most important odoriferous VOCs in ground coffee headspace to sufficient precision to reveal some differences in concentration patterns for coffee produced in different countries. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Role of degradation products of chlorogenic acid in the antioxidant activity of roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Masumi; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Jang, Hae Won; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-25

    Antioxidant activities of brewed coffees prepared from six commercial brands ranged from 63.13 ± 1.01 to 96.80 ± 1.68% at the highest levels tested. Generally, the degree of antioxidant activity of the brewed coffee was inversely proportional to the total chlorogenic acid concentration. A sample obtained from the major chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), heated at 250 °C exhibited potent antioxidant activity (79.12 ± 2.49%) at the level of 10 μg/mL, whereas unheated 5-CQA showed only moderate antioxidant activity (44.41 ± 0.27%) at the level of 100 μg/mL. Heat produced relatively high levels of pyrocatechol (2,809.3 μg/g) and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (46.4 μg/g) from 5-CQA, and their antioxidant activity levels were 76.57 ± 3.00 and 98.63 ± 0.01%, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that roasting degrades chlorogenic acids to form potent antioxidants and thus plays an important role in the preparation of high-antioxidant low-acid coffee.

  5. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  6. Quantitative assessment of specific defects in roasted ground coffee via infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dias, Rafael Carlos Eloy; Valderrama, Patrícia; Março, Paulo Henrique; Dos Santos Scholz, Maria Brigida; Edelmann, Michael; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2018-07-30

    Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation are the most applied methods for quality control of roasted and ground coffee (RG). However, faster alternatives would be highly valuable. Here, we applied infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) on RG powder. Mixtures of specific defective beans were blended with healthy (defect-free) Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora bases in specific ratios, forming different classes of blends. Principal Component Analysis allowed predicting the amount/fraction and nature of the defects in blends while partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis revealed similarities between blends (=samples). A successful predictive model was obtained using six classes of blends. The model could classify 100% of the samples into four classes. The specificities were higher than 0.9. Application of FTIR-PAS on RG coffee to characterize and classify blends has shown to be an accurate, easy, quick and "green" alternative to current methods. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Coffee versus Caffeine: Effects on Subjective and Behavioral Measures of Alertness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-12

    Mountain Dew and Sunkist Orange, simply add caffeine that is sold as a by-product of the decaffeination process by coffee companies (Gilbert, 1984...roasting process ) regardless of caffeine content, and both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee stimulate a much stronger gastric acid response than...with beverage ( decaffeinated coffee versus non- caf feinated herbal tea), thus exposing subjects to caffeine with and without coffee, and coffee with

  8. UHPLC-MS/MS determination of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in coffee using QuEChERS extraction combined with mixed-mode SPE purification.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai; de Medeiros, Lívia Soman; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2015-01-28

    A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed by mixed-mode reversed phase-anion exchange solid phase extraction. OTA and FB2 were detected at levels down to 0.5 and 2 μg/kg by UHPLC-MS/MS and quantitated via isotope dilution using U-(13)C-labeled FB2 and OTA as internal standards. Mixing 20% isopropanol in the acetonitrile of the acidic UHPLC gradient system increased the signal intensity by 50% and decreased the ion-suppression with 50-75% in roasted coffee samples. About half of the roasted coffee samples (n = 57, from 9 countries) contained detectable levels of OTA, however, with only 5 samples above the EU regulatory limit of 5 μg/kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However, in the green coffee samples (n = 18) almost half of the samples were positive with a maximum value of 164 μg/kg (sum of FB2, FB4, and FB6). This discrepancy between green coffee and processed coffees indicated that the fumonisins decompose during the roasting process, which was confirmed in roasting experiments. Here fumonisins could not be detected after roasting of the green, 164 μg/kg coffee, sample. Under the same conditions, OTA was reduced from 2.4 to 0.5 μg/kg.

  9. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  10. Study of the Pigments in Colombian Powdered Coffee Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Bedoya, A.; Marín, E.

    2017-01-01

    Biological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.

  11. Nutritional, chemical and antioxidant/pro-oxidant profiles of silverskin, a coffee roasting by-product.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anabela S G; Alves, Rita C; Vinha, Ana F; Costa, Elísio; Costa, Catarina S G; Nunes, M Antónia; Almeida, Agostinho A; Santos-Silva, Alice; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2018-11-30

    Coffee silverskin (a coffee roasting by-product) contains high amounts of dietary fibre (49% insoluble and 7% soluble) and protein (19%). Potassium (∼5g/100g), magnesium (2g/100g) and calcium (0.6g/100g) are the major macrominerals. The vitamin E profile of silverskin comprises α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, ɣ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol, ɣ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. The fatty acid profile is mainly saturated (C16:0 and C22:0), but the total amount of fat is low (2.4%). Caffeine (1.25g/100g), chlorogenic acid (246mg/100g), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5.68mg/100g) are also present in silverskin. Total phenolics and flavonoids are partially responsible for the in vitro antioxidant activity. Silverskin extracts protected erythrocytes from oxidative AAPH- and H 2 O 2 -induced hemolysis, but at high concentrations a pro-oxidant effect on erythrocyte morphology was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydroxyhydroquinone, a by-product of coffee bean roasting, increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat thymic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kamae, Risa; Nojima, Shoko; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Setsu, Shoki; Honda, Sari; Masuda, Toshiya; Oyama, Yasuo

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) is generated during coffee bean roasting. A cup of coffee contains 0.1-1.7 mg of HHQ. The actions of HHQ on mammalian DNA were examined because HHQ is a metabolite of benzene, which causes leukemia. Currently, information on the cellular actions of HHQ is limited. We examined the effects of sublethal levels of HHQ on the concentration of intracellular Ca 2+ in rat thymic lymphocytes by using a flow cytometric technique with fluorescent probes. HHQ at 10 μM or more significantly elevated intracellular Ca 2+ levels by increasing the membrane permeability of divalent cations, resulting in hyperpolarization via the activation of Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels. HHQ-induced changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and membrane potential may affect the cell functions of lymphocytes. HHQ-reduced coffee may be preferable in order to avoid the possible adverse effects of HHQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure determination and sensory analysis of bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers and their identification in roasted coffee by means of LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Frank, Oliver; Blumberg, Simone; Kunert, Christof; Zehentbauer, Gerhard; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-03-07

    Aimed at elucidating intense bitter-tasting molecules in coffee, various bean ingredients were thermally treated in model experiments and evaluated for their potential to produce bitter compounds. As caffeic acid was found to generate intense bitterness reminiscent of the bitter taste of a strongly roasted espresso-type coffee, the reaction products formed were screened for bitter compounds by means of taste dilution analysis, and the most bitter tastants were isolated and purified. LC-MS/MS as well as 1-D/2-D NMR experiments enabled the identification of 10 bitter compounds with rather low recognition threshold concentrations ranging between 23 and 178 micromol/L. These bitter compounds are the previously unreported 1,3-bis(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) butane, trans-1,3-bis(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-butene, and eight multiply hydroxylated phenylindanes, among which five derivatives are reported for the first time. In addition, the occurrence of each of these bitter compounds in a coffee brew was verified by means of LC-MS/MS (ESI-) operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The structures of these bitter compounds show strong evidence that they are generated by oligomerization of 4-vinylcatechol released from caffeic acid moieties upon roasting.

  14. Investigation of acyl migration in mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids under aqueous basic, aqueous acidic, and dry roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius Febi; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-09-17

    Acyl migration in chlorogenic acids describes the process of migration of cinnamoyl moieties from one quinic acid alcohol group to another, thus interconverting chlorogenic acid regioisomers. It therefore constitutes a special case of transesterification reaction. Acyl migration constitutes an important reaction pathway in both coffee roasting and brewing, altering the structure of chlorogenic acid initially present in the green coffee bean. In this contribution we describe detailed and comprehensive mechanistic studies comparing inter- and intramolecular acyl migration involving the seven most common chlorogenic acids in coffee. We employe aqueous acidic and basic conditions mimicking the brewing of coffee along with dry roasting conditions. We show that under aqueous basic conditions intramolecular acyl migration is fully reversible with basic hydrolysis competing with acyl migration. 3-Caffeoylquinic acid was shown to be most labile to basic hydrolysis. We additionally show that the acyl migration process is strongly pH dependent with increased transesterification taking place at basic pH. Under dry roasting conditions acyl migration competes with dehydration to form lactones. We argue that acyl migration precedes lactonization, with 3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone being the predominant product.

  15. Overview on the mechanisms of coffee germination and fermentation and their significance for coffee and coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V

    2017-01-22

    Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.

  16. An 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach to compare the chemical profiling of retail samples of ground roasted and instant coffees.

    PubMed

    Villalón-López, Nayelli; Serrano-Contreras, José I; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Gerardo Zepeda, L

    2018-04-01

    The present non-targeted 1 H NMR-based fingerprinting approach along with multivariate analysis established differences between representative aqueous extracts of commercial ground roasted coffee (GRC) and instant (soluble) coffee (IC) samples. The latter were prepared either by spray drying or freeze drying. When comparing a total of 33 compounds between GRC and IC, the latter product contained a remarkable increase in 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and carbohydrates, as well as a clear decrease in trigonelline, N-methylpyridinium, caffeine, caffeoylquinic acids and 2-furylmethanol. Furthermore, the current protocol was able to detect the subtle chemical differences between spray-dried and freeze-dried IC. The aforementioned metabolites could serve as target molecules in the attempt to preserve, as much as possible, the organoleptic and nutraceutical properties of GRC during the industrial drying processes used in the production of the two commercial types of IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure determination of 3-O-caffeoyl-epi-gamma-quinide, an orphan bitter lactone in roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Frank, Oliver; Blumberg, Simone; Krümpel, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-10-22

    Recent investigations on the bitterness of coffee as well as 5- O-caffeoyl quinic acid roasting mixtures indicated the existence of another, yet unknown, bitter lactone besides the previously identified bitter compounds 5- O-caffeoyl- muco-gamma-quinide, 3- O-caffeoyl-gamma-quinide, 4- O-caffeoyl- muco-gamma-quinide, 5- O-caffeoyl- epi-delta-quinide, and 4- O-caffeoyl-gamma-quinide. In the present study, this orphan bitter lactone was isolated from the reaction products generated by dry heating of 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid model, and its structure was determined as the previously unreported 3- O-caffeoyl- epi-gamma-quinide by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and one-/two-dimensional NMR experiments. The occurrence of this bitter lactone, exhibiting a low bitter recognition threshold of 58 micromol/L, in coffee beverages could be confirmed by LC-MS/MS (negative electrospray ionization) operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.

  18. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of maltose and lysine treatment on coffee aroma by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqin; Zhang, Haide; Wen, Nana; Hu, Rongsuo; Wu, Guiping; Zeng, Ying; Li, Xiong; Miao, Xiaodan

    2018-01-01

    Arabica coffee is a sub-tropical agricultural product in China. Coffee undergoes a series of thermal reactions to form abundant volatile profiles after roasting, so it loses a lot of reducing sugars and amino acids. Adding carbonyl compounds with amino acids before roasting could ensure the nutrition and flavour of coffee. The technology is versatile for the development of coffee roasting process. This investigation evaluates the effects of combining maltose and lysine (Lys) to modify coffee aroma and the possibly related mechanisms. Arabica coffee was pretreated with a series of solvent ratios of maltose and Lys with an identical concentration (0.25 mol L -1 ) before microwave heating. It was found that the combination of maltose and Lys significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced quality indices of coffee (pH and browning degree). Ninety-six aromatic volatiles have been isolated and identified. Twelve volatile profiles revealed the relationship between fragrance difference and compound content in coffee. Moreover, coffee aroma was modified by a large number of volatiles with different chemical classes and character. Thus, our results suggest that the combination of reagents changed overall aroma quality through a series of complex thermal reactions, especially the ratio of Lys/maltose over 2:1. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Acrylamide in coffee: review of progress in analysis, formation and level reduction.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Helmut; Anklam, Elke; Wenzl, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress made in understanding the formation of acrylamide in coffee, as well as potential reduction strategies, as presented during the joint CIAA/EC workshop on acrylamide, held in Brussels in March 2006. Currently, there are no concrete measures to reduce acrylamide concentrations in roast and ground coffee without appreciably changing the organoleptic properties of the product. Certain approaches, such as steam roasting, have been tried on a laboratory scale, albeit without affording a significant reduction. More work on the mechanisms governing the "loss" of acrylamide during storage of roast and ground coffee is warranted, and studies in this direction have been initiated. Finally, risk/benefit analysis must be addressed in a complex food such as coffee, known to harbour numerous health beneficial/chemoprotective compounds with antioxidant and antimutagenic properties.

  1. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Morari, Joseane; Souza, Aglécio Luis de; Silva, Marilene Neves da; de Almeida, Amanda Roberta; Veira-Damiani, Gislaine; Alegre, Sarah Monte; César, Carlos Lenz; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Maia, Nilson Borlina; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG) microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change) and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL). RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422), higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01), IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001) and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05) in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05) in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01). GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01) and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001) in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05) and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01), adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001) and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05). The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05). Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions.

  2. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  3. Exploring the Impacts of Postharvest Processing on the Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles during Green Coffee Bean Production

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyn, Florac; Zhang, Sophia Jiyuan; Pothakos, Vasileios; Torres, Julio; Lambot, Charles; Moroni, Alice V.; Callanan, Michael; Sybesma, Wilbert; Weckx, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The postharvest treatment and processing of fresh coffee cherries can impact the quality of the unroasted green coffee beans. In the present case study, freshly harvested Arabica coffee cherries were processed through two different wet and dry methods to monitor differences in the microbial community structure and in substrate and metabolite profiles. The changes were followed throughout the postharvest processing chain, from harvest to drying, by implementing up-to-date techniques, encompassing multiple-step metagenomic DNA extraction, high-throughput sequencing, and multiphasic metabolite target analysis. During wet processing, a cohort of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Lactobacillus) was the most commonly identified microbial group, along with enterobacteria and yeasts (Pichia and Starmerella). Several of the metabolites associated with lactic acid bacterial metabolism (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid, and mannitol) produced in the mucilage were also found in the endosperm. During dry processing, acetic acid bacteria (i.e., Acetobacter and Gluconobacter) were most abundant, along with Pichia and non-Pichia (Candida, Starmerella, and Saccharomycopsis) yeasts. Accumulation of associated metabolites (e.g., gluconic acid and sugar alcohols) took place in the drying outer layers of the coffee cherries. Consequently, both wet and dry processing methods significantly influenced the microbial community structures and hence the composition of the final green coffee beans. This systematic approach to dissecting the coffee ecosystem contributes to a deeper understanding of coffee processing and might constitute a state-of-the-art framework for the further analysis and subsequent control of this complex biotechnological process. IMPORTANCE Coffee production is a long process, starting with the harvest of coffee cherries and the on-farm drying of their beans. In a later stage, the dried green coffee beans are roasted and ground in order to

  4. Exploring the Impacts of Postharvest Processing on the Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles during Green Coffee Bean Production.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Florac; Zhang, Sophia Jiyuan; Pothakos, Vasileios; Torres, Julio; Lambot, Charles; Moroni, Alice V; Callanan, Michael; Sybesma, Wilbert; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The postharvest treatment and processing of fresh coffee cherries can impact the quality of the unroasted green coffee beans. In the present case study, freshly harvested Arabica coffee cherries were processed through two different wet and dry methods to monitor differences in the microbial community structure and in substrate and metabolite profiles. The changes were followed throughout the postharvest processing chain, from harvest to drying, by implementing up-to-date techniques, encompassing multiple-step metagenomic DNA extraction, high-throughput sequencing, and multiphasic metabolite target analysis. During wet processing, a cohort of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Lactobacillus) was the most commonly identified microbial group, along with enterobacteria and yeasts (Pichia and Starmerella). Several of the metabolites associated with lactic acid bacterial metabolism (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid, and mannitol) produced in the mucilage were also found in the endosperm. During dry processing, acetic acid bacteria (i.e., Acetobacter and Gluconobacter) were most abundant, along with Pichia and non-Pichia (Candida, Starmerella, and Saccharomycopsis) yeasts. Accumulation of associated metabolites (e.g., gluconic acid and sugar alcohols) took place in the drying outer layers of the coffee cherries. Consequently, both wet and dry processing methods significantly influenced the microbial community structures and hence the composition of the final green coffee beans. This systematic approach to dissecting the coffee ecosystem contributes to a deeper understanding of coffee processing and might constitute a state-of-the-art framework for the further analysis and subsequent control of this complex biotechnological process. Coffee production is a long process, starting with the harvest of coffee cherries and the on-farm drying of their beans. In a later stage, the dried green coffee beans are roasted and ground in order to brew a cup of coffee

  5. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Aglécio Luis; Alegre, Sarah Monte; César, Carlos Lenz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. Methods Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG) microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change) and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL). Results RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422), higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01), IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001) and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05) in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05) in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01). GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01) and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001) in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05) and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01), adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001) and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05). The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05). Conclusion Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions. PMID:29236720

  6. The Detection and Quantification of Adulteration in Ground Roasted Asian Palm Civet Coffee Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Tandem with Chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhandy, D.; Yulia, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Kondo, N.

    2018-05-01

    In the present research, an evaluation of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in tandem with full spectrum partial least squares (FS-PLS) regression for quantification of degree of adulteration in civet coffee was conducted. A number of 126 ground roasted coffee samples with degree of adulteration 0-51% were prepared. Spectral data were acquired using a NIR spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere for diffuse reflectance measurement in the range of 1300-2500 nm. The samples were divided into two groups calibration sample set (84 samples) and prediction sample set (42 samples). The calibration model was developed on original spectra using FS-PLS regression with full-cross validation method. The calibration model exhibited the determination coefficient R2=0.96 for calibration and R2=0.92 for validation. The prediction resulted in low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) (4.67%) and high ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) (3.75). In conclusion, the degree of adulteration in civet coffee have been quantified successfully by using NIR spectroscopy and FS-PLS regression in a non-destructive, economical, precise, and highly sensitive method, which uses very simple sample preparation.

  7. Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2017-04-05

    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.

  8. Impact of crema on the aroma release and the in-mouth sensory perception of espresso coffee.

    PubMed

    Barron, D; Pineau, N; Matthey-Doret, W; Ali, S; Sudre, J; Germain, J C; Kolodziejczyk, E; Pollien, P; Labbe, D; Jarisch, C; Dugas, V; Hartmann, C; Folmer, B

    2012-09-01

    A set of six espresso coffees with different foam characteristics and similar above cup and in-mouth flavour sensory profiles was produced by combination of two varying parameters, the extraction pressure and the filtration of the coffee beverage. The coffees were subsequently evaluated in a comparative manner by a set of analytical (headspace, nose-space) and sensory (Temporal Dominance of Sensations) techniques. The presence of espresso crema in its standard quantity was demonstrated to be associated with the optimum release of pleasant high volatiles, both in the above cup headspace and in-mouth. On the other hand, the TDS study demonstrated that increasing amount of crema was associated with increasing roasted dominance along coffee consumption. Furthermore, a parallel was established between the roasted sensory dominance and the dominant release of 2-methylfuran in the nose-space. This was, however, an indirect link as 2-methylfuran was indeed a chemical marker of roasting but does not contribute to the roasted aroma. Lowering the standard amount of crema by filtration clearly decreased the release of pleasant high volatiles and the in-mouth roasted sensory dominance. On the other hand, increasing the usual crema volume by increasing the extraction pressure did not bring any added value concerning the above cup and in-mouth release of pleasant high volatiles.

  9. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.

  10. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Coffee consumption has spread worldwide and differences in the raw bean consumption, in roasting conditions and in the extraction procedures used to prepare coffee brews result in a great diversity of chemical composition in the final product, the cup of coffee. Hence, beverage preparation is a fundamental step for enjoying the benefits of this…

  11. Bioactive β-carbolines norharman and harman in traditional and novel raw materials for chicory coffee.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia

    2015-05-15

    The β-carboline compounds norharman and harman exhibit neuroactive activity in the human body. Chicory coffee has proved to be a source of β-carboline compounds. This study assessed the norharman and harman contents of traditional and novel raw materials for the production of chicory coffee, as well as in samples of chicory coffee with novel additives. The highest content of the β-carbolines among the traditional raw materials was recorded in roasted sugar beet (2.26 μg/g), while roasting the chicory caused a 25-fold increase in the content of norharman in this raw material (from 0.05 to 1.25 μg/g). In novel raw materials not subjected to the action of high temperature, β-carboline was not detected. Among the roasted novel raw materials, the highest contents of harman and norharman were found in artichokes. High harman levels were also recorded in roasted chokeberry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attracting Students to Fluid Mechanics with Coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.

  13. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid lactones in a model system and in a coffee extract. Application to reduction of coffee bitterness.

    PubMed

    Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Page-Zoerkler, Nicole; Mauroux, Olivier; Gartenmann, Karin; Blank, Imre; Bel-Rhlid, Rachid

    2017-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid lactones have been identified as key contributors to coffee bitterness. These compounds are formed during roasting by dehydration and cyclization of their precursors, the chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present study, we investigated an approach to decompose these lactones in a selective way without affecting the positive coffee attributes developed during roasting. A model system composed of (3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone (3-CQAL), 4- caffeoyl quinic acid lactone (4-CQAL), and 4-feruloylquinic acid lactone (4-FQAL)) was used for the screening of enzymes before treatment of the coffee extracts. Hog liver esterase (HLE) hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid lactones (CQALs, FQALs) selectively, while chlorogenate esterase hydrolyzed all chlorogenic acids (CQAs, FQAs) and their corresponding lactones (CQALs, FQALs) in a non-selective way. Enzymatically treated coffee samples were evaluated for their bitterness by a trained sensory panel and were found significantly less bitter than the untreated samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in Coffee Beans by Sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lichtenberg, H.; Hormes, J.; Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn

    2007-02-02

    In this 'feasibility study' the influence of roasting on the sulfur speciation in Mexican coffee beans was investigated by sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy. Spectra of green and slightly roasted beans could be fitted to a linear combination of 'standard' reference spectra for biological samples, whereas longer roasting obviously involves formation of additional sulfur compounds in considerable amounts.

  15. Optimization of combined microwave-hot air roasting of malt based on energy consumption and neo-formed contaminants content.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, S; Laguerre, J C; Tattiyakul, J; Neugnot, B; Boivin, P; Morales, F J; Birlouez-Aragon, I

    2010-05-01

    To produce specialty malt, malts were roasted by combined microwave-hot air at various specific microwave powers (SP = 2.5 to 3 W/g), microwave heating times (t(mw) = 3.3 to 3.5 min), oven temperatures (T(oven) = 180 to 220 degrees C), and oven heating times (t(oven) = 60 to 150 min). The response variables, color, energy consumption by microwave (E(mw)) and oven (E(oven)), total energy consumption (E(tot)), quantity of neo-formed contaminants (NFCs), which include hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, furan, and acrylamide were determined. Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to analyze and predict the optimum conditions for the specialty malt. Production using combined microwave-hot air roasting process based on minimum energy consumption and level of NFCs. At 95% confident level, SP, T(oven), and t(oven) were the most influencing effects with regard to E(tot), whereas t(mw) did not affect E(tot). T(oven) and t(oven) significantly affected malt color. Only T(oven) significantly influenced the NFCs content. The optimum parameters were: SP = 2.68 W/g for 3.44 min, T(oven) = 206 degrees C for 136 min for coffee malt, SP = 2.5 W/g for 3.48 min, T(oven) = 214 degrees C for 136 min for chocolate malt, and SP = 2.5 W/g for 3.48 min, T(oven) = 211 degrees C for 150 min for black malt. Comparing with conventional process, combined microwave-hot air reduced E(tot) by approximately 40%, 26%, and 26% for coffee, chocolate, and black malts, respectively, and reduced HMF, furfural, furan, and acrylamide contents by 40%, 18%, 23%, and 95%, respectively, for black malt. An important goal for research institutions and the brewery industry is to produce colored malt by combining microwave and hot air roasting, while saving energy, getting desirable color, and avoiding the formation of carcinogenic and toxic neo-formed contaminants (NFCs). Therefore, one objective of this study was to compare energy consumption and content of NFCs during roasting of malt by hot air-only and

  16. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition.

  17. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    other large food service organizations. The policy of adjusting the amount of R&G coffee used in brewing recipes according to consumer preferences , as...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee- like

  18. Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: Inhibition by Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Simões, Cristiana; Maciel, Elisabete; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-07-15

    Under roasting conditions, polysaccharides depolymerize and also are able to polymerize, forming new polymers through non-enzymatic transglycosylation reactions (TGRs). TGRs can also occur between carbohydrates and aglycones, such as the phenolic compounds present in daily consumed foods like coffee. In this study, glycosidically-linked phenolic compounds were quantified in coffee melanoidins, the polymeric nitrogenous brown-colored compounds formed during roasting, defined as end-products of Maillard reaction. One third of the phenolics present were in glycosidically-linked form. In addition, the roasting of solid-state mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition allowed the conclusion that proteins play a regulatory role in TGRs extension and, consequently, modulate melanoidins composition. Overall, the results obtained showed that TGRs are a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in melanoidins and are inhibited by amino groups through Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of added nitrogen fertilizer on pyrazines of roasted chicory.

    PubMed

    Jouquand, Céline; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Loaec, Grégory; Tessier, Frédéric Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Coffee substitutes made of roasted chicory are affected by the formation of acrylamide whose main precursor is asparagine. One strategy for limiting the formation of acrylamide is to reduce free asparagine in the chicory roots by lessening the supply of nitrogen in the field. However, decreasing nitrogen fertilizer could affect the formation of the volatile compounds and, consequently, the sensory characteristics of the roasted chicory. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the nitrogen supply in five commercial varieties on their aroma profile. The addition of 120 kg ha -1 of nitrogen fertilizer in the field resulted in a greater amount of pyrazines in the roasted chicory. Triangle tests were performed to determine the effect of the nitrogen level on the sensory quality of the five varieties. The results revealed that the chicory aroma was modified in two out of five varieties. The results of the present study suggest that a strategy aiming to limit the amount of acrylamide could affect the sensory quality of some varieties of chicory. Further acceptance tests need to be conducted to assess the effect (whether favourable or otherwise) on the sensory quality of the coffee substitutes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet

    2012-08-30

    Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, several indices of browning and subsequent antioxidant values. Principal component analysis was used to interpret the correlations between physiochemical and antioxidant parameters of coffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (p<0.001) to capacity of coffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (p<0.001) to ABTS and TEMPO radical scavenging capacity, respectively. Only the CGA content of coffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-harvest practices linked with ochratoxin A contamination of coffee in three provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, Jonathan M; Barcelo, Racquel C

    2018-02-01

    One of the emerging concerns in the Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines is ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in coffee. During 2015 to 2016, a total of 51 Arabica (Coffea arabica) coffee samples from Benguet province and 71 Robusta (Coffea canephora var. Robusta) coffee samples from the provinces of Ifugao and Kalinga were analysed for OTA contamination. The OTA-producing fungal contaminants during drying and storage of Arabica and Robusta coffee were Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus. Ochratoxin A was more commonly detected in Robusta coffee (36.6%) than in Arabica coffee (21.6%). Among the contaminated samples, Robusta coffee cherries in the drying yard had the highest mean OTA level (120.2 μg kg -1 , n = 10) while roasted Robusta coffee beans had the lowest mean level (4.8 μg kg -1 , n = 9). The onset of contamination of Arabica coffee occurred during storage, with a mean OTA level of 46.7 μg kg -1 (n = 9). Roasted coffee had lower OTA content although five samples had levels >5.0 μg kg -1 . Pearson Chi-square analysis (χ 2 ) and Fisher's exact test revealed that several post-harvest practices involving non-removal of the husk or hull and mixing of defective coffee were significantly associated with the occurrence of OTA during drying and storage (p < 0.05). No significant associations, however, were identified during roasting. This study suggests that the post-harvest practices in Cordillera Administrative Region should focus on the removal of defective coffee in all stages of post-harvest and rapid reduction of moisture content particularly during drying.

  3. Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from spent coffee grounds by alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), obtained during the processing of coffee powder with hot water to make soluble coffee, are the main coffee industry residues and retain approximately seventy percent of the polysaccharides present in the roasted coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to extract polysaccharides from SCG by using an alkali pretreatment with sodium hydroxide at 25°C, and determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracted polysaccharides. Galactose (60.27%mol) was the dominant sugar in the recovered polysaccharides, followed by arabinose (19.93%mol), glucose (15.37%mol) and mannose (4.43%mol). SCG polysaccharides were thermostable, and presented a typical carbohydrate pattern. Additionally, they showed good antioxidant activity through different methods and presented high antimicrobial percent inhibition against Phoma violacea and Cladosporium cladosporioides (41.27% and 54.60%, respectively). These findings allow identifying possible applications for these polysaccharides in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

    2010-06-23

    Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds.

  5. Detection of corn adulteration in Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica) by tocopherol profiling and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, especially after the beans have been roasted and ground. Countries such as Brazil, the second largest coffee producer, have set limits on the allowable amount of coffee contamination and adulteration. Therefore, there is significant...

  6. Coffee induces breast cancer resistance protein expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Marina; Umezawa, Kazuo; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2011-01-01

    Coffee is a beverage that is consumed world-wide on a daily basis and is known to induce a series of metabolic and pharmacological effects, especially in the digestive tract. However, little is known concerning the effects of coffee on transporters in the gastrointestinal tract. To elucidate the effect of coffee on intestinal transporters, we investigated its effect on expression of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in a human colorectal cancer cell line, Caco-2. Coffee induced BCRP gene expression in Caco-2 cells in a coffee-dose dependent manner. Coffee treatment of Caco-2 cells also increased the level of BCRP protein, which corresponded to induction of gene expression, and also increased cellular efflux activity, as judged by Hoechst33342 accumulation. None of the major constituents of coffee tested could induce BCRP gene expression. The constituent of coffee that mediated this induction was extractable with ethyl acetate and was produced during the roasting process. Dehydromethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, inhibited coffee-mediated induction of BCRP gene expression, suggesting involvement of NF-κB in this induction. Our data suggest that daily consumption of coffee might induce BCRP expression in the gastrointestinal tract and may affect the bioavailability of BCRP substrates.

