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Sample records for cognition language prejudice

  1. Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class. Institutional Structures of Feeling Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    This book is about language prejudice as experienced by Puerto Ricans in the mainland United States. Prejudice is expressed as social signs that include, but go well beyond, language. When people express linguistic prejudices, they generally start by objectifying the languages in question as though the languages were sharply defined. For Puerto…

  2. When biased language use is associated with bullying and dominance behavior: the moderating effect of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Digiovanni, Craig D

    2010-10-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was associated with bullying and dominance irrespective of sexual prejudice or if sexual prejudice moderated these associations among 290 high school students (50% female; 56% White). Sexual prejudice was associated with biased language use among boys only. Biased language was associated with bullying regardless of levels of sexual prejudice for boys. However, this association was dependent on sexual prejudice for girls. For dominance behavior, its association with biased language was moderated by sexual prejudice for boys, but not girls. However, girls' engagement in all behaviors was significantly less than boys. These results indicate nuanced ways in which multiple factors contribute to the use of sexual orientation biased language. Also, they underscore the need to address biased language and prejudice as part of anti-bullying programs.

  3. Discourses of prejudice in the professions: the case of sign languages.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Tom; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Napoli, Donna Jo; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian; Smith, Scott

    2017-03-09

    There is no evidence that learning a natural human language is cognitively harmful to children. To the contrary, multilingualism has been argued to be beneficial to all. Nevertheless, many professionals advise the parents of deaf children that their children should not learn a sign language during their early years, despite strong evidence across many research disciplines that sign languages are natural human languages. Their recommendations are based on a combination of misperceptions about (1) the difficulty of learning a sign language, (2) the effects of bilingualism, and particularly bimodalism, (3) the bona fide status of languages that lack a written form, (4) the effects of a sign language on acquiring literacy, (5) the ability of technologies to address the needs of deaf children and (6) the effects that use of a sign language will have on family cohesion. We expose these misperceptions as based in prejudice and urge institutions involved in educating professionals concerned with the healthcare, raising and educating of deaf children to include appropriate information about first language acquisition and the importance of a sign language for deaf children. We further urge such professionals to advise the parents of deaf children properly, which means to strongly advise the introduction of a sign language as soon as hearing loss is detected.

  4. Forms of ethnic prejudice: assessing the dimensionality of a Spanish-language version of the Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Castro, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of a Spanish-language version of the Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale via exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). No research has confirmed the hypothesized factor structure in Latin American countries. Using data from a random and probability survey in population of the northern area of Chile (N= 896), four models were specified: single factor model (global prejudice factor), correlated two-factor model (subtle and blatant prejudice), correlated two-factor second-order model, and single-factor second-order model. The findings indicated that the two-factor second-order model had the best fit. The corresponding alpha coefficients were .82 (subtle prejudice) and .76 (blatant prejudice). Lastly, differences were examined between , , and regarding their feelings toward immigrants, their feelings about their beliefs concerning the state aid received by these out-groups, and their feelings about their beliefs regarding future policies for them.

  5. Henri Tajfel's 'cognitive aspects of prejudice' and the psychology of bigotry.

    PubMed

    Billig, Michael

    2002-06-01

    This paper pays tribute to Tajfel's classic article 'Cognitive aspects of prejudice' and re-examines its central arguments. Tajfel's paper is important for outlining a social cognitive approach to the study of prejudice and also for refuting of what Tajfel called the 'blood-and-guts' approach. Taking Tajfel's proposition that social psychology is not value-free, the current paper examines the moral and political view of 'Cognitive aspects' and also the gaps in its approach to the study of prejudice. It is suggested that this cognitive approach has difficulty in accounting for extreme bigotry, at least without recourse to the motivational themes that the approach seeks to exclude. In particular, there would be limitations in applying this approach in order to understand the Holocaust. Indeed, Tajfel did not attempt to do so, for reasons that are discussed. Tajfel's Social Identity Theory (SIT) has similar limitations. The paper also examines Tajfel's use of the term 'depersonalization', which he described as a 'milder' form of dehumanization of out-groups. Later social identity theorists have tended to use 'depersonalization' differently, shifting their attention to in-groups. Their perspective moves away from understanding the topic of prejudice in the way that can be found in Tajfel's 'Cognitive aspects of prejudice'. Finally, the present paper suggests how extreme prejudice might be studied without returning to the motivational 'blood-and-guts' approach that Tajfel so cogently criticized.

  6. When Biased Language Use Is Associated with Bullying and Dominance Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…

  7. Bright minds and dark attitudes: lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.

  8. Language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-04-01

    What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research.

  9. Processes of Prejudice and the Roots of Racism: A Socio-Cognitive Approach. Prepublication/Working Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A.

    A cognitive theory about the representation and processing of ethnic attitudes is presented, and strategies people use to express ethnic attitudes in conversations are discussed. Recent developments in cognitive and social psychology and in microsociology have shown that ethnic prejudices or attitudes are both cognitive and social results of…

  10. Bilingualism and Cognitive Decline: A Story of Pride and Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Versijpt, Jan; Sieben, Anne; Santens, Patrick; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-09-11

    In a recent review, Mukadam, Sommerlad, and Livingston (2017) argue that bilingualism offers no protection against cognitive decline. The authors examined the results of 13 studies (five prospective, eight retrospective) in which monolinguals and bilinguals were compared for cognitive decline and onset of dementia symptoms. Analysis of four of the five prospective studies resulted in the conclusion that there was no difference between monolinguals and bilinguals, whereas seven of the eight retrospective studies actually showed bilingualism to result in a four-to-five year delay of symptom onset. The authors decided to ignore the results from the retrospective studies in favor of those from the prospective studies, reasoning that the former may be confounded by participants' cultural background and education levels. In this commentary, we argue that most of these studies actually controlled for these two variables and still found a positive effect of bilingualism. Furthermore, we argue that the meta-analysis of the prospective studies is not complete, lacking the results of two crucial reports. We conclude that the literature offers substantial evidence for a bilingual effect on the development of cognitive decline and dementia.

  11. Language Experience Changes Language and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Poarch, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of two languages by bilinguals has been shown to induce broad changes in language and cognitive abilities across the lifespan. The largest changes are seen as advantages in executive control, a set of processes responsible for controlled attention, inhibition, and shifting. Moreover, there is evidence that these executive control advantages mitigate cognitive decline in older age and contribute to cognitive reserve. In this paper, we examine some of the evidence for these findings and explain their relation to bilingual language use. These effects are considered in terms of their implications for our understanding of cognitive and brain plasticity. Some implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:25435805

  12. Rethinking the link between categorization and prejudice within the social cognition perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2005-01-01

    For the past 40 years, social psychological research on stereotyping and prejudice in the United States has been dominated by the social cognition perspective, which has emphasized the important role of basic categorization processes in intergroup dynamics. An inadvertent consequence of this approach has been a disproportionate focus on social categorization as a causal factor in intergroup animosity and, accordingly, an emphasis on approaches that minimize category distinctions as the solution to intergroup conflict. Though recognizing the crucial function of categorization, we question existing support for the hypothesis that the perception of strong group differences necessarily results in greater intergroup bias. Given that it is neither feasible nor ultimately desirable to imagine that social categories can be eliminated, we suggest that a more useful approach is one that promotes intergroup harmony even while recognizing and valuing the distinctions that define our social world.

  13. Mirror neurons, language, and embodied cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid I; Ilin, Roman

    2013-05-01

    Basic mechanisms of the mind, cognition, language, its semantic and emotional mechanisms are modeled using dynamic logic (DL). This cognitively and mathematically motivated model leads to a dual-model hypothesis of language and cognition. The paper emphasizes that abstract cognition cannot evolve without language. The developed model is consistent with a joint emergence of language and cognition from a mirror neuron system. The dual language-cognition model leads to the dual mental hierarchy. The nature of cognition embodiment in the hierarchy is analyzed. Future theoretical and experimental research is discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. On Counter-Stereotypes and Creative Cognition: When Interventions for Reducing Prejudice Can Boost Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether tasks like this can have benefits beyond…

  15. On Counter-Stereotypes and Creative Cognition: When Interventions for Reducing Prejudice Can Boost Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether tasks like this can have benefits beyond…

  16. Psychotherapy and Social Change: Utilizing Principles of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Help Develop New Prejudice-Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Birtel, Michèle D.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose that key concepts from clinical psychotherapy can inform science-based initiatives aimed at building tolerance and community cohesion. Commonalities in social and clinical psychology are identified regarding (1) distorted thinking (intergroup bias and cognitive bias), (2) stress and coping (at intergroup level and intrapersonal level), and (3) anxiety (intergroup anxiety and pathological anxiety). On this basis we introduce a new cognitive-behavioral model of social change. Mental imagery is the conceptual point of synthesis, and anxiety is at the core, through which new treatment-based approaches to reducing prejudice can be developed. More generally, we argue that this integration is illustrative of broader potential for cross-disciplinary integration in the social and clinical sciences, and has the potential to open up new possibilities and opportunities for both disciplines. PMID:26635678

  17. Language Diversity and Cognitive Representations. Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Catherine, Ed.; Robert, Stephane, Ed.

    This book brings together the contributions of individual language scholars, linguists, anthropologists, psychologists, and neurophysicians. Each chapter focuses on the human cognitive processes involved in language activity and the impact of language diversity on them. The basic issue is how to correlate language diversity with the universality…

  18. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  19. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  20. Language and Cognition Interaction Neural Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    How language and cognition interact in thinking? Is language just used for communication of completed thoughts, or is it fundamental for thinking? Existing approaches have not led to a computational theory. We develop a hypothesis that language and cognition are two separate but closely interacting mechanisms. Language accumulates cultural wisdom; cognition develops mental representations modeling surrounding world and adapts cultural knowledge to concrete circumstances of life. Language is acquired from surrounding language “ready-made” and therefore can be acquired early in life. This early acquisition of language in childhood encompasses the entire hierarchy from sounds to words, to phrases, and to highest concepts existing in culture. Cognition is developed from experience. Yet cognition cannot be acquired from experience alone; language is a necessary intermediary, a “teacher.” A mathematical model is developed; it overcomes previous difficulties and leads to a computational theory. This model is consistent with Arbib's “language prewired brain” built on top of mirror neuron system. It models recent neuroimaging data about cognition, remaining unnoticed by other theories. A number of properties of language and cognition are explained, which previously seemed mysterious, including influence of language grammar on cultural evolution, which may explain specifics of English and Arabic cultures. PMID:21876687

  1. Understanding Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, David

    1967-01-01

    To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

  2. Language Teacher Cognitions: Complex Dynamic Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Language teacher cognition research is a growing field. In recent years several features of language teacher cognitions have been noted: they can be complex, ranging over a number of different subjects; they can be dynamic, changing over time and under different influences; and they can be systems, forming unified and cohesive personal or…

  3. Language Teacher Cognitions: Complex Dynamic Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Language teacher cognition research is a growing field. In recent years several features of language teacher cognitions have been noted: they can be complex, ranging over a number of different subjects; they can be dynamic, changing over time and under different influences; and they can be systems, forming unified and cohesive personal or…

  4. Cognition and Written Language: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan, Ed.

    Originally presented at a symposium on cognition and written language, the 14 papers in this collection discuss research findings regarding reading and writing processes, ways that the development of effective reading and writing can be abetted by instruction, and research needs in the area of cognition and written language. The papers focus on…

  5. Language as cognitive tool kit: How language supports relational thought.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Dedre

    2016-11-01

    The extreme version of the Whorfian hypothesis-that the language we learn determines how we view the world-has been soundly rejected by linguists and psychologists alike. However, more moderate versions of the idea that language may influence thought have garnered recent empirical support. This article defends 1 such view. I propose that language serves as a cognitive tool kit that allows us to represent and reason in ways that would be impossible without such a symbol system. I present evidence that learning and using relational language can foster relational reasoning-a core capacity of higher order cognition. In essence, language makes one smarter. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Cognitive Linguistics and the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Randal

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Linguistics (CL) makes the functional assumption that form is motivated by meaning. CL also analyses form-meaning pairings as products of how cognition structures perception. CL thus helps teachers to fit language to the nature of the cognition that learns whilst devising modes of instruction that are better attuned to the nature of the…

  7. Cognitive Linguistics and the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Randal

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Linguistics (CL) makes the functional assumption that form is motivated by meaning. CL also analyses form-meaning pairings as products of how cognition structures perception. CL thus helps teachers to fit language to the nature of the cognition that learns whilst devising modes of instruction that are better attuned to the nature of the…

  8. Sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  9. First Language/Second Language: Acquisition, Writing, and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Diana M.

    Scholars from varied disciplines--first language (L1) acquisition, second language (L2) acquisition, composition research, and cognitive psychology--have found a high level of permeability in their search for more effective classroom models of writing instruction. Among the most influential work in this area has been Stephen Krashen's theory of L2…

  10. Black Language and Holistic Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Grace C.

    The use of holistic cognitive style in black language is discussed in this paper. Two types of cognitive style, analytic and holistic, are identified. Holistic thinkers are described as socially oriented while analytical thinkers are characterized as task oriented. Evidence is given to support the claim that blacks tend to be holistic thinkers and…

  11. Cerebellum, Language, and Cognition in Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.

    2013-01-01

    We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6–13 years, including 22 boys with autism (16 with language impairment (ALI)), 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in posterior-lateral cerebellar lobule VIIIA (right side larger in unimpaired groups, left side larger in ALI and SLI), contralateral to previous findings in inferior frontal cortex language areas. Lobule VIIA Crus I was smaller in SLI than in ALI. Vermis volume, particularly anterior I-V, was decreased in language-impaired groups. Language performance test scores correlated with lobule VIIIA asymmetry and with anterior vermis volume. These findings suggest ALI and SLI subjects show abnormalities in neurodevelopment of fronto-corticocerebellar circuits that manage motor control and the processing of language, cognition, working memory, and attention. PMID:19924522

  12. Prejudice control and interracial relations: the role of motivation to respond without prejudice.

    PubMed

    Butz, David A; Plant, E Ashby

    2009-10-01

    A decade of research indicates that individual differences in motivation to respond without prejudice have important implications for the control of prejudice and interracial relations. In reviewing this work, we draw on W. Mischel and Y. Shoda's (1995, 1999) Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) to demonstrate that people with varying sources of motivation to respond without prejudice respond in distinct ways to situational cues, resulting in differing situation-behavior profiles in interracial contexts. People whose motivation is self-determined (i.e., the internally motivated) effectively control prejudice across situations and strive for positive interracial interactions. In contrast, people who respond without prejudice to avoid social sanction (i.e., the primarily externally motivated) consistently fail at regulating difficult to control prejudice and respond with anxiety and avoidance in interracial interactions. We further consider the nature of the cognitive-affective units of personality associated with motivation to respond without prejudice and their implications for the quality of interracial relations.

  13. Social Cognition and the Evolution of Language: Constructing Cognitive Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Huber, Ludwig; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Human language and social cognition are closely linked: advanced social cognition is necessary for children to acquire language, and language allows forms of social understanding (and, more broadly, culture) that would otherwise be impossible. Both “language” and “social cognition” are complex constructs, involving many independent cognitive mechanisms, and the comparative approach provides a powerful route to understanding the evolution of such mechanisms. We provide a broad comparative review of mechanisms underlying social intelligence in vertebrates, with the goal of determining which human mechanisms are broadly shared, which have evolved in parallel in other clades, and which, potentially, are uniquely developed in our species. We emphasize the importance of convergent evolution for testing hypotheses about neural mechanisms and their evolution. PMID:20346756

  14. Language, Cognition, and ESL Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazden, Courtney B.; Starfield, Sue

    1994-01-01

    In "Vygotsky and ESL Literacy Teaching," Cazden uses examples from South Africa to discuss internalization of socially acquired language, instruction as "scaffolded assistance," and social meanings of English-as-a-Second-Language literacy. In "Cummins, EAP, and Academic Literacy," Starfield focuses on a University of…

  15. Language, Cognition, and ESL Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazden, Courtney B.; Starfield, Sue

    1994-01-01

    In "Vygotsky and ESL Literacy Teaching," Cazden uses examples from South Africa to discuss internalization of socially acquired language, instruction as "scaffolded assistance," and social meanings of English-as-a-Second-Language literacy. In "Cummins, EAP, and Academic Literacy," Starfield focuses on a University of…

  16. The evolution of language from social cognition.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2014-10-01

    Despite their differences, human language and the vocal communication of nonhuman primates share many features. Both constitute a form of joint action, rely on similar neural mechanisms, and involve discrete, combinatorial cognition. These shared features suggest that during evolution the ancestors of modern primates faced similar social problems and responded by evolving similar systems of perception, communication and cognition. When language later evolved from this common foundation, many of its distinctive features were already in place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidentiality in language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Papafragou, Anna; Li, Peggy; Choi, Youngon; Han, Chung-Hye

    2007-05-01

    What is the relation between language and thought? Specifically, how do linguistic and conceptual representations make contact during language learning? This paper addresses these questions by investigating the acquisition of evidentiality (the linguistic encoding of information source) and its relation to children's evidential reasoning. Previous studies have hypothesized that the acquisition of evidentiality is complicated by the subtleness and abstractness of the underlying concepts; other studies have suggested that learning a language which systematically (e.g. grammatically) marks evidential categories might serve as a pacesetter for early reasoning about sources of information. We conducted experimental studies with children learning Korean (a language with evidential morphology) and English (a language without grammaticalized evidentiality) in order to test these hypotheses. Our experiments compared 3- and 4-year-old Korean children's knowledge of the semantics and discourse functions of evidential morphemes to their (non-linguistic) ability to recognize and report different types of evidential sources. They also compared Korean children's source monitoring abilities to the source monitoring abilities of English-speaking children of the same age. We found that Korean-speaking children have considerable success in producing evidential morphology but their comprehension of such morphology is very fragile. Nevertheless, young Korean speakers are able to reason successfully about sources of information in non-linguistic tasks; furthermore, their performance in these tasks is similar to that of English-speaking peers. These results support the conclusion that the acquisition of evidential expressions poses considerable problems for learners; however, these problems are not (necessarily) conceptual in nature. Our data also suggest that, contrary to relativistic expectations, children's ability to reason about sources of information proceeds along similar lines in

  18. Cognitive pragmatics of language disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, G Albyn

    2007-05-01

    Cognitive pragmatics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the use of language in communicative contexts. Paradigms of cognitive psychology (off-line and on-line) have been applied to the study of the abilities to go beyond the literal (inference) and derive meaning in relation to context (e.g., metaphor and sarcasm). These pragmatic functions have been examined for the involvement of processes of meaning activation, embellishment, and revision. Clinical investigators have explored abilities and deficits in acquired aphasia, right hemisphere dysfunction, and closed head injury. This article reviews and provides some analysis of clinical studies that are consistent with the themes constituting cognitive pragmatics.

  19. LANGUAGE AND COGNITION IN THE YOUNG CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANISFELD, MOSHE

    THE LITERATURE ON INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT APPEARS TO ATTRIBUTE TO THE YOUNG CHILD A HIGH LEVEL OF LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT AND A RELATIVELY LOW LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT IN OTHER COGNITIVE SPHERES. IN AN ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THIS DISCREPANCY, THE AUTHOR ADVANCED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THE DESCRIPTIONS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT ARE BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF THE…

  20. Language Influence on Children's Cognitive Number Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of language on children's cognitive representation of number. The sample for the study consisted of 90 Arabic speaking children with a mean age of 80 months. Children were interviewed individually and asked to represent written two-digit numbers using base-10 blocks. A new approach for testing the linguistic…

  1. The Language Organ: Linguistics as Cognitive Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen R.; Lightfoot, David W.

    This book treats human language as the manifestation of a faculty of the mind, a mental organ whose nature is determined by human biology, suggesting that its functional properties should be explored just as physiology explores the functional properties of physical organs. The book asserts that linguistics investigates cognition, taking as its…

  2. Cognition Plus: Correlates of Language Learning Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Oxford, Rebecca L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationships of individual difference variables to end-of-training proficiency ratings in speaking and reading for a large sample of adults in intensive training in a wide range of languages at the U.S. Department of State. Variables included tested cognitive aptitude, learning strategies, learning styles, personality, motivation and…

  3. Cognition and Function in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Barbara A., Ed.; Jurafsky, Dan, Ed.; Michaelis, Laura A., Ed.

    Selected papers include: "From Core to Periphery: A Study on the Directionality of Syntactic Change in Japanese" (Kaoru Horie); "On the Extension of Body-Part Nouns to Object-Part Nouns and Spatial Adpositions" (Yo Matsumoto); "Noun Classes: Language Change and Learning" (Maria Polinsky, Dan Jackson);…

  4. Cognition and Function in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Barbara A., Ed.; Jurafsky, Dan, Ed.; Michaelis, Laura A., Ed.

    Selected papers include: "From Core to Periphery: A Study on the Directionality of Syntactic Change in Japanese" (Kaoru Horie); "On the Extension of Body-Part Nouns to Object-Part Nouns and Spatial Adpositions" (Yo Matsumoto); "Noun Classes: Language Change and Learning" (Maria Polinsky, Dan Jackson);…

  5. Language, embodiment, and the cognitive niche.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andy

    2006-08-01

    Embodied agents use bodily actions and environmental interventions to make the world a better place to think in. Where does language fit into this emerging picture of the embodied, ecologically efficient agent? One useful way to approach this question is to consider language itself as a cognition-enhancing animal-built structure. To take this perspective is to view language as a kind of self-constructed cognitive niche: a persisting but never stationary material scaffolding whose crucial role in promoting thought and reason remains surprisingly poorly understood. It is the very materiality of this linguistic scaffolding, I suggest, that gives it some key benefits. By materializing thought in words, we create structures that are themselves proper objects of perception, manipulation, and (further) thought.

  6. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  7. Metaphoric competence in cognitive and language development.

    PubMed

    Marschark, M; Nall, L

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the age-related changes in children's language and cognitive development suggests qualitative changes in their creative language use. Many, if not most, researchers in the area have argued that some metaphoric competence emerges far earlier than would be expected on the basis of explanation or interpretation tasks alone. These same researchers, however, appear largely to have neglected consideration of the cognitive prerequisites for such abilities and differences between what is nonliteral for the adult and nonliteral for the child. If figurative language is defined as involving intentional violation of conceptual boundaries in order to highlight some correspondence, one must be sure that children credited with that competence have (1) the metacognitive and metalinguistic abilities to understand at least some of the implications of such language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Nelson, 1974; Nelson & Nelson, 1978), (2) a conceptual organization that entails the purportedly violated conceptual boundaries (Lange, 1978), and (3) some notion of metaphoric tension as well as ground. Having stacked the definitional cards, we doubt that many investigators would assert that 2-year-old children at nonverbal symbolic play are doing anything that is literally metaphorical in our terms. But neither will we deny that one can observe creative components in the verbal and nonverbal play of the young child that are precursors of later nonliteral language skills (see McCune-Nicolich, 1981, for discussion). We simply do not see these creative abilities as specific to language in any way that justifies calling them metaphoric competence. Rather, the child's abilities to deal flexibly with the world, to "play" with possible alternative organizations of it, and to see similarity in diversity represent the bases of subsequent cognitive as well as language development. Far from being an exceptional aspect of development, apparently nonliteral language should be considered a

  8. The Anatomy of Prejudices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth

    Since the 1950s the assumption that prejudice or ethnocentrism is a single entity with many causes has governed social scientific work on prejudice. The way society talks about prejudices has become an obstacle to real understanding. This book offers an alternative theory that is a claim that different prejudices are characteristic of different…

  9. Language and Cognition in Normal and Late-Talking Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thal, Donna J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes Piagetian theory on the relative development of cognition and language, the local homology model which claims there are specific language-cognition relationships at specific points in time, normal development and local homology, and development in language-impaired children. Implications for clinical decision making are…

  10. Language Learning by Dint of Social Cognitive Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Bincy; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2015-01-01

    Language is of vital importance to human beings. It is a means of communication and it has specific cognitive links. Advanced social cognition is necessary for children to acquire language, and sophisticated mind-reading abilities to assume word meanings and communicate pragmatically. Language can be defined as a bi-directional system that permits…

  11. A Cognitive Approach to the Development of Early Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large…

  12. Language Learning by Dint of Social Cognitive Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Bincy; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2015-01-01

    Language is of vital importance to human beings. It is a means of communication and it has specific cognitive links. Advanced social cognition is necessary for children to acquire language, and sophisticated mind-reading abilities to assume word meanings and communicate pragmatically. Language can be defined as a bi-directional system that permits…

  13. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  14. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  15. Prejudice and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Earl; Lipset, Seymour M.

    This monograph consists of six chapters which discuss the problem of prejudice in our society. Chapter I looks at "Prejudice as a Social Problem." As a social problem prejudice can be defined exclusively in terms of human behavior which denies or attempts to deny equality of opportunity or status to certain racial, religious, or ethnic groups.…

  16. A cognitive approach to the development of early language.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large battery of infant information-processing measures of memory, representational competence, processing speed, and attention, many of which have been shown to predict general cognition in a cohort of full-terms and preterms. Results showed that various aspects of infant memory and representational competence (a) related to language at both 12 and 36 months, (b) predicted similarly for the two groups, and (c) predicted 36-month language, independently of birth status, 12-month language, and the 12-month Bayley Mental Development Index. Additionally, the results established predictive validity for the MacArthur 12-month language measure. These findings support a domain-general view of language.

  17. Non-Linguistic Cognitive Treatment for Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) demonstrate subtle deficits in non-linguistic cognitive processing skills that may play a causal or contributing role in PLI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that short-term treatment of non-linguistic cognitive processing skills improves language abilities…

  18. Two languages in mind: Bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bobb, Susan C.; Hoshino, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    A series of discoveries in the last two decades has changed the way we think about bilingualism and its implications for language and cognition. One is that both languages are always active. The parallel activation of the two languages is thought to give rise to competition that imposes demands on the bilingual to control the language not in use to achieve fluency in the target language. The second is that there are consequences of bilingualism that affect the native as well as the second language. The native language changes in response to second language use. The third is that the consequences of bilingualism are not limited to language but appear to reflect a reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally. The focus of recent research on bilingualism has been to understand the relation between these discoveries and the implications they hold for language, cognition, and the brain across the lifespan. PMID:25309055

  19. Two languages in mind: Bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Judith F; Bobb, Susan C; Hoshino, Noriko

    2014-06-01

    A series of discoveries in the last two decades has changed the way we think about bilingualism and its implications for language and cognition. One is that both languages are always active. The parallel activation of the two languages is thought to give rise to competition that imposes demands on the bilingual to control the language not in use to achieve fluency in the target language. The second is that there are consequences of bilingualism that affect the native as well as the second language. The native language changes in response to second language use. The third is that the consequences of bilingualism are not limited to language but appear to reflect a reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally. The focus of recent research on bilingualism has been to understand the relation between these discoveries and the implications they hold for language, cognition, and the brain across the lifespan.

  20. Nonlinguistic Cognitive Treatment for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Rentmeester-Disher, Jill; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence points to the presence of subtle weaknesses in the nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills of children with primary (or specific) language impairment (PLI). It is possible that these weaknesses contribute to the language learning difficulties that characterize PLI, and that treating them can improve language skills. To test…

  1. A Cognitive Perspective on Language Learners' Listening Comprehension Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Christine C. M.