  7. Qualitative properties of roasting defect beans and development of its classification methods by hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Bae, Hyung-Jin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative properties of roasting defect coffee beans and their classification methods were studied using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The roasting defect beans were divided into 5 groups: medium roasting (Cont), under developed (RD-1), over roasting (RD-2), interior under developed (RD-3), and interior scorching (RD-4). The following qualitative properties were assayed: browning index (BI), moisture content (MC), chlorogenic acid (CA), trigonelline (TG), and caffeine (CF) content. Their HSI spectra (1000-1700nm) were also analysed to develop the classification methods of roasting defect beans. RD-2 showed the highest BI and the lowest MC, CA, and TG content. The accuracy of classification model of partial least-squares discriminant was 86.2%. The most powerful wavelength to classify the defective beans was approximately 1420nm (related to OH bond). The HSI reflectance values at 1420nm showed similar tendency with MC, enabling the use of this technology to classify the roasting defect beans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Identification of coffee leaves using FT-NIR spectroscopy and SIMCA.

    PubMed

    Mees, Corenthin; Souard, Florence; Delporte, Cedric; Deconinck, Eric; Stoffelen, Piet; Stévigny, Caroline; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel; De Braekeleer, Kris

    2018-01-15

    Abundant literature has been devoted to coffee beans (green or roasted) chemical description but relatively few studies have been devoted to coffee leaves. Given the fact that coffee leaves are used for food and medicinal consumption, it was of interest to develop a rapid screening method in order to identify coffee leaves taxa. Investigation by Fourier - Transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) was performed on nine Coffea taxa leaves harvested over one year in a tropical greenhouse of the Botanic Garden Meise (Belgium). The only process after leaves harvesting was an effective drying and a homogeneous leaves grinding. FT-NIRS with SIMCA analysis allowed to discriminate the spectral profiles across taxon, aging stage (mature and senescence coffee leaves) and harvest period. This study showed that it was possible (i) to classify the different taxa, (ii) to identify their aging stage and (iii) to identify the harvest period for the mature stage with a correct classification rate of 99%, 100% and 90%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cultivar and roasting technique on sensory quality of Bierzo roasted pepper.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Marcos; Sanz, Miguel A; Valenciano, José B; Casquero, Pedro A

    2011-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main horticultural products in the world. Roasted pepper is a high quality transformed product in the Iberian Peninsula, and obtained the recognition of 'Protected Geographical Indication' (PGI) of 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in 2002. Roasted pepper has been traditionally processed with a steel-sheet hob. However, there are no data available about the effect of roasting technique in the quality of roasted pepper. The objective of this work was to compare the sensory quality of roasted pepper using industrial roasting techniques. Sensory properties that showed significant differences between roasting techniques were colour, thickness and charred remains (appearance descriptors), bitterness (taste descriptor) and smokiness (after-taste descriptor). Higher value of descriptors such as colour, charred remains and smokiness for peppers elaborated in a rotary oven, helped roasted pepper to reach a higher level of overall quality, although rotary oven samples reached the lowest roast yield. Roasting technique, rather than landrace, had the greatest effect on the sensory quality of roasted pepper, so the rotary oven was the roasting technique that achieved the highest quality score. This will contribute to improve sensory quality and marketing of PGI 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in high quality markets. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Aflatoxin in detannin coffee and tea and its destruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, H A H

    2002-05-01

    The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.

  11. Development of an instant coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids.

    PubMed

    Corso, Marinês Paula; Vignoli, Josiane Alessandra; Benassi, Marta de Toledo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to present possible formulations for an instant coffee product enriched with chlorogenic acids for the Brazilian market. Formulations were prepared with different concentrations of freeze dried extracts of green Coffea canephora beans (G) added to freeze dried extracts of roasted Coffea arabica (A) and Coffea canephora (C). Medium (M) and dark (D) roasting degrees instant coffee were produced (AM, AD, CM and CD) to obtain four formulations with green extract addition (AMG, ADG, CMG and CDG). Chlorogenic acids were determined by HPLC, with average contents of 7.2 %. Roasted extracts and formulations were evaluated for 5-CQA and caffeine contents (by HPLC), browned compounds (absorbance 420 nm), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and Folin). Coffee brews of the four formulations were also assessed in a lab-scale test by 42 consumers for acceptance of the color, aroma, flavor and body, overall acceptance and purchase intent, using a 10 cm hybrid scale. The formulations obtained acceptance scores of 6.6 and 7.7 for all attributes, thus they were equally acceptable. Greater purchase intent was observed for ADG, CDG and CMG (6.9) in comparison to AMG (6.1). The formulations had, on average, 2.5 times more 5-CQA than the average obtained from conventional commercial instant coffees. In addition to being more economically viable, the formulations developed with C. canephora (CDG and CMG) showed greater antioxidant potential (32.5 g of Trolox/100 g and 13.8 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) due to a balance in the amount of bioactive compounds.

  12. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  13. Volatiles from roasted byproducts of the poultry-processing industry.

    PubMed

    Wettasinghe, M; Vasanthan, T; Temelli, F; Swallow, K

    2000-08-01

    Volatiles of roasted chicken breast muscle and byproducts, such as backbones, breastbones, spent bones, and skin, were investigated. Total volatile concentrations ranged from 2030 ppb in the roasted backbones to 4049 ppb in the roasted skin. The major classes of volatile compounds detected in roasted samples were aldehydes (648-1532 ppb) and alcohols (336-1006 ppb). Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing compounds were also detected in appreciable quantities (161-706 ppb) in all samples. For all samples, hexanal and 2-methyl-2-buten-1-ol were dominant among the aldehydes and alcohols, respectively. Among the nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, Maillard reaction products, such as tetrahydropyridazines, piperidines, and thiazoles, were the major contributors to the total volatile content in all samples. The composition of volatiles observed in roasted byproducts was markedly different from that of the roasted breast muscle. Therefore, the blending of the byproducts in appropriate proportions or blending of volatile flavor extracts from different byproducts may be necessary to obtain an aroma that mimics roasted chicken aroma.

  14. Chemical characterisation of non-defective and defective green arabica and robusta coffees by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Juliana C F; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Marcella

    2008-11-15

    The coffee roasted in Brazil is considered to be of low quality, due to the presence of defective coffee beans that depreciate the beverage quality. These beans, although being separated from the non-defective ones prior to roasting, are still commercialized in the coffee trading market. Thus, it was the aim of this work to verify the feasibility of employing ESI-MS to identify chemical characteristics that will allow the discrimination of Arabica and Robusta species and also of defective and non-defective coffees. Aqueous extracts of green (raw) defective and non-defective coffee beans were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and this technique provided characteristic fingerprinting mass spectra that not only allowed for discrimination of species but also between defective and non-defective coffee beans. ESI-MS profiles in the positive mode (ESI(+)-MS) provided separation between defective and non-defective coffees within a given species, whereas ESI-MS profiles in the negative mode (ESI(-)-MS) provided separation between Arabica and Robusta coffees. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Espresso coffees, caffeine and chlorogenic acid intake: potential health implications.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Thomas W M; Stalmach, Angelique; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    HPLC analysis of 20 commercial espresso coffees revealed 6-fold differences in caffeine levels, a 17-fold range of caffeoylquinic acid contents, and 4-fold differences in the caffeoylquinic acid : caffeine ratio. These variations reflect differences in batch-to-batch bean composition, possible blending of arabica with robusta beans, as well as roasting and grinding procedures, but the predominant factor is likely to be the amount of beans used in the coffee-making/barista processes. The most caffeine in a single espresso was 322 mg and a further three contained >200 mg, exceeding the 200 mg day(-1) upper limit recommended during pregnancy by the UK Food Standards Agency. This snap-shot of high-street expresso coffees suggests the published assumption that a cup of strong coffee contains 50 mg caffeine may be misleading. Consumers at risk of toxicity, including pregnant women, children and those with liver disease, may unknowingly ingest excessive caffeine from a single cup of espresso coffee. As many coffee houses prepare larger volume coffees, such as Latte and Cappuccino, by dilution of a single or double shot of expresso, further study on these products is warranted. New data are needed to provide informative labelling, with attention to bean variety, preparation, and barista methods.

  16. Biogas Technology on Supporting “Sustainable” Coffee Farmers in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been conducted in an area of coffee plantation in Samosir District, North Sumatera Province. The study was conducted in August until September 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefits of using biogas technology in supporting coffee farmers’ productivity to be sustainable, i.e. methane as energy source for coffee roasting proceed instead of fired wood and slurry as organic fertilizer. Coffee cherry causes environmental problem when it is dumped openly, hence it is used to mix with buffalo feces in biodigesters to produce methane and organic fertilizer. Five biodigesters were used with 5 differents designs of composition: T1) 100% buffalo feces, T2) 75% buffalo feces + 25% coffee cherry, T3) 50% buffalo feces + 50% coffee cherry, T4) 25% buffalo feces + 75% coffee cherry, and T5) 100% coffee cherry. The key parameters measured were methane production and slurry chemical compositions including NPK, pH, and C/N. It is found that designs T1 and T2 were superior in methane production, and about 400 liters of methane were used in roasting 3 kg coffee bean as opposed to 6,6 kg fired wood. Designs T1 and T2 were also better in slurry chemical compositions than the other 3 designs. It is recommeded that local coffee farmers utilize coffee cherry based biogas technology in order for their productivity to be sustainable. It is noteworthy that this study is continued with the next one in which the resulting slurries are implemented to foster the growth of the coffee plants during the period of October until December 2016.

  17. Determination of the alkylpyrazine composition of coffee using stable isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SIDA-GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Pickard, Stephanie; Becker, Irina; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Richling, Elke

    2013-07-03

    A stable isotope dilution analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (SIDA-GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 12 alkylpyrazines found in commercially available coffee samples. These compounds contribute to coffee flavor. The accuracy of this method was tested by analyzing model mixtures of alkylpyrazines. Comparisons of alkylpyrazine-concentrations suggested that water as extraction solvent was superior to dichloromethane. The distribution patterns of alkylpyrazines in different roasted coffees were quite similar. The most abundant alkylpyrazine in each coffee sample was 2-methylpyrazine, followed by 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, respectively. Among the alkylpyrazines tested, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine revealed the lowest concentrations in roasted coffee. By the use of isotope dilution analysis, the total concentrations of alkylpyrazines in commercially available ground coffee ranged between 82.1 and 211.6 mg/kg, respectively. Decaffeinated coffee samples were found to contain lower amounts of alkylpyrazines than regular coffee samples by a factor of 0.3-0.7, which might be a result of the decaffeination procedure.

  18. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  19. Extraction of coffee silverskin to convert waste into a source of antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangguh, Patrick; Kusumocahyo, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is a thin layer of coffee bean, and is regarded as a waste during coffee roasting process. In this work, coffee silverskin was extracted by three types of method: conventional extraction (CE) with agitation, conventional extraction (CE) without agitation and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the extract were analyzed. It was found that the type of extraction method, the extraction time and the extraction temperature strongly influenced the total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the extract. Comparison between conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA test. The optimum extraction time and temperature for each method were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA test. It was found that the optimum condition to obtain a high antioxidant activity of 68.9% was by using CE with agitation with the extraction time and temperature of 60 minutes and 60˚C, respectively.

  20. Trace detection of organic compounds in complex sample matrixes by single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry: real-time detection of security-relevant compounds and online analysis of the coffee-roasting process.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Kürten, Andreas; Hölzer, Jasper; Mitschke, Stefan; Mühlberger, Fabian; Sklorz, Martin; Wieser, Jochen; Ulrich, Andreas; Pütz, Michael; Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Schultze, Rainer; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    An in-house-built ion trap mass spectrometer combined with a soft ionization source has been set up and tested. As ionization source, an electron beam pumped vacuum UV (VUV) excimer lamp (EBEL) was used for single-photon ionization. It was shown that soft ionization allows the reduction of fragmentation of the target analytes and the suppression of most matrix components. Therefore, the combination of photon ionization with the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability of an ion trap yields a powerful tool for molecular ion peak detection and identification of organic trace compounds in complex matrixes. This setup was successfully tested for two different applications. The first one is the detection of security-relevant substances like explosives, narcotics, and chemical warfare agents. One test substance from each of these groups was chosen and detected successfully with single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (SPI-ITMS) MS/MS measurements. Additionally, first tests were performed, demonstrating that this method is not influenced by matrix compounds. The second field of application is the detection of process gases. Here, exhaust gas from coffee roasting was analyzed in real time, and some of its compounds were identified using MS/MS studies.

  1. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in coffee.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert C; Jang, Eric B; Follett, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. Although it is already present in most of the world's major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent reintroductions that might include hyperparasites or improve the genetic base of existing populations. Green coffee is shipped around the world for custom blending and roasting and such shipments carry the risk of spreading H. hampei. We used heavily infested coffee berries as a surrogate for green coffee to test the freezing tolerance of H. hampei. After freezing, all life stages of H. hampei were dissected from coffee berries and mortality was assessed. Counting all life stages, > 15,000 insects were measured in this study. A temperature of approximately -15 degrees C (range, -13.9 to -15.5) for 48 h provided 100% control of all life stages. A logit regression model predicted < or = 1 survivor in a million for treatments of -20 degrees C for 5 d or -15 degrees C for 6 d. A freezing treatment for green coffee might be more economical and acceptable compared with fumigation with methyl bromide, especially for small-scale and organic growers and millers in Hawaii who ship green coffee beans to other islands for custom roasting. Freezing treatments could also be used to kill H. hampei in coffee seeds before export with minimal effects on seed germination if coffee seeds are first dried to critical water content levels in accordance with published methods.

  2. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-01-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749

  3. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-02

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg -1 . In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg -1 ), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg -1 ) and tea (10-97 μg kg -1 ) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg -1 , and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  4. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  5. Crude ethanolic extract from spent coffee grounds: Volatile and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Page, Julio C; Arruda, Neusa P; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-11-01

    Espresso capsule consumption and spent coffee ground (SCG) generation have increased, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the volatile profile (VP), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the Crude ethanolic extract obtained from the SCG in capsules. The extract yield was superior to the ether yield because a higher unsaponifiable matter (U.M.) amount was recovered by ethanol. The obtained VP (70 compounds) was typical of roasted coffee oil. Furthermore, chemometric analysis using principal components (PCA) discriminated the extracts and grouped the replicates for each sample, which showed the repeatability of the extraction process. The AA ranged from 18.4 to 23.6 (mg extract mg DPPH -1 ) and the SPF from 2.27 to 2.76. The combination of the coffee VP, AA and SPF gave the espresso SCG's crude ethanolicextract, desirable properties that can be used in cosmetic and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coffee consumption, obesity and type 2 diabetes: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Roseane Maria Maia; Lima, Darcy Roberto Andrade

    2016-06-01

    The effects of regular coffee intake on weight gain and development of diabetes are reviewed. The pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes as well as the necessity of preventive options based on the increasing prevalence of these two disorders worldwide is briefly discussed. The relationship between weight gain and development of diabetes is also presented. The two major constituents in the brewed coffee, chlorogenic acids and caffeine, are responsible for many of the beneficial effects suggested by numerous epidemiological studies of coffee consumption and the development of diabetes. A wide search of various databases, such as PubMed and Google Scholar, preceded the writing of this manuscript, focusing on key words that are part of the title. It was selected mainly review papers from in vivo, ex vivo, in vitro experimental studies in animals and human tissues as well as wide population-based epidemiological studies in the last 10 years. As of today, there are mounting evidences of the reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes by regular coffee drinkers of 3-4 cups a day. The effects are likely due to the presence of chlorogenic acids and caffeine, the two constituents of coffee in higher concentration after the roasting process.

  7. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  8. Fast simultaneous analysis of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Farah, Adriana

    2008-10-15

    A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee was developed and validated. The method involved extraction with hot water, clarification with basic lead acetate and membrane filtration, followed by chromatographic separation using a Spherisorb(®) S5 ODS2, 5μm chromatographic column and gradient elution with 0.3% aqueous formic acid/methanol at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in the negative mode to generate sucrose ions and in the positive mode to generate caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid ions. Ionization suppression of all analytes was found due to matrix effect. Calibrations curves prepared in green and roasted coffee extracts were linear with r(2)>0.999. Roasted coffee was spiked and recoveries ranged from 93.0% to 105.1% for caffeine, from 85.2% to 116.2% for trigonelline, from 89.6% to 113.5% for nicotinic acid and from 94.1% to 109.7% for sucrose. Good repeatibilities (RSD<5%) were found for all analytes in the matrix. The limit of detection (LOD), calculated on the basis of signal-to-noise ratios of 3:1, was 11.9, 36.4, 18.5 and 5.0ng/mL for caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose, respectively. Analysis of 11 coffee samples (regular or decaffeinated green, ground roasted and instant) gave results in agreement with the literature. The method showed to be suitable for different types of coffee available in the market thus appearing as a fast and reliable alternative method to be used for routine coffee analysis. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulverization of coffee silverskin extract as a source of antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Kusumocahyo, S. P.; Widiputri, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is waste from coffee roasting process that has a value as source of antioxidant. In this research, two types of variant coffee Robusta and Arabica CS were extracted for their phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The extraction was done at 40°C for 60 minutes using hydroalcoholic solvent. The phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Robusta CS extract were 816.75 ± 63.24 mg GAE/L and 32.82 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 54.80% inhibition respectively, while for Arabica CS extract were 473.51 ± 56.70 mg GAE/L, 18.58 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 26.30% inhibition respectively. Thus, the Robusta coffee silverskin extract has higher value of total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee silverskin extract. To produce high antioxidant powder of CS extract, the effect of drying method (freeze drying and spray drying) affecting the phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The effect of evaporation prior to both drying processes was also evaluated. Evaporation caused up to 23% of total phenolic content degradation. Spray drying resulted in dried CS extract with degradation of total phenolic content up to 17%. On the other hand, freeze drying resulted no major degradation of total phenolic content. However, the coffee silverskin extract can be directly spray dried without evaporation resulting in higher amount of phenolic content in the powder than the one which was evaporated first.

  10. Exploration of conditions for microwave roasting of almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond roasting is an energy-intensive process that is usually performed via hot-air convection. Microwave roasting could be a more energy-efficient alternative to hot-air roasting, but microwave roasting of almonds has not yet been thoroughly explored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to deter...

  11. Cell‑specific and roasting‑dependent regulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway by coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Priftis, Alexandros; Angeli-Terzidou, Antonia-Eugenia; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2018-06-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage that contains various bioactive compounds. However, its molecular mechanism of action is not fully elucidated. In this context, two previously characterized coffee extracts, a lightly roasted and the corresponding green one, were investigated for their effect on nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) target gene expression in myoblasts and endothelial cells using quantitative PCR. The tested concentrations were non‑cytotoxic and led to improved redox cell status, as was evident by increased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. In both cell lines, the roasted extract upregulated gene expression more readily than its green counterpart leading to increased NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and γ‑glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, among others. The green extract had a mixed effect on the endothelial cells, while, as regards the myoblasts it caused the downregulation of some Nrf‑target genes. Therefore, a potential dose‑ and roasting‑dependent mechanism is proposed in the current study, accounting for coffee's antioxidant activity.

  12. Detection of addition of barley to coffee using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Oliveri, Paolo; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Lanteri, Silvia

    2012-09-15

    The current study presents an application of near infrared spectroscopy for identification and quantification of the fraudulent addition of barley in roasted and ground coffee samples. Nine different types of coffee including pure Arabica, Robusta and mixtures of them at different roasting degrees were blended with four types of barley. The blending degrees were between 2 and 20 wt% of barley. D-optimal design was applied to select 100 and 30 experiments to be used as calibration and test set, respectively. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was employed to build the models aimed at predicting the amounts of barley in coffee samples. In order to obtain simplified models, taking into account only informative regions of the spectral profiles, a genetic algorithm (GA) was applied. A completely independent external set was also used to test the model performances. The models showed excellent predictive ability with root mean square errors (RMSE) for the test and external set equal to 1.4% w/w and 0.8% w/w, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Real-Time PCR as a tool for monitoring the authenticity of commercial coffees.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thiago; Farah, Adriana; Oliveira, Tatiane C; Lima, Ivanilda S; Vitório, Felipe; Oliveira, Edna M M

    2016-05-15

    Coffee is one of the main food products commercialized in the world. Its considerable market value among food products makes it susceptible to adulteration, especially with cereals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a method based on Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of cereals in commercial ground roast and soluble coffees. After comparison with standard curves obtained by serial dilution of DNA extracted from barley, corn and rice, the method was sensitive and specific to quantify down to 0.6 pg, 14 pg and 16 pg of barley, corn and rice DNA, respectively. To verify the applicability of the method, 30 commercial samples obtained in different countries were evaluated and those classified as gourmets or superior did not present the tested cereals DNA. However, barley was detected in various traditional (cheaper) samples from South America. In addition, corn and rice were also detected in different samples. Real-Time PCR showed to be suitable for detection of food adulterants in commercial ground roast and soluble coffees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  15. Supercritical Fluid (SCF) Technologies: Assessment of Applicability to Installation Restoration Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-10

    SCW is almost gas-like (more than 20 times below room- temperature viscosity), which creates an increase in the diffusion coefficients such that the...pounds per year of green coffee [51]. Additionally, dry CO 2 is routinely used to extract the I aroma and flavor oils from roasted coffee beans. The bitter...refrigeration and processes such as U the decaffeination of coffee beans [56]. Also, during the cleaning of the residues from metal parts, the evaporation of post

  16. Provenance establishment of coffee using solution ICP-MS and ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Jenna L; Watling, R John

    2013-11-01

    Statistical interpretation of the concentrations of 59 elements, determined using solution based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), was used to establish the provenance of coffee samples from 15 countries across five continents. Data confirmed that the harvest year, degree of ripeness and whether the coffees were green or roasted had little effect on the elemental composition of the coffees. The application of linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis of the elemental concentrations permitted up to 96.9% correct classification of the coffee samples according to their continent of origin. When samples from each continent were considered separately, up to 100% correct classification of coffee samples into their countries, and plantations of origin was achieved. This research demonstrates the potential of using elemental composition, in combination with statistical classification methods, for accurate provenance establishment of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemometric models for the quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of Arabica coffee beverages using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J S; Ferreira, M M C; Salva, T J G

    2011-02-15

    Mathematical models based on chemometric analyses of the coffee beverage sensory data and NIR spectra of 51 Arabica roasted coffee samples were generated aiming to predict the scores of acidity, bitterness, flavour, cleanliness, body and overall quality of coffee beverage. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to construct the models. The ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm was applied to select the wavelengths for the regression model of each sensory attribute in order to take only significant regions into account. The regions of the spectrum defined as important for sensory quality were closely related to the NIR spectra of pure caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, cellulose, coffee lipids, sucrose and casein. The NIR analyses sustained that the relationship between the sensory characteristics of the beverage and the chemical composition of the roasted grain were as listed below: 1 - the lipids and proteins were closely related to the attribute body; 2 - the caffeine and chlorogenic acids were related to bitterness; 3 - the chlorogenic acids were related to acidity and flavour; 4 - the cleanliness and overall quality were related to caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, polysaccharides, sucrose and protein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coffee induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human neuroblastama SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Kakio, Shota; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Kobata, Kenji; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia-inducible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on neuronal and glial cells. On the other hand, recent epidemiological studies showed that daily coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of several neuronal disorders. Therefore, we investigated the effect of coffee on VEGF expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that even low concentration of coffee (<2%) strongly induced VEGF expression via an activation of HIF-1α. The activation of HIF-1α by coffee was attributed to the coffee-dependent inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF1α, which is essential for proteolytic degradation of HIF-1α. However, no inhibition was observed at the catalytic activity in vitro. Coffee component(s) responsible for the activation of HIF-1α was not major constituents such as caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline, but was found to emerge during roasting process. The active component(s) was extractable with ethyl acetate. Our results suggest that daily consumption of coffee may induce VEGF expression in neuronal cells. This might be related to protective effect of coffee on neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  19. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted. 319.81 Section 319.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that...

  20. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted. 319.81 Section 319.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that...

  1. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted. 319.81 Section 319.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that...

  2. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted. 319.81 Section 319.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that...

  3. A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Longsheng; Liu, Yahui; Qi, Tao; Wang, Jianchong; Wang, Lina

    2013-01-15

    A novel process for recovering iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates has been developed. In the present paper, the treatment of rich titanium-vanadium slag by NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes is investigated. In the NaOH molten salt roasting process, the metallic iron is oxidized into ferriferous oxide, MgTi(2)O(5) is converted to NaCl-type structure of Na(2)TiO(3), and M(3)O(5) (M=Ti, Mg, Fe) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of NaMO(2), respectively. Roasting temperature and NaOH-slag mass ratio played a considerable role in the conversion of titanium in the rich titanium-vanadium slag during the NaOH molten salt roasting process. Roasting at 500 °C for 60 min and a 1:1 NaOH-slag mass ratio produces 96.3% titanium conversion. In the water leaching process, the Na(+) was exchanged with H(+), Na(2)TiO(3) is converted to undefined structure of H(2)TiO(3), and NaMO(2) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of HMO(2). Under the optimal conditions, 87.3% of the sodium, 42.3% of the silicon, 43.2% of the aluminum, 22.8% of the manganese, and 96.6% of the vanadium are leached out. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Sustainable and Selective Roasting and Water-Leaching Process to Simultaneously Extract Valuable Metals from Low-Grade Ni-Cu Matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Fuhui; Mu, Wenning; Wang, Shuai; Xin, Haixia; Xu, Qian; Zhai, Yuchun

    2018-03-01

    Due to stringent environmental requirements and the complex occurrence of valuable metals, traditional pyrometallurgical methods are unsuitable for treating low-grade nickel-copper matte. A clean and sustainable two-stage sulfating roasting and water-leaching process was used to simultaneously extract valuable metals from low-grade nickel-copper matte. Ammonium and sodium sulfate were used as sulfating agents. The first roasting temperature, mass ratio of ammonium sulfate to matte, roasting time, dosage of sodium sulfate, second roasting temperature and leaching temperature were studied. Under optimal conditions, 98.89% of Ni, 97.48% of Cu and 95.82% of Co, but only 1.34% of Fe, were extracted. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to reveal the sulfating mechanism during the roasting process.

  5. Developing a carob-based milk beverage using different varieties of carob pods and two roasting treatments and assessing their effect on quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Srour, Nadine; Daroub, Hamza; Toufeili, Imad; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-07-01

    This work aimed at formulating a carob-based milk beverage and assessing its chemical and sensory properties. Six varieties of carob pods, each processed into roasted and unroasted powders, were used to develop 12 prototypes of the beverage. Chemical and physico-chemical analyses (moisture, ash, fibre, protein, sugars, total-phenolics, total-antioxidants, water activity and colour) and sensory tests were conducted. The variety of carob pod had a significant effect on all chemical variables in carob powders (P < 0.01), except for sugars, and when incorporated in the beverage, on moisture, total phenolics, total antioxidant activity and colour parameters (L, a, b; P-values < 0.001). Roasting treatment significantly increased fibre, total phenolics, total antioxidant activity (P-values < 0.001), fructose, glucose (P-values < 0.05), and a-value levels (P < 0.01), significantly lowered moisture (P < 0.05), water activity, L- and b-values (P-values < 0.001) in carob powders; and significantly increased the beverage's total phenolics, a-value (P-values < 0.001) and total antioxidant activity (P < 0.01). Roasting treatment significantly increased the beverage's acceptability ratings. Beverages formulated with roasted carob powder had higher ratings for level of residue, colour, caramel odour, mocha odour and flavour, roasted coffee odour and flavour, viscosity mouthfeel and bitter aftertaste. Principal component analysis was conducted; PC1 and PC2 separated attributes according to roasting treatment and variety of carob pods, respectively. The use of Akkari roasted and Baladi Ikleem el Kharoob roasted to formulate a carob-based milk beverage is recommended. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Exploration of conditions for microwave roasting of almonds (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond roasting is an energy-intensive process that is usually performed via hot-air convection. Microwave roasting could be a more energy-efficient alternative to hot-air roasting, but microwave roasting of almonds has not yet been thoroughly explored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to deter...

  7. Vanadium Recovery from Oil Fly Ash by Carbon Removal and Roast-Leach Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myungwon; Mishra, Brajendra

    2018-02-01

    This research mainly focuses on the recovery of vanadium from oil fly ash by carbon removal and the roast-leach process. The oil fly ash contained about 85% unburned carbon and 2.2% vanadium by weight. A vanadium-enriched product was obtained after carbon removal, and the vanadium content of this product was 19% by weight. Next, the vanadium-enriched product was roasted with sodium carbonate to convert vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium metavanadate. The roasted sample was leached with water at 60°C, and the extraction percentage of vanadium was about 92% by weight. Several analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), were utilized for sample analyses. Thermodynamic modeling was also conducted with HSC chemistry software to explain the experimental results.

  8. Physical characteristics of the paper filter and low cafestol content filter coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; Dos Santos Scholz, Maria Brígida; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2018-06-01

    The results found in the literature concerning the effect of consuming filter coffee brews on increasing the blood cholesterol levels due to the presence of diterpenes, are divergent. Thus the present research evaluated the diterpene (cafestol and kahweol) concentrations in filter coffee brews prepared with paper filters of different sizes, colors and origins (Brazil, Japan, The United States of America, Germany, France and the Netherlands), with and without micro perforations. This is the first study that reports the physical characteristics of paper filter and its importance to obtain filter coffee brew with low cafestol content. Thus, a sample of Catuai cultivar coffee with high cafestol content was roasted to a medium-light degree and used to prepare the brews in a 1:10 ratio (coffee powder to water). The diterpenes were extracted by direct saponification and quantified and identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The paper filters were physically characterized by measuring their grammage, and the fat permeation rate calculated in order to better understand the differences between the filters which allow one to obtain higher or lower diterpene contents. The cafestol and kahweol concentrations in the brews varied from 1.62 to 2.98 mg/L and from 0.73 to 1.96 mg/L, respectively. The highest cafestol and kahweol concentrations were obtained using paper filters with micro perforations, considering similar sized paper filters. The paper filters showed high fat permeability and grammages between 50.46 and 67.48 g/m 2 . The diterpene retention capacities of the filters produced in the different countries were similar. The results showed that the porosity of the paper filter and the particle size of the ground roasted coffee were determinant factors in obtaining filter coffee brews with lower cafestol contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Irradiation for Quarantine Control of Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Coffee and a Proposed Generic Dose for Snout Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2018-05-05

    Coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide. Green coffee used in blending and roasting is traded between countries and may be subjected to fumigation for disinfestation of CBB. For example, green coffee shipped to Hawaii from the U.S. mainland must be treated with methyl bromide. Irradiation is an alternative disinfestation treatment option. Dose-response tests were conducted with adult beetles to identify a sterilizing dose, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests with adults infesting coffee berries at 100 Gy (measured doses 84-102 Gy). In total, 6,598 adult CBBs naturally infesting dried coffee berries were irradiated at 100 Gy and produced no viable offspring, whereas 1,033 unirradiated controls produced 327 eggs, 411 larvae, and 58 pupae at 3 wk post treatment. This is the first study to develop a postharvest irradiation treatment for a scolytine bark beetle and supports other studies suggesting 150 Gy is sufficient to prevent reproduction in snout beetles in the superfamily Curculionoidea.