    2000-01-01

    Offers a cognitive perspective on the comprehension problems of second language listeners by identifying real-time listening difficulties faced by English-as-Second-Language learners and examining these difficulties within the three-phase model of language comprehension proposed by Anderson (1995). Shows ten problems that occurred during the…

  2. The Mexican American Child: Language, Cognition, and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.

    The nine articles are divided into three general topics: language, cognition, and social development. Eduardo Hernandez-Chavez discusses strategies in early second language acquisition and their implications for bilingual instruction. Eugene E. Garcia, Lento Maez, and Gustavo Gonzales examine the incidence of language switching in Spanish/English…

  3. Nonlinguistic Cognitive Treatment for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Rentmeester-Disher, Jill; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence points to the presence of subtle weaknesses in the nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills of children with primary (or specific) language impairment (PLI). It is possible that these weaknesses contribute to the language learning difficulties that characterize PLI, and that treating them can improve language skills. To test…

  4. Probabilistic language models in cognitive neuroscience: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Armeni, Kristijan; Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L

    2017-09-05

    Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals. Measures obtained from these models emphasize the probabilistic, information-processing view of language understanding and provide a set of tools that can be used for testing neural hypotheses about language comprehension. Here, we provide a cursory review of the theoretical foundations and example neuroimaging studies employing probabilistic language models. We highlight the advantages and potential pitfalls of this approach and indicate avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Where Is Cognition? Emotion and Cognition in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the brain is the seat of cognition, that cognitive processes are neutral processes, and that, in the brain, affect and cognition are distinguishable but inseparable. This perspective allows a reconceptualization of the affective filter in terms of the brain's stimulus appraisal system, which interacts with cognition to promote or…

  6. Nonlinguistic cognitive treatment for bilingual children with primary language impairment

    PubMed Central

    EBERT, KERRY DANAHY; RENTMEESTER-DISHER, JILL; KOHNERT, KATHRYN

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence points to the presence of subtle weaknesses in the nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills of children with primary (or specific) language impairment (PLI). It is possible that these weaknesses contribute to the language learning difficulties that characterize PLI, and that treating them can improve language skills. To test this premise, we treated two nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills, processing speed and sustained selective attention, in two Spanish–English bilingual children with PLI. The study followed a single-subject multiple baseline design, with both repeated measures and standardized pre- and post-testing as outcome measures. Results from the repeated measures tasks showed that both participants made gains in nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills as well as in Spanish and English. These results both replicate and extend prior work showing that non-linguistic cognitive processing treatment can positively affect language skills in children with PLI. PMID:22540358

  7. Music and language perception: expectations, structural integration, and cognitive sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Music can be described as sequences of events that are structured in pitch and time. Studying music processing provides insight into how complex event sequences are learned, perceived, and represented by the brain. Given the temporal nature of sound, expectations, structural integration, and cognitive sequencing are central in music perception (i.e., which sounds are most likely to come next and at what moment should they occur?). This paper focuses on similarities in music and language cognition research, showing that music cognition research provides insight into the understanding of not only music processing but also language processing and the processing of other structured stimuli. The hypothesis of shared resources between music and language processing and of domain-general dynamic attention has motivated the development of research to test music as a means to stimulate sensory, cognitive, and motor processes. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Cognitive Approach to Assessing Pragmatic Language Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva; Schulz, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment in children with specific language impairment has proved difficult to assess, and the nature of their abilities to comprehend pragmatic meaning has not been fully investigated. Aims: To develop both a cognitive approach to pragmatic language assessment based on Relevance Theory and an assessment tool for…

  9. What works to address prejudice? Look to developmental science research for the answer.

    PubMed

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam

    2012-12-01

    Developmental perspectives on prejudice provide a fundamental and important key to the puzzle for determining how to address prejudice. Research with historically disadvantaged and advantaged groups in childhood and adolescence reveals the complexity of social cognitive and moral judgments about prejudice, discrimination, bias, and exclusion. Children are aware of status and hierarchies, and often reject the status quo. Intervention, to be effective, must happen early in development, before prejudice and stereotypes are deeply entrenched.

  10. Language as grist to the mill of cognition.

    PubMed

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consensus that natural language plays a significant role in our cognitive lives. However, this role of language is not adequately characterised. In this paper, I investigate the relationship between natural language and thinking and argue that thinking operates largely according to associationistic rules. Furthermore, I show that language is neither restricted to interfacing between a 'Language of Thought' and the conscious level, nor is it constitutively involved in thinking. Unlike available alternatives, the suggested view predicts and accommodates a large battery of empirical evidence. Furthermore, it avoids problems that associationistic views traditionally faced, e.g. problems of propositional thinking and compositionality of thought.

  11. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  12. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  13. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  14. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOAR, GERTRUDE

    THE SCHOOL WAS CONFRONTED WITH THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ABOUT PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION AS FACTS OF LIFE, AS CONDITIONS WHICH PREVENT THE FULL DEVELOPMENT OF EVERY PERSON, AS PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE SOLVED, IF DEMOCRACY WAS TO FUNCTION. ONE OF THE APPROACHES TO A UNIT THAT STUDIED PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION CONSISTED OF THE DISCUSSION OF A…

  15. PREJUDICE AND SOCIETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPSET, SEYMOUR M.; RAAB, EARL

    AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM IN AMERICA TODAY, PREJUDICE CAN BE DEFINED EXCLUSIVELY IN TERMS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR WHICH DENIES OR ATTEMPTS TO DENY EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY OR STATUS TO CERTAIN RACIAL, RELIGIOUS, OR ETHNIC GROUPS. PREJUDICE IS CONSIDERED A SOCIAL PROBLEM BECAUSE IT PRESENTS A THREAT TO SOCIAL ORDER BY BREAKING DOWN HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS, RESULTS…

  16. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  17. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  18. Cerebellum, Language, and Cognition in Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6-13 years, including 22 boys with autism [16 with language impairment (ALI)], 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in…

  19. Cerebellum, Language, and Cognition in Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6-13 years, including 22 boys with autism [16 with language impairment (ALI)], 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in…

  20. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences.

  1. Brain. Conscious and Unconscious Mechanisms of Cognition, Emotions, and Language

    PubMed Central

    Perlovsky, Leonid; Ilin, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Conscious and unconscious brain mechanisms, including cognition, emotions and language are considered in this review. The fundamental mechanisms of cognition include interactions between bottom-up and top-down signals. The modeling of these interactions since the 1960s is briefly reviewed, analyzing the ubiquitous difficulty: incomputable combinatorial complexity (CC). Fundamental reasons for CC are related to the Gödel’s difficulties of logic, a most fundamental mathematical result of the 20th century. Many scientists still “believed” in logic because, as the review discusses, logic is related to consciousness; non-logical processes in the brain are unconscious. CC difficulty is overcome in the brain by processes “from vague-unconscious to crisp-conscious” (representations, plans, models, concepts). These processes are modeled by dynamic logic, evolving from vague and unconscious representations toward crisp and conscious thoughts. We discuss experimental proofs and relate dynamic logic to simulators of the perceptual symbol system. “From vague to crisp” explains interactions between cognition and language. Language is mostly conscious, whereas cognition is only rarely so; this clarifies much about the mind that might seem mysterious. All of the above involve emotions of a special kind, aesthetic emotions related to knowledge and to cognitive dissonances. Cognition-language-emotional mechanisms operate throughout the hierarchy of the mind and create all higher mental abilities. The review discusses cognitive functions of the beautiful, sublime, music. PMID:24961270

  2. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  3. Deconstructing the Pyramid of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light

    2014-01-01

    While subdued forms of everyday prejudice may seem harmless, appearances can be deceiving. Such commonplace prejudices form the foundation upon which more extreme acts of prejudice build. And they also leave us vulnerable to costly errors of judgment that can have tragic consequences. That is why addressing prejudice in the classroom is as crucial…

  4. Deconstructing the Pyramid of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light

    2014-01-01

    While subdued forms of everyday prejudice may seem harmless, appearances can be deceiving. Such commonplace prejudices form the foundation upon which more extreme acts of prejudice build. And they also leave us vulnerable to costly errors of judgment that can have tragic consequences. That is why addressing prejudice in the classroom is as crucial…

  5. Language and cognitive outcomes in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Weitzman, Carol; Schuh, Jillian; de Marchena, Ashley; Casey, B J

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on the association between language skills and core cognitive processes relative to the duration of institutionalization in children adopted from orphanages abroad. Participants in the adoptive group (n = 46) had arrived in the United States between the ages of 2 and 84 months (mean = 24 months), and had been living in the United States for 1-9 years. Drawing on both experimental and standardized assessments, language skills of the international adoptees differed as a function of length of time spent in an institution and from those of 24 nonadopted controls. Top-down cognitive assessments including measures of explicit memory and cognitive control differed between adopted and nonadopted children, yet differences between groups in bottom-up implicit learning processes were unremarkable. Based on the present findings, we propose a speculative model linking language and cognitive changes to underlying neural circuitry alterations that reflect the impact of chronic stress, due to adoptees' experience of noncontingent, nonindividualized caregiving. Thus, the present study provides support for a relationship between domain-general cognitive processes and language acquisition, and describes a potential mechanism by which language skills are affected by institutionalization.

  6. Plasticity of Human Spatial Cognition: Spatial Language and Cognition Covary across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Rapold, Christian J.; Janzen, Gabriele; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper explores cross-cultural variation in spatial cognition by comparing spatial reconstruction tasks by Dutch and Namibian elementary school children. These two communities differ in the way they predominantly express spatial relations in language. Four experiments investigate cognitive strategy preferences across different levels of…

  7. Plasticity of Human Spatial Cognition: Spatial Language and Cognition Covary across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Rapold, Christian J.; Janzen, Gabriele; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper explores cross-cultural variation in spatial cognition by comparing spatial reconstruction tasks by Dutch and Namibian elementary school children. These two communities differ in the way they predominantly express spatial relations in language. Four experiments investigate cognitive strategy preferences across different levels of…

  8. Number as a Cognitive Technology: Evidence from Piraha Language and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael C.; Everett, Daniel L.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Does speaking a language without number words change the way speakers of that language perceive exact quantities? The Piraha are an Amazonian tribe who have been previously studied for their limited numerical system [Gordon, P. (2004). Numerical cognition without words: Evidence from Amazonia. "Science 306", 496-499]. We show that the Piraha have…

  9. Predicting Ideological Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants’ ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans (N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors. In four studies (total N = 2,093), ideology-prejudice associations were estimated, and these observed estimates were compared with the models’ predictions. The model that was based only on perceived ideology was the most parsimonious with the smallest errors. PMID:28394693

  10. Theorizing and Studying the Language-Teaching Mind: Mapping Research on Language Teacher Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Freeman, Donald; Edwards, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The overarching project of the conceptual and empirical contributions in this special issue is to redraw boundaries for language teacher cognition research. Our aim in this final article is to complement the foregoing collection of articles by conceptualizing ontologically and methodologically past and current trajectories in language teacher…

  11. Theorizing and Studying the Language-Teaching Mind: Mapping Research on Language Teacher Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Freeman, Donald; Edwards, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The overarching project of the conceptual and empirical contributions in this special issue is to redraw boundaries for language teacher cognition research. Our aim in this final article is to complement the foregoing collection of articles by conceptualizing ontologically and methodologically past and current trajectories in language teacher…

  12. Language Mediated Concept Activation in Bilingual Memory Facilitates Cognitive Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian–English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals). Bilinguals outperformed their monolingual counterparts on divergent thinking trait of cognitive flexibility, and bilinguals’ performance on this trait could be explained by their TLP effect. Age of second language acquisition and proficiency in this language were found to relate to the TLP effect, and therefore were proposed to influence the directionality and strength of connections in bilingual memory. PMID:28701981

  13. Language Mediated Concept Activation in Bilingual Memory Facilitates Cognitive Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V

    2017-01-01

    This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals). Bilinguals outperformed their monolingual counterparts on divergent thinking trait of cognitive flexibility, and bilinguals' performance on this trait could be explained by their TLP effect. Age of second language acquisition and proficiency in this language were found to relate to the TLP effect, and therefore were proposed to influence the directionality and strength of connections in bilingual memory.

  14. Developing embodied cognition: insights from children's concepts and language processing.

    PubMed

    Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition.

  15. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower-versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  17. Imaging and Genetics of Language and Cognition in Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Addis, Laura; Lin, Jack J.; Pal, Deb K.; Hermann, Bruce; Caplan, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents translational aspects of imaging and genetic studies of language and cognition in children with epilepsy of average intelligence. It also discusses current unanswered translational questions in each of these research areas. A brief review of multimodal imaging and language study findings shows that abnormal structure and function, as well as plasticity and reorganization in language-related cortical regions are found both in children with epilepsy with normal language skills and in those with linguistic deficits. The review on cognition highlights that multiple domains of impaired cognition and abnormalities in brain structure and/or connectivity are evident early on in childhood epilepsy and might be specific for epilepsy syndrome. The description of state of the art genetic analyses that can be used to explain the convergence of language impairment and Rolandic epilepsy includes a discussion of the methodological difficulties involved in these analyses. Two junior researchers describe how their current and planned studies address some of the unanswered translational questions regarding cognition and imaging and the genetic analysis of speech sound disorder, reading, and centrotemporal spikes in Rolandic epilepsy. PMID:23116771

  18. Language and Cognition Interaction Neural Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...was called the minimalist program . It aimed at simplifying the rule structure of the mind mechanism of language. Language was considered to be in...Acquisition, N. Hornstein and D. Lightfoot, Eds., Longman, London, UK, 1981. [4] N. Chomsky, The Minimalist Program , MIT Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995. [5] W

  19. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  20. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites for Time in Language: Any Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the position article to this volume, Klein outlines a set of questions that are relevant for furthering the linguist's understanding of what the cognitive and neural prerequisites for time in language might be. He also declares a certain skepticism regarding the likelihood that new methods from other disciplines will provide answers to those…

  1. MATERIAL LANGUAGE STYLES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLIM, ELLIS G.; AND OTHERS

    PART OF A LARGER STUDY OF THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, THIS EXPERIMENT EXAMINED THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOTHERS' LANGUAGE STYLES AND THE CONCEPT ATTAINMENT OF THEIR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. SPEECH SAMPLES WERE OBTAINED FROM 160 URBAN NEGRO MOTHERS OF FOUR SOCIOECONOMIC GROUPS (MIDDLE-CLASS, UPPER-LOWER, LOWER-LOWER, AND…

  2. Exploring Flipped Classroom Effects on Second Language Learners' Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…

  3. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  4. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  5. Understanding Reading Comprehension: Cognition, Language, and the Structure of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, James, Ed.

    Intended to illuminate current understanding of how the reader's cognition and language and the text's structure affect the processing of prose, this volume contains articles written by educators, linguists, psychologists, and artificial intelligence experts on issues of comprehension research. The first part of the book examines reading…

  6. Cognitive Diagnosis Approaches to Language Assessment: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2009-01-01

    A variety of cognitive diagnosis approaches (CDAs) have been used by researchers to extract fine-grained information about the linguistic knowledge states and skill mastery levels of test takers based on their performance on language tests. Although some of these approaches have been in use in the psychometric community for quite some time, many…

  7. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  8. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites for Time in Language: Any Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the position article to this volume, Klein outlines a set of questions that are relevant for furthering the linguist's understanding of what the cognitive and neural prerequisites for time in language might be. He also declares a certain skepticism regarding the likelihood that new methods from other disciplines will provide answers to those…

  9. The Relationship Between Language Acquisition and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Rodney Louis

    Theories concerning the relationship between language acquisition and cognitive development are examined, and implications for education are discussed. There is disagreement about the sources and processes involved in achieving linguistic performance, and in particular, determining linguistic competence. Among the many theories and modifications…

  10. Cognitive Diagnosis Approaches to Language Assessment: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2009-01-01

    A variety of cognitive diagnosis approaches (CDAs) have been used by researchers to extract fine-grained information about the linguistic knowledge states and skill mastery levels of test takers based on their performance on language tests. Although some of these approaches have been in use in the psychometric community for quite some time, many…

  11. Cognitive Pruning and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. Douglas

    Ausubel distinguishes two kinds of human learning: (1) rote learning, relevant only to a small fraction of human learning, is the mechanistic formation of discrete, isolated traces in cognitive structure, usually through a process of conditioning; (2) meaningful learning, characteristic of most human learning, is a process of "subsuming" material…

  12. Bound Cognition and Referential Uses of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfemeyer, Julie Marie

    2011-01-01

    This work is an attempt to give a unified theory in response to two questions. The first question arises in the philosophy of mind: what is the mechanism by which we think of objects in the world? The second is a question in the philosophy of language: what is the mechanism by which we speak of them? These are questions that some have treated…

  13. Cognitive Effects of Language on Human Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Anna; Ah Lee, Sang; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Language has been linked to spatial representation and behavior in humans, but the nature of this effect is debated. Here, we test whether simple verbal expressions improve 4-year-old children's performance in a disoriented search task in a small rectangular room with a single red landmark wall. Disoriented children's landmark-guided search for a…

  14. Bound Cognition and Referential Uses of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfemeyer, Julie Marie

    2011-01-01

    This work is an attempt to give a unified theory in response to two questions. The first question arises in the philosophy of mind: what is the mechanism by which we think of objects in the world? The second is a question in the philosophy of language: what is the mechanism by which we speak of them? These are questions that some have treated…

  15. Cognitive Theory in Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Laurel A.

    Educational accountability, as linked to changing socioeconomic attitudes and conditions, is noted to have contributed to the decline of the audiolingual method of language instruction. Following a discussion of the pedagogical implications and inadequacies of audiolingual theory, the author analyzes the nature of this teaching methodology, first…

  16. The motivation to express prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  17. Redrawing the Boundaries on Theory, Research, and Practice Concerning Language Teachers' Philosophies and Language Teacher Cognition: Toward a Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookes, Graham V.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of investigation and professional practice--language teachers' philosophies and language teacher cognition--can be considered as related, perhaps overlapping, insofar as they are both the result of thought. The concept of a philosophy of teaching may hold together sets of language teacher cognitions, or guide specific investigations of…

  18. Redrawing the Boundaries on Theory, Research, and Practice Concerning Language Teachers' Philosophies and Language Teacher Cognition: Toward a Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookes, Graham V.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of investigation and professional practice--language teachers' philosophies and language teacher cognition--can be considered as related, perhaps overlapping, insofar as they are both the result of thought. The concept of a philosophy of teaching may hold together sets of language teacher cognitions, or guide specific investigations of…

  19. Non-literal language deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sandra; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Manuela

    2014-12-01

    Verbal language deteriorates in Alzheimer's disease, contributing to dramatic disturbances in the ability to communicate. The presence of language disturbances may be detected at earlier phases of the neurodegenerative process, like mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In daily verbal interactions, people mostly use literal language, but sometimes they employ non-literal language, which requires listeners to interpret messages beyond the plain meaning of the words and can be quite demanding. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that patients with MCI may have deficits in non-literal language, and these deficits are more pronounced than deficits in literal language. Participants were recruited in a private memory clinic and senior universities. General cognitive evaluation included a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the instrumental activities of daily living scale. Literal language was assessed with the semantic decision test, Token Test, and literal text comprehension test, and non-literal language with the proverbs comprehension, idiomatic expressions and non-literal text comprehension tests. Fifty-two participants with MCI and 31 controls were recruited. Patients with MCI had lower scores in all complex language tests, both literal (Token Test, semantic decision and literal text) and non-literal (proverbs, idiomatic expressions, and non-literal text), than the controls; the difference in literal text score was marginally significant. As much as 69% of MCI participants had deficits (performance below 1.5 SD of the mean) on at least one of the complex language tasks. Deficits were more frequent on the proverbs comprehension and semantic decision tests, and the deficits on these tests did not significantly differ from that on the Token Test. Patients with MCI are hindered in understanding complex language, both literal and non-literal. In daily living, these complex language deficits could compromise effective

  20. The myth of language universals: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas; Levinson, Stephen C

    2009-10-01

    Talk of linguistic universals has given cognitive scientists the impression that languages are all built to a common pattern. In fact, there are vanishingly few universals of language in the direct sense that all languages exhibit them. Instead, diversity can be found at almost every level of linguistic organization. This fundamentally changes the object of enquiry from a cognitive science perspective. This target article summarizes decades of cross-linguistic work by typologists and descriptive linguists, showing just how few and unprofound the universal characteristics of language are, once we honestly confront the diversity offered to us by the world's 6,000 to 8,000 languages. After surveying the various uses of "universal," we illustrate the ways languages vary radically in sound, meaning, and syntactic organization, and then we examine in more detail the core grammatical machinery of recursion, constituency, and grammatical relations. Although there are significant recurrent patterns in organization, these are better explained as stable engineering solutions satisfying multiple design constraints, reflecting both cultural-historical factors and the constraints of human cognition. Linguistic diversity then becomes the crucial datum for cognitive science: we are the only species with a communication system that is fundamentally variable at all levels. Recognizing the true extent of structural diversity in human language opens up exciting new research directions for cognitive scientists, offering thousands of different natural experiments given by different languages, with new opportunities for dialogue with biological paradigms concerned with change and diversity, and confronting us with the extraordinary plasticity of the highest human skills.

  1. Embodied Language Comprehension Requires an Enactivist Paradigm of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Slors, Marc; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Two recurrent concerns in discussions on an embodied view of cognition are the “necessity question” (i.e., is activation in modality-specific brain areas necessary for language comprehension?) and the “simulation constraint” (i.e., how do we understand language for which we lack the relevant experiences?). In the present paper we argue that the criticisms encountered by the embodied approach hinge on a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. We argue that the data relating sensorimotor activation to language comprehension can best be interpreted as supporting a non-representationalist, enactivist model of language comprehension, according to which language comprehension can be described as procedural knowledge – knowledge how, not knowledge that – that enables us to interact with others in a shared physical world. The enactivist view implies that the activation of modality-specific brain areas during language processing reflects the employment of sensorimotor skills and that language comprehension is a context-bound phenomenon. Importantly, an enactivist view provides an embodied approach of language, while avoiding the problems encountered by a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. PMID:21833288

  2. Embodied language comprehension requires an enactivist paradigm of cognition.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Slors, Marc; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Two recurrent concerns in discussions on an embodied view of cognition are the "necessity question" (i.e., is activation in modality-specific brain areas necessary for language comprehension?) and the "simulation constraint" (i.e., how do we understand language for which we lack the relevant experiences?). In the present paper we argue that the criticisms encountered by the embodied approach hinge on a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. We argue that the data relating sensorimotor activation to language comprehension can best be interpreted as supporting a non-representationalist, enactivist model of language comprehension, according to which language comprehension can be described as procedural knowledge - knowledge how, not knowledge that - that enables us to interact with others in a shared physical world. The enactivist view implies that the activation of modality-specific brain areas during language processing reflects the employment of sensorimotor skills and that language comprehension is a context-bound phenomenon. Importantly, an enactivist view provides an embodied approach of language, while avoiding the problems encountered by a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment.

  3. Plasticity of human spatial cognition: spatial language and cognition covary across cultures.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel B M; Rapold, Christian J; Janzen, Gabriele; Levinson, Stephen C

    2011-04-01

    The present paper explores cross-cultural variation in spatial cognition by comparing spatial reconstruction tasks by Dutch and Namibian elementary school children. These two communities differ in the way they predominantly express spatial relations in language. Four experiments investigate cognitive strategy preferences across different levels of task-complexity and instruction. Data show a correlation between dominant linguistic spatial frames of reference and performance patterns in non-linguistic spatial memory tasks. This correlation is shown to be stable across an increase of complexity in the spatial array. When instructed to use their respective non-habitual cognitive strategy, participants were not easily able to switch between strategies and their attempts to do so impaired their performance. These results indicate a difference not only in preference but also in competence and suggest that spatial language and non-linguistic preferences and competences in spatial cognition are systematically aligned across human populations.

  4. Neural Cognition and Affective Computing on Cyber Language

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Xuan; Xue, Ke; Wan, Xiqiong; Yang, Zhenyi; Xu, Duo; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Characterized by its customary symbol system and simple and vivid expression patterns, cyber language acts as not only a tool for convenient communication but also a carrier of abundant emotions and causes high attention in public opinion analysis, internet marketing, service feedback monitoring, and social emergency management. Based on our multidisciplinary research, this paper presents a classification of the emotional symbols in cyber language, analyzes the cognitive characteristics of different symbols, and puts forward a mechanism model to show the dominant neural activities in that process. Through the comparative study of Chinese, English, and Spanish, which are used by the largest population in the world, this paper discusses the expressive patterns of emotions in international cyber languages and proposes an intelligent method for affective computing on cyber language in a unified PAD (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) emotional space. PMID:26491431

  5. Neural Cognition and Affective Computing on Cyber Language.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Xuan; Xue, Ke; Wan, Xiqiong; Yang, Zhenyi; Xu, Duo; Ivanović, Mirjana; Yu, Xueer

    2015-01-01

    Characterized by its customary symbol system and simple and vivid expression patterns, cyber language acts as not only a tool for convenient communication but also a carrier of abundant emotions and causes high attention in public opinion analysis, internet marketing, service feedback monitoring, and social emergency management. Based on our multidisciplinary research, this paper presents a classification of the emotional symbols in cyber language, analyzes the cognitive characteristics of different symbols, and puts forward a mechanism model to show the dominant neural activities in that process. Through the comparative study of Chinese, English, and Spanish, which are used by the largest population in the world, this paper discusses the expressive patterns of emotions in international cyber languages and proposes an intelligent method for affective computing on cyber language in a unified PAD (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) emotional space.

  6. Communication and cognition: the social beyond language, interaction and culture.

    PubMed

    Mascareño, Aldo

    2008-06-01

    Cognition theories describe the social with terms like language, interaction or culture, whose theoretical status has also been discussed in modern sociology. These concepts are not well-positioned to understand the emergence and autonomy of social orders. Sociological theory of self-referential systems can be useful to reconstruct the bottom-up process which contributes to the emergence of the social as communication as well as to describe the way in which society exerts downward causation upon cognitive phenomena. The core of this theory is the systemic category of meaning as a shared horizon for psychic and social systems.

  7. Computational cognitive modeling for the diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Jesus; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI), as many other cognitive deficits, is difficult to diagnose given its heterogeneous profile and its overlap with other impairments. Existing techniques are based on different criteria using behavioral variables on different tasks. In this paper we propose a methodology for the diagnosis of SLI that uses computational cognitive modeling in order to capture the internal mechanisms of the normal and impaired brain. We show that machine learning techniques that use the information of these models perform better than those that only use behavioral variables.

  8. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  9. Adolescent Prejudice: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jane R.