  10. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    PubMed

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indonesian palm civet coffee discrimination using UV-visible spectroscopy and several chemometrics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulia, M.; Suhandy, D.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesian palm civet coffee or kopi luwak (Indonesian words for coffee and palm civet) is well known as the world’s priciest and rarest coffee. To protect the authenticity of luwak coffee and protect consumer from luwak coffee adulteration, it is very important to develop a simple and inexpensive method to discriminate between civet and non-civet coffee. The discrimination between civet and non-civet coffee in ground roasted (powder) samples is very challenging since it is very difficult to distinguish between the two by using conventional method. In this research, the use of UV-Visible spectra combined with two chemometric methods, SIMCA and PLS-DA, was evaluated to discriminate civet and non-civet ground coffee samples. The spectral data of civet and non-civet coffee were acquired using UV-Vis spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-Vis, Thermo Scientific, USA). The result shows that using both supervised discrimination methods: SIMCA and PLS-DA, all samples were correctly classified into their corresponding classes with 100% rate for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  12. Heavy metals in wet method coffee processing wastewater in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Siu, Y; Mejia, G; Mejia-Saavedra, J; Pohlan, J; Sokolov, M

    2007-05-01

    One of the driving forces of the economy in southeast Mexico is agriculture. In Soconusco, Chiapas, coffee is one of the main agricultural products and is traded on the international market. Coffee grown in this region is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. In the beneficio (coffee processing plant) water is an essential resource which is required in great quantities (Matuk et al., 1997; Sokolov, 2002) as it is used to separate good coffee berries from defective ones, as a method of transporting the coffee berries to the processing machinery, in the elimination of the berry husk from the coffee grains (pulping) and finally in the post-fermentation washing process. This process gives rise to one of the smoothest, high-quality coffees available (Zuluaga, 1989; Herrera, 2002). Currently, many producers in Soconusco are opting for ecological coffee production, which has, among its many criteria, human health and environmental protection (Pohlan, 2005). Furthermore, increasing concern during the past few years regarding the production of food that is free from contaminants such as heavy metals, and recent environmental policies in relation to aquatic ecosystem protection, have given rise to questions concerning the quality of water used in coffee processing, as well as pollutants produced by this agroindustry. Water used in the coffee processing plants originates from the main regional rivers whose hydrological basins stretch from the Sierra Madre mountain range down to the coastal plain. As well as providing water, these rivers also receive the wastewater produced during coffee processing (Sokolov, 2002).

  13. Free α-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    α-Dicarbonyl (α-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) α-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) α-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant α-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in α-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free α-DC content. These findings suggest that α-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    PubMed

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  15. Improving the Desulfurization Degree of High-Grade Nickel Matte via a Two-Step Oxidation Roasting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Zhao; Wang, Zhixing; Li, Xinhai; Guo, Huajun; Yan, Guochun; Wang, Jiexi

    2018-05-01

    Generally, sulfur elimination from nickel matte was incomplete in the one-step oxidation roasting process. In this work, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and chemical analysis of the roasted products were carried out to explain this phenomenon. The results indicated that the melting of heazlewoodite was the main limiting factor. Thereafter, the oxidation mechanism of high-grade nickel matte from room temperature to 1000 °C was studied. It was found that the transformation from heazlewoodite (Ni3S2) to nickel sulfide (NiS) took place from 400 °C to 520 °C. Considering that the melting temperature of NiS was much higher than that of Ni3S2, a low-temperature roasting step was suggested to suppress the melting of heazlewoodite. Under the optimum conditions (520 °C for 120 minutes followed by 800 °C for 80 minutes), the degree of desulfurization reached 99.52 pct. These results indicated that the two-step oxidation roasting method could be a promising process for producing low-sulfur calcine from high-grade nickel matte.

  16. Influence of serving temperature on flavour perception and release of Bourbon Caturra coffee.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ida; Waehrens, Sandra S; Petersen, Mikael A; Münchow, Morten; Bredie, Wender L P

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62°C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van't Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C. Aliphatic ketones, alkylpyrazines, some furans and pyridines increased most notably at temperatures ⩾50°C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of 'sour', 'tobacco' and 'sweet' were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31-44°C, whereas coffees served between 50°C and 62°C exhibited stronger 'overall intensity', 'roasted' flavour and 'bitter' notes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  18. Validated HPLC-Diode Array Detector Method for Simultaneous Evaluation of Six Quality Markers in Coffee.

    PubMed

    Gant, Anastasia; Leyva, Vanessa E; Gonzalez, Ana E; Maruenda, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, and trigonelline are well studied nutritional biomarkers present in coffee, and they are indicators of thermal decomposition during roasting. However, no method is yet available for their simultaneous determination. This paper describes a rapid and validated HPLC-diode array detector method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural that is applicable to three coffee matrixes: green, roasted, and instant. Baseline separation among all compounds was achieved in 30 min using a phenyl-hexyl RP column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), 0.3% aqueous formic buffer (pH 2.4)-methanol mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and a column temperature at 30°C. The method showed good linear correlation (r2>0.9985), precision (less than 3.9%), sensitivity (LOD=0.023-0.237 μg/mL; LOQ=0.069-0.711 μg/mL), and recovery (84-102%) for all compounds. This simplified method is amenable for a more complete routine evaluation of coffee in industry.

  19. Planar view of northwest side of coffee processing structure No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of northwest side of coffee processing structure No. 1, view towards the southeast - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  20. View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing structure (on left) with the Santaella residence (on right) - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  1. Chlorogenic acid-arabinose hybrid domains in coffee melanoidins: Evidences from a model system.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana S P; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Passos, Cláudia P; Santos, Sónia A O; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, André M N; Rangel, Maria; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2015-10-15

    Arabinose from arabinogalactan side chains was hypothesized as a possible binding site for chlorogenic acids in coffee melanoidins. To investigate this hypothesis, a mixture of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the most abundant chlorogenic acid in green coffee beans, and (α1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose, structurally related to arabinogalactan side chains, was submitted to dry thermal treatments. The compounds formed during thermal processing were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and characterized by tandem MS (ESI-MS(n)). Compounds composed by one or two CQAs covalently linked with pentose (Pent) residues (1-12) were identified, along with compounds bearing a sugar moiety but composed exclusively by the quinic or caffeic acid moiety of CQAs. The presence of isomers was demonstrated by liquid chromatography online coupled to ESI-MS and ESI-MS(n). Pent1-2CQA were identified in coffee samples. These results give evidence for a diversity of chlorogenic acid-arabinose hybrids formed during roasting, opening new perspectives for their identification in melanoidin structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete reservoirs on floor, view towards the west - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  3. Coffee aroma: Chemometric comparison of the chemical information provided by three different samplings combined with GC-MS to describe the sensory properties in cup.

    PubMed

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Pellegrino, Gloria; Ruosi, Manuela R; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of a wider project aiming to correlate the chemical composition of the coffee volatile fraction to its sensory properties with the end-goal of developing an instrumental analysis approach complementary to human sensory profiling. The proposed investigation strategy compares the chemical information concerning coffee aroma and flavor obtained with HS-SPME of the ground coffee and in-solution SBSE/SPME sampling combined with GC-MS to evaluate their compatibility with the cupping evaluation for quality control purposes. Roasted coffee samples with specific sensory properties were analyzed. The chemical results obtained by the three samplings were compared through multivariate analysis, and related to the samples' sensory attributes. Despite the differences between the three sampling approaches, data processing showed that the three methods provide the same kind of chemical information useful for sample discrimination, and that they could be used interchangeably to sample the coffee aroma and flavor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The soda-ash roasting of chromite ore processing residue for the reclamation of chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, M. P.; Tathavadkar, V. D.; Calvert, C. C.; Jha, A.

    2001-12-01

    Sodium chromate is produced via the soda-ash roasting of chromite ore with sodium carbonate. After the reaction, nearly 15 pct of the chromium oxide remains unreacted and ends up in the waste stream, for landfills. In recent years, the concern over environmental pollution from hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) from the waste residue has become a major problem for the chromium chemical industry. The main purpose of this investigation is to recover chromium oxide present in the waste residue as sodium chromate. Cr2O3 in the residue is distributed between the two spinel solid solutions, Mg(Al,Cr)2O4 and γ-Fe2O3. The residue from the sodium chromate production process was analyzed both physically and chemically. The compositions of the mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The influence of alkali addition on the overall reaction rate is examined. The kinetics of the chromium extraction reaction resulting from the residue of the soda-ash roasting process under an oxidizing atmosphere is also investigated. It is shown that the experimental results for the roasting reaction can be best described by the Ginstling and Brounshtein (GB) equation for diffusion-controlled kinetics. The apparent activation energy for the roasting reaction was calculated to be between 85 and 90 kJ·mol-1 in the temperature range 1223 to 1473 K. The kinetics of leaching of Cr3+ ions using the aqueous phase from the process residue is also studied by treating the waste into acid solutions with different concentrations.

  5. Determination of chlorogenic acids and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee prepared under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Sup; Kim, Han-Taek; Jeong, Il-Hyung; Hong, Se-Ra; Oh, Moon-Seog; Park, Kwang-Hee; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2017-10-01

    Coffee, a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds, is one of the most valuable commodity in the world, whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are the most common compounds. CGAs are mainly composed of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs), and feruloylquinic acids (FQAs). The major CGAs in coffee are neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Many studies have shown that it is possible to separate the isomers of FQAs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, some authors have shown that it is not possible to separate 4-feruloylquinic acid (4-FQA) and 5-feruloylquinic acid (5-FQA) by HPLC. Therefore, the present study was designated to investigate the chromatographic problems in the determination of CGAs (seven isomers) and caffeine using HPLC-DAD. The values of determination coefficient (R 2 ) calculated from external-standard calibration curves were >0.998. The recovery rates conducted at 3 spiking levels ranged from 99.4% to 106.5% for the CGAs and from 98.8% to 107.1% for the caffeine. The precision values (expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs)) were <7% and <3% for intra and interday variability, respectively. The tested procedure proved to be robust. The seven CGAs isomers except 4-FQA and 5-FQA were well distinguished and all gave good peak shapes. We have found that 4-FQA and 5-FQA could not be separated using HPLC. The method was extended to investigate the effects of different brewing conditions such as the roasting degree of green coffee bean, coffee-ground size, and numbers of boiling-water pours, on the concentration of CGAs and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee, using nine green coffee bean samples of different origins. It was reported that medium-roasted, fine-ground coffees brewed using three pours of boiling water were the healthiest coffee with fluent CGAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid approach to identify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ruge, Winfried; Kuballa, Thomas; Ilse, Maren; Winkelmann, Ole; Diehl, Bernd; Thomas, Freddy; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2015-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy was used to verify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee. Lipophilic extracts of authentic roasted and green coffees showed the presence of established markers for Robusta (16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC)) and for Arabica (kahweol). The integration of the 16-OMC signal (δ 3.165 ppm) was used to estimate the amount of Robusta in coffee blends with an approximate limit of detection of 1-3%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 77 commercial coffee samples (coffee pods, coffee capsules, and coffee beans). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectra of lipophilic and aqueous extracts of 20 monovarietal authentic samples. Clusters of the two species were observed. NMR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid prescreening tool to discriminate Arabica and Robusta coffee species before the confirmation applying the official method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of storage conditions on sensory properties of Bierzo roasted pepper.

    PubMed

    Casquero, Pedro A; Sanz, Miguel A; Guerra, Marcos

    2011-01-15

    Roasted pepper is marketed with the European recognition of Protected Geographical Indication 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo'. The industry needs to prolong the period in which fresh pepper received from farmers is available to be processed, without deteriorating the sensory quality of roasted pepper. The objective of this study was to analyse how different storage conditions affect the sensory quality of roasted pepper. Differences in weight loss among storage conditions did not affect roast yield. Descriptors juice quality, bitterness and spiciness were not influenced by storage conditions in 2006 or 2007, whereas uniformity, skin surface, cohesiveness and smokiness were influenced by storage conditions in both years. Overall quality was better when pepper was stored for 5 days at 18 °C or for 10 days at 8 °C. The quality of roasted pepper was affected positively by storage conditions in terms of colour and uniformity, which were improved, and hardness, which was reduced. Newly roasted samples, on the other hand, obtained the lowest quality values. Therefore storage of pepper for up to 10 days was useful not only to extend the time of roasted pepper processing for companies but also to improve the sensory quality of roasted pepper without decreasing the roast yield of processed pepper. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  9. Effects of Processing Conditions During Manufacture on Retronasal-Aroma Compounds from a Milk Coffee Drink.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Michio; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Miyazi, Kazuhiro; Kono, Masaya; Imayoshi, Yuriko; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    To develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee retaining the original coffee flavor, the effects of processing conditions during manufacture on retronasal-arma (RA) compounds from the milk coffee were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an RA simulator (RAS). Thirteen of 46 detected compounds in the RAS effluent (RAS compounds) decreased significantly following pH adjustment of coffee (from pH 5.1 to 6.8) and 5 compounds increased. RAS compounds from coffee tended to decrease through the pH adjustment and subsequent sterilization. Significantly higher amounts of 13 RAS compounds were released from the milk coffee produced using a blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process without the pH adjustment than from that using a blending-before-sterilization (BBS) process with the pH adjustment. In BAS-processed milk coffee, significantly lower amounts of 8 high-volatility compounds and 1H-pyrrole were released from coffee containing infusion-sterilized (INF) milk than from coffee containing plate-sterilized (PLT) milk, whereas 3 low-volatility compounds were released significantly more from coffee using PLT milk. Principal component analysis revealed that the effect of the manufacturing process (BAS, BBS, or homemade (blending unsterilized coffee without pH adjustment with sterilized milk)) on milk coffee volatiles was larger than that of the sterilization method (INF or PLT) for milk, and that the sterilization method could result in different RAS volatile characteristics in BAS and homemade processes. In conclusion, a BAS process was found to be superior to a BBS process for the manufacture of an RTD milk coffee that retains volatile characteristics similar to that of a homemade milk coffee. Ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee manufactured using the conventional blending-before-sterilization process does not retain its original coffee flavor due to pH adjustment of the coffee during the process. The new blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process

  10. Lipid content and composition of coffee brews prepared by different methods.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M; Hollywood, R; O'Grady, E; Stavric, B

    1993-04-01

    The lipid content and composition of boiled, filtered, dripped, Turkish and espresso coffees prepared from roasted beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta, and of coffees prepared from different brands of instant coffee were examined. The lipid content varied with the method of preparation. While coffee brews filtered through filter paper contained less than 7 mg lipids, those prepared by boiling without filtering and espresso coffee reached 60-160 mg lipids/150-ml cup. Coffee brew filtered through a metal screener contained 50 mg lipids/150-ml cup. Although the lipid content varied, the method of preparation of the brew and filtration had no important influence on the lipid composition. During paper filtration lipids remained mainly in spent coffee grounds, and the brew and filter paper retained only 0.4 and 9.4%, respectively, of the total lipids recovered. However, the lipids in the brew, filter paper and spent coffee grounds had the same profile, indicating that there was no preferential retention of a particular lipid component in filter paper. Triglycerides and diterpene alcohol esters were the major lipid classes in coffee brewed from ground coffee beans, and ranged from 86.6 to 92.9 and 6.5 to 12.5% of total lipids, respectively. For coffee brews made from instant coffee, the levels of these two lipid classes were 96.4-98.5 and 1.6-3.6%, respectively. The lipid contents of both regular and decaffeinated instant coffees varied slightly from one brand to the other, and ranged from 1.8 to 6.6 mg/150-ml cup.

  11. The effect of temperature and addition of reducing agent on sodium stannate preparation from cassiterite by the alkaline roasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Andriyah, Lia; Arini, Tri; Firdiyono, F.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium stannate is an intermediate compound with the formula Na2SnO3. This compound is easily dissolved in water and has many applications in the electroplating industry, tin alloy production, and catalysts for organic synthesis. In this occasion was investigated the effect of temperature and the addition of reducing agent on making of sodium stannate phase from cassiterite by an alkaline roasting process using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Firstly, cassiterite was roasted at 700 °C for 3 hours and continued leaching process using 10% HCl solution at 110 °C for 2 hours. The cassiterite residue than was dried at 110 °C and mixed homogenously with a Na2CO3 decomposer at a mass ratio Na2CO3/cassiterite as 5:3 for the decomposition process. It was done by variation temperatures (300 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, 870 °C, 900 °C) for 3 hours, variation times (3, 4, 5 hours) at a roasting temperature of 700 °C and addition of reducing agent such as sub-bituminous coal. The result of the experiment shows that cassiterite prepared by roasting and acid leaching process has the chemical composition as follows: 59.98% Sn, 22.58% O, 3.20% Ce, 3.15% La, 2.57% Nd, 1.67% Ti, 1.56% Fe, 1.24% P, 0.62% Ca and others. The Na2SnO3 phase begins to form at a roasting temperature of 870 °C for 3 hours. Although the roasting times was extended from 3 hours to 5 hours at 700 °C, the Na2SnO3 phase also has not yet formed. In other conditions, the addition of coal reducing agent to the roasting process would cause formations of Sn metal besides Na2SnO3 phase at 870 °C. At temperatures lower than 870 °C, the addition of coal only forms Sn metal, whereas the sodium stannate phase is not formed.

  12. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-02

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76).

  14. Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process for germanium extraction from zinc oxide dust and its analysis by response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wankun; Wang, Fuchun; Lu, Fanghai

    2017-12-01

    Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process was proposed to improve the germanium (Ge) extraction from zinc oxide (ZnO) dust. The effects of important parameters were investigated and the process conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The Ge extraction is consistent with the linear polynomial model type. Alkali-material ratio, microwave heating temperature and leaching temperature are the significant factors for this process. The optimized conditions are obtained as follows, alkali-material ratio of 0.9 kg/kg, aging time of 1.12 day, microwave heating at 658 K for 10 min, liquid-solid ratio of 4.31 L/kg, leaching temperature at 330 K, leaching time of 47 min with the Ge extraction about 99.38%. It is in consistence with the predictive value of 99.31%. Compared to the existed alkaline roasting process heated by electric furnace in literature, the alkaline roasting temperature and holding time. It shows a good prospect on leaching Ge from ZnO dust with microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process.

  15. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-09

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid.

  16. In vitro enzymic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids in coffee.

    PubMed

    da Encarnação, Joana Amarante; Farrell, Tracy L; Ryder, Alexandra; Kraut, Nicolai U; Williamson, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is rich in quinic acid esters of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) but also contains some free phenolic acids. A proportion of phenolic acids appear in the blood rapidly after coffee consumption due to absorption in the small intestine. We investigated in vitro whether this appearance could potentially be derived from free phenolic acids in instant coffee or from hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids by pancreatic or brush border enzymes. We quantified six free phenolic acids in instant coffees using HPLC-DAD-mass spectrometry. The highest was caffeic acid, but all were present at low levels compared to the chlorogenic acids. Roasting and decaffeination significantly reduced free phenolic acid content. We estimated, using pharmacokinetic modelling with previously published data, that the contribution of these compounds to small intestinal absorption is minimal. Hydrolysis of certain chlorogenic acids was observed with human-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and with porcine pancreatin, which showed maximal rates on 3- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. The amounts of certain free phenolic acids in coffee could only minimally account for small intestinal absorption based on modelling. The hydrolysis of caffeoylquinic, but not feruloylquinic acids, by enterocyte and pancreatic esterases is potentially a contributing mechanism to small intestinal absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  18. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    PubMed

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  19. Identification of a Phosphodiesterase-Inhibiting Fraction from Roasted Coffee (Coffea arabica) through Activity-Guided Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Teresa; Liesenfeld, David; Richling, Elke

    2017-05-17

    Recent reports that coffee can significantly inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in vitro, as well as in vivo, have described another beneficial effect of coffee consumption. However, the PDE-inhibiting substances remain mostly unknown. We chose activity-guided fractionation and an in vitro test system to identify the coffee components that are responsible for PDE inhibition. This approach indicated that a fraction of melanoidins reveals strong PDE-inhibiting potential (IC 50 = 130 ± 42 μg/mL). These melanoidins were characterized as water-soluble, low-molecular weight melanoidins (<3 kDa) with a nitrogen content of 4.2% and a carbohydrate content lower than those of other melanoidins. Fractions containing known PDE inhibitors such as chlorogenic acids, alkylpyrazines, or trigonelline as well as N-caffeoyl-tryptophan and N-p-coumaroyl-tryptophan did not exert PDE-inhibiting activity. We also observed that the known PDE inhibitor caffeine does not contribute to the PDE-inhibiting effects of coffee.

  20. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  1. Induction of AhR-Mediated Gene Transcription by Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio

    2014-01-01

    Background Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. Methods HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. Results All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. Conclusions By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health. PMID:25007155

  2. Dust exposure and chronic respiratory symptoms among coffee curing workers in Kilimanjaro: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sakwari, Gloria; Bråtveit, Magne; Mamuya, Simon H D; Moen, Bente E

    2011-11-24

    Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This study was carried out to determine total dust exposure and respiratory health of workers in Tanzanian primary coffee-processing factories. A cross sectional study was conducted among 79 workers in two coffee factories, and among 73 control workers in a beverage factory. Personal samples of total dust (n = 45 from the coffee factories and n = 19 from the control factory) were collected throughout the working shift from the breathing zone of the workers. A questionnaire with modified questions from the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was used to assess chronic respiratory symptoms. Differences between groups were tested by using independent t-tests and Chi square tests. Poisson Regression Model was used to estimate prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, smoking, presence of previous lung diseases and years worked in dusty factories. All participants were male. The coffee workers had a mean age of 40 years and were older than the controls (31 years). Personal total dust exposure in the coffee factories were significantly higher than in the control factory (geometric mean (GM) 1.23 mg/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD) (0.8) vs. 0.21(2.4) mg/m3). Coffee workers had significantly higher prevalence than controls for cough with sputum (23% vs. 10%; Prevalence ratio (PR); 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-5.9) and chest tightness (27% vs. 13%; PR; 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2). The prevalence of morning cough, cough with and without sputum for 4 days or more in a week was also higher among coffee workers than among controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Workers exposed to coffee dust reported more respiratory symptoms than did the controls. This might relate to their exposure to coffee dust. Interventions for reduction of dust levels and provision of

  3. Dust exposure and chronic respiratory symptoms among coffee curing workers in Kilimanjaro: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This study was carried out to determine total dust exposure and respiratory health of workers in Tanzanian primary coffee-processing factories. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 79 workers in two coffee factories, and among 73 control workers in a beverage factory. Personal samples of total dust (n = 45 from the coffee factories and n = 19 from the control factory) were collected throughout the working shift from the breathing zone of the workers. A questionnaire with modified questions from the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was used to assess chronic respiratory symptoms. Differences between groups were tested by using independent t-tests and Chi square tests. Poisson Regression Model was used to estimate prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, smoking, presence of previous lung diseases and years worked in dusty factories. Results All participants were male. The coffee workers had a mean age of 40 years and were older than the controls (31 years). Personal total dust exposure in the coffee factories were significantly higher than in the control factory (geometric mean (GM) 1.23 mg/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD) (0.8) vs. 0.21(2.4) mg/m3). Coffee workers had significantly higher prevalence than controls for cough with sputum (23% vs. 10%; Prevalence ratio (PR); 2.5, 95% CI 1.0 - 5.9) and chest tightness (27% vs. 13%; PR; 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 - 5.2). The prevalence of morning cough, cough with and without sputum for 4 days or more in a week was also higher among coffee workers than among controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Workers exposed to coffee dust reported more respiratory symptoms than did the controls. This might relate to their exposure to coffee dust. Interventions for

  4. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    PubMed

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Coffee silverskin: characterization, possible uses, and safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cardenia, Vladimiro; Bonaga, Giorgio; Mandrioli, Mara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa

    2014-11-05

    The reuse of coffee silverskin (CS), the main waste product of the coffee-roasting industry, could be an alternative to its environmental disposal. However, CS could also contain undesirable compounds, such as ochratoxin A (OTA) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs). A study on the composition of CS (caffeine, moisture, dietary fibers, carbohydrates, and polyphenol contents) was carried out, with emphasis on OTA and POPs for safety reasons. The lipid fraction showed significant amounts of linoleic acid and phytosterols (7.0 and 12.1% of lipid fraction). Noticeable levels of POPs (114.11 mg/100 g CS) were found, and the phytosterol oxidation rate varied from 27.6 to 48.1%. The OTA content was 18.7-34.4 μg/kg CS, which is about 3 times higher than the European Commission limits for coffee products. The results suggest that CS could be used as a source of cellulose and/or bioactive compounds; however, the contents of POPs and OTA might represent a risk for human safety if intended for human or livestock use.

  6. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat is...

  7. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    PubMed

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Andréa P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaça) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaça were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaça of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachaças, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  9. Prediction models for Arabica coffee beverage quality based on aroma analyses and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J S; Augusto, F; Salva, T J G; Ferreira, M M C

    2012-11-15

    In this work, soft modeling based on chemometric analyses of coffee beverage sensory data and the chromatographic profiles of volatile roasted coffee compounds is proposed to predict the scores of acidity, bitterness, flavor, cleanliness, body, and overall quality of the coffee beverage. A partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to construct the models. The ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm was applied to select the compounds for the regression model of each sensory attribute in order to take only significant chromatographic peaks into account. The prediction errors of these models, using 4 or 5 latent variables, were equal to 0.28, 0.33, 0.35, 0.33, 0.34 and 0.41, for each of the attributes and compatible with the errors of the mean scores of the experts. Thus, the results proved the feasibility of using a similar methodology in on-line or routine applications to predict the sensory quality of Brazilian Arabica coffee. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ingestible roasted barley for contrast-enhanced photoacoustic imaging in animal and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Depeng; Lee, Dong Hyeun; Huang, Haoyuan; Vu, Tri; Lim, Rachel Su Ann; Nyayapathi, Nikhila; Chitgupi, Upendra; Liu, Maggie; Geng, Jumin; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2018-08-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging imaging modality. While many contrast agents have been developed for PACT, these typically cannot immediately be used in humans due to the lengthy regulatory process. We screened two hundred types of ingestible foodstuff samples for photoacoustic contrast with 1064 nm pulse laser excitation, and identified roasted barley as a promising candidate. Twenty brands of roasted barley were further screened to identify the one with the strongest contrast, presumably based on complex chemical modifications incurred during the roasting process. Individual roasted barley particles could be detected through 3.5 cm of chicken-breast tissue and through the whole hand of healthy human volunteers. With PACT, but not ultrasound imaging, a single grain of roasted barley was detected in a field of hundreds of non-roasted particles. Upon oral administration, roasted barley enabled imaging of the gut and peristalsis in mice. Prepared roasted barley tea could be detected through 2.5 cm chicken breast tissue. When barley tea was administered to humans, photoacoustic imaging visualized swallowing dynamics in healthy volunteers. Thus, roasted barley represents an edible foodstuff that should be considered for photoacoustic contrast imaging of swallowing and gut processes, with immediate potential for clinical translation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    PubMed

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  13. Thermal degradation of onion quercetin glucosides under roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Rohn, Sascha; Buchner, Nadja; Driemel, Gregor; Rauser, Morten; Kroh, Lothar W

    2007-02-21

    Flavonoids are an important constituent of the human diet. In recent years, they have gained much attention due to their physiological properties, leading to an enormous increase in research on cancer prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, there is limited information about the fate of flavonoid glycosides during thermal treatment such as cooking, frying, roasting, etc. Such processing techniques may have an impact on the flavonoid structure, resulting in changes of the bioavailability and activity of the flavonoids. In this study, the stability of selected model and onion quercetin glycosides under roasting conditions (180 degrees C) was determined. The influence of the kind and position of the sugar moiety was investigated. As onions contain large amounts of quercetin glycosides and are often subject to thermal processes in food production, their major glycosides were isolated using counter current chromatography and roasted. The thermal treatment led to a degradation of the quercetin glycosides. The main product is the aglycone quercetin, which remained stable during further roasting. During the roasting process of the quercetin diglucoside isolated from onion, the formation of a monoglycoside as an intermediate product was observed. This underlined that the stability of the glycosides is dependent on the kind and position of the sugar moiety.

  14. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-04-09

    The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP-AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM-EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24 · 2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH · H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of polylactic acid nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from coffee silverskin.

    PubMed

    Sung, Soo Hyun; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    Bio-nanocomposite films based on polylactic acid (PLA) matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were developed using a twin-screw extruder. The CNCs were extracted from coffee silverskin (CS), which is a by-product of the coffee roasting process. They were extracted by alkali treatment followed by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. They were used as reinforcing agents to obtain PLA/CNC nanocomposites by addition at different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5% CNCs). Morphological, tensile, and barrier properties of the bio-nanocomposites were analyzed. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased with both 1% and 3% CNCs. The water vapor permeability decreased gradually with increasing addition of CNCs up to 3% and good oxygen barrier properties were found for all nanocomposites. These results suggest that CNCs from CS can improve the physical properties of PLA-based biopolymer film. The developed PLA/CNC bio-nanocomposite films can potentially be used for biopolymer materials with enhanced barrier and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management System Program (ECAMP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    where spices are produced using animal and vegetable acids 7.22 Coffee roasting facilities with capacities of 75 kg/h 7.23 Plants for roasting coffee ...22. Industrial plants Verify that dusty gases released during the processing of dusty materials hawe required to have are collected and passed through...standards for the release of dusty gases during the production, crushing, classification and loading of dusty materials or other process involving such

  17. Loss of heterocyclic amine mutagens by insoluble hemicellulose fiber and high-molecular-weight soluble polyphenolics of coffee.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Takahashi, S; Kikugawa, K

    1991-01-01

    The presence of 2 kinds of components in brewed and instant coffee that could remove and destroy heterocyclic amine mutagens was demonstrated. The component that could remove the mutagens was insoluble fiber composed of hemicellulose. The fiber could tightly adsorb the mutagens Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C, and those generated in roasted coffee beans. The component that could destroy the mutagens was high-molecular-weight soluble polyphenolics. They might be converted into quinone derivatives in the presence of molecular oxygen. The quinone derivatives might destroy the mutagens. The fibers and the polyphenolics in one cup of brewed or instant coffee had the capacity to remove and destroy a substantial amount of the mutagens in pyrolysates of foodstuffs.

  18. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (p<0.05) among the countries of each characterized continent. Intercontinental and inter-country discrimination between the major world coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  20. Discrimination of complex mixtures by a colorimetric sensor array: coffee aromas.

    PubMed

    Suslick, Benjamin A; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-03-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the sensor array has exceptionally high dimensionality with 18 dimensions required to define 90% of the total variance. In quintuplicate runs of 10 commercial coffees and controls, no confusions or errors in classification by HCA were observed in 55 trials. In addition, the effects of temperature and time in the roasting of green coffee beans were readily observed and distinguishable with a resolution better than 10 degrees C and 5 min, respectively. Colorimetric sensor arrays demonstrate excellent potential for complex systems analysis in real-world applications and provide a novel method for discrimination among closely similar complex mixtures.

  1. Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas

    PubMed Central

    Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the sensor array has exceptionally high dimensionality with 18 dimensions required to define 90% of the total variance. In quintuplicate runs of 10 commercial coffees and controls, no confusions or errors in classification by HCA were observed in 55 trials. In addition, the effects of temperature and time in the roasting of green coffee beans were readily observed and distinguishable with a resolution better than 10 °C and 5 min, respectively. Colorimetric sensor arrays demonstrate excellent potential for complex systems analysis in real-world applications and provide a novel method for discrimination among closely similar complex mixtures. PMID:20143838

  2. Bio-ethanol production from wet coffee processing waste in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldesenbet, Asrat Gebremariam; Woldeyes, Belay; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of coffee residues are generated from coffee processing plants in Ethiopia. These residues are toxic and possess serious environmental problems following the direct discharge into the nearby water bodies which cause serious environmental and health problems. This study was aimed to quantify wet coffee processing waste and estimate its bio-ethanol production. The study showed that the wastes are potential environmental problems and cause water pollution due to high organic component and acidic nature. The waste was hydrolyzed by dilute H 2 SO 4 (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 M) and distilled water. Total sugar content of the sample was determined titrimetrically and refractometry. Maximum value (90%) was obtained from hydrolysis by 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 . Ethanol production was monitored by gas chromatography. The optimum yield of ethanol (78%) was obtained from the sample hydrolyzed by 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 for 1 h at hydrolysis temperature of 100 °C and after fermentation for 24 h and initial pH of 4.5. Based on the data, it was concluded that reuse of the main coffee industry wastes is of significant importance from environmental and economical view points. In conclusion, this study has proposed to utilize the wet coffee processing waste to produce bio-ethanol which provides the alternative energy source from waste biomass and solves the environmental waste disposal as well as human health problem.

  3. Spent coffee grounds, an innovative source of colonic fermentable compounds, inhibit inflammatory mediators in vitro.

    PubMed

    López-Barrera, Dunia Maria; Vázquez-Sánchez, Kenia; Loarca-Piña, Ma Guadalupe Flavia; Campos-Vega, Rocio

    2016-12-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), rich in dietary fiber can be fermented by colon microbiota producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with the ability to prevent inflammation. We investigated SCG anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating its composition, phenolic compounds, and fermentability by the human gut flora, SCFAs production, nitric oxide and cytokine expression of the human gut fermented-unabsorbed-SCG (hgf-NDSCG) fraction in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCG had higher total fiber content compared with coffee beans. Roasting level/intensity reduced total phenolic contents of SCG that influenced its colonic fermentation. Medium roasted hgf-NDSCG produced elevated SCFAs (61:22:17, acetate, propionate and butyrate) after prolonged (24h) fermentation, suppressed NO production (55%) in macrophages primarily by modulating IL-10, CCL-17, CXCL9, IL-1β, and IL-5 cytokines. SCG exerts anti-inflammatory activity, mediated by SCFAs production from its dietary fiber, by reducing the release of inflammatory mediators, providing the basis for SCG use in the control/regulation of inflammatory disorders. The results support the use of SGC in the food industry as dietary fiber source with health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of peanuts after dry roasting, oil roasting, and blister frying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts were systematically deep fried, blister fried, or dry roasted at 177°C to Hunter L-values of 53 ± 1, 48.5 ± 1, and 43 ± 1, corresponding to light, medium, and dark roasting, respectively. Thermal modifications of the epidermal and parenchyma cells were observed in the scanning electron micr...

  5. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  6. Roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium in calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Mi; Gao, Hui-yang; Liu, Jia-yi; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2018-05-01

    Calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) was conducted to elucidate the roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium. The effects of the purity of CaO, molar ratio between CaO and V2O5 ( n(CaO)/ n(V2O5)), roasting temperature, holding time, and the heating rate used in the oxidation-calcification processes were investigated. The roasting process and mechanism were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The results show that most of vanadium reacted with CaO to generate calcium vanadates and transferred into the leaching liquid, whereas almost all of the chromium remained in the leaching residue in the form of (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3. Variation trends of the vanadium and chromium leaching ratios were always opposite because of the competitive reactions of oxidation and calcification between vanadium and chromium with CaO. Moreover, CaO was more likely to combine with vanadium, as further confirmed by thermodynamic analysis. When the HCVS with CaO added in an n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratio of 0.5 was roasted in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 950°C and maintained at this temperature for 60 min, the leaching ratios of vanadium and chromium reached 91.14% and 0.49%, respectively; thus, efficient extraction of vanadium from HCVS was achieved and the leaching residue could be used as a new raw material for the extraction of chromium. Furthermore, the oxidation and calcification reactions of the spinel phases occurred at 592 and 630°C for n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratios of 0.5 and 5, respectively.

  7. Thermal stability of spent coffee ground polysaccharides: galactomannans and arabinogalactans.

    PubMed

    Simões, Joana; Maricato, Elia; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-01-30

    In order to better understand the thermal stability of spent coffee grounds (SCG) galactomannans and arabinogalactans and the reactions that can occur upon roasting, long term isothermal exposures, up to 3h, were performed at 160, 180, 200, 220, and 240 °C. The resultant products were analysed according to the sugars and linkage composition and also by electrospray mass spectrometry. Galactomannans did not loss mass at T ≤ 200 °C during exposures up to 3h whereas the arabinogalactans showed that thermal stability only for T ≤ 180 °C. This was in accordance with the estimated activation energies of their thermal decomposition of 138 kJ/mol and 94 kJ/mol, respectively. The roasting of galactomannans promoted the formation of new glycosidic linkages, with occurrence of 2-, 6-, 2,3-, 2,6-, 3,6-, 2,3,6-, 3,4,6-linked mannose residues, 3,4,6-linked galactose residues, and terminally-linked glucose residues, observed by methylation analysis. Depolymerisation and formation of anhydrohexose residues at the reducing end and mannose-glucose isomerisation were also observed. The roasting of galactomannans at 200 °C promoted their solubility in water upon alkali extraction and neutralisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  9. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    PubMed

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality.

  11. Effectiveness of oxygen barrier oven bags in low temperature cooking on reduction of warmed-over flavor in beef roasts.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Keller, W L; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Berg, P T

    2014-03-01

    A 3×3×2 factorial was utilized to determine if roast size (small, medium, large), cooking method (open-pan, oven bag, vacuum bag), and heating process (fresh, reheated) prevented warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef clod roasts. Fresh vacuum bag and reheated open-pan roasts had higher cardboardy flavor scores compared with fresh open-pan roast scores. Reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags did not differ from fresh roasts for cardboardy flavor. Brothy and fat intensity were increased in reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags compared with fresh roasts in oven and vacuum bags. Differences in TBARS were found in the interaction of heating process and roast size with the fresh and reheated large, and reheated medium roasts having the lowest values. Based on TBARS data, to prevent WOF in reheated beef roasts, a larger size roast in a cooking bag is the most effective method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfidation behavior and mechanism of zinc silicate roasted with pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yong; Peng, Ning; Xue, Ke; Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Pan, Qinglin; Liang, Yanjie; Xiao, Ruiyang; Wang, Yunyan; Tang, Chongjian; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Sulfidation roasting followed by flotation is widely known as a possible generic technology for enriching valuable metals in low-grade Zn-Pb oxide ores. Zn2SiO4 is the primary Zn phase in willemite. Zn4Si2O7(OH)2(H2O), the main Zn phase in hemimorphite, transforms into Zn2SiO4 at temperatures above 600 °C. To enrich the Zn in willemite and hemimorphite, the Zn species should first be converted to ZnS. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the sulfidation reaction of Zn2SiO4 during roasting with pyrite is of vital important. In this study, the sulfidation behavior and reaction mechanisms of a Zn2SiO4-pyrite roasting system were determined using HSC 5.0 software, TG-FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, XPS and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that the sulfidation process can be divided into three steps: the decomposition of pyrite and formation of a sulfur-rich environment, the sulfur-induced migration of O2- and transformation of sulfur vapor, and the sulfidation reaction via oxygen-sulfur exchange. During the sulfidation roasting process, pyrite was converted to loose and porous Fe3O4, whereas Zn2SiO4 was transformed into ZnS and SiO2 in situ. These findings provide theoretical support for controlling the sulfidation roasting process of willemite and hemimorphite.

  13. The effect of microwave roasting on the antioxidant properties of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Islam, Anowarul; Pal, Tarun K

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is   to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME), ethanolic (GEE), and chloroform (GCE) extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO) from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

  14. Migration from polyamide 'microwave and roasting bags' into roast chicken.

    PubMed

    Gramshaw, J W; Soto-Valdez, H

    1998-04-01

    Migration of non-volatile and volatile compounds from 'microwave and roasting bags' (MRB), made of Nylon 6,6 (and some Nylon 6), into chicken meat, skin, and juices during roasting (200 degrees C/2 h) in a conventional oven was determined. For measurement of migration of non-volatile compounds, cooked chicken was freeze-dried, extracted with methanol after addition of 2-azacyclononane (internal standard) and the extract cleaned-up using liquid-solid adsorption chromatography (silica gel). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the reverse phase mode using a linear gradient of methanol in water was used to quantify seven Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6 cyclic monomers and oligomers of molecular mass up to 678 daltons. Migration into chicken was 7.48 micrograms/g (8.26 mg/bag; 3.94 micrograms/cm2), 16% of the total non-volatile compounds contained in the MRB material. Individual migrants were also quantified. Migration of one volatile compound, 2-cyclopentyl cyclopentanone, into the roast chicken parts was measured. Extraction with diethyl ether, using a modified Likens-Nickerson system of concurrent steam distillation-solvent extraction with an internal standard (cyclohexanone) was performed for 10 h. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the selected ion mode (SIM) was used for quantification. An average of 14.0 (+/- 4.36) micrograms/bag (or micrograms/chicken) migrated, being 0.08% of the total 2-cyclopentyl cyclopentanone present in MRB. Loss of volatile compounds to the atmosphere is believed to have occurred since there was another, more volatile compound (cyclopentanone), present in MRB, at levels higher than 2-cyclopentyl cyclopentanone, but this was not detected in roast chicken. In general, the transference of MRB components into roast chicken can be considered not to present a hazard.

  15. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-08-01

    Coffee beverages are so popular all over the world that there is hardly any need to describe them. But underlying this seemingly commonplace beverage there is a whole realm worth serious scientific study. The complexity of the raw seed matrix, made even more intricate when roasted, requires a deep understanding of its chemical nature. While coffee is not consumed for nutritional purposes, it is appreciated for its taste appeal along with its stimulating effects on mental and physical activity. The attention to quality is of paramount importance to both of these aspects to supply the customers with a pleasant and wholesome product. The chemical approach to the sensory sphere has seen the development of increasingly sophisticated analytical methods where the parts per billion of volatile aromas are not the ultimate frontier of detection limits. In spite of the progress of instrumental techniques, the cup-testing approach still remains the final assessment tool to obtain the approval for choosing the right plant and for conveying the product to the market. This is even truer when espresso, the fashionable type of coffee brewing methods, is considered.

  16. Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2014-06-15

    In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); β-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, β-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Determination of roasted pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) key odorants by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    Key odorants in roasted pistachio nuts have been determined for the first time. Two different pistachio varieties (Fandooghi and Kerman) have been analyzed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). The aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) applied have revealed 46 and 41 odor-active regions with a flavor dilution (FD) factor≥64 for the Fandooghi and the Kerman varieties, respectively, and 39 of them were related to precisely identified compounds. These included esters, pyrazines, aldehydes, acids, furans, and phenols. The results show that the Fandooghi variety presents, not only more odor-active regions but also higher FD factors than the Kerman variety that can lead to the conclusion that the first variety has a richer aromatic profile than the second one. The descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that the roasted, chocolate/coffee, and nutty attributes were rated significantly higher in the Fandooghi variety, whereas the green attribute was significantly higher in the Kerman one.

  18. New approaches on the analyses of thermolabile coffee diterpenes by gas chromatography and its relationship with cup quality.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fábio Junior Moreira; Oigman, Silvia Siag; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2015-07-01

    A new gas chromatography method using pulsed split injector (PS-GC) was validated to quantify thermolabile diterpenes cafestol, kahweol and isokahweol in methanolysed Arabica coffee oils. Linearity was 0.99 from 8 to 69mgmL(-1), recovery ranged from 99% to 101% and precision of less than 4% was obtained. Besides, Soxhlet extraction time was evaluated and Tukey׳s test indicated that the mass of diterpenes obtained in 4h is equivalent to a 16h period, which represents a space-time yield four times higher. The microwave assisted methanolysis proved to be efficient to quantitatively convert the natural diterpene esters in their respective alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters, accompanied by PS-GC. Also, the intact diterpene esters were analyzed by GC for the first time by the comparison between cold on-column (COC) and PS injection techniques. In all these stages, the molecular integrity of the thermolabile furokaurane diterpenes was maintained. The methanolysed oils from 13 samples of green Brazilian Arabica coffees were analyzed by PS-GC and the diterpenes composition varied from 8 to 12% w/w in oil and 0.7-1% in coffee beans. The ratio between cafestol and kahweol was successfully used to predict the quality of coffee even before the roasting and brewing processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental characterization of a coffee processing workplace with obliterative bronchiolitis in former workers

    PubMed Central

    Duling, Matthew G.; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Kreiss, Kathleen; Martin, Stephen B.; Bailey, Rachel L.

    2018-01-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis in five former coffee processing employees at a single workplace prompted an exposure study of current workers. Exposure characterization was performed by observing processes, assessing the ventilation system and pressure relationships, analyzing headspace of flavoring samples, and collecting and analyzing personal breathing zone and area air samples for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione vapors and total inhalable dust by work area and job title. Mean airborne concentrations were calculated using the minimum variance unbiased estimator of the arithmetic mean. Workers in the grinding/packaging area for unflavored coffee had the highest mean diacetyl exposures, with personal concentrations averaging 93 parts per billion (ppb). This area was under positive pressure with respect to flavored coffee production (mean personal diacetyl levels of 80 ppb). The 2,3-pentanedione exposures were highest in the flavoring room with mean personal exposures of 122 ppb, followed by exposures in the unflavored coffee grinding/packaging area (53 ppb). Peak 15-min airborne concentrations of 14,300 ppb diacetyl and 13,800 ppb 2,3-pentanedione were measured at a small open hatch in the lid of a hopper containing ground unflavored coffee on the mezzanine over the grinding/packaging area. Three out of the four bulk coffee flavorings tested had at least a factor of two higher 2,3-pentanedione than diacetyl headspace measurements. At a coffee processing facility producing both unflavored and flavored coffee, we found the grinding and packaging of unflavored coffee generate simultaneous exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione that were well in excess of the NIOSH proposed RELs and similar in magnitude to those in the areas using a flavoring substitute for diacetyl. These findings require physicians to be alert for obliterative bronchiolitis and employers, government, and public health consultants to assess the similarities and differences across the industry to

  20. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Spent coffee enhanced biomethane potential via an integrated hydrothermal carbonization-anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Codignole Luz, Fábio; Volpe, Maurizio; Fiori, Luca; Manni, Alessandro; Cordiner, Stefano; Mulone, Vincenzo; Rocco, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    This study reports the implications of using spent coffee hydrochar as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Three different spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180, 220 and 250 °C, 1 h residence time, were investigated for their biomethane potential in AD process inoculated with cow manure. Spent coffee hydrochars were characterized in terms of ultimate, proximate and higher heating value (HHV), and their theoretical bio-methane yield evaluated using Boyle-Buswell equation and compared to the experimental values. The results were then analyzed using the modified Gompertz equation to determine the main AD evolution parameters. Different hydrochar properties were related to AD process performances. AD of spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180 °C showed the highest biomethane production rate (46 mL CH 4 /gVS . d), a biomethane potential of 491 mL/gVS (AD lasting 25 days), and a biomethane gas daily composition of about 70%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  3. Sensory and instrumental texture assessment of roasted pistachio nut/kernel by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis: effect of roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A; Taghizadeh, Masoud; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Roasting is an important step in the processing of pistachio nuts. The effect of hot air roasting temperature (90, 120 and 150 °C), time (20, 35 and 50 min) and air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on textural and sensory characteristics of pistachio nuts and kernels were investigated. The results showed that increasing the roasting temperature decreased the fracture force (82-25.54 N), instrumental hardness (82.76-37.59 N), apparent modulus of elasticity (47-21.22 N/s), compressive energy (280.73-101.18 N.s) and increased amount of bitterness (1-2.5) and the hardness score (6-8.40) of pistachio kernels. Higher roasting time improved the flavor of samples. The results of the consumer test showed that the roasted pistachio kernels have good acceptability for flavor (score 5.83-8.40), color (score 7.20-8.40) and hardness (score 6-8.40) acceptance. Moreover, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and subjective properties. The univariate analysis showed that over 93.87 % of the variation in sensory hardness and almost 87 % of the variation in sensory acceptability could be explained by instrumental texture properties.

  4. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of Turkish Tombul hazelnut samples (natural, roasted, and roasted hazelnut skin).

    PubMed

    Pelvan, Ebru; Olgun, Elmas Öktem; Karadağ, Ayşe; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2018-04-01

    The phenolic profiles and antioxidant status of hazelnut samples [natural (raw) hazelnut, roasted hazelnut, and roasted hazelnut skin] were compared. Free and bound (ester-linked and glycoside-linked) phenolic acids were examined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Comprehensive identification of phenolics was carried out using Q-exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (Q-OT-MS). Samples were also assessed for their total phenolics and antioxidant activities using three different assays. Ten free and bound phenolic acids were quantified in hazelnut samples. Roasted hazelnut skin contained the highest content of total phenolic acids, followed by natural and roasted hazelnuts. The majority of phenolic acids were present in the bound form. Using a Q-OT-MS, 22 compounds were tentatively identified, 16 of which were identified for the first time in hazelnut samples. The newly identified compounds consisted of flavonoids, phenolic acids and related compounds, hydrolysable tannins and related compounds, and other phenolics. Three antioxidant assays demonstrated similar trends that roasted hazelnut skin rendered the highest activity. The present work suggests that roasted hazelnut skin is a rich source of phenolics and can be considered as a value-added co-product for use as functional food ingredient and antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The solar-coffee connection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wright, G.

    2000-04-01

    Coffee connoisseurs, when they quaff a cup of coffee or enjoy a jug of joe, don't generally consider the costs to the environment of their favorite beverage. But the fact is that traditional coffee production is hard on the environment, exacting a toll on the native forests and waterways of Central America and on the migratory birds of the western hemisphere. Coffee growing is the second greatest cause of rainforest destruction after cattle ranching, because a lot of trees are cut down to dry the freshly-picked coffee crop. But espresso-sipping environmentalists and an eco-conscious Joe Public can take comfort inmore » a promising new connection between solar energy and rainforest-friendly coffee--solar-dried coffee. And they can take pleasure in it too, because solar-dried coffee, according to virtually everyone who tries it, is the best-tasting coffee made. Considering that coffee is the second most-traded commodity next to oil, and the second most popular beverage in the world next to water, consumed by billions of people, any new process that reduces the environmental damage occasioned by coffee-growing and processing is significant.« less

  6. Shelf-life of infrared dry-roasted almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared heating was recently used to develop a more efficient roasting technology than traditional hot air roasting. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the shelf-life of almonds roasted with three different approaches, namely infrared [IR], sequential infrared and hot air [SIRHA], and regular h...

  7. Effects of processing method and age of leaves on phytochemical profiles and bioactivity of coffee leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Ma, Zhili; Kitts, David D

    2018-05-30

    The use of coffee leaves as a novel beverage has recently received consumer interest, but there is little known about how processing methods affect the quality of final product. We applied tea (white, green, oolong and black tea) processing methods to process coffee leaves and then investigated their effects on phytochemical composition and related antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using Japanese-style green tea-processing of young leaves, and black tea-processing of mature (BTP-M) coffee leaves, produced contrasting effects on phenolic content, and associated antioxidant activity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity in IFN-γ and LPS induced Raw 264.7 cells. BTP-M coffee leaves also had significantly (P < .05) higher responses in NO, iNOS, COX-2, as well as a number of cytokines, in non-induced Raw 264.7. Our findings show that the age of coffee leaves and the type of processing method affect phytochemical profiles sufficiently to produce characteristic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result ( p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  9. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  10. Structure-Odor Correlations in Homologous Series of Mercapto Furans and Mercapto Thiophenes Synthesized by Changing the Structural Motifs of the Key Coffee Odorant Furan-2-ylmethanethiol.

    PubMed

    Schoenauer, Sebastian; Schieberle, Peter

    2018-04-25

    Furan-2-ylmethanethiol (2-furfurylthiol; 2-FFT, 1) is long-known as a key odorant in roast and ground coffee and was also previously identified in a wide range of thermally treated foods such as meat, bread, and roasted sesame seeds. Its unique coffee-like odor quality elicited at very low concentrations, and the fact that only a very few compounds showing a similar structure have previously been described in foods make 1 a suitable candidate for structure-odor activity studies. To gain insight into the structural features needed to evoke a coffee-like odor at low concentrations, 46 heterocyclic mercaptans and thio ethers were synthesized, 32 of them for the first time, and their odor qualities and odor thresholds were determined. A movement of the mercapto group to the 3-position kept the coffee-like aroma but led to an increase in odor threshold. A separation of the thiol group from the furan ring by an elongation of the carbon side chain caused a loss of the coffee-like odor and also led to an increase in odor thresholds, especially for ω-(furan-2-yl)alkane-1-thiols with six or seven carbon atoms in the side chain. A displacement of the furan ring by a thiophene ring had no significant influence on the odor properties of most of the compounds studied, but the newly synthesized longer-chain 1-(furan-2-yl)- and 1-(thiophene-2-yl)alkane-1-thiols elicited interesting passion fruit-like scents. In total, only 4 out of the 46 compounds also showed a coffee-like odor quality like 1, but none showed a lower odor threshold. Besides the odor attributes, also retention indices, mass spectra, and NMR data of the synthesized compounds were elaborated, which are helpful in possible future identification of these compounds in trace levels in foods or other materials.

  11. Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and γ-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum)

    PubMed Central

    Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Nahavandi, Bahman; Tehrani, Shirin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Oveisi, Morvarid

    2013-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven. Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz- Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220 °C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively. The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the roasting temperature and time; until 200 °C for 10 min, but they were decreased by roasting at 220 °C in longer time. Also TPC increased significantly as the roasting temperature. The amount of TPC varied in different sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 μM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz- Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 μM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 μM after roasting in 200 °C for 20 min. The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200 °C for 10 and 20 min, respectively. PMID:24523755

  12. Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and γ-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum).

    PubMed

    Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Nahavandi, Bahman; Tehrani, Shirin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Oveisi, Morvarid

    2013-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven. Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz- Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220 °C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively. The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the roasting temperature and time; until 200 °C for 10 min, but they were decreased by roasting at 220 °C in longer time. Also TPC increased significantly as the roasting temperature. The amount of TPC varied in different sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 μM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz- Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 μM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 μM after roasting in 200 °C for 20 min. The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200 °C for 10 and 20 min, respectively.

  13. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process.

    PubMed

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Pandey, Ashok; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Andrade Lara, João Marcos Rodrigues; Gollo, André Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    During wet processing of coffee, the ripe cherries are pulped, then fermented and dried. This study reports an experimental approach for target identification and selection of indigenous coffee yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures during the fermentation step of wet processing. A total of 144 yeast isolates originating from spontaneously fermenting coffee beans were identified by molecular approaches and screened for their capacity to grow under coffee-associated stress conditions. According to ITS-rRNA gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans and Pichia kluyveri were the most frequent isolates, followed by Candida Candida glabrata, quercitrusa, Saccharomyces sp., Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia caribbica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae. Nine stress-tolerant yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic compounds in a coffee pulp simulation medium and for their pectinolytic activity. P. fermentans YC5.2 produced the highest concentrations of flavor-active ester compounds (viz., ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), while Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 was the best pectinase-producing strain. The potential impact of these selected yeast strains to promote flavor development in coffee beverages was investigated for inoculating coffee beans during wet fermentation trials at laboratory scale. Inoculation of a single culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and co-culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 enhanced significantly the formation of volatile aroma compounds during the fermentation process compared to un-inoculated control. The sensory analysis indicated that the flavor of coffee beverages was influenced by the starter cultures, being rated as having the higher sensory scores for fruity, buttery and fermented aroma. This demonstrates a complementary role of yeasts associated with coffee quality through the synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. The yeast strains P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 have a great

  14. Optimisation and validation of the analytical procedure for the determination of acrylamide in coffee by LC-MS/MS with SPE clean up.

    PubMed

    Gielecińska, Iwona; Mojska, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated acrylamide to be both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. At present it is widely recognised that acrylamide is mainly formed through the Maillard reaction from free asparagine and reducing sugars. The major sources of dietary acrylamide are potato products, processed cereals and coffee. To optimise and validate an analytical method for determining acrylamide in coffee by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC/MS/MS) using SPE clean-up. Analytical separation of acrylamide from roasted coffee was performed by liquid chromatography using a Hypercarb column followed by LC/MS/MS analysis, with 2,3,3-d3 acrylamide as an internal standard. The method was based on two purification steps: the first with hexane and Carrez solutions in order to remove of fat and to precipitate proteins, respectively; and the second with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for measuring acrylamide in coffee was 50 microg/kg. The described method demonstrates satisfactory precision (RSD = 2.5%), repeatability (RSD = 9.2%) and accuracy (mean recovery - 97.4%). Our results confirm that LC-MS/MS with SPE clean-up is selective and suitable for determination of acrylamide in coffee. Indeed, this method meets the criteria of EU Commission Recommendations (No. 2007/331/EC and No. 2010/307/EU), on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food.

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds (Prunus amygdalus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Ni, Li

    2016-03-30

    Almonds contain considerable amounts of potential prebiotic components, and the roasting process may alter these components. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fermentation properties and in vivo prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds. In vitro, predigested raw and roasted almonds promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-14) and Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 1192), and no significant differences were found between these two nuts. In a 4-week animal trial, daily intake of raw or roasted almonds promoted the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. and inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp. in faeces and caecal contains of rats. Compared with roasted almonds, raw almonds had a greater bifidobacteria promotion effect. Besides, significantly higher β-galactosidase activity and lower β-glucuronidase and azoreductase activities in faeces or caecal contents of rats were observed with raw almonds than with roasted almonds. While, in terms of metabolic effects, the ingestion of roasted almonds resulted in significantly greater intestinal lipase activities. Both raw and roasted almonds exhibit potential prebiotic effects, including regulation of intestinal bacteria and improved metabolic activities. The roasting process may slightly reduce the prebiotic effects of almonds but significantly improve the metabolic effects © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica coffee processing factories in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Larsson, Lennart; Pehrson, Christina; Moen, Bente E

    2013-03-01

    Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers' breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41 mg/m(3) and 10 800 EU/m(3) versus 2.10 mg/m(3) and 1400 EU/m(3), respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers.

  17. Personal Exposure to Dust and Endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica Coffee Processing Factories in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sakwari, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Methods: Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers’ breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Results: Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41mg/m3 and 10 800 EU/m3 versus 2.10mg/m3 and 1400 EU/m3, respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Conclusions: Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers. PMID:23028014

  18. Removal of Fluorides and Chlorides from Zinc Oxide Fumes by Microwave Sulfating Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chenhui

    2015-10-01

    Dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust by microwave sulfating roasting was investigated in this study. According to proposed reactions in the process, detailed experiments were systematically conducted to study the effect of roasting temperature, holding time, air and steam flow rates on the efficiency of the removal of F and Cl. The results show that 92.3% of F and 90.5% of Cl in the fume could be purified when the condition of the roasting temperature of 650 °C, holding time at 60 min, air flow of 300 L/h and steam flow of 8 ml/min was optimized. Our investigation indicates that microwave sulfating roasting could be a promising new way for the dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust.