    "Adolescent Prejudice" by Glock, Wuthnow, Piliavin, and Spencer was the central focus for the conference at which this paper was presented. The first objective of this paper was to discuss the implications of that research paper for the social systems characteristics of schools. It was observed that to a considerable extent adolescents form ethnic…

  10. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  11. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

  12. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

  13. Intelligence, Cognition, and Language of Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the ‘thoughtful cell’ in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin’s description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behavior requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimize the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behavior, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behavior profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses. PMID:27199823

  14. Intelligence, Cognition, and Language of Green Plants.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the 'thoughtful cell' in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin's description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behavior requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimize the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behavior, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behavior profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  15. Spatial language facilitates spatial cognition: Evidence from children who lack language input

    PubMed Central

    Gentner, Dedre; Özyürek, Asli; Gürcanli, Özge; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Does spatial language influence how people think about space? To address this question, we observed children who did not know a conventional language, and tested their performance on nonlinguistic spatial tasks. We studied deaf children living in Istanbul whose hearing losses prevented them from acquiring speech and whose hearing parents had not exposed them to sign. Lacking a conventional language, the children used gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. In Study 1, we asked whether homesigners used gesture to convey spatial relations, and found that they did not. In Study 2, we tested a new group of homesigners on a spatial mapping task, and found that they performed significantly worse than hearing Turkish children who were matched to the deaf children on another cognitive task. The absence of spatial language thus went hand-in-hand with poor performance on the nonlinguistic spatial task, pointing to the importance of spatial language in thinking about space. PMID:23542409

  16. Spatial language facilitates spatial cognition: evidence from children who lack language input.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Dedre; Ozyürek, Asli; Gürcanli, Ozge; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Does spatial language influence how people think about space? To address this question, we observed children who did not know a conventional language, and tested their performance on nonlinguistic spatial tasks. We studied deaf children living in Istanbul whose hearing losses prevented them from acquiring speech and whose hearing parents had not exposed them to sign. Lacking a conventional language, the children used gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. In Study 1, we asked whether homesigners used gesture to convey spatial relations, and found that they did not. In Study 2, we tested a new group of homesigners on a Spatial Mapping Task, and found that they performed significantly worse than hearing Turkish children who were matched to the deaf children on another cognitive task. The absence of spatial language thus went hand-in-hand with poor performance on the nonlinguistic spatial task, pointing to the importance of spatial language in thinking about space.

  17. Watch the language! Language and linguistic-cognitive abilities in children with nocturnal epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Systad, Silje; Bjørnvold, Marit; Markhus, Rune; Lyster, Solveig-Alma H

    2017-01-01

    We studied the language and linguistic-cognitive abilities of a group of children with nocturnal epileptiform activity (NEA; N=33) who were hospitalized at a tertiary epilepsy hospital. The children were compared with two groups: one age- and gender-matched group (N=33) and one group matched on language ability (vocabulary) and gender (N=66). We also examined how NEA-related variables affected language abilities. Overall, the children with NEA showed delayed language abilities and a trend for specific difficulties with phonology and naming speed. We did not find firm evidence that the amount of NEA, the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and the lateralization and localization of NEA had an effect on language. However, we found that children with right-lateralized epileptiform activity seemed to have specific difficulties with naming speed. Additionally, our results indicated that NEA located in the centrotemporal areas particularly affected phonology and orthographic skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond Cognition to Commitment: English Language Teaching in South Korean Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Ian; Feryok, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand teacher cognition--the thoughts, beliefs, and knowledge of language teachers--it is helpful to understand why people commit to language teaching in the first place. However, few studies of language teachers have directly examined the nature and development of commitment in language teachers, across their language learning,…

  19. Beyond Cognition to Commitment: English Language Teaching in South Korean Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Ian; Feryok, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand teacher cognition--the thoughts, beliefs, and knowledge of language teachers--it is helpful to understand why people commit to language teaching in the first place. However, few studies of language teachers have directly examined the nature and development of commitment in language teachers, across their language learning,…

  20. Number as a cognitive technology: evidence from Pirahã language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Everett, Daniel L; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2008-09-01

    Does speaking a language without number words change the way speakers of that language perceive exact quantities? The Pirahã are an Amazonian tribe who have been previously studied for their limited numerical system [Gordon, P. (2004). Numerical cognition without words: Evidence from Amazonia. Science 306, 496-499]. We show that the Pirahã have no linguistic method whatsoever for expressing exact quantity, not even "one." Despite this lack, when retested on the matching tasks used by Gordon, Pirahã speakers were able to perform exact matches with large numbers of objects perfectly but, as previously reported, they were inaccurate on matching tasks involving memory. These results suggest that language for exact number is a cultural invention rather than a linguistic universal, and that number words do not change our underlying representations of number but instead are a cognitive technology for keeping track of the cardinality of large sets across time, space, and changes in modality.

  1. Action and language integration: from humans to cognitive robots.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The topic is characterized by a highly interdisciplinary approach to the issue of action and language integration. Such an approach, combining computational models and cognitive robotics experiments with neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and linguistic approaches, can be a powerful means that can help researchers disentangle ambiguous issues, provide better and clearer definitions, and formulate clearer predictions on the links between action and language. In the introduction we briefly describe the papers and discuss the challenges they pose to future research. We identify four important phenomena the papers address and discuss in light of empirical and computational evidence: (a) the role played not only by sensorimotor and emotional information but also of natural language in conceptual representation; (b) the contextual dependency and high flexibility of the interaction between action, concepts, and language; (c) the involvement of the mirror neuron system in action and language processing; (d) the way in which the integration between action and language can be addressed by developmental robotics and Human-Robot Interaction.

  2. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  3. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of "local" theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled.

  4. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  5. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  6. Simultaneous learning of two languages from birth positively impacts intrinsic functional connectivity and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Sander, Kaija M; Klein, Denise

    2017-10-01

    This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals. These findings demonstrate that the timing of language learning may have an impact on cognitive control, with the simultaneous learning of two languages being associated with more optimal brain connectivity for cognitive control compared to sequential language learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The motivation to express prejudice.

    PubMed

    Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Social cognition and language in children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    PubMed

    Marton, Klara; Abramoff, Brocha; Rosenzweig, Shari

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between social pragmatics, social self-esteem, and language in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers (7-10 years). The children with SLI indicated significantly poorer social cognitive knowledge than their typically developing peers. They showed low social, but not academic self-esteem. They often used inappropriate negotiation and conflict resolution strategies. Their errors reflect some qualitative differences from those of the typically developing children (e.g., children with SLI use more nonverbal strategies, demonstrate passive/withdrawn behavior, etc.). Our data show that these children's social pragmatic deficit is not causally related to their language impairment; the two problems are co-occurring. Further, the parents and teachers of the children with SLI indicated different views regarding these children's social relations. Although the parents expressed major concerns about their children's social competence, the teachers did not notice this problem. The reader will be able to summarize, critically analyze, and interpret the findings from existing research on social cognition and its relationship with language abilities in children with specific language impairment. Further, the reader will gain an understanding of the importance of applying intervention procedures that facilitate the use of language in different social situations, and the necessity of increasing parent-teacher communication in schools.

  9. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cognitive techniques and language: A return to behavioral origins.

    PubMed

    Froján Parga, María X; Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Miguel; de Pascual Verdú, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal nature. The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior. Several operant- and Pavlovian-based approaches to these phenomena are presented, while particular emphasis is given to Mowrer’s (1954) approach and Ryle (1949) and Wittgenstein’s (1953) philosophical contributions to the field. several logical problems are found in regard to the theoretical foundations of cognitive techniques. A combination of both operant and Pavlovian paradigms based on the above-mentioned approaches is offered as an alternative explanatory account of cognitive techniques. This new approach could overcome the conceptual fragilities of the cognitive standpoint and its dependence upon constructs of dubious logical and scientific validity.

  11. Language measures of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Richard C; Cook, Karon F; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Weintraub, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    Language facilitates communication and efficient encoding of thought and experience. Because of its essential role in early childhood development, in educational achievement and in subsequent life adaptation, language was included as one of the subdomains in the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). There are many different components of language functioning, including syntactic processing (i.e., morphology and grammar) and lexical semantics. For purposes of the NIHTB-CB, two tests of language--a picture vocabulary test and a reading recognition test--were selected by consensus based on literature reviews, iterative expert input, and a desire to assess in English and Spanish. NIHTB-CB's picture vocabulary and reading recognition tests are administered using computer adaptive testing and scored using item response theory. Data are presented from the validation of the English versions in a sample of adults ages 20-85 years (Spanish results will be presented in a future publication). Both tests demonstrated high test-retest reliability and good construct validity compared to corresponding gold-standard measures. Scores on the NIH Toolbox measures were consistent with age-related expectations, namely, growth in language during early development, with relative stabilization into late adulthood.

  12. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  13. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  14. When Language Experience Fails to Explain Word Reading Development: Early Cognitive and Linguistic Profiles of Young Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Although language experience is a key factor in successful foreign language (FL) learning, many FL learners fail to achieve performance levels that were predicted on the basis of their FL experience. This retrospective study investigated early cognitive and linguistic correlates of learning English as a foreign language (FL) in a group of…

  15. Decreasing Cognitive Load for Learners: Strategy of Web-Based Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive load is one of the important factors that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of web-based foreign language learning. Cognitive load theory assumes that human's cognitive capacity in working memory is limited and if it overloads, learning will be hampered, so that high level of cognitive load can affect the performance of learning…

  16. Neuropsychological and cognitive effects of Chinese language instruction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Tori, C D

    1993-12-01

    Since little is known concerning the cortical and cognitive effects resulting from the study of a tonal, logographic language which is read from top to bottom and in a right-to-left direction, neuropsychological and intellectual measures on 51 bilingual and 41 monolingual Chinese-American children aged 9 to 12 years were compared. Multivariate statistical analyses yielded significant group differences. As predicted, the over-all mean IQ of bilinguals was higher than that of monolinguals. Other than coding skills, expected superior performance of bilinguals on right-hemisphere or bilaterally sensitive measures was not found; rather, the left-dominant sequential abilities of bilinguals surpassed those of their monolingual peers. English fluency of the two groups was equivalent and monolingual youngsters obtained higher scores on two of five academic achievements tests than bilinguals. The effects of Chinese language instruction among Chinese-American children are discussed in relation to the distinguished educational accomplishments of Asian Americans.

  17. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  18. The Cognitive Agents Specification Language and Verification Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S.; Lespérance, Y.; Levesque, H. J.

    The Cognitive Agents Specification Language (CASL) is a framework for specifying multiagent systems. It has a mix of declarative and procedural components to facilitate the specification and verification of complex multiagent systems. In this chapter, we describe CASL and a verification environment (CASLve) for it based on the PVS verification system. We give an example of a multiagent meeting scheduler application specified with CASL. To illustrate the verification system, we discuss a proof we carried out in it, namely, that all bounded-loop CASL specifications terminate.

  19. Language Measures of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Richard C.; Cook, Karon F.; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Weintraub, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Language facilitates communication and efficient encoding of thought and experience. Because of its essential role in early childhood development, in educational achievement and in subsequent life adaptation, language was included as one of the subdomains in the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). There are many different components of language functioning, including syntactic processing (i.e., morphology and grammar) and lexical semantics. For purposes of the NIHTB-CB, two tests of language—a picture vocabulary test and a reading recognition test—were selected by consensus based on literature reviews, iterative expert input, and a desire to assess in English and Spanish. NIHTB-CB’s picture vocabulary and reading recognition tests are administered using computer adaptive testing and scored using item response theory. Data are presented from the validation of the English versions in a sample of adults ages 20–85 years (Spanish results will be presented in a future publication). Both tests demonstrated high test–retest reliability and good construct validity compared to corresponding gold-standard measures. Scores on the NIH Toolbox measures were consistent with age-related expectations, namely, growth in language during early development, with relative stabilization into late adulthood. PMID:24960128

  20. Genes, language, cognition, and culture: towards productive inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-04-01

    The Queen Mary conference on “Integrating Genetic and Cultural Evolutionary Approaches to Language,” and the papers in this special issue, clearly illustrate the excitement and potential of trans-disciplinary approaches to language as an evolved biological capacity (phylogeny) and an evolving cultural entity (glossogeny). Excepting the present author, the presenters/authors are mostly young rising stars in their respective fields, and include scientists with backgrounds in linguistics, animal communication, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and computer science. On display was a clear willingness to engage with different approaches and terminology and a commitment to shared standards of scientific rigor, empirically driven theory, and logical argument. Because the papers assembled here, together with the introduction, speak for themselves, I will focus in this “extro-duction” on some of the terminological and conceptual difficulties which threaten to block this exciting wave of scientific progress in understanding language evolution, in both senses of that term. In particular I will first argue against the regrettably widespread practice of opposing cultural and genetic explanations of human cognition as if they were dichotomous. Second, I will unpack the debate concerning “general-purpose” and “domain-specific” mechanisms, which masquerades as a debate about nativism but is nothing of the sort. I believe that framing discussions of language in these terms has generated more heat than light, and that a modern molecular understanding of genes, development, behavior, and evolution renders many of the assumptions underlying this debate invalid.

  1. Key cognitive preconditions for the evolution of language.

    PubMed

    Donald, Merlin

    2017-02-01

    Languages are socially constructed systems of expression, generated interactively in social networks, which can be assimilated by the individual brain as it develops. Languages co-evolved with culture, reflecting the changing complexity of human culture as it acquired the properties of a distributed cognitive system. Two key preconditions set the stage for the evolution of such cultures: a very general ability to rehearse and refine skills (evident early in hominin evolution in toolmaking), and the emergence of material culture as an external (to the brain) memory record that could retain and accumulate knowledge across generations. The ability to practice and rehearse skill provided immediate survival-related benefits in that it expanded the physical powers of early hominins, but the same adaptation also provided the imaginative substrate for a system of "mimetic" expression, such as found in ritual and pantomime, and in proto-words, which performed an expressive function somewhat like the home signs of deaf non-signers. The hominid brain continued to adapt to the increasing importance and complexity of culture as human interactions with material culture became more complex; above all, this entailed a gradual expansion in the integrative systems of the brain, especially those involved in the metacognitive supervision of self-performances. This supported a style of embodied mimetic imagination that improved the coordination of shared activities such as fire tending, but also in rituals and reciprocal mimetic games. The time-depth of this mimetic adaptation, and its role in both the construction and acquisition of languages, explains the importance of mimetic expression in the media, religion, and politics. Spoken language evolved out of voco-mimesis, and emerged long after the more basic abilities needed to refine skill and share intentions, probably coinciding with the common ancestor of sapient humans. Self-monitoring and self-supervised practice were necessary

  2. Redrawing the Boundaries of Language Teacher Cognition: Language Teacher Educators' Emotion, Cognition, and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombek, Paula R.