  19. Kinetics of aflatoxin degradation during peanut roasting.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ligia M; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Berto, Maria Isabel; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated aflatoxin degradation during peanut roasting. First, peanuts contaminated with three initial aflatoxin concentrations (35, 332 and 695μg/kg) were roasted at 180°C for up to 20min. The percentage of aflatoxin degradation after 20min were 55, 64 and 81% for peanuts contaminated with aflatoxin at 35, 332 and 695μg/kg, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), showing that initial concentration influences aflatoxin reduction. Thereafter, peanut samples contaminated with an initial aflatoxin concentration of 85μg/kg were roasted at 160, 180 and 200°C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25min, then residual concentrations of aflatoxin were determined. Roasting at 160, 180 and 200°C resulted in an aflatoxin reduction of 61.6, 83.6 and 89.7%, respectively. This study has provided quantitative data reinforcing the fact that roasting alone is not enough to control aflatoxins in peanuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds (Prunus amygdalus)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Almonds contain considerable amounts of potential prebiotic components, and the roasting process may alter these components. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fermentation properties and in vivo prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds. RESULTS In vitro, predigested raw and roasted almonds promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La‐14) and Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 1192), and no significant differences were found between these two nuts. In a 4‐week animal trial, daily intake of raw or roasted almonds promoted the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. and inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp. in faeces and caecal contains of rats. Compared with roasted almonds, raw almonds had a greater bifidobacteria promotion effect. Besides, significantly higher β‐galactosidase activity and lower β‐glucuronidase and azoreductase activities in faeces or caecal contents of rats were observed with raw almonds than with roasted almonds. While, in terms of metabolic effects, the ingestion of roasted almonds resulted in significantly greater intestinal lipase activities. CONCLUSION Both raw and roasted almonds exhibit potential prebiotic effects, including regulation of intestinal bacteria and improved metabolic activities. The roasting process may slightly reduce the prebiotic effects of almonds but significantly improve the metabolic effects.© 2016 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26749248

  1. Prevalence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) condition in chicken meat used for commercial meat processing and its effect on roasted chicken breast.

    PubMed

    Karunanayaka, Deshani S; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Studies on prevalence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) condition in Sri Lankan poultry industry is minimal. Hence, the objective of present study was to determine the incidence of PSE chicken meat in a commercial meat processing plant and to find out its consequences on meat quality traits of roasted chicken breast. A total of 60 breast fillets were randomly selected, evaluated based on color L* value, and placed into 1 of 2 categories; PSE (L* > 58) or normal meat (L* ≤ 58). A total of 20 breast fillets (10 PSE and 10 normal) were then analyzed for color, pH, and water holding capacity (WHC). After processing those into roasted chicken breast, cooking loss, color, pH, WHC, and texture values were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was conducted using 30 untrained panelists. The incidence of PSE meat was 70 % in the present experiment. PSE fillets were significantly lighter and had lower pH values compared with normal fillets. Correlation between the lightness and pH was negative (P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in color, texture, and WHC values between the 2 groups after processing into roasted chicken breast (P > 0.05), an approximately 3 % higher cooking loss was observed in PSE group compared to its counterpart (P < 0.05). Moreover, cooking loss and lightness values showed a significant positive correlation. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in sensory parameters between the 2 products (P > 0.05). These results indicated that an economical loss can be expected due to the significantly higher cooking loss observed in roasted breast processed from PSE meat.

  2. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    PubMed

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  3. Sequence variants at CYP1A1–CYP1A2 and AHR associate with coffee consumption

    PubMed Central

    Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Geller, Frank; Prokopenko, Inga; Feenstra, Bjarke; Aben, Katja K.H.; Franke, Barbara; den Heijer, Martin; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Yanek, Lisa R.; Becker, Lewis C.; Boyd, Heather A.; Stacey, Simon N.; Walters, G. Bragi; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Holm, Hilma; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Björnsdottir, Gyda; Becker, Diane M.; Melbye, Mads; Kong, Augustine; Tönjes, Anke; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Stefansson, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Coffee is the most commonly used stimulant and caffeine is its main psychoactive ingredient. The heritability of coffee consumption has been estimated at around 50%. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of coffee consumption among coffee drinkers from Iceland (n = 2680), the Netherlands (n = 2791), the Sorbs Slavonic population isolate in Germany (n = 771) and the USA (n = 369) using both directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (2.5 million SNPs). SNPs at the two most significant loci were also genotyped in a sample set from Iceland (n = 2430) and a Danish sample set consisting of pregnant women (n = 1620). Combining all data, two sequence variants significantly associated with increased coffee consumption: rs2472297-T located between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 at 15q24 (P = 5.4 · 10−14) and rs6968865-T near aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) at 7p21 (P = 2.3 · 10−11). An effect of ∼0.2 cups a day per allele was observed for both SNPs. CYP1A2 is the main caffeine metabolizing enzyme and is also involved in drug metabolism. AHR detects xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aryl hydrocarbons found in roasted coffee, and induces transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. The association of these SNPs with coffee consumption was present in both smokers and non-smokers. PMID:21357676

  4. Spices Coffee : Innovation Strategy To Increase Quality On Powder Coffee Farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).

  5. The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation. PMID:26592442

  6. The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-11-23

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation.

  7. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  8. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  9. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  10. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  11. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  12. Rust and Thinning Management Effect on Cup Quality and Plant Performance for Two Cultivars of Coffea arabica L.

    PubMed

    Echeverria-Beirute, Fabian; Murray, Seth C; Klein, Patricia; Kerth, Chris; Miller, Rhonda; Bertrand, Benoit

    2018-05-30

    Beverage quality is a complex attribute of coffee ( Coffea arabica L.). Genotype (G), environment (E), management (M), postharvest processing, and roasting are all involved. However, little is known about how G × M interactions influence beverage quality. We investigated how yield and coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease (caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br.) management affect cup quality and plant performance, in two coffee cultivars. Sensory and chemical analyses revealed that 10 of 70 attributes and 18 of 154 chemical volatile compounds were significantly affected by G and M. Remarkably, acetaminophen was found for the first time in roasted coffee and in higher concentrations under more stressful conditions. A principal component analysis described 87% of the variation in quality and plant overall performance. This study is a first step in understanding the complexity of the physiological, metabolic, and molecular changes in coffee production, which will be useful for the improvement of coffee cultivars.

  13. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-02-21

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods-traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting-were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts.

  14. New understanding on separation of Mn and Fe from ferruginous manganese ores by the magnetic reduction roasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingbing; Zhang, Yuanbo; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jia; Su, Zijian; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic reduction roasting followed by magnetic separation process is reported as a simple route to realize separation of Mn and Fe from ferruginous manganese ores (Fe-Mn ores). However, the separation and recovery of Mn and Fe oxides are not very effective. This work clarified the underlying reason for the poor separation and also proposed some suggestions for the magnetic reduction process. In this work, the effect of temperature on the magnetic reduction roasting - magnetic separation of Fe-Mn ore was investigated firstly. Then the reduction behaviors of MnO2-Fe2O3 system and MnO2-Fe2O3-10 wt.%SiO2 system under 10 vol.% CO-90 vol.% CO2 at 600-1000 °C were investigated by XRD, XPS, SEM-EDS, VSM, DSC and thermodynamics analyses. Reduction and separation tests showed that higher reduction temperature was beneficial to the recovery of iron while it's not in favor of the recovery of manganese when the temperature was over 800 °C. The formation of composite oxide MnxFe3-xO4 with strong magnetism between the interface of the MnO2 and Fe2O3 particles leaded to the poor separation of iron and manganese. In addition, the formation mechanism of MnxFe3-xO4 from MnO2 and Fe2O3 as well as the interface reaction reduced under 10 vol.% CO was discussed in this study. Finally, some suggestions were recommended for the magnetic reduction roasting for utilizing the Fe-Mn ores effectively.

  15. Coffee consumption modulates inflammatory processes in an individual fashion.

    PubMed

    Muqaku, Besnik; Tahir, Ammar; Klepeisz, Philip; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Marlene; Schmetterer, Klaus; Gerner, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable. We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines, and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), LTC4, LTE4, and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant downregulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed. Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Influence of Processing Soil With a Coffee Grinder on Soil Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-20

    shaker, sieves , coffee grinder, plastic limit tool, bowls, spatulas, and scoops. To classify soils, a dry sieve analysis is performed, as is a Plastic...processed with the coffee grinder for 90 seconds as described above. Sieve analysis using the wet preparation method was used to test and classify the soils...one 90 second cycle of Elevator Soil Figure 3: The blades after three 90 second cycles of Elevator Soil 71Page 4.2 Ottawa Sand Dry Sieve Analysis

  17. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    as a process for roasting almonds reduces processing time and leads to an almond product with better flavor than oven or oil roasting. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Determination of trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine in Yunnan Arabica coffee by microwave-assisted extraction and HPLC with two columns in series.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongcheng; Shao, Jinliang; Li, Qiwan; Li, Yangang; Yan, Hong Mei; He, Lizhong

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid method was developed for simultaneous extraction of trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine from coffee, and separation by two chromatographic columns in series. The trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine were extracted with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The optimal conditions selected were 3 min, 200 psi, and 120 degrees C. The chromatographic separation was performed with two columns in series, polyaromatic hydrocarbon C18 (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size) and Bondapak NH2 (300 x 3.9 mm id, 5 microm particle size). Isocratic elution was with 0.02 M phosphoric acid-methanol (70 + 30, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Good recoveries and RSD values were found for all analytes in the matrix. The LOD of the three compounds was 0.02 mg/L, and the LOQ was 0.005% in the matrix. The concentrations of trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine in instant coffee, roasted coffee, and raw coffee (Yunnan Arabica coffee) were assessed by MAE and hot water extraction; the correlation coefficients between concentrations of the three compounds obtained were close to 1.

  19. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Influences of Different Components on Agglomeration Behavior of MoS2 During Oxidation Roasting Process in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jing-Song; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-08-01

    An agglomeration of the furnace charge always takes place during the oxidation roasting process of molybdenite concentrate (with the main component of MoS2) in multiple hearth furnaces, which greatly affects the production process and furnace service life. In the present work, a preliminary study about the influence of various components on the agglomeration phenomenon of pure MoS2 have been carried out. The results show that reaction temperature, impurity content, and air flow rate have significant effects on the agglomeration extent. Meanwhile, the impurity type added into the pure MoS2 plays a crucial role. It was found that CaO and MgO have a stronger sulfur-fixing effect and that the desulphurization of the roasted product was uncompleted. It was also concluded that the agglomeration is due to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics, including that between MoO3 and impurities and that between MoO3 and Mo4O11. It is suggested that decreasing the impurities contents, especially K, Cu, Pb, and Fe, is an effective method for reducing the extent of agglomeration.

  1. Dechlorination Mechanism of CuCl Residue from Zinc Hydrometallurgy by Microwave Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shuaidan; Ju, Shaohua; Peng, Jinhui; Zhu, Xiaoping; Srinivasakannan, C.; Zhang, Libo; Tu, Ganfeng

    2015-04-01

    Removal of chlorine (Cl) from the CuCl residue in the process of zinc hydrometallurgy is of great importance to improve the process economics. The current processing methods result in generation of large quantities of polluted discharge necessitating waste treatment systems. The present work attempts to de-chlorinate the CuCl residue through thermal treatment with application of microwave, towards which the effect of the major experimental factors such as roasting temperature, heating duration and particle size of samples on the process has been investigated. And the changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the dechlorination reactions are calculated which show that: 1) CuCl can react with H2O and air to produce CuO and HCl(g); 2) CuCl can be oxidized by air into CuO and Cl2 would be released. The tail gas chromatography, XRD and SEM-EDS analysis results of samples before and after microwave roasting verified the thermodynamics study results. Thus, the process of dechlorination by microwave roasting technology is feasible, and the tail gas can be mainly HCl(g) and air which can be absorbed with water and produce hydrochloride easily.

  2. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Lotter, Jason T; Comerford, Chris; Keeton, Kara; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term) and area (long-term) samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013⿿0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010⿿0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (<0.0047 ppm)⿿0.016 ppm. Mean estimated 8 h time-weighted average (8 h TWA) exposures for the barista ranged from 0.007⿿0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs) for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance). These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  3. Investigating the coffee flavour in South African Pinotage wine using novel offline olfactometry and comprehensive gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naudé, Yvette; Rohwer, Egmont R

    2013-01-04

    Pinotage wine from several South African wine cellars has been produced with a novel coffee flavour. We have investigated this innovative coffee effect using in house developed solventless sampling and fractionating olfactometric techniques, which are unique in their ability to study synergistic aroma effects as opposed to traditional gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O) which is designed to, ideally, evaluate single eluting compounds in a chromatographic sequence. Sections of the chromatogram, multiple or single peaks, were recaptured on multichannel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) traps at the end of a GC column. The recaptured fractions were released in a controlled manner for offline olfactory evaluation, and for qualitative analysis using comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) for compound separation and identification, thus permitting correlation of odour with specific compounds. A combination of furfural and 2-furanmethanol was responsible for a roast coffee bean-like odour in coffee style Pinotage wines. This coffee perception is the result of a synergistic effect in which no individual compound was responsible for the characteristic aroma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods—traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting—were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts. PMID:28230792

  5. Simplified multi-element analysis of ground and instant coffees by ICP-OES and FAAS.

    PubMed

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Pohl, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    A simplified alternative to the wet digestion sample preparation procedure for roasted ground and instant coffees has been developed and validated for the determination of different elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na). The proposed procedure, i.e. the ultrasound-assisted solubilisation in aqua regia, is quite fast and simple, requires minimal use of reagents, and demonstrated good analytical performance, i.e. accuracy from -4.7% to 1.9%, precision within 0.5-8.6% and recovery in the range 93.5-103%. Detection limits of elements were from 0.086 ng ml(-1) (Sr) to 40 ng ml(-1) (Fe). A preliminary classification of 18 samples of ground and instant coffees was successfully made based on concentrations of selected elements and using principal component analysis and hierarchic cluster analysis.

  6. The mineralogical transformation of a polymetallic sulfide ore during partial roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Louis

    2001-12-01

    A partial desulfurization roasting process has been tested on a typical copper-zinc sulfide concentrate in a Nichols Herreshoff monohearth pilot furnace. In this process, the sulfur is partially removed and iron, to a certain degree, is preferentially oxidized. The mineralogical characterizations of the reaction products at different residence times enable the recognition of a sequence of reactions and various textural relationships during the roasting. The testing showed that a controlled desulfurization at a temperature as low as 650°C can lead to the decomposition of chalcopyrite, resulting in the formation of discrete particles of Cu2S having a size ranging from five to 20 micrometers or more.

  7. A Comparison of Flavor Differences between Pecan Cultivars in Raw and Roasted Forms.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Shelby M; Kelly, Brendan; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research was to explore sensory differences among 8 different pecan cultivars ("Pawnee," "Witte," "Kanza," "Major," "Lakota," "Giles," "Maramec," "Chetopa") in raw and roasted forms. The cultivars were collected from 2 growing seasons (2013 and 2014) and evaluated separately. Trained panelists evaluated each cultivar from each season in raw and roasted forms, measuring intensities of 20 flavor attributes using descriptive analysis. The intensities of 10 of the 20 flavor attributes were higher for the roasted pecans across all cultivars. These included pecan ID, overall nutty, nutty-woody, nutty-grainlike, nutty-buttery, brown, caramelized, roasted, overall sweet, and sweet. The cultivars exhibited significant differences from one another for 8 attributes: pecan ID, nutty-buttery, caramelized, acrid, woody, oily, astringent, and bitter. Each of the cultivars displayed unique flavor profiles with some demonstrating extremes of certain attributes, for example the high astringency of "Lakota" or the buttery characteristics of "Pawnee." These results may help pecan growers and pecan product manufacturers understand flavor differences between different varieties of pecans, both in raw and roasted states, and the changes that occur during this process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Mechanism of Na2SO4 Promoting Nickel Extraction from Sulfide Concentrates by Sulfation Roasting-Water Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangshi; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Sha; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Lu, Changyuan

    2018-04-01

    As a more environmentally friendly and energy-efficient route, the sulfation roasting-water leaching technique has been developed for highly effective extraction of non-ferrous metals from nickel sulfide concentrate in the presence of a Na2SO4 additive. The effects of several important roasting parameters—the roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, the holding time, and the heating rate in particular—have been investigated. The results suggest that about 90 pct Ni, 92 pct Co, 95 pct Cu, and < 1 pct Fe can be leached from the calcine roasted under the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the behavior and mechanism of the Na2SO4 additive in the roasting process have been well addressed by detailed characterization of the roasted product and leaching residue using quantitative phase analysis (QPA) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The Na2SO4 additive was observed to play a noticeable role in promoting the sulfation degree of valuable metals by forming liquid phases [Na2Me(SO4)2] at the outermost layer, which can create a suitable dynamic environment for sulfation. Thus, addition of Na2SO4 might be conducive to an alternative metallurgical process involving complex sulfide ores.

  9. Mechanism of Na2SO4 Promoting Nickel Extraction from Sulfide Concentrates by Sulfation Roasting-Water Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangshi; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Sha; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Lu, Changyuan

    2018-06-01

    As a more environmentally friendly and energy-efficient route, the sulfation roasting-water leaching technique has been developed for highly effective extraction of non-ferrous metals from nickel sulfide concentrate in the presence of a Na2SO4 additive. The effects of several important roasting parameters—the roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, the holding time, and the heating rate in particular—have been investigated. The results suggest that about 90 pct Ni, 92 pct Co, 95 pct Cu, and < 1 pct Fe can be leached from the calcine roasted under the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the behavior and mechanism of the Na2SO4 additive in the roasting process have been well addressed by detailed characterization of the roasted product and leaching residue using quantitative phase analysis (QPA) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The Na2SO4 additive was observed to play a noticeable role in promoting the sulfation degree of valuable metals by forming liquid phases [Na2Me(SO4)2] at the outermost layer, which can create a suitable dynamic environment for sulfation. Thus, addition of Na2SO4 might be conducive to an alternative metallurgical process involving complex sulfide ores.

  10. Effects of coffee intake and intraperitoneal caffeine on bone repair process--a histologic and histometric study.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rander Moreira; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida de

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that caffeine acts on bone promoting an increase of calcium excretion, inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and delay in tissue repair process, raising the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, periodontal disease and affecting the success of bone reconstructive procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze histomorphometrically the process of alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats subjected to daily intake of boiled coffee or intraperitoneal administration of caffeine. Forty-five male rats were divided according to the treatment in Control group (C); Coffee group (CO) - treated with coffee since birth; and Caffeine (CAF) - intraperitoneal injection of aqueous solution of caffeine 1.5% (0.2 mL/100g body weight) for 30 days. When weighing between 250-300 g they were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the maxillary right incisor, and euthanized 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery for histological assessments of bone volume and the quality of formed bone in the dental socket. The qualitative results demonstrated larger amounts of blood clot and immature bone in animals under treatment of pure caffeine compared to coffee and control. Histometric analysis revealed that coffee treatment led to a 40% drop in bone formation, and caffeine a 60% drop in comparison to control animals (ANOVA p≤0.01). It was concluded that both the daily ingestion of coffee and the intraperitoneal administration of caffeine in rats delayed the alveolar bone reparative process after tooth extraction, and this effect was more aggressive when pure caffeine was used.

  11. Investigation on Crude and High-Temperature Heated Coffee Oil by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy along with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Raba, Diana Nicoleta; Poiana, Mariana-Atena; Borozan, Aurica Breica; Stef, Marius; Radu, Florina; Popa, Mirela-Viorica

    2015-01-01

    The coffee oil has a promising potential to be used in food industry, but an efficient use, especially in products that required high-temperature heating, depends on its chemical composition and the changes induced by processing. Since there is little information on this topic, the aim of our study was to investigate the crude green and roasted coffee oil (GCO, RCO) and heated (HGCO, HRCO) for 1 h at 200°C, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The results of FTIR spectroscopy revealed that no statistically significant differences (one-way ANOVA, p>0.05) in the oxidative status of GCO and RCO were found. The coffee oils heating induced significant spectral changes in the regions 3100–3600 cm–1, 2800–3050 cm–1 and 1680–1780 cm–1 proved by the differences in the absorbance ratios A 3009 cm−1/A 2922 cm−1, A 3009 cm−1/A 2853 cm−1, A 3009 cm−1/A 1744 cm−1, A 1744 cm−1/A 2922 cm−1. These alterations were related to the reduction of the unsaturation degree due to primary and secondary oxidation processes of the lipid fraction. The radical scavenging ability of oils investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay revealed that the IC50 value of GCO was significantly lower than of RCO (p<0.05). The IC50 values of crude coffee oils were lower than those of heated samples. The antioxidant activity of oils was attributed to both antioxidant compounds with free-radical scavenging capacity and to lipids oxidation products generated by heating. In the first 6 h of incubation, the inhibitory activity of crude oils against E. coli and E. faecalis was not significantly different to the control (p>0.05). Also, HGCO and HRCO showed significantly different inhibitory potential related to the control (p<0.05). The heating induced statistically significant decreases in the effectiveness of coffee oils against the tested bacteria. GCO proved to be the most effective among

  12. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  13. Effect of heating on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of microwave roasted groundnut seed oil.

    PubMed

    Abbas Ali, M; Anowarul Islam, M; Othman, Noor Hidayu; Noor, Ahmadilfitri Md

    2017-12-01

    The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition of groundnut seed oil (GSO) exposed to microwaves were evaluated during heating at 170 °C. During heating, the oxidative indices such as free fatty acid, peroxide value, p -anisidine value, TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid value, specific extinctions, and color value were increased. The increments were found to be higher in unroasted seed oils compared to roasted ones indicating lower release of lipid oxidation products in roasted GSO. After 9 h heating, the relative content of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased to 89.53% and that of saturated fatty acid (SFA) increased to 117.46% in unroasted sample. The relative content of PUFA decreased to 92.05% and that of SFA increased to 105.76% in 7.5 min roasted sample after 9 h of heating. However, the roasting process slowed down the oxidative deterioration of PUFA. With increased heating times, an appreciable loss was more apparent in the triacylglycerol species OLL and OOL in unroasted samples compared to roasted ones. In FTIR, the peak intensities in unroasted samples were markedly changed in comparison with roasted samples during heating. The roasting of groundnut seed prior to the oil extraction reduced the oxidative degradation of oil samples; thereby increasing heat stability.

  14. Influence of roasting conditions on health-related compounds in different nuts.

    PubMed

    Schlörmann, W; Birringer, M; Böhm, V; Löber, K; Jahreis, G; Lorkowski, S; Müller, A K; Schöne, F; Glei, M

    2015-08-01

    Due to their health-beneficial ingredients the consumption of nuts can contribute to a healthy diet. The composition of hazelnuts, almonds, macadamia nuts, pistachios and walnuts regarding health-promoting and potentially harmful compounds was examined before and after roasting under different time and temperature conditions. Fatty acid compositions were not affected by roasting. Malondialdehyde increased with higher roasting temperatures (17-fold in walnuts). Levels of tocopherol isomers were reduced after roasting (α-T: 38%, β-T: 40%, γ-T: 70%) and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased significantly in hazelnuts (1.4-fold), macadamia nuts (1.7-fold) and walnuts (3.7-fold). Increasing roasting temperatures supported the formation of significant amounts of acrylamide only in almonds (1220 μg kg(-1)). In general, nuts roasted at low/middle temperatures (120-160°C) exhibited best sensory properties. Therefore, desired sensory quality along with a favourable healthy nut composition may be achieved by roasting over a low to medium temperature range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  16. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  17. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts by LC-MS/MS in raw and roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong; Huang, Guangwei; Xiao, Lu; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-11-23

    A sensitive and reliable LC-(ESI)MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of five common advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) after enzymatic digestion in raw and roasted almonds. AGEs included carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL), pyralline (Pyr), argpyrimidine (Arg-p), and pentosidine (Pento-s). This method allows accurate quantitation of free and AGE-protein adducts of target AGEs. Results indicate that CML and CEL are found in both raw and roasted almonds. Pyr was identified for the first time in roasted almonds and accounted for 64.4% of free plus bound measured AGEs. Arg-p and Pento-s were below the limit of detection in all almond samples tested. Free AGEs accounted for 1.3-26.8% of free plus bound measured AGEs, indicating that protein-bound forms predominate. The roasting process significantly increased CML, CEL, and Pyr formation, but no significant correlation was observed between these AGEs and roasting temperature.

  18. Effect of coffee filtrate, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and caffeine on Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis survival in ground chicken breasts.

    PubMed

    Maletta, Anne B; Were, Lilian M

    2012-02-01

    The antimicrobial effect of roasted coffee filtrate (CF) and dicarbonyls on Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in raw ground chicken breast meat (GCB) was investigated. Coffee was brewed and filtered before addition to GCB. Coffee filtrate with and without added caffeine, methylglyoxal, and/or glyoxal was added to GCB and then inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis. Ground chicken samples were stomached with peptone water at days 1, 3, 5, and 7, plated on XLD agar with a TSA overlay, and Salmonella survivors were enumerated. CF alone gave less than a 1 Log reduction in all runs compared to control GCB with no treatment. Methylglyoxal (2.28 mg/g GCB) had the greatest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in GCB with average Log reductions of 2.27 to 3.23, respectively, over the 7 d duration of the experiment compared to control GCB with no treatment. A 1 Log reduction was observed in GCB with CF, 0.93 mg glyoxal, and 1 mg caffeine/g chicken compared to the control and GCB with only CF. Heat-produced coffee compounds could potentially reduce Salmonella in retail ground chicken and chicken products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Physical and chemical mechanism underlying ultrasonically enhanced hydrochloric acid leaching of non-oxidative roasting of bastnaesite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongliang; Li, Mei; Gao, Kai; Li, Jianfei; Yan, Yujun; Liu, Xingyu

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigated an alternative to the conventional hydrochloric acid leaching of roasted bastnaesite. The studies suggested that the rare earth oxyfluorides in non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite can be selectively leached only at elevated temperatures Further, the Ce(IV) in oxidatively roasted bastnaesite does not leach readily at low temperatures, and it is difficult to induce it to form a complex with F - ions in order to increase the leaching efficiency. Moreover, it is inevitably reduced to Ce(III) at elevated temperatures. Thus, the ultrasonically-assisted hydrochloric acid leaching of non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite was studied in detail, including, the effects of several process factors and the, physical and chemical mechanisms underlying the leaching process. The results show that the leaching rate for the ultrasonically assisted process at 55°C (65% rare earth oxides) is almost the same as that for the conventional leaching process at 85°C. Based on the obtained results, it is concluded that ultrasonic cavitation plays a key role in the proposed process, resulting not only in a high shear stress, which damages the solid surface, but also in the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Standard electrode potential analysis and experimental results indicate that Ce(III) isoxidized by the hydroxyl radicals to Ce(IV), which can be leached with F - ions in the form of a complex, and that the Ce(IV) can subsequently be reduced to Ce(III) by the H 2 O 2. This prevents the Cl - ions in the solution from being oxidized to form chlorine. These results imply that the ultrasonically-assisted process can be used for the leaching of non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite at low temperatures in the absence of a reductant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of high-pressure processing on the generation of γ-aminobutyric acid and microbiological safety in coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Cheng, Ming-Ching; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2018-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-pressure processing (HPP) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, glutamic acid (Glu) content, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity, growth of Aspergillus fresenii, and accumulated ochratoxin A (OTA) content in coffee beans. The results indicated that coffee beans subjected to HPP at pressures ≥50 MPa for 5 min increased GAD activity and promoted the conversion of Glu to GABA, and showed a significantly doubling of GABA content compared with unprocessed coffee beans. Additionally, investigation of the influence of HPP on A. fresenii growth on coffee beans showed that application ≥400 MPa reduced A. fresenii concentrations to <1 log. Furthermore, during a 50-day storage period, we observed that a processing pressure of 600 MPa completely inhibited A. fresenii growth, and on day 50 the OTA content of coffee beans subjected to processing pressures of 600 MPa was 0.0066 μg g -1 , which was significantly lower than the OTA content of 0.1143 μg g -1 in the control group. This study shows that HPP treatment can simultaneously increase GABA content and inhibit the growth of A. fresenii, thereby effectively reducing the production and accumulation of OTA and maintaining the microbiological safety of coffee beans. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    PubMed

    Raczyk, Marianna; Siger, Aleksander; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The fatty acid composition, content of phytosterols, carotenoids and tocopherols, oxidative stability and colour were determined in oils after cold pressing and storage for 3 months using GC-FID, GCxGC-ToFMS, HPLC, Rancimat and spectrophotometric methods. The results of this study indicate that the seed-roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils, but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols. The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

  2. Contribution of l-theanine to the formation of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a key roasted peanutty flavor in Oolong tea during manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangyang; Song, Chuankui; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-10-15

    l-Theanine, the most abundant amino acid in tea, is widely believed to be associated with the tea taste, however, its contribution to the formation of tea aroma is still unknown. Volatiles were determined and nitrogen-containing compounds formed during manufacturing processes were quantified. Lower levels of total sugar and l-theanine were detected in the Oolong tea product undergoing full fire processing (FFOT) suggesting that l-theanine probably involved in the volatile formation during manufacturing processes. Methylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, two newly formed compounds in FFOT, together with other volatiles were successfully detected in a model thermal reaction of d-glucose and l-theanine (GT-MTR) but not detectable in thermal reactions with single d-glucose (G-MTR) or l-theanine (T-MTR). The concentration of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine increased significantly by adding additional l-theanine to 2nd roasted tea. Our study demonstrated that l-theanine, at least partly, contributed to the formation of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a key roasted peanutty flavor in Oolong tea. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Screening of European coffee final products for occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA).

    PubMed

    vd Stegen, G; Jörissen, U; Pittet, A; Saccon, M; Steiner, W; Vincenzi, M; Winkler, M; Zapp, J; Schlatter, C

    1997-04-01

    Samples (633) of final coffee products were drawn from the markets of different European countries relative to the market share of each product type and brand. These samples were analysed in a cooperative action with nine different laboratories. With low limits of detection (mean detection limit approximately 0.5 ng/g) no OTA was found in over half of the samples (334 negatives). In the remaining samples occurrence of OTA at a rather low level was seen. Only four samples (all instants) exceeded a level of 10 ng/g, whereas for both instants, and roast and grounds (R & G), over three-quarters of the samples were in the range from nondetectable to 1 ng/g. The overall mean for all R & Gs was 0.8 ng/g and for all instant 1.3 ng/g (for samples in which no OTA was detected, half of the detection limit was included in this calculation). In the brewing methods frequently used in Europe the OTA is essentially fully extracted. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day (approximately 24 g R & G or approximately 8 g instant coffee) contributes on average 19 or 10 ng/day respectively. Four cups/day is above the per caput consumption level in most European contries. Compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) recently set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives at 100 ng/kg bodyweight/week, consumption of 28 cups/week contributes up to 2% to the PTWI.

  4. Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-11-12

    Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting.