    2015-01-01

    This article, grounded in a Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, details the self-inquiry of a language teacher educator who examined her "emotional dissonance" regarding her mediation of the reflection journals of a teacher learner teaching an ESL class during an internship. Data from the teacher learner's reflection journals and the…

  3. Two languages, two minds: flexible cognitive processing driven by language of operation.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Montero-Melis, Guillermo; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Schartner, Alina; Kibbe, Alexandra; Riches, Nick; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently? Here, we show that fluent German-English bilinguals categorize motion events according to the grammatical constraints of the language in which they operate. First, as predicted from cross-linguistic differences in motion encoding, bilingual participants functioning in a German testing context prefer to match events on the basis of motion completion to a greater extent than do bilingual participants in an English context. Second, when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in English, their categorization behavior is congruent with that predicted for German; when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in German, their categorization becomes congruent with that predicted for English. These findings show that language effects on cognition are context-bound and transient, revealing unprecedented levels of malleability in human cognition.

  4. The clinical spectrum of developmental language impairment in school-aged children: language, cognitive, and motor findings.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard I; Erdos, Caroline; Evans, Karen; Majnemer, Annette; Kehayia, Eva; Thordardottir, Elin; Evans, Alan; Shevell, Michael I

    2006-11-01

    Our goal was to evaluate detailed school-age language, nonverbal cognitive, and motor development in children with developmental language impairment compared with age-matched controls. Children with developmental language impairment or normal language development (controls) aged 7 to 13 years were recruited. Children underwent language assessment (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4, Peabody Picture Vocabulary-3, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2), nonverbal cognitive assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV), and motor assessment (Movement Assessment Battery for Children). Exclusion criteria were nonverbal IQ below the 5th percentile or an acquired language, hearing, autistic spectrum, or neurologic disorder. Eleven children with developmental language impairment (7:4 boys/girls; mean age: 10.1 +/- 0.8 years) and 12 controls (5:7 boys/girls; mean age: 9.5 +/- 1.8 years) were recruited. Children with developmental language impairment showed lower mean scores on language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4--developmental language impairment: 79.7 +/- 16.5; controls: 109.2 +/- 9.6; Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2--developmental language impairment: 94.1 +/- 10.6; controls: 104.0 +/- 2.8; Peabody Picture Vocabulary-3--developmental language impairment: 90.5 +/- 13.8; controls: 100.1 +/- 11.6), cognitive (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV--developmental language impairment: 99.5 +/- 15.5; controls: 113.5 +/- 11.9), and motor measures (Movement Assessment Battery for Children percentile--developmental language impairment: 12.7 +/- 16.7; controls: 66.1 +/- 30.6) and greater discrepancies between cognitive and language scores (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV/Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4--developmental language impairment: 17.8 +/- 17.8; controls: 1.2 +/- 12.7). Motor impairment was more common in children with developmental language impairment (70%) than controls (8%). Developmental

  5. Cognition and Literacy in English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the cognitive basis of reading disabilities (RDs) in Spanish-speaking children who are learning English as a second language. Children (N = 393) designated as English language learners (ELLs) or bilingual with and without RDs in Grades 1, 2, and 3 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, working memory,…

  6. Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-Matrices in Language Assessment: The Authors Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response on the two commentators' (Fred Davidson and Charles Alderson) reviews of the 2009 Special Issue of "Language Assessment Quarterly" on "Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-matrices in Language Assessment." The Special Issue represents several years of research work on cognitive diagnosis approaches (CDA) carried…

  7. Social Cognition and Externalizing Psychopathology: An Investigation of the Mediating Role of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study integrates findings from three lines of research on the association of social cognition and externalizing psychopathology, language and externalizing psychopathology, and social cognition and language functioning using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). To date these associations have been examined in pairs. A sample of 354…

  8. Relative Contribution of Perception/Cognition and Language on Spatial Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Soonja; Hattrup, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources…

  9. Cognition and Literacy in English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the cognitive basis of reading disabilities (RDs) in Spanish-speaking children who are learning English as a second language. Children (N = 393) designated as English language learners (ELLs) or bilingual with and without RDs in Grades 1, 2, and 3 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, working memory,…

  10. Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-Matrices in Language Assessment: The Authors Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response on the two commentators' (Fred Davidson and Charles Alderson) reviews of the 2009 Special Issue of "Language Assessment Quarterly" on "Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-matrices in Language Assessment." The Special Issue represents several years of research work on cognitive diagnosis approaches (CDA) carried…

  11. [From animal communication to the human language and cognition: evolution or revolution?].

    PubMed

    Chernigovskaia, T V

    2008-09-01

    The paper discusses the problem of language and cognitive specificity in humans as compared to other species. The main hypotheses of human evolution and the emergence of language seem to be well researched on genetic basis of higher functions. Cognitive abilities of other animals and their communication signals and the main views on basic principles of brain underlying these functions are described.

  12. Openness, right-wing authoritarianism, and antigay prejudice in college students: a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Audrey K; Amacker, Amanda M; Burks, Alixandra C

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that people who are more open to novel and diverse experiences express less prejudicial views concerning minority group members. The openness-prejudice relationship, however, may be mediated by the degree to which individuals adhere to traditional social convention and absolutist thinking patterns. Thus, informed by the Dual-Process Cognitive-Motivational Model of ideology and prejudice (Duckitt, 2001; Duckitt & Sibley, 2009) and the Five-Factor Model of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992; McCrae & Costa, 2003), we investigated right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) as a mediator of the relationship between openness and antigay prejudice. Participants were college students from universities in the mid-Atlantic (Sample 1, n = 199) and southeastern (Sample 2, n = 244) United States. Hypotheses were tested in both samples. First, bivariate relations among openness, RWA, and antigay prejudice were assessed. Second, RWA was tested was a mediator of the relationship between openness and antigay prejudice. Results supported expected bivariate associations in that openness negatively, and RWA positively, associated with antigay prejudice. Moreover, results showed that RWA mediates the negative relationship between openness and antigay prejudice. Implications of the supported model are discussed with respect to antigay prejudice theory as well as prejudice-reduction interventions for use on college campuses.

  13. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  14. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  15. The roles of cognitive and language abilities in predicting decoding and reading comprehension: comparisons of dyslexia and specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Alexandra A; Park, Yujeong; Lombardino, Linda J

    2016-11-15

    This study aimed to (a) explore the roles of cognitive and language variables in predicting reading abilities of two groups of individuals with reading disabilities (i.e., dyslexia and specific language impairment) and (b) examine which variable(s) is the most predictive in differentiating two groups. Inclusion/exclusion criteria applied to categorize the two groups yielded a total of 63 participants (n = 44 for the dyslexia; n = 19 for the specific language impairment). A stepwise multiple regression approach was conducted to examine which cognitive and/or language variables made the largest contribution to reading abilities (i.e., Phonetic Decoding Efficiency, Word Attack, Sight Word Efficiency, and Passage Comprehension). Results revealed that there were significant differences in which measures of cognitive and language ability predicted individuals with dyslexia and speech and language impairments reading ability, showing that the cognitive and language variables underlying their difficulty with reading abilities were not the same across the two groups. A discriminant function analysis showed that a measure of Verbal Comprehension, Phonological Awareness, and Phonetic Decoding Efficiency can be used to differentiate the two groups. These findings support the tenet that dyslexia and specific language impairment are two subgroups of reading disabilities and that thorough diagnostic evaluations are needed to differentiate between these two subgroups. Distinctions of this nature are central to determining the type and intensity of language-based interventions.

  16. Signaled Stopping and Cognitive, Language Principles Applied to Public Relations Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Shirley A.

    To investigate the hypothesis that cognitive rules govern writing behavior, Carter's signaled stopping technique was used to study language and cognitive effects in public relations messages. Principles from Grunig, et al (1985) Axiomatic Theory of Cognition and Writing, which proposed premises, axioms and definitions about writing, were applied…

  17. Signaled Stopping and Cognitive, Language Principles Applied to Public Relations Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Shirley A.

    To investigate the hypothesis that cognitive rules govern writing behavior, Carter's signaled stopping technique was used to study language and cognitive effects in public relations messages. Principles from Grunig, et al (1985) Axiomatic Theory of Cognition and Writing, which proposed premises, axioms and definitions about writing, were applied…

  18. Toward a Cognitive Approach to Second-Language Acquisition. Language and the Teacher: A Series in Applied Linguistics, Volume 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugton, Robert C., Ed.; Heinle, Charles H., Ed.

    This collection of articles concerns various aspects of a cognitive approach to second language learning. The discussion of such an approach involves current ideas in linguistics, psychology, and sociology. The 13 chapters represent the work of 14 authors and include the following titles: "Toward a Cognitive Approach,""Teaching English to Speakers…

  19. Evidence for Shared Cognitive Processing of Pitch in Music and Language

    PubMed Central

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Fedorenko, Evelina G.; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C.

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct – either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals’ pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music. PMID:23977386

  20. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    PubMed

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  1. Postinstitutionalized children's development: growth, cognitive, and language outcomes.

    PubMed

    Loman, Michelle M; Wiik, Kristen L; Frenn, Kristin A; Pollak, Seth D; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-10-01

    Children adopted internationally from institutions are a growing population presenting to professional care providers. Although postinstitutionalized (PI) children are adopted from multiple world regions, current knowledge is predominantly based on those adopted from Romania and Eastern European countries. This study examines and compares developmental outcomes of PI children adopted from multiple world regions. Five to 11 years after adoption, 8- through 11-year-old PI children (N = 91), children internationally adopted early from foster care (N = 109), and nonadopted children (N = 69) completed screening measures assessing vision, hearing, growth, and cognitive and language abilities. Parents completed questionnaires on service utilization, school performance, preadoptive history, and postadoption environment. Forty-four percent of PI children's growth was stunted (height <10th percentile) at adoption. At assessment, although physically smaller, nearly all PI children had average growth parameters. Relative to nonadopted children and children adopted early from foster care, PI children performed more poorly on cognitive and language screens with increased time in institution related to lower performance. Notably, group means on these measures were within the average range. PI children were more likely to be falling behind academically and to use intervention services. Family environment did not differ between PI and nonadopted children. There were few differences for PI children by world region of adoption once accounting for duration of institutionalization. Despite currently living in similar environments, PI children have specific needs that differ from early-adopted and nonadopted children. Consideration of multiple factors, including length of institutionalization, is essential when providing care for these children.

  2. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-Language and Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were tested on non-verbal intelligence, working memory,…

  3. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-Language and Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were tested on non-verbal intelligence, working memory,…

  4. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  5. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  6. Three-Dimensional Constraints on Human Cognition as Expressed in Human Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Those advocating the existence of a distinct language instinct generally claim that human language is not reliant on general human cognition. However, limitations on recursive patterns in human language are universally attested, from the micro-level elements of phonology, throughout the mid-level elements of morphology and syntax, and up to the…

  7. Applications of Cognitive Load Theory to Multimedia-Based Foreign Language Learning: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Yen-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the multimedia instructional design literature based on cognitive load theory (CLT) in the context of foreign language learning. Multimedia are of particular importance in language learning materials because they incorporate text, image, and sound, thus offering an integrated learning experience of the four language skills…

  8. Codeswitching in the Language Classroom: A Study of Four EFL Teachers' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samar, Reza Ghafar; Moradkhani, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Although many language teachers resort to their first language (L1) at various junctures during their practice, not many studies have tried to understand the reasons for this from teachers' personal perspectives. This study aimed at investigating English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' cognitive processes during their classroom…

  9. Ego-Centricism and Cognitive Functioning in Iranian Young Adults' Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Pouria

    2008-01-01

    This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…

  10. Languaging as Agent and Constituent of Cognitive Change in an Older Adult: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Vygotsky's writings have established the critical importance of language in the development of higher mental functions, including memory and attention. One of the processes involved in this development is languaging, the activity of mediating cognitively complex ideas using language (Swain, 2006). The present study of an older adult with mild…

  11. Three-Dimensional Constraints on Human Cognition as Expressed in Human Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Those advocating the existence of a distinct language instinct generally claim that human language is not reliant on general human cognition. However, limitations on recursive patterns in human language are universally attested, from the micro-level elements of phonology, throughout the mid-level elements of morphology and syntax, and up to the…

  12. Language Teacher Cognition in Applied Linguistics Research: Revisiting the Territory, Redrawing the Boundaries, Reclaiming the Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubanyiova, Magdalena; Feryok, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Understanding language teachers' "mental lives" (Walberg, 1972), and how these shape and are shaped by the activity of language teaching in diverse sociocultural contexts, has been at the forefront of the sub discipline of applied linguistics that has become known as "language teacher cognition." Although the collective…

  13. Language Teacher Cognition in Applied Linguistics Research: Revisiting the Territory, Redrawing the Boundaries, Reclaiming the Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubanyiova, Magdalena; Feryok, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Understanding language teachers' "mental lives" (Walberg, 1972), and how these shape and are shaped by the activity of language teaching in diverse sociocultural contexts, has been at the forefront of the sub discipline of applied linguistics that has become known as "language teacher cognition." Although the collective…

  14. Determining the Association between Language and Cognitive Tests in Poststroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wall, Kylie J; Cumming, Toby B; Copland, David A

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test). Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia. Thirty-six participants with poststroke aphasia and 32 controls were assessed on a battery of pen-and-paper cognitive tests recommended in stroke. Auditory comprehension was measured using the Comprehensive Aphasia Test and naming was measured using the Boston Naming Test. Twenty-two community dwelling participants with aphasia and controls were also asked to complete the Kettle Test. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between language performance and performance on the cognitive tests. Feasibility was determined by quantifying missing data. The cognitive tests with the highest variance accounted for by auditory comprehension and naming were animal fluency (R(2) = 0.67, R(2) = 0.78) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (recognition discrimination index) (R(2) = 0.65, R(2) = 0.78). All cognitive tests were significantly associated with auditory comprehension and naming, except for the Star Cancellation Test and the Kettle Test. Thirty-three percent of participants with aphasia were unable to complete all the cognitive tests. Language and non-linguistic cognitive processes are often interrelated. Most pen-and-paper cognitive tests were significantly associated with both auditory comprehension and naming, even in tests that do not require a verbal response. Language performance was not significantly associated with a real-life cognitive performance measure. Task instructions, stimuli, and responses