  5. Influence of 2-Weeks Ingestion of High Chlorogenic Acid Coffee on Mood State, Performance, and Postexercise Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Goodman, Courtney L; Capps, Christopher R; Shue, Zack L; Arnot, Robert

    2018-01-01

    This study measured the influence of 2-weeks ingestion of high chlorogenic acid (CQA) coffee on postexercise inflammation and oxidative stress, with secondary outcomes including performance and mood state. Cyclists (N = 15) were randomized to CQA coffee or placebo (300 ml/day) for 2 weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the opposite condition with a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected pre- and postsupplementation, and immediately postexercise. CQA coffee was prepared using the Turkish method with 30 g lightly roasted, highly ground Hambela coffee beans in 300 ml boiling water, and provided 1,066 mg CQA and 474 mg caffeine versus 187 mg CQA and 33 mg caffeine for placebo. Plasma caffeine was higher with CQA coffee versus placebo after 2-weeks (3.3-fold) and postexercise (21.0-fold) (interaction effect, p < .001). Higher ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) levels were measured after exercise with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .01). No differences between CQA coffee and placebo were found for postexercise increases in plasma IL-6 (p = .74) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODEs) (p = .99). Total mood disturbance (TMD) scores were lower with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .04). 50-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials, with heart rate and ventilation higher with CQA coffee, especially after 30 min. In summary, despite more favorable TMD scores with CQA coffee, these data do not support the chronic use of coffee highly concentrated with chlorogenic acids and caffeine in mitigating postexercise inflammation or oxidative stress or improving 50-km cycling performance.

  6. [Studies on chemical components of essential oil of crude semen sinapis and roasted semen sinapis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mi-Yu; Lin, Yan-Ni; Wu, Guo-Xin; Wu, Cui-Ping

    2006-07-01

    To study the chemical components of the essential oil of the Semen Sinapis with the different processing methods. The essential oils of the crude Semen Sinapis and the roasted Semen Sinapis were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical components were analyzed by means of GC-MS-DS. The relative content of each component was calculated by area normalization. The main chemical components of the essential oil of the crude Semen Sinapis and the roasted Semen Sinapis were similar. The main chemical components were allyl isothiocyanate and 4-isothio-cyanato-1-butene. The chemical components of the essential oil of the crude Semen Sinapis were more than that of the roasted Semen Sinapis. The effect of different processing methods on the chemical components of the essential oil of Semen Sinapis was significant. Certain chemical components such as isothiocyanato-containing substances, were found in the crude Semen Sinapis.

  7. Effect of altitude on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans can be affected by shade and postharvest processing method.

    PubMed

    Worku, Mohammed; de Meulenaer, Bruno; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    Although various studies have assessed altitude, shade and postharvest processing effects on biochemical content and quality of coffee beans, data on their interactions are scarce. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sucrose contents as well as physical and sensory qualities of green coffee beans from large plantations in southwestern Ethiopia were evaluated. Caffeine and CGA contents decreased with increasing altitude; they respectively declined 0.12 and 1.23gkg -1 100m -1 . Sucrose content increased with altitude; however, the altitude effect was significant for wet-processed beans (3.02gkg -1 100m -1 ), but not for dry-processed beans (0.36g kg -1 100m -1 ). Similarly, sucrose content increased with altitude with much stronger effect for coffee grown without shade (2.11gkg -1 100m -1 ) compared to coffee grown under shade (0.93gkg -1 100m -1 ). Acidity increased with altitude when coffee was grown under shade (0.22 points 100m -1 ), but no significant altitude effect was observed on coffee grown without shade. Beans grown without shade showed a higher physical quality score for dry (37.2) than for wet processing (29.1). These results generally underline the complex interaction effects between altitude and shade or postharvest processing on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pecan walnut (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) oil quality and phenolic compounds as affected by microwave and conventional roasting.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Doğu, Süleyman

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of conventional and microwave roasting on phenolic compounds, free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of pecan walnut kernel and oil was investigated. The oil content of pecan kernels was 73.78% for microwave oven roasted at 720 W and 73.56% for conventional oven roasted at 110 °C. The highest free fatty acid content (0.50%) and the lowest peroxide value (2.48 meq O 2 /kg) were observed during microwave roasting at 720 W. The fatty acid profiles and tocopherol contents of pecan kernel oils did not show significant differences compared to raw samples. Roasting process in microwave oven at 720 W caused the reduction of some phenolic compounds, while the content of gallic acid exhibited a significant increase.

  10. Effect of roasting conditions on the composition and antioxidant properties of defatted walnut flour.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joana; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Sena-Moreno, Estela; Rabadán, Adrián; Pardo, José E; Beatriz Pp Oliveira, M

    2018-03-01

    Walnut oil extraction by pressure systems produces a press cake as a by-product, with many of the beneficial walnut properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant properties of walnut flours submitted to different roasting protocols (50, 100 and 150 °C during 30, 60 and 120 min). All walnut flours had about 42% protein and a significant amount of dietary fibre (17%), not being affected by the roasting process. Nonetheless, the fat content increased around 50% in walnuts flours subjected to longer and higher roasting temperatures (150 °C). The lipid fraction showed a good nutritional quality with a high vitamin E content (mainly γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid profile rich in linoleic and linolenic acids. The high phenolic content also provides great antioxidant capacity to the flours. Mild roasting of walnuts did not affect the quality of the flours that could be used as a functional ingredient in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    PubMed

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (p<0.05). As the puffing pressure increased, the amount of total polyphenols and total flavonoids decreased. The antioxidant capacity of cacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of roasting on the flavan-3-ol composition, sensory-related chemistry, and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Todd H; Van Buiten, Charlene B; Baker, Scott A; Elias, Ryan J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Lambert, Joshua D

    2018-07-30

    Roasting is an important cocoa processing step, but has been reported to reduce the polyphenol content in the beans. We investigated the impact of whole-bean roasting on the polyphenol content, aroma-related chemistry, and in vitro pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity of cocoa under a range of roasting conditions. Total phenolics, (-)-epicatechin, and proanthocyanidin (PAC) dimer - pentamer content was reduced by roasting. By contrast, roasting at 150 °C or greater increased the levels of catechin and PAC hexamers and heptamers. These compounds have greater PL inhibitory potency. Consistent with these changes in PAC composition and this previous data, we found that roasting at 170 °C time-dependently increased PL inhibitory activity. Cocoa aroma-related compounds increased with roasting above 100 °C, whereas deleterious sensory-related compounds formed at more severe temperatures. Our results indicate that cocoa roasting can be optimized to increase the content of larger PACs and anti-PL activity, while maintaining a favorable aroma profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  14. Influence of storage on volatile profiles in roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Xiao, Lu; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-11-19

    Hexanal, peroxide value, and lipid hydroperoxides are common indicators of lipid oxidation in food products. However, these markers are not always reliable as levels are dynamic and often can be detected only after significant oxidation has occurred. Changes in the volatile composition of light- and dark-roast almonds were evaluated during storage over 24 weeks at 25 or 35 °C using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several volatile changes were identified in association with early oxidation events in roasted almonds. Hexenal decreased significantly during the first 6 weeks of storage and did not increase above initial levels until 20-24 weeks of storage depending upon the degree of roast. In contrast, levels of 1-heptanol and 1-octanol increased at 16-20 weeks, depending upon the degree of roast, and no initial losses were observed. Seventeen new compounds, absent in raw and freshly roasted almonds but detectable after 6 weeks of storage, were identified. Of these, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 3-octen-2-one, 2-decanone, (E)-2-decenal, 2,4-nonadienal, pentyl oxirane, and especially acetic acid increased significantly (that is, >10 ng/g). The degree of roasting did not correlate with the levels of these compounds. Significant decreases in roasting-related aroma volatiles such as 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methylpyrazine, and 1-methylthio-2-propanol were observed by 4 weeks of storage independent of the degree of roast or storage conditions.

  15. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  16. Effect of pre-roast moisture content and post roast cooling parameters on oil migration during oil roasting of peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil migration affects the quality and shelf-life of food products and consequently has an impact on overall consumer acceptance. Exchange of oil may occur during or after oil roasting of peanuts but little is known about the factors contributing to this exchange. This study examines the effect of p...

  17. Microwave Meat Roasting - A Computer Analysis for Cylindrical Roasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    Temperatures for Various Oven Temperature Settings Table A2. Radiosity Values for Various Oven Temperature Settings Table A3. Radiant Energy Received by...the radiosities Jj, were written for the measured surface temperatures for each oven setting. Using the calculated radiosities , radiant heat...transfer to the roast was calculated by multiplying the difference in radiosities by the shape factor. Appendix A shows the details, and the slopes and

  18. Influences of superheated steam roasting on changes in sugar, amino acid and flavour active components of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao).

    PubMed

    Zzaman, Wahidu; Bhat, Rajeev; Yang, Tajul Aris; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2017-10-01

    Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated. The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg -1 ) at 200°C for 10 min. The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  20. Occurrence of furan in commercial processed foods in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arisseto, A P; Vicente, E; Furlani, R P Z; Ueno, M S; Pereira, A L D; Toledo, M C F

    2012-01-01

    Selected commercial processed foods available in the Brazilian market (306 samples) were analysed for furan content using a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Canned and jarred foods, including vegetable, meat, fruit and sweet products, showed levels up to 32.8 µg kg⁻¹, with the highest concentrations observed in vegetables and meats. For coffee, furan content ranged from 253.0 to 5021.4 µg kg⁻¹ in the roasted ground coffee and from not detected to 156.6 µg kg⁻¹ in the beverage. For sauces, levels up to 138.1 µg kg⁻¹ were found. In cereal-based products, the highest concentrations (up to 191.3 µg kg⁻¹) were observed in breakfast cereal (corn flakes), cracker (cream crackers) and biscuit (wafer). In general, these results are comparable with those reported in other countries and will be useful for a preliminary estimate of the furan dietary intake in Brazil.

  1. Plant biochemistry: a naturally decaffeinated arabica coffee.

    PubMed

    Silvarolla, Maria B; Mazzafera, Paulo; Fazuoli, Luiz C

    2004-06-24

    The adverse side effects of caffeine have increased the market for decaffeinated coffee to about 10% of coffee consumption worldwide (http://www.ncausa.org), despite the loss of key flavour compounds in the industrial decaffeinating process. We have discovered a naturally decaffeinated Coffea arabica plant from Ethiopia, a species normally recognized for the high quality of its beans. It should be possible to transfer this trait to commercial varieties of arabica coffee plants by intraspecific hybridization--a process likely to be simpler than an interspecific hybridization strategy, which could require more than 30 years of breeding to fix the decaffeinated trait and would probably result in an inferior cup of coffee.

  2. Optimization of hull-less pumpkin seed roasting conditions using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vujasinović, Vesna; Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka

    2012-05-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize hull-less pumpkin seed roasting conditions before seed pressing to maximize the biochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the virgin pumpkin oils obtained using a hydraulic press. Hull-less pumpkin seeds were roasted for various lengths of time (30 to 70 min) at various roasting temperatures (90 to 130 °C), resulting in 9 different oil samples, while the responses were phospholipids content, total phenols content, α- and γ-tocopherols, and antioxidative activity [by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical assay]. Mathematical models have shown that roasting conditions influenced all dependent variables at P < 0.05. The higher roasting temperatures had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on phospholipids, phenols, and α-tocopherols contents, while longer roasting time had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on γ-tocopherol content and antioxidant capacity, among the samples prepared under different roasting conditions. The optimum conditions for roasting the hull-less pumpkin seeds were 120 °C for duration of 49 min, which resulted in these oil concentrations: phospholipids 0.29%, total phenols 23.06 mg/kg, α-tocopherol 5.74 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol 24.41 mg/100 g, and an antioxidative activity (EC(50)) of 27.18 mg oil/mg DPPH. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  4. Coffee husk composting: An investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. PMID:24369846

  5. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    PubMed

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  6. Chemistry and phase evolution during roasting of toxic thallium-bearing pyrite.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature. Sample with initial highest amount of quartz (higher Si content), lowest quantity of pyrite and traces of jarosite (lower S content) developed hematite and concentrated Tl (from 10 up to 72 mg kg -1 ) after roasting at 900 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. However, samples with lower or absent quartz content and higher pyrite amount mainly developed magnetite, accumulating Tl between 400 and 500 °C and releasing Tl from 700 up to 900 °C (from 10-29 mg kg -1 down to 4-1 mg kg -1 ). These results show the varied accumulative, or volatile, behaviors of one of the most toxic elements for life and environment, in which oxidation of Tl-bearing Fe sulfides produce Fe oxides wastes with or without Tl. The initial chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite ores should be taken into account in coal-fired power stations, cement or sulfuric acid production industry involving pyrite roasting processes, and steel, brick or paint industries, which use iron ore from roasted pyrite ash, where large amounts of Tl entail significant environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of endogenous nanoparticles from roasted chicken breasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Xunyu; Cao, Lin; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-06-22

    Emergence of endogenous nanoparticles in thermally processed food has aroused much attention due to their unique properties and potential biological impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of fluorescence nanoparticles in roasted chicken breasts, elemental composition, physico-chemical properties and their molecular interaction with human serum albumin (HSA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the foodborne nanoparticles from roasted chicken were nearly spherical with an average particle size of 1.7 ± 0.4 nm. The elemental analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the composition of nanoparticles as 47.4% C, 25.8% O and 26.1% N. The fluorescence of HSA was quenched by the nanoparticles following a static mode, and the molecular interaction of nanoparticles with HSA was spontaneous (ΔG°<0), where hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces played an important role during HSA-nanoparticles complex stabilization through thermodynamic analysis by isothermal titration calorimetry. The principal location of the nanoparticles binding site on HSA was primarily in site I as determined by site-specific marker competition. The conformational of HSA was also changed and ɑ-helical structure decreased in the presence of nanoparticles. Our studies revealed that fluorescent nanoparticles were produced after roasting of chicken breast at 230 °C for 30 min for the first time. The obtained nanoparticles can interact with HSA in a spontaneous manner, thus providing valuable insight into foodborne NPs as well as their effects to human albumin protein.

  8. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated soluble coffee extract (instant coffee). ...

  9. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  10. Coffee husk composting: an investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-03-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Dropping macadamia nuts-in-shell reduces kernel roasting quality.

    PubMed

    Walton, David A; Wallace, Helen M

    2010-10-01

    Macadamia nuts ('nuts-in-shell') are subjected to many impacts from dropping during postharvest handling, resulting in damage to the raw kernel. The effect of dropping on roasted kernel quality is unknown. Macadamia nuts-in-shell were dropped in various combinations of moisture content, number of drops and receiving surface in three experiments. After dropping, samples from each treatment and undropped controls were dry oven-roasted for 20 min at 130 °C, and kernels were assessed for colour, mottled colour and surface damage. Dropping nuts-in-shell onto a bed of nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content or 20% moisture content increased the percentage of dark roasted kernels. Kernels from nuts dropped first at 20%, then 10% moisture content, onto a metal plate had increased mottled colour. Dropping nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content onto nuts-in-shell significantly increased surface damage. Similarly, surface damage increased for kernels dropped onto a metal plate at 20%, then at 10% moisture content. Postharvest dropping of macadamia nuts-in-shell causes concealed cellular damage to kernels, the effects not evident until roasting. This damage provides the reagents needed for non-enzymatic browning reactions. Improvements in handling, such as reducing the number of drops and improving handling equipment, will reduce cellular damage and after-roast darkening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Su-Ji; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-03-01

    We report a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in roasted coffee beans. The aptamer sequences used in this study are 5'-DNAzyme-Linker-OTA aptamer-3'-dabcyl. Dabcyl at the end of the OTA aptamer region plays as a quencher in CRET aptasensor. When hemin and OTA are added, the dabcyl-labeled OTA aptamer approaches to the G-quadruplex-hemin complex by formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex. The G-quadruplex-hemin complexes possess horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-like activity, and therefore, the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (HRPzyme) catalyzes peroxidation in the presence of luminol and H2O2. Resonance energy transfer between luminol (donor) and dabcyl (acceptor) enables quenching of chemiluminescence signals. The signal decreases with increasing the concentration of OTA within the range of 0.1-100ngmL(-1) (limit of detection 0.22ngmL(-1)), and the level of recovery of the respective 1ngmL(-1) and 10ngmL(-1) spiked coffee samples was 71.5% and 93.3%. These results demonstrated the potential of the proposed method for OTA analysis in diverse foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Celluclast 1.5L pretreatment enhanced aroma of palm kernels and oil after kernel roasting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wencan; Zhao, Fangju; Yang, Tiankui; Zhao, Feifei; Liu, Shaoquan

    2017-12-01

    The aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO) affects its applications. Little information is available on how enzymatic modification of palm kernels (PK) affects PK and PKO aroma after kernel roasting. Celluclast (cellulase) pretreatment of PK resulted in a 2.4-fold increment in the concentration of soluble sugars, with glucose being increased by 6.0-fold. Higher levels of 1.7-, 1.8- and 1.9-fold of O-heterocyclic volatile compounds were found in the treated PK after roasting at 180 °C for 8, 14 and 20 min respectively relative to the corresponding control, with furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2-furanmethanol and maltol in particularly higher amounts. Volatile differences between PKOs from control and treated PK were also found, though less obvious owing to the aqueous extraction process. Principal component analysis based on aroma-active compounds revealed that upon the proceeding of roasting, the differentiation between control and treated PK was enlarged while that of corresponding PKOs was less clear-cut. Celluclast pretreatment enabled the medium roasted PK to impart more nutty, roasty and caramelic odor and the corresponding PKO to impart more caramelic but less roasty and burnt notes. Celluclast pretreatment of PK followed by roasting may be a promising new way of improving PKO aroma. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Coffee intake.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oven, microwave, and combination roasting of peanuts: comparison of inactivation of salmonella surrogate Enterococcus faecium, color, volatiles, flavor, and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alicia L; Perry, Jennifer J; Marshall, Julie A; Yousef, Ahmed E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-08-01

    Peanut safety and quality were evaluated for different roasting technologies. Shelled raw peanuts were roasted using an oven at 163 to 204 °C, microwave, or oven and microwave combinations. The lethal effect of these treatments was investigated on peanuts inoculated with the Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium and stored at room temperature for 1 h, 24 h, or 7 d before roasting. Roasted peanut color, odor activity values (OAVs), descriptive sensory panel analysis, free fatty acid, and peroxide values were determined. Color and OAVs were also analyzed on 2 commercial peanut butters. OAVs were calculated using volatile levels quantified with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and known odor thresholds. All treatments resulted in a minimum of 3 log reduction of inoculated bacterial population. Resistance to the process was not influenced by storage of inoculated peanuts prior to treatment. Roasting by different methods produced equivalent, commercially ideal L* color. Based on the OAVs, treatments had similar volatiles important to flavor compared to the commercial samples. Descriptive sensory analysis showed no significant difference between the roasting treatments for most of the sensory attributes. Lipid oxidation was not significantly different between the roasting methods, displaying no evidence that roasting time or temperature affected lipid oxidation, when ideal color was produced. These results suggest that oven, microwave, or combination roasting should be sufficient to mitigate the threat of Salmonella contamination and produce similar color, OAVs, sensory attributes, and lipid oxidation results. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Characterisation of odorants in roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Koshi, Erina; Take, Harumi; Michihata, Toshihide; Maruya, Masachika; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2017-04-01

    Roasted stem tea has a characteristic flavour, which is obtained by roasting tea stems, by-product of green tea production. This research aims to understand the characteristic odorants in roasted stem tea by comparing it to roasted leaf tea. We revealed potent odorants in commercial roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The difference between roasted stem and leaf tea derived from the same tea plants were investigated using GC-MS. Pyrazine compounds exhibited a roasted odour and high flavour dilution (FD) factors, as determined via AEDA. Roasted stem tea was richer in these pyrazines than roasted leaf tea. Geraniol and linalool exhibited high FD factors and a floral odour, and roasted stem tea was richer in these compounds than roasted leaf tea. These results may have a positive impact on the development of tea products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A metabolomics-based approach identifies changes in the small molecular weight compound composition of the peanut as a result of dry-roasting.

    PubMed

    Klevorn, Claire M; Dean, Lisa L

    2018-02-01

    Raw peanuts in the USA are subjected to thermal processing, such as dry-roasting, prior to consumption. A multi-instrument metabolomics-based platform along with targeted analyses was used to determine changes in the low-molecular-weight compound composition of peanuts due to dry-roasting. Runner and virginia-type peanut seeds were characterized using several analytical platforms including (RP)/UPLC-MS/MS (positive and negative ion mode ESI) and HILIC/UPLC-MS/MS with negative ion mode ESI. Of the 383 compounds identified, 16 compounds were unique to the roasted peanuts. Using pathway analysis, compounds associated with arginine and proline metabolism were found to be the most changed. Products of chemical degradation and compounds contained within the vesicular bodies of the peanut increased after roasting. Dry-roasting had a significant impact on the levels and types of low-molecular-weight compounds present. These findings provide useful information about composition changes due to roasting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  20. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  1. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis and its application in analysis of alkaloids in tea, coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjia; Zhou, Junyi; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative CE (qCE) system with high precision has been developed, in which a 4-port nano-valve was isolated from the electric field and served as sample injector. The accurate amount of sample was introduced into the CE system with high reproducibility. Based on this system, consecutive injections and separations were performed without voltage interruption. Reproducibilities in terms of RSD lower than 0.8% for retention time and 1.7% for peak area were achieved. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in real samples, such as tea leaf, roasted coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

  2. Kinetics of color development of peanuts during dry roasting using a batch roaster

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kinetics of color development during peanut roasting were investigated at roasting temperatures from 149 to 204 °C which produced Hunter L color values of 25 to 65. Preliminary and equivalent roasting trials were conducted using a batch roaster simulating the parameters of an industrial continuo...

  3. Rapid analysis of caffeine in various coffee samples employing direct analysis in real-time ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Danhelova, Hana; Hradecky, Jaromir; Prinosilova, Sarka; Cajka, Tomas; Riddellova, Katerina; Vaclavik, Lukas; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-07-01

    The development and use of a fast method employing a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of caffeine in various coffee samples has been demonstrated in this study. A simple sample extraction procedure employing hot water was followed by direct, high-throughput (<1 min per run) examination of the extracts spread on a glass rod under optimized conditions of ambient mass spectrometry, without any prior chromatographic separation. For quantification of caffeine using DART-TOFMS, an external calibration was used. Isotopically labeled caffeine was used to compensate for the variations of the ion intensities of caffeine signal. Recoveries of the DART-TOFMS method were 97% for instant coffee at the spiking levels of 20 and 60 mg/g, respectively, while for roasted ground coffee, the obtained values were 106% and 107% at the spiking levels of 10 and 30 mg/g, respectively. The repeatability of the whole analytical procedure (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD, %) was <5% for all tested spiking levels and matrices. Since the linearity range of the method was relatively narrow (two orders of magnitude), an optimization of sample dilution prior the DART-TOFMS measurement to avoid saturation of the detector was needed.

  4. Biomonitoring using dried blood spots: detection of ochratoxin A and its degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in blood from coffee drinkers.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Benedikt; Osteresch, Bernd; Muñoz, Katherine A; Hillmann, Hartmut; Sibrowski, Walter; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    In this study, human exposure to the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A (2'R-OTA, previously named as 14R-Ochratoxin A [22]) through coffee consumption was assessed. LC-MS/MS and the dried blood spot (DBS) technique were used for the analysis of blood samples from coffee and noncoffee drinkers (n = 50), and food frequency questionnaires were used to document coffee consumption. For the detection of OTA and 2'R-OTA in blood, a new sensitive and efficient sample preparation method based on DBS was established and validated. Using this technique 2'R-OTA was for the first time detected in biological samples. Comparison between coffee drinkers and noncoffee drinkers showed for the first time that 2'R-OTA was only present in blood from the first group while OTA could be found in both groups in a mean concentration of 0.21 μg/L. 2'R-OTA mean concentration was 0.11 μg/L with a maximum concentration of 0.414 μg/L. Thus, in average 2'R-OTA was approx. half the concentration of OTA but in some cases even exceeded OTA levels. No correlation between the amounts of coffee consumption and OTA or 2'R-OTA levels was observed. The results of this study revealed for the first time a high exposure of coffee consumers to 2'R-OTA, a compound formed from OTA during coffee roasting. Since little information is available regarding toxicity and possible carcinogenicity of this compound, further OTA monitoring in blood including 2'R-OTA is advisable. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Utilization of coffee by-products obtained from semi-washed process for production of value-added compounds.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Hermosa, Verónica Alejandra; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-08-01

    The semi-dry processing of coffee generates significant amounts of coffee pulp and wastewater. This study evaluated the production of bioethanol and volatile compounds of eight yeast strains cultivated in a mixture of these residues. Hanseniaspora uvarum UFLA CAF76 showed the best fermentation performance; hence it was selected to evaluate different culture medium compositions and inoculum size. The best results were obtained with 12% w/v of coffee pulp, 1 g/L of yeast extract and 0.3 g/L of inoculum. Using these conditions, fermentation in 1 L of medium was carried out, achieving higher ethanol yield, productivity and efficiency with values of 0.48 g/g, 0.55 g/L h and 94.11% respectively. Twenty-one volatile compounds corresponding to higher alcohols, acetates, terpenes, aldehydes and volatile acids were identified by GC-FID. Such results indicate that coffee residues show an excellent potential as substrates for production of value-added compounds. H. uvarum demonstrated high fermentative capacity using these residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a sensitive method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pugajeva, Iveta; Jaunbergs, Janis; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap MS for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap MS provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the MS (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid-phase extraction with dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA) and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1).

  7. The effects of water absorption and roasting conditions on fracture properties and internal structure of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Nakako; Fujimura, Makoto; Hanya, Akira; Nishizu, Takahisa

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of soaking, residence time before roasting and roasting conditions on the fracture properties and structure of the cross-section of sesame seeds. Soaking time affected only the size of the side voids of the seed cross-section. The fracture force and strain of the roasted seeds decreased as residence time increased. The center void of the roasted seeds, important for seed crispness increased as residence time increased. In contrast, the side void of the roasted seeds only increased with residence time during the first 10 min. Seeds roasted at higher temperatures had smaller fracture forces and larger central voids than those roasted at lower temperatures. During roasting at 300 °C, the fracture force and strain decreased as the center void ratio increased. Overall, both a sufficient time for moisture diffusion in the seeds and a high roasting temperature were necessary to produce crisp roasted seeds.

  8. Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

  9. Particle size of roasted soybeans and the effect on milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Korevaar, A C; Satter, L D

    1997-08-01

    Fifteen cows were used in an experiment with a 5 x 5 replicated Latin square design to quantify the effect of particle size of roasted soybeans on milk production and fecal excretion of soybeans. The five experimental periods were each 2 wk long. Diets contained (percentage of dry matter) 33% alfalfa silage, 17% corn silage, 30.6% high moisture ear corn, 18% soybeans, and 1.4% mineral supplement. The five dietary treatments included raw whole soybeans or roasted soybeans in four particle sizes (whole and half, half and quarter, quarter and smaller, and coarsely ground). Mean particle sizes of the raw soybeans and of the roasted soybeans in whole and half sizes were > 4.75 mm. Mean particle sizes of the roasted soybeans in half and quarter, quarter and smaller, and coarsely ground roasted soybeans were 2.92, 2.01, and 1.59, respectively. During the normal handling of roasted soybeans, a large number of seeds was broken into halves in the treatment with whole and half sizes (36%, wt/wt basis). Production of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was 35.4, 37.7, 37.2, 35.1, and 35.4 kg/d for cows fed raw soybeans; roasted soybeans in whole and half, half and quarter, and quarter and smaller sizes; and ground roasted soybeans, respectively. Cows that were fed raw soybeans excreted the largest amount of visible soybean particles in feces, and cows that were fed ground roasted soybeans had the least amount of soybeans in the feces (61.3 vs. 10.6 g of soybeans/kg of fecal dry matter). Roasted soybeans in half and quarter sizes are optimal for milk production.

  10. Presence and Formation Mechanism of Foodborne Carbonaceous Nanostructures from Roasted Pike Eel ( Muraenesox cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bi, Jingran; Li, Yao; Wang, Haitao; Song, Yukun; Cong, Shuang; Yu, Chenxu; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-03-21

    Foodborne nanostructures have gained more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the presence and physicochemical properties of carbonaceous nanostructures (CNSs) from roasted pike eel ( Muraenesox cinereus) were reported. The monodispersed CNSs are strongly photoluminescent under the illustration of ultraviolet (UV) light, with a fluorescent quantum yield of 80.16%, and display excitation-dependent emission behavior. The formation of CNSs is believed to go through a process of morphology evolution, including polymerization, pyrolysis, nucleation, growth, emergence, and blossom. The optical properties of the CNSs were shown to be affected by the roasting temperature. Furthermore, cellular uptake of the CNSs was investigated, and it is shown that the CNSs were clearly absorbed into live cells and were mainly distributed within the cell cytoplasm and not in the cell nucleus. This work is among the very first reports on CNSs present in roasted fish, providing valuable insights into the formation mechanism of such nanostructures and showcasing the biodistribution of these food-originated CNSs in live cells.

  11. Biomonitoring using dried blood spots: Detection of ochratoxin A and its degradation product 2’R‐ochratoxin A in blood from coffee drinkers*

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Benedikt; Osteresch, Bernd; Muñoz, Katherine A.; Hillmann, Hartmut; Sibrowski, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Scope In this study, human exposure to the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2’R‐ochratoxin A (2’R‐OTA, previously named as 14R‐Ochratoxin A [22]) through coffee consumption was assessed. LC‐MS/MS and the dried blood spot (DBS) technique were used for the analysis of blood samples from coffee and noncoffee drinkers (n = 50), and food frequency questionnaires were used to document coffee consumption. Methods and results For the detection of OTA and 2’R‐OTA in blood, a new sensitive and efficient sample preparation method based on DBS was established and validated. Using this technique 2’R‐OTA was for the first time detected in biological samples. Comparison between coffee drinkers and noncoffee drinkers showed for the first time that 2’R‐OTA was only present in blood from the first group while OTA could be found in both groups in a mean concentration of 0.21 μg/L. 2’R‐OTA mean concentration was 0.11 μg/L with a maximum concentration of 0.414 μg/L. Thus, in average 2’R‐OTA was approx. half the concentration of OTA but in some cases even exceeded OTA levels. No correlation between the amounts of coffee consumption and OTA or 2’R‐OTA levels was observed. Conclusion The results of this study revealed for the first time a high exposure of coffee consumers to 2’R‐OTA, a compound formed from OTA during coffee roasting. Since little information is available regarding toxicity and possible carcinogenicity of this compound, further OTA monitoring in blood including 2’R‐OTA is advisable. PMID:26012425

  12. Effect of Different Time/Temperature Roast Combinations on Nutritional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations....