  15. The cognitive niche: Coevolution of intelligence, sociality, and language

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Although Darwin insisted that human intelligence could be fully explained by the theory of evolution, the codiscoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace, claimed that abstract intelligence was of no use to ancestral humans and could only be explained by intelligent design. Wallace's apparent paradox can be dissolved with two hypotheses about human cognition. One is that intelligence is an adaptation to a knowledge-using, socially interdependent lifestyle, the “cognitive niche.” This embraces the ability to overcome the evolutionary fixed defenses of plants and animals by applications of reasoning, including weapons, traps, coordinated driving of game, and detoxification of plants. Such reasoning exploits intuitive theories about different aspects of the world, such as objects, forces, paths, places, states, substances, and other people's beliefs and desires. The theory explains many zoologically unusual traits in Homo sapiens, including our complex toolkit, wide range of habitats and diets, extended childhoods and long lives, hypersociality, complex mating, division into cultures, and language (which multiplies the benefit of knowledge because know-how is useful not only for its practical benefits but as a trade good with others, enhancing the evolution of cooperation). The second hypothesis is that humans possess an ability of metaphorical abstraction, which allows them to coopt faculties that originally evolved for physical problem-solving and social coordination, apply them to abstract subject matter, and combine them productively. These abilities can help explain the emergence of abstract cognition without supernatural or exotic evolutionary forces and are in principle testable by analyses of statistical signs of selection in the human genome. PMID:20445094

  16. Genetic and Environmental Links Between Natural Language Use and Cognitive Ability in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Caitlin F; Edelson, Lisa R; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2017-03-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between language and nonverbal cognitive ability is well-documented, studies examining the etiology of the covariance between these abilities are scant, particularly in very young children. The goal of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the genetic and environmental links between language use, assessed through conversational language samples, and nonverbal cognition in a sample of 3-year-old twins (N = 281 pairs). Significant genetic and nonshared environmental influences were found for nonverbal cognitive ability and language measures, including mean length of utterance and number of different words, as well as significant genetic covariance between cognitive ability and both language measures. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: a hypothesis for future research.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri M; Wong, Patrick C M

    2013-12-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline-Alzheimer's disease and other dementias-hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis.

  18. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline—Alzheimer's disease and other dementias—hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis. PMID:24051310

  19. Cultural pluralism and prejudice reduction.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zárate, Michael A; Garza, Azenett A

    2007-04-01

    Predictions derived from models of cultural pluralism and cultural assimilation were tested. Previous research has shown that highlighting differences between ethnic groups, in conjunction with self-focus, can reduce prejudice. The presented research tested the following questions: (a) does highlighting differences function to reduce prejudice between groups that are dissimilar to each other as well as between those that are highly similar, (b) is prejudice reduction due to distinctiveness a function of the lessened ingroup positivity or lessened outgroup negativity, (c) does making distinctiveness salient reduce prejudice toward only the distinctive outgroups or to outgroups more generically, and (d) does the manipulation equally impact African American, Mexican American, Mexican National, and White American participants? Results demonstrated that highlighting differences while simultaneously focusing on the self reduces prejudice, although similarity mediates the relationship with those who are perceived as more different. Distinctiveness also reduced outgroup negativity and generalized to other outgroups. Finally, the manipulation reduced prejudice only for White Americans, Mexican Americans, and Mexican Nationals. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists' viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-11-08

    To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.

  2. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists’ viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? METHODS To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. RESULTS Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child’s language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child’s language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with “associated” pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. CONCLUSION It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program. PMID:27872829

  3. One language, two number-word systems and many problems: numerical cognition in the Czech language.

    PubMed

    Pixner, S; Zuber, J; Heřmanová, V; Kaufmann, L; Nuerk, H-C; Moeller, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within the same language: for instance, "25" can be either coded in non-inverted order "dvadsetpät" [twenty-five] or in inverted order "pätadvadset" [five-and-twenty]. To investigate the influence of the number-word system on basic numerical processing within one culture, 7-year-old Czech-speaking children had to perform a transcoding task (i.e., writing Arabic numbers to dictation) in both number-word systems. The observed error pattern clearly indicated that the structure of the number-word system determined transcoding performance reliably: In the inverted number-word system about half of all errors were inversion-related. In contrast, hardly any inversion-related errors occurred in the non-inverted number-word system. We conclude that the development of numerical cognition does not only depend on cultural or educational differences, but is indeed related to the structure and transparency of a given number-word system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674

  5. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages.

  6. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  7. Cognition and Language: From Apprehension to Judgment -- Quantum Conjectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, F. T.

    2014-12-01

    We critically discuss the two moments of human cognition, namely, apprehension (A), whereby a coherent perception emerges from the recruitment of neuronal groups, and judgment (B), that entails the comparison of two apprehensions acquired at different times, coded in a suitable language and recalled by memory. (B) requires selfconsciousness, in so far as the agent who expresses the judgment must be aware that the two apprehensions are submitted to his/her own scrutiny and that it is his/her duty to extract a mutual relation. Since (B) lasts around 3 seconds, the semantic value of the pieces under comparison must be decided within this time. This implies a fast search of the memory contents. As a fact, exploring human subjects with sequences of simple words, we find evidence of a limited time window, corresponding to the memory retrieval of a linguistic item in order to match it with the next one in a text flow (be it literary, or musical,or figurative). Classifying the information content of spike trains, an uncertainty relation emerges between the bit size of a word and its duration. This uncertainty is ruled by a constant that can be given a numerical value and that has nothing to do with Planck's constant. A "quantum conjecture" in the above sense might explain the onset and decay of the memory window connecting successive pieces of a linguistic text. The conjecture here formulated is applicable to other reported evidences of quantum effects in human cognitive processes, so far lacking a plausible framework since no efforts to assign a quantum constant have been associated.

  8. "It ain't all as bad as it may seem": young Black lesbians' responses to sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah J; Valenti, Maria T

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which young, Black lesbians manage their sexual minority identity when experiencing sexual prejudice. Fourteen Black lesbians between the ages of 16 and 24 participated in semistructured interviews. Instances of sexual prejudice and the young women's responses were thematically analyzed using open and axial qualitative coding techniques. Results indicated that participants experienced sexual prejudice frequently and even within the lesbian community. Responses to sexual prejudice included: cognitive reframing of heterosexist messages, passing, gaining support from self-created gay families, and fighting back (physically and verbally) in the event of isolated instances of sexual prejudice. Analysis focuses on how gender identity relates to experiences of sexual prejudice and identity management strategies. Findings suggest that there are parallels between the management strategies of these women and young, Black gay and bisexual males and between these women and Black women who are coping with sexism and racism.

  9. Metaphorically speaking: cognitive abilities and the production of figurative language.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Figurative language is one of the most common expressions of creative behavior in everyday life. However, the cognitive mechanisms behind figures of speech such as metaphors remain largely unexplained. Recent evidence suggests that fluid and executive abilities are important to the generation of conventional and creative metaphors. The present study investigated whether several factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence contribute to generating these different types of metaphors. Specifically, the roles of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and broad retrieval ability (Gr) were explored. Participants completed a series of intelligence tests and were asked to produce conventional and creative metaphors. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the contribution of the different factors of intelligence to metaphor production. For creative metaphor, there were large effects of Gf (β = .45) and Gr (β = .52); for conventional metaphor, there was a moderate effect of Gc (β = .30). Creative and conventional metaphors thus appear to be anchored in different patterns of abilities: Creative metaphors rely more on executive processes, whereas conventional metaphors primarily draw from acquired vocabulary knowledge.

  10. The Influence of the Expression of Subtle and Blatant Sexual Prejudice on Personal Prejudice and Identification With the Expresser.

    PubMed

    Krolikowski, Alex M; Rinella, Mark; Ratcliff, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    Although the negative consequences of subtle and blatant prejudice for the targets of prejudice are clear in the psychological literature, the impact of exposure to subtle and blatant prejudice on non-targets remains unclear. The current work examines how exposure to blatant and subtle sexual prejudice affects non-targets' personal endorsement of prejudice and their identification with the prejudice expresser. Results suggest that relative to exposure to blatant or neutral expressions of prejudice, exposure to subtle prejudice increased prejudice levels. Individuals were also more likely to distance from the prejudice expresser when exposed to blatant compared to subtle prejudice. The implications are discussed.

  11. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients. © 2015 The

  12. Language, cognitive flexibility, and explicit false belief understanding: longitudinal analysis in typical development and specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Farrant, Brad M; Maybery, Murray T; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of explicit false belief understanding in 91 English-speaking typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months) and 30 children with specific language impairment (M age = 63.0 months). Concurrent and longitudinal findings converge in supporting a model in which maternal language input predicts the child's memory for false complements, which predicts cognitive flexibility, which in turn predicts explicit false belief understanding. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. I thought we were good: social cognition, figurative language, and adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J; Farnia, Fataneh

    2013-07-01

    Language has been shown to play a critical role in social cognitive reasoning in preschool and school-aged children, but little research has been conducted with adolescents. During adolescence, the ability to understand figurative language becomes increasingly important for social relationships and may affect social adjustment. This study investigated the contribution of structural and figurative language to social cognitive skills in adolescents who present for mental health services and those who do not. One hundred and thirty-eight adolescents referred to mental health centers (clinic group) and 186 nonreferred adolescents (nonclinic group) aged 12-17 were administered measures of structural and figurative language, working memory, and social cognitive problem solving. We found that adolescents in the clinic group demonstrated less mature social problem solving overall, but particularly with respect to anticipating and overcoming potential obstacles and conflict resolution compared with the nonclinic group. In addition, results demonstrated that age, working memory, and structural and figurative language predicted social cognitive maturity in the clinic group, but only structural language was a predictor in the nonclinic group. Social problem solving may be particularly difficult for adolescents referred for mental health services and places higher demands on their cognitive and language skills compared with adolescents who have never been referred for mental health services. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Learning, language, memory, and reading: the role of language automatization and its impact on complex cognitive activities.

    PubMed

    Bebko, J

    1998-01-01

    Two related models of the role of developing and automatized language skills in the cognitive processing of deaf and hearing children are presented. One model focuses on explaining apparent delays in the emergence of a memory strategy (cumulative rehearsal) in children who are deaf, linking strategy use with the child's emerging language skills and the automatization of those skills. The second model is larger in scope and integrates this rehearsal model with added components relevant for higher-level cognitive activities such as reading. A program of research is reviewed that provides support for various components of the models with deaf children. Implications of the models for potential concurrent learning disabilities are discussed.

  15. Language Cognition: A Theoretical Model Based on Neuro-Cortical Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Don

    Cognition, not to be confused with perception, reception, or stimulus detection, is defined as relationships of sensory experiences in single-loop matrices. The reticular system of the upper brain stem is centered upon as the likely locus of sensory filtering and modification that can modulate language usage. That is, higher cognitive functions…

  16. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive…

  17. Language and Cognitive Predictors of Text Comprehension: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Using data from children in South Korea (N = 145, M[subscript age] = 6.08), it was determined how low-level language and cognitive skills (vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and working memory) and high-level cognitive skills (comprehension monitoring and theory of mind [ToM]) are related to listening comprehension and whether listening…

  18. Brain-Based Aspects of Cognitive Learning Approaches in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza Navid; Araghi, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process is one of the complicated behaviors of human beings which has called many scholars and experts' attention especially after the middle of last century by the advent of cognitive psychology that later on we see its implication to education. Unlike previous thought of schools, cognitive psychology deals with the way in which…

  19. Language and Cognitive Predictors of Text Comprehension: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Using data from children in South Korea (N = 145, M[subscript age] = 6.08), it was determined how low-level language and cognitive skills (vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and working memory) and high-level cognitive skills (comprehension monitoring and theory of mind [ToM]) are related to listening comprehension and whether listening…

  20. Does cognition in the disconnected right hemisphere require right hemisphere possession of language?

    PubMed

    Bogen, J E

    1997-03-01

    It has been asserted at times that the human right hemisphere is cognitively inferior to that of a chimpanzee or even a monkey. Related is the even stronger claim that human consciousness, as well as cognition, requires language. These claims are discussed, and counterexamples are presented from both split-brain subjects and patients hemispherectomized in adulthood after customary development as righthanders.

  1. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  2. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  3. Young Children's Cognitive Achievement: Home Learning Environment, Language and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, research has shown differences in cognitive assessment scores between White and minority ethnic group(s) learners as well as differences across different minority ethnic groups. More recent data have indicated that the home learning environment and languages spoken can impact cognitive assessment and other corollary outcomes. This…

  4. Foreign Language Achievement in Relation to Student-Teacher Cognitive Styles: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jacqueline; Stansfield, Charles

    Research has shown student field-independent cognitive style (FI), as opposed to field-dependent cognitive style (FD), to be correlated moderately with success on selected second language tasks. A trait-treatment interaction approach was utilized in this study to examine the role of FD/I among 236 college students enrolled in six sections of an…

  5. The Cognitive Coaching-Supported Reflective Teaching Approach in English Language Teaching: Academic and Permanence Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyildiz, Seçil Tümen; Semerci, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the cognitive coaching-supported reflective teaching approach in English language teaching on the academic success of students and on the permanence of success. It was conducted during the spring semester of 2013/2014 academic year at the School of Foreign Languages, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.…

  6. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were…

  7. Language and Cognitive Assessment of Negro Children; Assumptions and Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Joan C.