  13. Analysis of factors affecting volatile compound formation in roasted pumpkin seeds with selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, T; Barringer, S

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo and maxima) seeds are uniquely flavored and commonly consumed as a healthy roasted snack. The objective was to determine dominant volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds, and the effect of seed coat, moisture content, fatty acid ratio, total lipids, reducing sugars, and harvest year on volatile formation. Sensory was conducted to evaluate overall liking of seed variety and texture. Seed processing included extraction from the fruit, dehydration, and roasting (150 °C). Oil extraction was done using soxhlet, fatty acid profile using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector, and reducing sugars using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and UV-spectroscopy. Headspace analysis of seeds was performed by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Volatiles dominating in raw pumpkin seeds were lipid aldehydes, ethyl acetate, 2,3-butandione, and dimethylsulfide. Compounds contributing to roasted aroma include alkylpyrazines and Strecker and lipid aldehydes. Overall, hull-less seeds had higher volatile lipid aldehydes and Strecker aldehydes. Seeds dehydrated to a moisture content of 6.5% before roasting had higher initial and final volatile concentrations than seeds starting at 50% moisture. Higher oil content resulted in higher lipid aldehyde formation during roasting with a moderate correlation between free fatty acid ratio and corresponding lipid aldehyde. Harvest year (2009 compared with 2010) had a significant impact on volatile formation in hull-less seeds, but not as much as variety differences. No significant correlation was found between reducing sugars and volatile formation. Sensory showed that hull-less seeds were liked significantly more than hulled seeds. Elucidation of aromatic flavor development during roasting with SIFT-MS provides information on flavor release and offers better control during processing. Knowledge of volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds and effects of seed coat, moisture content, seed composition, and

  14. Ultrasmall fluorescent nanoparticles derived from roast duck: their physicochemical characteristics and interaction with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Cong, Shuang; Bi, Jingran; Song, Xunyu; Yu, Chenxu; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-04-25

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) produced from roast meat have drawn widespread attention due to their potential hazards to human health. In this paper, the presence of ultrasmall FNPs in roast duck and their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) were reported. The processing-induced FNPs have an average size of 1.3 nm with a relative fluorescence quantum yield of 4.4%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the FNPs are composed of carbon (70.48%), nitrogen (6.25%), oxygen (22.17%) and sulfur (1.11%), with hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups present on their surface. The presence of FNPs could cause fluorescence quenching of HSA, which was ascribed to the static quenching mechanism via the electrostatic interaction as analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry. The α-helix contents of HSA decreased after the addition of FNPs, demonstrating that these processing-induced FNPs could cause structural alteration of HSA. These results provided insights into the formation of nanoparticles in roast duck, and offered important information about the binding mechanism of these nanoparticles with HSA, which may have physiological implications.

  15. Preparation of the Iron Oxide Red from the Converter Dust by the Magnetic Separation and Roasting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z. J.; Li, S. Q.; Yang, C. Q.

    2017-05-01

    Preparation of iron oxide red (α-Fe2O3) from the converter dust by the superconductivity high gradient magnetic separation (S-HGMS) and roasting process was investigated in the paper. The basic properties of the dust were studied by the X Ray Fluorescence, the chemical analysis and the X Ray Diffraction methods. The results showed that the raw dust mainly contained elements of Fe‵O‵Si‵Ca, the iron content of the raw dust was 61.80%, and there were ferrous phases of Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3, Fe2(SiO4) and CaFe(Si2O6) in the raw dust. Under the optimum conditions of magnetic field intensity of 1.8T, the dispersion agent of 30mg/L and velocity of 500mL/min, the powders absorbed by the magnetic medium mainly contained Fe3O4 and α-Fe2O3, and the iron content of powders absorbed was up to 65.90%. The Fe2+ content of the powders absorbed under the optimum magnetic conditions dropped to 0.25% from 19.10% after roasting of fifty minutes, and the iron content of powders absorbed under the optimum magnetic conditions fell to 64% due to oxidation, and the Fe3O4 was removed. Finally the α-Fe2O3 content was up to 91.07% in the iron oxide red.

  16. HS-SPME GC/MS characterization of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lu; Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Wickramasinghe, Niramani; Seiber, James; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-05-15

    A robust HS-SPME and GC/MS method was developed for analyzing the composition of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were analyzed directly as ground almonds extracted at room temperature. In total, 58 volatiles were identified in raw and roasted almonds. Straight chain aldehydes and alcohols demonstrated significant but minimal increases, while the levels of branch-chain aldehydes, alcohols, heterocyclic and sulfur containing compounds increased significantly (500-fold) in response to roasting (p<0.05). Benzaldehyde decreased from 2934.6±272.5 ng/g (raw almonds) to 315.8±70.0 ng/g (averaged across the roasting treatments evaluated i.e. 28, 33 and 38 min at 138 °C) after roasting. Pyrazines were detected in only the roasted almonds, with the exception of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, which was also found in raw almonds. The concentration of most alcohols increased in the roasted samples with the exception of 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which decreased 68%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of acrylamide in processed foods by LC/MS using column switching.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    An LC/MS method was developed for the determination of acrylamide (AA) in processed or cooked foods. AA was extracted with a mixture of water and acetone from homogenized food samples after the addition of 13C-labeled acrylamide (AA-1-(13)C) as an internal standard. The extract was concentrated, washed with dichloromethane for defatting, and cleaned up on Bond Elut C18, PSA and ACCUCAT cartridge-columns, and then AA was determined by LC/MS in the selected ion recording (SIR) mode. For the LC/MS analysis, four LC columns were connected in-line and the flow of the mobile phase was switched according to a time-program. Monitoring ions for AA were m/z 72 and 55, and those for AA-1-(13)C were m/z 73 and 56. AA and AA-1-(13)C were determined without interference from the matrices in all samples. The recoveries of AA from potato chips, corn snack, pretzel and roasted tea spiked at the level of 500 ng/g of AA were 99.5-101.0% with standard deviations (SD) in the range from 0.3 to 1.6%. The limits of detection and quantification of the developed method were 9 and 30 ng/g for AA in samples, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of AA in various processed or cooked food samples purchased from retail markets. High levels of AA were found in potato chips and French-fried potato (467-3,544 ng/g). Fried and sugar-coated dough cakes (karinto) contained 374 and 1,895 ng/g. Corn snacks contained 117-535 ng/g of AA. Roasted foods (such as roasted sesame seed, roasted barley (mugi-cha), roasted tea (hoji-cha), coffee beans and curry powder) contained 116-567 ng/g of AA. Foods made from fish, egg and meat contained lower levels of AA than the plant-based foods. Foods containing much water showed a tendency to have low levels of AA compared with dry foods. The proposed method was applicable to the analysis of AA in variety of processed foods.

  18. Effect of explosion-puffed coffee on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ko, Bong Soo; Ahn, So Hyun; Noh, Dong Ouk; Hong, Ki-Bae; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that the administration of explosion-puffed coffee, containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would be associated with a reduction of the caffeine effect on sleep behavior and behavioral patterns, which was investigated in a Drosophila model. The effects of feeding roasted coffee beans (RB), explosion-puffed coffee beans puffed at 0.75MPa and 0.9MPa (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0, respectively), or decaffeinated coffee beans (DeRB) on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns of Drosophila was analyzed. In the decreasing order, the total chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acids, CQA) content was PB 7.5>PB 9.0>RB. PB content analysis showed high levels of GABA and 5-HTP, compared with that of RB, which corresponded with the sleep-wake behavior of Drosophila. The RB and PB (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0) groups were not significantly different with respect to an activity count during the subjective night and day period compared with the normal controls. Sleep bout numbers of the normal, PB, and DeRB groups showed significant differences as compared with the caffeine and RB groups (p<0.05). The PB and DePB groups showed a significantly increased transcript levels for the GABA receptors compared to the caffeine group. The caffeine and RB groups displayed better climbing ability than the other groups, covering an average distance 6cm in the related test; the average distance covered by the normal, PB 7.5, and DeRB groups was <4cm. The normal and DeRB groups showed similar behavior patterns with respect to total distance, velocity, moving, not moving, and meander. However, the PB 7.5 group significantly regulated not moving and meander of flies compared to flies receiving only caffeine and RB. Suppression of the stimulating effect of caffeine by explosion-puffed coffee administration was indicated in the above results, which can be attributed to the increased content of GABA and 5-HTP with explosive puffing process carried out at 0.75MPa. Results of

  19. Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee processing structure with the Santaella residence to the left - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  20. Respiratory Morbidity in a Coffee Processing Workplace With Sentinel Obliterative Bronchiolitis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Duling, Matthew G.; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Martin, Stephen B.; Bledsoe, Toni A.; Green, Brett J.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Obliterative bronchiolitis in former coffee workers prompted a cross-sectional study of current workers. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels were highest in areas for flavoring and grinding/packaging unflavored coffee. Methods We interviewed 75 (88%) workers, measured lung function, and created exposure groups based on work history. We calculated standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) for symptoms and spirometric abnormalities. We examined health outcomes by exposure groups. Results SMRs were elevated 1.6-fold for dyspnea and 2.7-fold for obstruction. The exposure group working in both coffee flavoring and grinding/packaging of unflavored coffee areas had significantly lower mean ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity and percent predicted mid-expiratory flow than workers without such exposure. Conclusion Current workers have occupational lung morbidity associated with high diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures, which were not limited to flavoring areas. PMID:26523478

  1. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during roasting and in vitro digestion of fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lyulin; Ren, Sijie; Shen, Qing; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Jianchu; Ling, Jiangang

    2018-04-15

    Roasted fish enjoys great popularity in Asia, but how roasting and subsequent digestion influence the oxidation and proteolysis of fish meat is unknown. This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of roasting time on lipid and protein oxidation and their evolution and consequence on proteolysis during simulated digestion of fish fillets. Several oxidation markers (TBARS, free thiols, total carbonyls and Schiff bases) were employed to assess the oxidation of fish. SDS-PAGE and TBNS assay for free amino groups were used to study the proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion. The results showed that significant lipid and protein oxidative changes occurring in roasted fish fillets were reinforced after gastric digestion and were much more intense after intestinal digestion. Throughout the roasting and digestion, close interconnection between lipid and protein was also manifested as the levels of total carbonyls and Schiff bases rose while TBARS fell. Furthermore, free amino groups decreased with prolonged roasting time, signifying protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. This paper indicated the lipid and protein oxidation of fish fillets could be dependent on time of roasting, and the oxidation continued to develop and have an impact on proteolysis during in vitro digestion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated electrocoagulation-electrooxidation process for the treatment of soluble coffee effluent: Optimization of COD degradation and operation time analysis.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Taquez, Harold N; GilPavas, Edison; Blatchley, Ernest R; Gómez-García, Miguel-Ángel; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela

    2017-09-15

    Soluble coffee production generates wastewater containing complex mixtures of organic macromolecules. In this work, a sequential Electrocoagulation-Electrooxidation (EC-EO) process, using aluminum and graphite electrodes, was proposed as an alternative way for the treatment of soluble coffee effluent. Process operational parameters were optimized, achieving total decolorization, as well as 74% and 63.5% of COD and TOC removal, respectively. The integrated EC-EO process yielded a highly oxidized (AOS = 1.629) and biocompatible (BOD 5 /COD ≈ 0.6) effluent. The Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) analysis showed that during the EC-EO process, EC effectively decomposed contaminants with molecular weight in the range of 10-30 kDa. In contrast, EO was quite efficient in mineralization of contaminants with molecular weight higher than 30 kDa. A kinetic analysis allowed determination of the time required to meet Colombian permissible discharge limits. Finally, a comprehensive operational cost analysis was performed. The integrated EC-EO process was demonstrated as an efficient alternative for the treatment of industrial effluents resulting from soluble coffee production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using combined biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the...

  4. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    PubMed

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  5. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2 Cattle, meat, dried 0.01 Cheese 2.0 Coconut, postharvest 1.0 Coffee, bean, roasted bean, postharvest 1.0 Corn...

  6. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2 Cattle, meat, dried 0.01 Cheese 2.0 Coconut, postharvest 1.0 Coffee, bean, roasted bean, postharvest 1.0 Corn...

  7. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2 Cattle, meat, dried 0.01 Cheese 2.0 Coconut, postharvest 1.0 Coffee, bean, roasted bean, postharvest 1.0 Corn...

  8. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2 Cattle, meat, dried 0.01 Cheese 2.0 Coconut, postharvest 1.0 Coffee, bean, roasted bean, postharvest 1.0 Corn...

  9. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2 Cattle, meat, dried 0.01 Cheese 2.0 Coconut, postharvest 1.0 Coffee, bean, roasted bean, postharvest 1.0 Corn...

  10. Research on the effect of alkali roasting of copper dross on leaching rate of indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafang, Liu; Fan, Xingxiang; Shi, Yifeng; Yang, Kunbin

    2017-11-01

    The byproduct copper dross produced during refining crude lead was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), which showed that copper dross mainly contained lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, sulfur and a small amount of indium and silver etc. The mineralogical phase change of oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide was analyzed with the help of XRD and SEM. The effects of water leaching, ratio of sodium hydroxide, roasting time, and roasting temperature on leaching rate of indium were investigated mainly. The experimental results showed that phase of lead metal and sulfides of lead, copper and zinc disappeared after oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide, new phase of oxides of lead, copper, zinc and sodium salt of arsenic and antimony appeared. Water leaching could remove arsenic, and acid leaching residue obtained was then leached with acid. The leaching rate of indium was higher 6.98% compared with alkali roasting of copper dross-acid leaching. It showed that removing arsenic by water leaching and acid leaching could increase the leaching rate of indium and be beneficial to reducing subsequent acid consumption of extracting indium by acid leaching. The roasting temperature had a significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and leaching rate of indium increased with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature ranged from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased significantly with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature rose from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased by 60.29%. The amount of sodium hydroxide had an significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and the leaching of indium increased with the increase of the amount of sodium hydroxide, and the leaching rate of indium was obviously higher than that of copper dross blank roasting and acid leaching.

  11. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    PubMed

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2016-01-08

    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  13. ROAST: Peer Review as a Learning and Assessment Tool in Graduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    Constructivist learning theory and inquiry-based educational practice stress the parallels between learning and research. Although peer review has long been a central feature of the working lives of research scientists, it has rarely found its way into the classroom. Motivated by this thought, an imaginary journal, Reviews of Atmospheric Science Topics (ROAST), has been integrated into a graduate-level course in atmospheric thermodynamics. The instructor acts as editor of ROAST. Students in the class are divided into teams and assigned topics on which to write survey papers and give in-class presentations, using the text, the Internet, the library, and other resources. The assigned topics range over the subject matter of the course. The submitted survey papers are sent by the ROAST editor to other members of the class, acting as anonymous reviewers. Just as in the case of real research journals, the editor asks the authors to respond to criticisms of reviewers and then sends the revised papers back to the reviewers. Each student is thus a researcher and co-author of one paper as well as an anonymous reviewer of several others. ROAST has proven to be not only a useful means of fostering learning, but also a natural and effective assessment tool. The peer review mechanism allows the student authors to address the defects in their papers, and hence in their learning, as pointed out not by an authority figure or an examination but by their own peers. As an important side benefit, the students gain experience with the peer review process itself and come to appreciate its strengths and weaknesses in evaluating scientific papers.

  14. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.

    PubMed

    Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell

    2014-05-28

    The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.

  15. Transformation of phosphorus during drying and roasting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Rundong; Yin, Jing; Wang, Weiyun; Li, Yanlong; Zhang, Ziheng

    2014-07-01

    Sewage sludge (SS), a by-product of wastewater treatment, consists of highly concentrated organic and inorganic pollutants, including phosphorus (P). In this study, P with different chemical fractions in SS under different drying and roasting temperatures was investigated with the use of appropriate standards, measurements, and testing protocol. The drying and roasting treatment of SS was conducted in a laboratory-scale furnace. Two types of SS samples under different treatment temperatures were analyzed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. These samples were dried by a vacuum freeze dryer at -50°C and a thermoelectric thermostat drying box at 105°C. Results show that the inorganic P (IP) content increased as the organic P content decreased, and the bio-availability of P increased because IP is a form of phosphorousthat can be directly absorbed by plants. (31)P NMR analysis results indicate the change in P fractions at different temperatures. Non-apatite P was the dominant form of P under low-temperature drying and roasting, whereas apatite P was the major one under high-temperature drying and roasting. Results indicate that temperature affects the transformation of P. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of biomass reducing agent on magnetic properties and phase transformation of Baotou low-grade limonite during magnetizing-roasting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen chao; Luo, Hui juan; Gong, Zhi jun; Li, Bao wei; Wu, Wen fei

    2017-01-01

    Biomass was used as reducing agent to roast the Baotou low-grade limonite in a high temperature vacuum atmosphere furnace. The effect of calcination temperature, time and ratio of reducing agent on the magnetic properties of calcined ore was studied by VSM. The phase and microstructure changes of limonite before and after calcination were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results show that in the roasting process the phase transition process of the ferrous material in limonite is first dehydrated at high temperature to formα-Fe2O3, and then it is converted into Fe3O4 by the reduction of biomass. With the increase of calcination temperature, the magnetic properties of the calcined ore first increase and then decrease. When the temperature is higher than 650°C, Fe3O4 will become Fe2SiO4, resulting in reduced the magnetic material in calcined ore and the magnetic weakened. The best magnetization effect was obtained when the roasting temperature is 550°C, the percentage of biomass was 15% and the roasting time was 30min. The saturation magnetization can reach 60.13emu·g-1, the recovery of iron was 72% and the grade of iron was 58%. PMID:29040307

  17. Effects of biomass reducing agent on magnetic properties and phase transformation of Baotou low-grade limonite during magnetizing-roasting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xiu Li; Guo, Wen Chao; Luo, Hui Juan; Gong, Zhi Jun; Li, Bao Wei; Wu, Wen Fei

    2017-01-01

    Biomass was used as reducing agent to roast the Baotou low-grade limonite in a high temperature vacuum atmosphere furnace. The effect of calcination temperature, time and ratio of reducing agent on the magnetic properties of calcined ore was studied by VSM. The phase and microstructure changes of limonite before and after calcination were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results show that in the roasting process the phase transition process of the ferrous material in limonite is first dehydrated at high temperature to formα-Fe2O3, and then it is converted into Fe3O4 by the reduction of biomass. With the increase of calcination temperature, the magnetic properties of the calcined ore first increase and then decrease. When the temperature is higher than 650°C, Fe3O4 will become Fe2SiO4, resulting in reduced the magnetic material in calcined ore and the magnetic weakened. The best magnetization effect was obtained when the roasting temperature is 550°C, the percentage of biomass was 15% and the roasting time was 30min. The saturation magnetization can reach 60.13emu·g-1, the recovery of iron was 72% and the grade of iron was 58%.

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for Kona coffee authentication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jun, Soojin; Bittenbender, H C; Gautz, Loren; Li, Qing X

    2009-06-01

    Kona coffee, the variety of "Kona typica" grown in the north and south districts of Kona-Island, carries a unique stamp of the region of Big Island of Hawaii, U.S.A. The excellent quality of Kona coffee makes it among the best coffee products in the world. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and multivariate analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ground and brewed Kona coffee and blends made with Kona coffee. The calibration set of Kona coffee consisted of 10 different blends of Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 14 different farms in Hawaii and a non-Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 3 different sampling sites in Hawaii. Derivative transformations (1st and 2nd), mathematical enhancements such as mean centering and variance scaling, multivariate regressions by partial least square (PLS), and principal components regression (PCR) were implemented to develop and enhance the calibration model. The calibration model was successfully validated using 9 synthetic blend sets of 100% Kona coffee mixture and its adulterant, 100% non-Kona coffee mixture. There were distinct peak variations of ground and brewed coffee blends in the spectral "fingerprint" region between 800 and 1900 cm(-1). The PLS-2nd derivative calibration model based on brewed Kona coffee with mean centering data processing showed the highest degree of accuracy with the lowest standard error of calibration value of 0.81 and the highest R(2) value of 0.999. The model was further validated by quantitative analysis of commercial Kona coffee blends. Results demonstrate that FTIR can be a rapid alternative to authenticate Kona coffee, which only needs very quick and simple sample preparations.

  19. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked. ...

  20. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked. ...

  1. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked. ...

  2. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked. ...

  3. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked. ...

  4. Preparation of xerogel SiO2 from roasted iron sand under various acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Ismoyo, Y. A.; Pranata, H. P.; Munawaroh, H.

    2016-11-01

    Xerogel SiO2 had been prepared from roasted iron sand through variation of Na2CO3 addition and sol-gel process under various acidic solution. Roasting treatment was carried out on the compositional variation of iron sand:Na2CO3 = 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1 at 1100 °C. While the sol-gel process was conducted at room temperature and neutralized using HCl 0.1 M and 6 M. The color characteristics of roasted iron sand shown light brown, dark brown and dark gray of the compositional variation of iron sand:Na2CO3 = 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. In addition, the levels of thoughness increased by increasing the ratio of sand in the composition of the mixture. The best composition of roasted treatment was at a variety of iron sand:Na2SiO3 = 1:2 with 57.72% had been dissolved in hot water. The addition of Na2CO3 will influence the Na2SiO3 formation, because of the increase of Na2CO3 capable produced the iron sand decomposition product. Na2SiO3 gel had been produced after it was neutralized with certain amount of HCl solution. The neutralization was more effective if using high concentration of HCl because of the formation of gel SiO2 will be easier occurred. The results of SiO2 had been identified by the FTIR spectra, which an absorption spectra of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at 1098.51 cm-1, symmetric stretching of Si-O-Si at 804.35 cm-1 and the bending O-Si-O at 469.69 cm'1. The result of SiO2 content by XRF analysis is about 85.15%.

  5. Microstructures of oil roasted peanuts as affected by initial moisture content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil roasting of peanuts is a unit operation equal to that of deep frying of higher moisture foods. Retention of the oil taken up by the peanuts from oil roasting during the shelf life of the packaged product is necessary to prevent an unappealing greasy appearance. Properties of the end product we...

  6. Effect of Mechanochemical and Roasting Techniques for Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Indonesian Low-Grade Bauxite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, E.; Harjanto, S.; Herdino, F.; Prasetyanto, EA; Rahman, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the extraction of lanthanides from low-grade bauxite via mechanochemical and roasting methods has been studied. The addition of NaOH during mechanochemical process significantly increased the yield of collected rare earth elements. The effect of roasting process at temperatures in the ranges from 400°C to 1100°C was analyzed. The highest recovery values of lanthanide that extracted from low-grade bauxite at various temperatures and ratio low-grade bauxite and NaOH solid, with variations in the ratio of 1: 1 and 2: 1 were obtained for yttrium (∼95.6%), lanthanum (∼79.6%), cerium (∼54.7%), neodymium (∼81.8%), and samarium (∼80.0%) from the theoretical value.

  7. Determining degree of roasting in cocoa beans by artificial neural network (ANN)-based electronic nose system and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

    PubMed

    Tan, Juzhong; Kerr, William L

    2018-08-01

    Roasting is a critical step in chocolate processing, where moisture content is decreased and unique flavors and texture are developed. The determination of the degree of roasting in cocoa beans is important to ensure the quality of chocolate. Determining the degree of roasting relies on human specialists or sophisticated chemical analyses that are inaccessible to small manufacturers and farmers. In this study, an electronic nose system was constructed consisting of an array of gas sensors and used to detect volatiles emanating from cocoa beans roasted for 0, 20, 30 and 40 min. The several signals were used to train a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN). Headspace samples were also analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with 23 select volatiles used to train a separate ANN. Both ANNs were used to predict the degree of roasting of cocoa beans. The electronic nose had a prediction accuracy of 94.4% using signals from sensors TGS 813, 826, 822, 830, 830, 2620, 2602 and 2610. In comparison, the GC/MS predicted the degree of roasting with an accuracy of 95.8%. The electronic nose system is able to predict the extent of roasting, as well as a more sophisticated approach using GC/MS. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered.

  9. Effects of Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched and Hydroxyhydroquinone-Reduced Coffee on Postprandial Fat Oxidation and Antioxidative Capacity in Healthy Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Katada, Shun; Watanabe, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomohito; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Takeshita, Masao; Osaki, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa

    2018-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here we assessed the effects of CGA-enriched and HHQ-reduced coffee on FOX. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (age: 38 ± 8 years (mean ± SD); BMI: 22.4 ± 1.5 kg/m2) participated in this crossover study. Subjects consumed the test beverage (coffee) containing the same amount of CGA with HHQ (CGA-HHQ(+)) or without HHQ (CGA-HHQ(−)) for four weeks. Postprandial FOX and the ratio of the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) to the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) as an indicator of oxidative stress were assessed. After the four-week intervention, postprandial FOX and the postprandial BAP/d-ROMs ratio were significantly higher in the CGA-HHQ(−) group compared with the CGA-HHQ(+) group (4 ± 23 mg/min, group effect: p = 0.040; 0.27 ± 0.74, group effect: p = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, reducing the amount of HHQ facilitated the postprandial FOX effects of CGA in coffee. Our findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibition of FOX by HHQ is related to postprandial oxidative stress. PMID:29690626

  10. Demographics and beef preferences affect consumer motivation for purchasing fresh beef steaks and roasts.

    PubMed

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Lyford, C L; Miller, M F

    2011-04-01

    Surveys completed by 1370 consumers determined the motivational factors affecting consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts in three regions in the United States. Females placed greater importance on tenderness, ease of preparation, and nutritional value of steaks and roasts when compared to males. Age influenced tenderness, product consistency, and nutritional value of steaks, but influenced flavor, product consistency, and nutritional value of roasts. Consumers felt juiciness, nutritional value, and natural products were less important in determining their purchasing choices of steaks and roasts as their level of education increased. The preferred degree of doneness of steaks influenced the value placed on six of the nine purchasing motivators. Beef preferences and demographics influenced consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts. Results from this study can be used to help identify factors to positively influence purchasing decisions within targeted market segments. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of ultra-superheated steam on aflatoxin reduction and roasted peanut properties.

    PubMed

    Pukkasorn, Parawee; Ratphitagsanti, Wannasawat; Haruthaitanasan, Vichai

    2018-06-01

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are found naturally in peanut. It requires extremely high temperatures to eliminate aflatoxins from the nuts. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of ultra-superheated steam (USS) on the reduction of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) accompanying the roasting process and to determine roasted peanut qualities that affected consumer acceptance. Whole peanut kernels were intentionally contaminated by AFB 1 standard solution at the level of 50 ± 10 µg kg -1 before subjecting to USS treatment at 300-400 °C between 10 and 80 s. The high temperature of USS could significantly decrease AFB 1 level to 9.83 ± 3.51, 15.33 ± 2.23 and 8.95 ± 2.32 µg kg -1 when 300 °C for 80 s, 350 °C for 40 s and 400 °C for 40 s were employed, respectively. AFB 1 was reduced as much as 83.86 ± 2.66% when 400 °C for 40 s was applied. The moisture content of treated peanuts was decreased to less than 3% and browning index was developed from 30.96 ± 1.59 to 95.76 ± 7.23. Higher roasting degree was obtained according to the increase in browning index. Oil quality showed that peroxide values and acid values were greatly below the allowance level. USS could effectively decrease AFB 1 and render expectable roasting qualities of peanut. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, T

    1992-01-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use. Images PMID:1441496

  13. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    PubMed

    Chou, T

    1992-11-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use.

  14. Recycling agroindustrial waste by lactic fermentations: coffee pulp silage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carrizales, V.; Ferrer, J.

    1985-04-03

    This UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of coffee pulp for feed production covers (1) a process which can be adapted to existing coffee processing plants for drying the product once harvesting time has finished (2) unit operations involved: pressing (optional), silaging, liming and drying (3) experiments, results and discussion, bibliography, process statistics, and diagrams. Additional references: storage, biotechnology, lime, agricultural wastes, recycling, waste utilization.

  15. UV light assisted decolorization of dark brown colored coffee effluent by photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, Masahiro; Ohta, Ayano; Znad, Hussein T; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2006-12-01

    The photochemical decolorization of coffee effluent has been examined by photo-Fenton (UV/Fe2+/H2O2) process. Effects of UV light intensity, initial coffee concentration, iron dose and H2O2 dose on the color removal of model coffee effluent have been investigated. The rate of decolorization increased with decreasing initial coffee effluent concentration. It was found that the Fe ion dose and UV light intensity enhanced the decolorization rate. The decolorization process of coffee effluent could be divided into three established phases. At the beginning of the photo-Fenton process, the instantaneous and significant increase in color of the solution was found (Phase-I). In the subsequent phase (Phase-II), the decolorization rate was initially fast and subsequently decreased. In Phase-III, the rate was accelerated and then the complete decolorization of model coffee effluent was achieved. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of coffee effluent color removal process, the concentration changes in Fe3+ and Fe2+ besides H2O2 were measured during the course of the photo-Fenton process. The rate-determining step in Phase-II was the photo-Fenton reaction or photoreduction of Fe3+. On the other hand, the decolorization process in Phase-III was highly affected by Fenton reaction or decomposition of H2O2 with Fe2+. About 93% mineralization of 250 mg L(-1) model coffee effluent was achieved after 250 min. A comparative study for TiO2, ZnO and photo-Fenton oxidation processes has been also carried out and the photo-Fenton process was found to be the most effective for color removal of coffee effluent.

  16. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  17. Ochratoxin A on green coffee: influence of harvest and drying processing procedures.

    PubMed

    Paulino De Moraes, Maria Heloisa; Luchese, Rosa Helena

    2003-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species that is nephrotoxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate ochratoxin A contamination in green coffee obtained by different harvesting and drying operations and from fruits of different ripening stages in order to identify hazards. The research was directed to coffees from the highland area of Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil), which is traded in the domestic market. Twenty-two out of 54 samples contained ochratoxin A at levels ranging from 0.3 to 160 microg/kg. Ochatoxin A contamination levels between different ripe stage fruits were not significant (P > 0.05). "Varrição" coffee, consisting of fruits that fell from the tree spontaneously and stayed longer on the ground before being harvested, was the most contaminated. Eleven out of 14 samples of varrição coffee were contaminated. Three out of 10 samples from the northwestern region of the state were positive for ochratoxin at levels ranging from 10.1 to 592 microg/kg. The contaminated samples had in common the fact that they were harvested directly from the soil.

  18. The Effect of Microwave Roasting Over the Thermooxidative Degradation of Perah Seed Oil During Heating.

    PubMed

    Li, Khu Say; Ali, M Abbas; Muhammad, Ida Idayu; Othman, Noor Hidayu; Noor, Ahmadilfitri Md

    2018-05-01

    The impact of microwave roasting on the thermooxidative degradation of perah seed oil (PSO) was evaluated during heating at a frying temperature (170°C). The roasting resulted significantly lower increment of the values of oxidative indices such as free acidity, peroxide value, p-anisidine, total oxidation (TOTOX), specific extinctions and thiobarbituric acid in oils during heating. The colour L* (lightness) value dropped gradually as the heating time increased up to 12 h, whereas a*(redness) and b* (yellowness) tended to increase. The viscosity and total polar compound in roasted PSO was lower as compared to that in unroasted one at each heating times. The tocol retention was also high in roasted samples throughout the heating period. The relative contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were decreased to 94.42% and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were increased to 110.20% in unroasted sample, after 12 h of heating. On the other hand, in 3 min roasted samples, the relative contents of PUFAs were decreased to 98.08% and of SFAs were increased to 103.41% after 12 h of heating. Outcome from analyses showed that microwave roasting reduced the oxidative deteriorations of PSO during heating.

  19. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  20. Control of foodborne pathogens on ready-to-eat roast beef slurry by epsilon-polylysine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Sen; Lu, Wei-Yi Wendy; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2010-07-15

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial effectiveness of epsilon-polylysine against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in laboratory media and roast beef slurry. epsilon-Polylysine supplemented laboratory media and roast beef slurry were inoculated with three-strain cocktails of each pathogen and survival was periodically monitored using conventional spread plating. Inoculated laboratory media was stored at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 48 h, and inoculated roast beef slurry was stored at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days. Maximum log reductions in laboratory media/roast beef slurry were 6.01+/-1.43/3.81+/-0.37, >7.82+/-0.05/5.23+/-0.08, and 4.58+/-0.86/5.83+/-0.48 for E. coli O157:H7, S. typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Injured cells were produced as a result of exposure to polylysine. This study confirms the effectiveness of polylysine against pathogens in laboratory media, and demonstrates its potential as a novel antimicrobial agent in complex food matrix such as roast beef. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile constituents of roasted tigernut oil (Cyperus esculentus L.).

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-03-30

    Volatile compounds play a key role in determining the sensory appreciation of vegetable oils. In this study a systematic evaluation of odorants responsible for the characteristic flavour of roasted tigernut oil was carried out. A total of 75 odour-active volatiles were identified. From these, 13 aroma compounds showing high flavour dilution factors in the range of 16 to 128 were quantified by their odour activity values (OAVs). On the basis of high OAVs in oil, the following aroma compounds [vanillin (chocolate, sweet vanilla), 5-ethylfurfural (caramel, spicy), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (caramel), phenyl acetaldehyde (honey-like), ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) (faint vanilla)] were elucidated as important contributors to the overall chocolate, sweet vanilla, butterscotch aroma of the oil. Odorants with high concentrations in the roasted tigernut oil such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, ethyl hexadecanoate, n-propyl-9,12-octadecadienoate gave relatively low OAVs, so their contributions to the overall orthonasal aroma impression of roasted tigernut oil can be assumed to be low. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting-water leaching followed by magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-04-30

    Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting-water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-08-15

    Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  5. Do dry roasting, lightly salting nuts affect their cardioprotective properties and acceptability?

    PubMed

    Tey, Siew Ling; Robinson, Terryn; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra W; Brown, Rachel Clare

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have reported improvements in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with the consumption of raw nuts. However, around one-third of nuts consumed are roasted and salted. Thus, it is important to determine whether roasting and salting nuts affect the health benefits observed with raw nuts. This study aimed to compare the effects of consuming two different forms of hazelnuts on cardiovascular risk factors and acceptance. Using a randomised crossover design, 72 participants were asked to consume 30 g/day of either raw or dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts for 28 days each. CVD risk factors were measured at the beginning and end of each treatment period. "Desire to consume" and "overall liking" for both forms of hazelnuts were assessed daily using a 150-mm visual analogue scale. Body composition, blood pressure, plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and B100, glucose and α-tocopherol concentrations did not differ between forms of hazelnuts (all P ≥ 0.054). High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P = 0.037) and triacylglycerol (P < 0.001) concentrations were significantly lower following the consumption of dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts when compared to the raw hazelnuts. Compared with baseline, consuming both forms of hazelnuts significantly improved HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations, total-C/HDL-C ratio, and systolic blood pressure without significantly changing body composition. Acceptance ratings did not differ between forms of hazelnuts and remained high throughout the study. Dry roasting and lightly salting nuts do not appear to negate the cardioprotective effects observed with raw nut consumption, and both forms of nuts are resistant to monotony. Public health messages could be extended to include dry roasted and lightly salted nuts as part of a heart healthy diet.

  6. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    PubMed

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  7. B-vitamins, carotenoids and α-/γ-tocopherol in raw and roasted nuts.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Glei, Michael

    2017-04-15

    The concentrations of B-vitamins, carotenoids and tocopherols in nuts may differ between species and might be influenced by roasting. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-/γ-tocopherol were determined in different varieties of raw and roasted nuts using HPLC (fluorescence/UV-vis detection). The analysis revealed remarkable concentrations of thiamine and pyridoxine in pistachios (57%, 79% of the recommended daily intake/100g (RDI), respectively) and riboflavin in almonds (119% of the RDI). Pistachios were rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and contained highest β-carotene levels among nuts. Almonds and hazelnuts were abundant in α-tocopherol (>4-fold the RDI for tocopherol equivalents) while pistachios and walnuts were rich in γ-tocopherol. Roasting had a diminishing effect on thiamine, carotenoids and tocopherols especially in almonds and walnuts. Nuts could make a valuable contribution to a healthy diet in regard to B-vitamins, lutein/zeaxanthin and tocopherols. A reduction in micronutrient content by roasting is reliant on the nut variety and specific micronutrient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the third floor with hopper and drum type dryer in background - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  9. Acrylamide formation in almonds (Prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong; Huang, Guangwei; Xiao, Lu; Seiber, James; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-08-10

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is found in many roasted and baked foods. This paper describes two sensitive and reliable LC-(ESI)MS/MS methods for the analysis of (1) acrylamide and (2) common acrylamide precursors (i.e., glucose, fructose, asparagine, and glutamine) in raw and roasted almonds. These methods were used to evaluate the impact of roasting temperatures (between 129 and 182 °C) and times on acrylamide formation. Controlling the roasting temperature at or below 146 °C resulted in acrylamide levels below 200 ppb at all roasting times evaluated. Six varieties of almonds collected in various regions of California over two harvest years and roasted at 138 °C for 22 min had acrylamide levels ranging from 117 ± 5 μg/kg (Sonora) to 221 ± 95 μg/kg (Butte) with an average of 187 ± 71 μg/kg. A weak correlation between asparagine content in raw almonds and acrylamide formation was observed (R(2) = 0.6787). No statistical relationship was found between acrylamide formation and almond variety, orchard region, or harvest year. Stability studies on roasted almonds indicated that acrylamide levels decreased by 12.9-68.5% (average of 50.2%) after 3 days of storage at 60 °C. Short-term elevated temperature storage may be another approach for mitigating acrylamide levels in roasted almonds.

  10. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  11. Coffee consumption vs. cancer risk - a review of scientific data.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features.

  12. Flavor and Acceptance of Roasted California Almonds During Accelerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Lillian M; King, Ellena S; Chapman, Dawn; Byrnes, Nadia; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2018-02-07

    Monitoring oxidative flavor changes in almonds is possible only if the chemical and sensory profile during roasting and storage is first established. Herein, almonds roasted at two different temperatures (115 and 152 °C) were stored at 39 °C for 0 to 12 months and were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, descriptive analysis, and consumer hedonic analysis. Volatile profiles, descriptive sensory profiles, and consumer hedonic scores were analyzed for predictive relationships. Descriptive attributes involving Roasted and Nutty as well as consumer liking were highest in fresh almonds, while flavors typically associated with oxidative rancidity such as Cardboard, Painty/Solvent, Soapy, and Total Oxidized increased during storage. Compounds most important for predicting rancidity-related attributes were lipid oxidation products, including pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal. Consumer liking was best predicted by similar compounds to those predicting Clean Nutty flavor, including Maillard reaction products such as 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpyrazine, and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine.

  13. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  14. Application of Moringa Oleifera seed extract to treat coffee fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Garde, William K; Buchberger, Steven G; Wendell, David; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2017-05-05

    Wastewater generated from wet processing of coffee cherries degrades stream water quality downstream of processing mills and impacts human health. The widespread popularity of coffee as an export makes this a global problem, although the immediate impact is local. Approximately 40% of all coffee around the world is wet processed, producing wastewater rich in organic nutrients that can be hazardous to aquatic systems. Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract (MOSE) offers promise as a local and affordable "appropriate" coagulation technology for aiding in the treatment of coffee wastewater. Field research was conducted at the Kauai Coffee Company to investigate the application of MOSE to treat coffee fermentation wastewater (CFW). Coagulation tests were conducted at five pH CFW levels (3-7) and MOSE doses (0-4g/L). After settling, TSS, COD, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, and pH of supernatant from each test were measured. MOSE reduced TSS, COD, nitrate, and nitrite in CFW to varying degrees dependent on pH and dose applied. TSS removal ranged from 8% to 54%. Insoluble COD removal ranged from 26% to 100% and total COD removal ranged from 1% to 25%. Nitrate and nitrite reduction ranged from 20% to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  16. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  17. Improvement in gold grade from iron-oxide mineral using reduction roasting and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-soo; On, Hyun-sung; Lim, Dae-hack; Myung, Eun-ji; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Microwave has a wide range of applications in mineral technology, metallurgy, etc. It is an established fact that microwave energy has potential for the speedy and efficient heating of minerals and in a commercial context may provide savings in both time and energy. Microwave heating is being developed as a potential thermal pre-treatment process, because of its unique advantages over the differences of ore minerals in absorbing microwaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in Au grade from iron-oxide mineral using reduction roasting and magnetic separation. The characteristics of iron-oxide mineral were analyzed using chemical, XRD and reflected light microscopy. The reduction roasting using microwave and magnetic separation experiments were examined under various conditions (reducing agent and chemical additive). The results of XRD and reflected light microscopy showed that the iron-oxide mineral mainly composed of illite, quartz and hematite. The iron-oxide mineral had an Au, Ag, Fe contents of 6.4, 35.1 and 155,441.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the improvement in Au by reduction roasting using microwave (frequency of 2.45GHz, intensity of 5kW) and magnetic separation (magnetic field intensity of 9,000 Gauss) were effective processes. The Au content in iron-oxide mineral from 6.4 mg/kg to 14.2 mg/kg was achieved within microwave exposure time of 10min (reducing agent(PAC) ratio = 50 : 50, 5% of chemical additive(Soda ash)). Acknowledgment : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry"

  18. Effect of Different Time/Temperature Roast Combinations on Peanut Flavor-Descriptive Sensory, Electronic Nose and Electronic Eye Characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Roasting is of central importance to peanut flavor. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be generated using different temperature/time roast combinations. To better understand the e...

  19. Color stability of restorative materials in response to Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe.

    PubMed

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe on the color stability of four different composite resins after a period of aging time 1, 7 and 30 days. Twenty specimens from each type of tested composite resin material were prepared. Five specimens from each tested material (Z350 XT, Artist, GC and Z250) was evaluated after storage in Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee, Nescafe and distil water (control) at 37°C in a dark container for 1, 7 and 30 days. Color measurement was done using colorimeter based on the CIE L* a* b* color scale. Color differences ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* among specimens immersed in distil water and staining coffee beverages were evaluated overtime. Mean values were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test with p < 0.05 as significance level. All tested composite resins showed increase color change after a period of 1, 7 and 30 days. The color change ΔE*ab , Δb* and Δa* exhibited by Arabic coffee, in Turkish coffee and Nescafe except Δa*. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab after 30 days was in group A Arabic coffee (ΔE > 1.5 perceivable) and not perceivable in group B Turkish coffee and group C Nescafe. For Δb* all materials discolored toward yellowness after 30 days except Arabic coffee group which shifted from yellowness toward blueness (Δb*> 1.5 perceivable). The effect of staining beverages on the resin composite materials increases with time of aging toward yellowness and not perceivable in all groups except with Arabic coffee which had highest effect after 30 days and the discoloration shifted from yellowness to blueness perceivable.

  20. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient Separation and Extraction of Vanadium and Chromium in High Chromium Vanadium Slag by Selective Two-Stage Roasting-Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yingzhe; Liu, Jiayi; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-06-01

    Vanadium and chromium are important rare metals, leading to a focus on high chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) as a potential raw material to extract vanadium and chromium in China. In this work, a novel method based on selective two-stage roasting-leaching was proposed to separate and extract vanadium and chromium efficiently in HCVS. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM were utilized to analyze the phase evolutions and microstructure during the whole process. Calcification roasting, which can calcify vanadium selectively using thermodynamics, was carried out in the first roasting stage to transfer vanadium into acid-soluble vanadate and leave chromium in the leaching residue as (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3 after H2SO4 leaching. When HCVS and CaO were mixed in the molar ratio CaO/V2O3 (n(CaO)/n(V2O3)) of 0.5 to 1.25, around 90 pct vanadium and less than 1 pct chromium were extracted in the first leaching liquid, thus achieving the separation of vanadium and chromium. In the second roasting stage, sodium salt, which combines with chromium easily, was added to the first leaching residue to extract chromium and 95.16 pct chromium was extracted under the optimal conditions. The total vanadium and chromium leaching rates were above 95 pct, achieving the efficient separation and extraction of vanadium and chromium. The established method provides a new technique to separate vanadium and chromium during roasting rather than in the liquid form, which is useful for the comprehensive application of HCVS.

  2. Efficient Separation and Extraction of Vanadium and Chromium in High Chromium Vanadium Slag by Selective Two-Stage Roasting-Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yingzhe; Liu, Jiayi; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-04-01

    Vanadium and chromium are important rare metals, leading to a focus on high chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) as a potential raw material to extract vanadium and chromium in China. In this work, a novel method based on selective two-stage roasting-leaching was proposed to separate and extract vanadium and chromium efficiently in HCVS. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM were utilized to analyze the phase evolutions and microstructure during the whole process. Calcification roasting, which can calcify vanadium selectively using thermodynamics, was carried out in the first roasting stage to transfer vanadium into acid-soluble vanadate and leave chromium in the leaching residue as (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3 after H2SO4 leaching. When HCVS and CaO were mixed in the molar ratio CaO/V2O3 (n(CaO)/n(V2O3)) of 0.5 to 1.25, around 90 pct vanadium and less than 1 pct chromium were extracted in the first leaching liquid, thus achieving the separation of vanadium and chromium. In the second roasting stage, sodium salt, which combines with chromium easily, was added to the first leaching residue to extract chromium and 95.16 pct chromium was extracted under the optimal conditions. The total vanadium and chromium leaching rates were above 95 pct, achieving the efficient separation and extraction of vanadium and chromium. The established method provides a new technique to separate vanadium and chromium during roasting rather than in the liquid form, which is useful for the comprehensive application of HCVS.

  3. 40 CFR 180.474 - Tebuconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Barley, hay 7.0 Barley, straw 3.5 Bean, dry seed 0.1 Bean, succulent 0.1 Beet, garden, roots 0.70 Beet..., tart, pre- and post-harvest 5.0 Coffee, green bean 1 0.15 Coffee, roasted bean 1 0.3 Corn, field...

  4. 40 CFR 180.474 - Tebuconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Barley, hay 7.0 Barley, straw 3.5 Bean, dry seed 0.1 Bean, succulent 0.1 Beet, garden, roots 0.70 Beet..., tart, pre- and post-harvest 5.0 Coffee, green bean 1 0.15 Coffee, roasted bean 1 0.3 Corn, field...

  5. 40 CFR 180.474 - Tebuconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Barley, hay 7.0 Barley, straw 3.5 Bean, dry seed 0.1 Bean, succulent 0.1 Beet, garden, roots 0.70 Beet..., tart, pre- and post-harvest 5.0 Coffee, green bean 1 0.15 Coffee, roasted bean 1 0.3 Corn, field...

  6. 40 CFR 180.474 - Tebuconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 3.5 Bean, dry seed 0.1 Bean, succulent 0.1 Beet, garden, roots 0.70 Beet, garden, tops 7.0 Brassica...-harvest 5.0 Coffee, green bean 1 0.15 Coffee, roasted bean 1 0.3 Corn, field, forage 4.0 Corn, field...

  7. 40 CFR 180.474 - Tebuconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 3.5 Bean, dry seed 0.1 Bean, succulent 0.1 Beet, garden, roots 0.70 Beet, garden, tops 7.0 Brassica...-harvest 5.0 Coffee, green bean 1 0.15 Coffee, roasted bean 1 0.3 Corn, field, forage 4.0 Corn, field...

  8. Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Michael; Ludwig, Diana; Lamberty, Julia; Fischer, Sonja; Schlörmann, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (CAT, SOD2, GPx1, and GSTP1). Fermentation supernatants (FS) were obtained from raw and roasted (RC1 = 141 °C/25 min, RC2 = 160 °C/15 min and RC3 = 185 °C/21 min) pistachios after in vitro fermentation. FS of pistachios significantly reduced LT97 cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared to the blank control, pistachio FS (2.5%) led to a significant average reduction of H2O2-induced DNA damage (1.5-fold). Levels of CAT mRNA were significantly increased (1.3-fold, on average for 5% FS). Pistachio FS (5%) significantly increased the number of early apoptotic cells (up to 2.1-fold) and levels of caspase-3 activities (up to 6.9-fold). The present results confirm a chemopreventive potential of pistachios, which is mediated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and anti-genotoxic effects, as well as induction of CAT. These effects remain mostly unaffected by roasting. PMID:29258268

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500 mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180 mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

  10. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p < 0.05). Caffeine in water had no effects on hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  11. Antioxidant (Tocopherol and Canolol) Content in Rapeseed Oil Obtained from Roasted Yellow-Seeded Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Siger, Aleksander; Gawrysiak-Witulska, Marzena; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of temperature (140, 160, 180 °C) and roasting time (5, 10, 15 min) on the bioactive compound content (canolol, tocopherol and plastochromanol-8) of cold-pressed oil from yellow-seeded rapeseed lines of different colors was investigated. Roasting increased the peroxide value in the seed oils compared to the oils from the control samples. However, roasting did not affect the acid values of the oils, which were 1.15-1.47 and 1.30-1.40 mg KOH/g, for line PN1 03/1i/14 (yellow seeds) and line PN1 563/1i/14 (brown seeds), respectively. In this study, the seeds of line PN1 03/1i/14 were characterized by different changes in canolol content during roasting than the seeds of PN1 563/1i/14. There was a 90-fold increase in canolol for the line PN1 03/1i/14 (768.26 µg/g) and a 46-fold increase for the line PN1 563/1i/14 (576.43 µg/g). Changes in tocopherol and PC-8 contents were also observed. There was an increase in the contents of γ-T and PC-8 in the oils obtained from the seeds roasted at 180 °C for 10 and 15 min. γ-T content increased by 17-18% after 15 min of roasting, whereas the PC-8 content increased twofold.

  12. Combined effect of cooking (grilling and roasting) and chilling storage (with and without air) on lipid and cholesterol oxidation in chicken breast.

    PubMed

    Conchillo, Ana; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2003-05-01

    The oxidation of the lipid fraction and cholesterol in raw and cooked chicken breast samples stored for 0 and 6 days at 4 degrees C under aerobic conditions and in vacuum packaging was studied. The multivariate statistical analysis showed significant effects of both culinary process and storage conditions on the lipid and cholesterol oxidation process, with a significant interaction between the two variables. Aerobic storage increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA) from 0.04 to 0.06 ppm for raw samples, from 0.21 to 1.20 ppm for grilled samples, and from 0.24 to 1.62 ppm for roasted samples. During vacuum storage, only roasted samples showed significant increases in TBA. Levels of total cholesterol oxidation products (COP) remained low (2.88 to 4.35 microg/g of lipid) for all raw samples. Cooking increased COP levels to 12.85 and 11.54 microg/ g of lipid for grilled and roasted samples, respectively. Total COP and all individual COP except for cholestanetriol were significantly correlated with TBA and the peroxide index. However, the most extensive effect was attributable to the aerobic storage of cooked samples, which led to COP levels of 92.35 and 88.60 microg/g of lipid in grilled and roasted samples, respectively. Vacuum packaging did not increase COP levels for cooked samples.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  15. Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L.

  16. Effect of decaffeination of coffee or tea on gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Wendl, B; Pfeiffer, A; Pehl, C; Schmidt, T; Kaess, H

    1994-06-01

    Coffee and tea are believed to cause gastro-oesophageal reflux; however, the effects of these beverages and of their major component, caffeine, have not been quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate gastro-oesophageal reflux induced by coffee and tea before and after a decaffeination process, and to compare it with water and water-containing caffeine. Three-hour ambulatory pH-metry was performed on 16 healthy volunteers, who received 300 ml of (i) regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee or tap water (n = 16), (ii) normal tea, decaffeinated tea, tap water, or coffee adapted to normal tea in caffeine concentration (n = 6), and (iii) caffeine-free and caffeine-containing water (n = 8) together with a standardized breakfast. Regular coffee induced a significant (P < 0.05) gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with tap water and normal tea, which were not different from each other. Decaffeination of coffee significantly (P < 0.05) diminished gastro-oesophageal reflux, whereas decaffeination of tea or addition of caffeine to water had no effect. Coffee adapted to normal tea in caffeine concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased gastro-oesophageal reflux. Coffee, in contrast to tea, increases gastro-oesophageal reflux, an effect that is less pronounced after decaffeination. Caffeine does not seem to be responsible for gastro-oesophageal reflux which must be attributed to other components of coffee.

  17. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  18. Association mapping of SSR markers to sweet, bitter and roasted peanut sensory attributes in cultivated peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain roasted peanut quality sensory attributes are important breeding objectives for peanut product manufacturers and consumers. Currently the only means of measuring these traits is the use of a trained sensory panel. This is a costly and time-consuming process. It is desirable, from a cost, ti...

  19. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes

    PubMed Central

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413

  20. Development of an analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coffee beverages and dark beer using novel high-sensitivity technique of supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Harayama, Koichi; Bamba, Takeshi

    2018-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic substances that are mainly generated during heating in food; therefore, the European Union (EU) has regulated the amount of benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 in various types of food. In addition, the Scientific Committee on Food of the EU and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives have recommended that 16 PAHs should be monitored. Since coffee beverages and dark beer are roasted during manufacture, monitoring these 16 PAHs is of great importance. On the other hand, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a separation method that has garnered attention in recent years as a complement for liquid and gas chromatography. Therefore, we developed a rapid high-sensitivity analytical method for the above-mentioned 16 PAHs in coffee beverages and dark beer involving supercritical fluid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (SFC/APCI-MS) and simple sample preparation. In this study, we developed a novel analytical technique that increased the sensitivity of MS detection by varying the back-pressure in SFC depending on the elution of PAHs. In addition, analysis of commercially available coffee and dark beer samples in Japan showed that the risk of containing the 16 PAHs may be low. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  2. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Marination with natural curing ingredients, storage time, and serving temperature effects on the sensory characteristics of forage-finished or commercially-sourced beef roasts.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, K E; Kerth, C R; Bratcher, C L; Curtis, P A; Smith, B

    2012-03-01

    Beef inside round roasts (n=144) were cut from rounds obtained from both forage-finished cattle (n=72) and commercially-sourced beef (n=72). Roasts were portioned to weigh 0.45-0.68kg each. Each roast was then randomly assigned one of the following treatments: control, injected-no cure, or injected-cured. Additionally, roasts were assigned a serving temperature (hot or cold) and storage treatments (0d or 28d post cooking). Roasts from forage-fed beef had a more red interior color and higher shear values, and also retained more brine than commercially-sourced beef (P<0.05). Curing roasts improved TBARS values in roasts served hot and significantly reduced sensory warmed-over and grassy flavors (P<0.05). Marinating forage-finished beef roasts significantly improves tenderness and flavor characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. And coffee too.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Boehmer, J

    1982-04-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two persons aged 11 to 80 were interviewed regarding whether and why they had tried and/or used coffee, tobacco, liquor, and marijuana. The attracting and capturing power of tobacco and marijuana registered as lower than those associated with coffee and liquor. A guilt/shame index was derived from avowed motives. Trying tobacco and liquor was associated with greater guilt/shame than that associated with coffee and marijuana. Most tobacco users offered motives that indicated continued guilt/shame, while the majority of the other users expressed contentment with their habits.

  5. Association mapping of SSR markers to sweet, bitter and roasted peanut sensory attributes in cultivated peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain roasted peanut quality sensory attributes are very important breeding objectives for peanut manufactory and consumers. Currently the only means of measuring these traits is the use of a trained sensory panel. This is a costly and time-consuming process. It is desirable, from a cost, time an...

  6. Toward systems epidemiology of coffee and health.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.

  7. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  8. Roasting conditions for preserving cocoa flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers: interesting behaviour of Criollo clones.

    PubMed

    De Taeye, Cédric; Bodart, Marie; Caullet, Gilles; Collin, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    Cocoa bean roasting is important for creating the typical chocolate aroma through Maillard reactions, but it is also a key step deleterious to the polyphenol content and profile. Compared with usual roasting at 150 °C, keeping the beans for 30 min at 120 °C or for 1 h at 90 °C proved much better for preventing strong degradation of native P1, P2 and P3 flavan-3-ols in cocoa (shown for Forastero, Trinitatio and Criollo cultivars). Surprisingly, Cuban, Mexican and Malagasy white-seeded beans behaved atypically when roasted for 30 min at 150 °C, releasing a pool of catechin. Enantiomeric chromatographic separation proved that this pool contained mainly (-)-catechin issued from (-)-epicatechin by epimerisation. As the (-)-epicatechin content remained relatively constant through Criollo bean roasting, flavan-3-ol monomers must have been regenerated from oligomers. This emergence of (-)-catechin in Criollo beans only, reported here for the first time, could be due to increased flavan-3-ol monomer stability in the absence of anthocyanidin-derived products. The degradation rate of flavan-3-ols through roasting is higher in cocoa beans containing anthocyani(di)ns. The liberation of a pool of (-)-catechin when submitted to roasting at 150 °C allows to distinguish white-seeded cultivars. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  10. Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium Slag Via Non-salt Roasting and Ammonium Oxalate Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Du, Hao; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Shaona; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Biao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Zhang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    A clean method featuring non-salt roasting followed by (NH4)2C2O4 leaching to recover vanadium from vanadium slag was proposed. The carcinogenic Cr6+ compounds and exhaust gases were avoided, and the water generated from vanadate precipitation may be recycled and reused in this new leaching process. The leaching residues may be easily used by a blast furnace. Moreover, (NH4)2C2O4 solution was used as a leaching medium to avoid expensive and complicated ammonium controlling operations as a result of the stability of (NH4)2C2O4 at a high temperature. The transformation mechanisms of vanadium- and chromium-bearing phases were systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-disperse x-ray spectrometry, respectively. In addition, the effects of oxygen concentration, roasting temperature, and holding time on vanadium recovery were investigated. Finally, the effects of leaching variables on the vanadium leaching rate were also examined.

  11. Autoxidation of packed almonds as affected by maillard reaction volatile compounds derived from roasting.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Gomes, T; De Pilli, T; Romani, S; Massini, R

    2000-10-01

    Shelled almonds of two Italian varieties, Romana and Pizzuta, peeled and unpeeled, were roasted and packed under different conditions: air (control), vacuum, and Maillard reaction volatile compounds (MRVc) derived from the roasting process. Samples were stored for approximately 8 months at room temperature, without light, and, at regular intervals, were collected and analyzed to evaluate the progress of lipid oxidation. Peroxide values, triglyceride oligopolymers, and oxidized triglycerides were evaluated during the storage time. Results showed that, although the MRVc atmosphere did not protect the lipid fraction of almonds as well as the vacuum condition; nevertheless, it was more protective than the control atmosphere, showing an antioxidant effect. The effect of the natural coating was a strong protection against lipid oxidation; in fact, only the unpeeled samples showed peroxide values lower than the threshold of acceptability (25 milliequiv of O(2)/kg of oil). Moreover, at the end of the storage period, Pizzuta almonds showed a greater deterioration than those of the Romana variety.

  12. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks and microalgal biomass after thermal hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique Miranda; Baeta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; de Aquino, Sergio Francisco; Perez-Elvira, Sara Isabel

    2018-04-01

    Residual coffee husks after seed processing may be better profited if bioconverted into energy through anaerobic digestion. This process may be improved by implementing a pretreatment step and by co-digesting the coffee husks with a more liquid biomass. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks with microalgal biomass. For this, both substrates were pretreated separately and in a mixture for attaining 15% of total solids (TS), which was demonstrated to be the minimum solid content for pretreatment of coffee husks. The results showed that the anaerobic co-digestion presented a synergistic effect, leading to 17% higher methane yield compared to the theoretical value of both substrates biodegraded separately. Furthermore, thermal hydrolysis pretreatment increased coffee husks anaerobic biodegradability. For co-digestion trials, the highest values were reached for pretreatment at 120 °C for 60 min, which led to 196 mLCH 4 /gVS and maximum methane production rate of 0.38 d -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  16. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  17. Quantification of coffee blends for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak) via metabolomics: A proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-07-01

    Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak), an animal-digested coffee with an exotic feature, carries a notorious reputation of being the rarest and most expensive coffee beverage in the world. Considering that illegal mixture of cheap coffee into civet coffee is a growing concern among consumers, we evaluated the use of metabolomics approach and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) prediction technique to quantify the degree of coffee adulteration. Two prediction sets, consisting of certified and commercial coffee, were made from a blend of civet and regular coffee with eleven mixing percentages. The prediction model exhibited accurate estimation of coffee blend percentage thus, successfully validating the prediction and quantification of the mixing composition of known-unknown samples. This work highlighted