    This paper focuses attention on the kinds of research assumptions that are present in the literature on language, and which can be found in the "myths" about family structure and motivation. Three major professions are concerned with describing the language and cognitive abilities of black children--(1) educators, who believe these children to be…

  8. Cognition, Language Contact, and the Development of Pragmatic Comprehension in a Study-Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined two issues: (a) whether there are gains in accurate and speedy comprehension of second language (L2) pragmatic meaning over time and (b) whether the gains are associated with cognitive processing ability and the amount of language contact in an L2 environment. Forty-four college students in a US institution completed three…

  9. Nonverbal and Language-Reduced Measures of Cognitive Ability: A Review and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevon, Daniel D.; Knight, Rachel M.; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    With the number of new and revised nonverbal and language-reduced tests of cognitive ability, selection and interpretation of appropriate measures can be complicated. Seven nonverbal or language-reduced tests with normative data collected within the last 15 years were evaluated. Besides evaluating technical adequacy, other variables affecting test…

  10. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  11. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were…

  12. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  13. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  14. Differences in Language and Cognitive Development: ECI-3. Early Childhood Intervention Catalog Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna

    The third of seven training modules for professionals in early intervention focuses on working with young (birth to age 3) children who are speech/language impaired, learning disabled, slow learning, or socially delayed. Background information summarized what is known about language, cognitive and social dysfunction or affect in infants and young…

  15. The Use of Cognitive Processing Strategies and Linguistic Cues for Efficient Automatic Language Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavers, V. F.; Burley, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a method of automatic language identification based on the cognitive processing strategies humans use. Proposes that correctly parametrized, prosodic information, which might be associated with a language in which the listener has little familiarity, is an important discriminating feature. (Author/VWL)

  16. Profiles of Academic Achievement and Cognitive Processing in College Students with Foreign Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Swartz, Stacy L.; Canto, Angela I.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive and achievement profiles of college students experiencing difficulties in foreign language (FLD group). Because past research appears to have generated different results based on the type of comparison groups utilized, we attempted to obtain a better representation of students with foreign language difficulties.…

  17. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  18. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  19. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  20. "Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-Matrices in Language Assessment": A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2010-01-01

    This commentary appraises the 2009 special issue of "Language Assessment Quarterly" on "Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-matrices in Language Assessment." Despite a number of weaknesses, specifically in attempting inappropriately to retrofit a suite of proficiency tests to diagnostic purposes, the special issue is seen as a landmark in the development of…

  1. Relation of Cognitive Style to Metaphor Interpretation and Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice; Rosano, Teresa

    1993-01-01

    Administered tests of cognition, language, and metaphor interpretation to 3 groups of 15 students: native English speakers (NESs) and 2 groups of students in an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course. ESL students performed less well than NESs on decontextualized measures of vocabulary and verbal analogies but equally well on measures derived…

  2. Allocation of Limited Cognitive Resources during Text Comprehension in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morishima, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    For native (L1) comprehenders, lower-level language processes such as lexical access and parsing are considered to consume few cognitive resources. In contrast, these processes pose considerable demands for second-language (L2) comprehenders. Two reading-time experiments employing inconsistency detection found that English learners did not detect…

  3. I Thought We Were Good: Social Cognition, Figurative Language, and Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Language has been shown to play a critical role in social cognitive reasoning in preschool and school-aged children, but little research has been conducted with adolescents. During adolescence, the ability to understand figurative language becomes increasingly important for social relationships and may affect social adjustment. This…

  4. Association between Speech-Language, General Cognitive Functioning and Behaviour Problems in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, N. F.; Giacheti, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. Methods: The…

  5. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  6. Some Cognitive Aspects of the Language Development of a Two Year Old Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Brown, Flora V.

    Studied were some cognitive aspects of the language development of a 2-year-old Puerto Rican boy who had been on the U.S. mainland 1 month. A Neo-Piagetian approach (developed by K. Witz and J. Easley) was used to study: language behavior as being embedded in more complex, unified systems; productivity of different structures and language…

  7. Cognition, Language Contact, and the Development of Pragmatic Comprehension in a Study-Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined two issues: (a) whether there are gains in accurate and speedy comprehension of second language (L2) pragmatic meaning over time and (b) whether the gains are associated with cognitive processing ability and the amount of language contact in an L2 environment. Forty-four college students in a US institution completed three…

  8. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  9. "Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-Matrices in Language Assessment": A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2010-01-01

    This commentary appraises the 2009 special issue of "Language Assessment Quarterly" on "Cognitive Diagnosis and Q-matrices in Language Assessment." Despite a number of weaknesses, specifically in attempting inappropriately to retrofit a suite of proficiency tests to diagnostic purposes, the special issue is seen as a landmark in the development of…

  10. I Thought We Were Good: Social Cognition, Figurative Language, and Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Language has been shown to play a critical role in social cognitive reasoning in preschool and school-aged children, but little research has been conducted with adolescents. During adolescence, the ability to understand figurative language becomes increasingly important for social relationships and may affect social adjustment. This…

  11. Producing Spatial Words Is Not Enough: Understanding the Relation Between Language and Spatial Cognition.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hilary E; Vlach, Haley A; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-11-08

    Prior research has investigated the relation between children's language and spatial cognition by assessing the quantity of children's spatial word production, with limited attention to the context in which children use such words. This study tested whether 4-year-olds children's (N = 41, primarily white middle class) adaptive use of task-relevant language across contexts predicted their spatial skills. Children were presented with a spatial scene description task, four spatial tasks, and vocabulary assessments. Children's adaptive use of task-relevant language was more predictive of their spatial skills than demographic and language factors (e.g., quantity of spatial words produced). These findings identify new links between language and spatial cognition and highlight the importance of understanding the quality, not just quantity, of children's language use. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Counseling for Prejudice Prevention and Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh; Aspy, Cheryl Blalock

    Prejudice has been defined as thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant. Ways in which counselors can reduce prejudice in their clients, and methods for addressing client problems that are related to prejudice are the focus of this book. The text draws on an extensive body of literature examining rehabilitation efforts that ease the…

  13. Prejudices against Immigrants in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…

  14. Acquisition and Manifestation of Prejudice in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Clifford; Rice, C. Lynne

    1997-01-01

    Identifies three major categories of prejudice: conscious/intentional, conscious/unintentional, and unconscious/unintentional. Asserts that prejudice plays a large role in the development of children and has its origins in the individual's group identity. Claims that exposure to and understanding of the development of prejudice can diminish its…

  15. Counseling for Prejudice Prevention and Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh; Aspy, Cheryl Blalock

    Prejudice has been defined as thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant. Ways in which counselors can reduce prejudice in their clients, and methods for addressing client problems that are related to prejudice are the focus of this book. The text draws on an extensive body of literature examining rehabilitation efforts that ease the…

  16. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  17. Prejudices against Immigrants in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…

  18. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  19. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  20. Oral and Written Language and the Cognitive Processes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.

    1977-01-01

    Looks at the structures of childrens' oral language or "mother tongue" and the structures of adult literate prose and emphasizes the alternate conceptions of reality that those languages sustain. (MH)

  1. Oral and Written Language and the Cognitive Processes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.

    1977-01-01

    Looks at the structures of childrens' oral language or "mother tongue" and the structures of adult literate prose and emphasizes the alternate conceptions of reality that those languages sustain. (MH)

  2. Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID

  3. Cognitive Rationality and Its Logic-Mathematical Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the cognitive (flexible) rationality, combining rational and irrational moments of the scientific search of the cognizing subject. Linguo-cognitive model of the concept as the flexible regulative rationality reveals the activity of the cognitive processes and the mentality of the epistemological-ontic subject, its leading…

  4. Cognitive characteristics of learning Java, an object-oriented programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Garry Lynn

    Industry and Academia are moving from procedural programming languages (e.g., COBOL) to object-oriented programming languages, such as Java for the Internet. Past studies in the cognitive aspects of programming have focused primarily on procedural programming languages. Some of the languages used have been Pascal, C, Basic, FORTAN, and COBOL. Object-oriented programming (OOP) represents a new paradigm for computing. Industry is finding that programmers are having difficulty shifting to this new programming paradigm. This instruction in OOP is currently starting in colleges and universities across the country. What are the cognitive aspects for this new OOP language Java? When is a student developmentally ready to handle the cognitive characteristics of the OOP language Java? Which cognitive teaching style is best for this OOP language Java? Questions such as the aforementioned are the focus of this research Such research is needed to improve understanding of the learning process and identify students' difficulties with OOP methods. This can enhance academic teaching and industry training (Scholtz, 1993; Sheetz, 1997; Rosson, 1990). Cognitive development as measured by the Propositional Logic Test, cognitive style as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator, and physical hemispheric dominance as measured by a self-report survey were obtained from thirty-six university students studying Java programming. Findings reveal that physical hemispheric dominance is unrelated to cognitive and programming language variables. However, both procedural and object oriented programming require Piaget's formal operation cognitive level as indicated by the Propositional Logic Test. This is consistent with prior research A new finding is that object oriented programming also requires formal operation cognitive level. Another new finding is that object oriented programming appears to be unrelated to hemispheric cognitive style as indicated by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI

  5. Language Learning Experience as a Contributor to ESOL Teacher Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Elizabeth Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) in English-speaking countries are not usually required to have proficiency in another language. Teacher competency statements frequently require "an understanding of second language development," and it is assumed that a monolingual teacher can attain such understanding without…

  6. Implications of timing of maternal depressive symptoms for early cognitive and language development.

    PubMed

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L; Scaramella, Laura V

    2006-03-01

    : Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period, or chronically, has been found to increase children's risk for later cognitive and language difficulties. The present review considers both the timing of maternal depression and the chronicity of mothers' depression on children's risk for cognitive and language delays. Infancy is frequently identified as a sensitive period in which environmental stimulation has the potential to substantially influence children's cognitive and language development. However, children's exposure to chronic maternal depression seems to be associated with more problematic outcomes for children, perhaps because depression interferes with mothers' ability to respond sensitively and consistently over time. Consistent with this expectation, interventions targeting parenting practices of depressed mothers have been found to increase children's cognitive competence during early childhood. The current review provides a synthesis of the current state of the field regarding the association between maternal depression and children's cognitive and language development during early childhood.

  7. Relative contribution of perception/cognition and language on spatial categorization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soonja; Hattrup, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources for categorization, and allocation between the two depended on the target relation and the features contrasted in the choices. Whereas perceptual/cognitive salience for containment and tight-fit features guided categorization in many contexts, language-specific semantics influenced categorization where the two features competed for similarity judgment and when the target relation was tight support, a domain where spatial relations are perceptually diverse. In the latter contexts, each group categorized more in line with semantics of their language, that is, containment/support for English and tight/loose fit for Korean. We conclude that language guides spatial categorization when perception/cognition alone is not sufficient. In this way, language is an integral part of our cognitive domain of space.

  8. Learning a Foreign Language: A New Path to Enhancement of Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Shoghi Javan, Sara; Ghonsooly, Behzad

    2017-08-30

    The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive functions; however, the way acquired (secondary) bilingualism manipulates executive functions is poorly understood. To fill this gap, controlling for age, gender, IQ, and socio-economic status, the researchers compared 60 advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to 60 beginners on measures of executive functions involving Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Wechsler's digit span tasks. The results suggested that mastering English as a foreign language causes considerable enhancement in two components of executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility and working memory. However, no significant difference was observed in inhibitory control between the advanced EFL learners and beginners.

  9. Language and cognitive predictors of text comprehension: evidence from multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Using data from children in South Korea (N = 145, Mage = 6.08), it was determined how low-level language and cognitive skills (vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and working memory) and high-level cognitive skills (comprehension monitoring and theory of mind [ToM]) are related to listening comprehension and whether listening comprehension and word reading mediate the relations of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension. Low-level skills predicted comprehension monitoring and ToM, which in turn predicted listening comprehension. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge were also directly related to listening comprehension, whereas working memory was indirectly related via comprehension monitoring and ToM. Listening comprehension and word reading completely mediated the relations of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension.

  10. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning

    PubMed Central

    King, Kelly E.; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only two hours of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. PMID:23194816

  11. Spanish and English neuropsychological assessment scales: relationship to demographics, language, cognition, and independent function.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Haan, Mary N; González, Hector

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the relationship of the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS) to demographic, cultural, and language fluency variables and to measures of cognition and independent functioning. Participants were 367 Hispanics and 160 Caucasians in the 60+ years age range, all living in the community. In Study 1, education and language use had strong influences on SENAS scores and largely explained ethnic group differences in mean scale scores. Age had weak effects on most scales except for verbal memory measures. Acculturation effects in Hispanics were largely accounted for by education and language use. Study 2 showed equivalent sensitivity of SENAS to cognitive and functional status in Hispanics and Caucasians. Results indicate that interpretation of SENAS scores must be informed by effects related to education and language fluency but provide evidence of equivalent validity in Hispanics and Caucasians with respect to concurrent measures of cognition and independent function.

  12. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557–582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control. PMID:24795491

  13. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  14. Relationship between speech, oromotor, language and cognitive abilities in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Joanne; Wood, Sara; Hardcastle, William; Wishart, Jennifer; Timmins, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Children and young people with Down's syndrome present with deficits in expressive speech and language, accompanied by strengths in vocabulary comprehension compared with non-verbal mental age. Intelligibility is particularly low, but whether speech is delayed or disordered is a controversial topic. Most studies suggest a delay, but no studies explore the relationship between cognitive or language skills and intelligibility. This study sought to determine whether severity of speech disorder correlates with language and cognitive level and to classify the types of errors, developmental or non-developmental, that occur in the speech of children and adolescents with Down's syndrome. Fifteen children and adolescents with Down's syndrome (aged 9-18 years) were recruited. Participants completed a battery of standardized speech, language and cognitive assessments. The phonology assessment was subject to phonological and phonetic analyses. Results from each test were correlated to determine relationships. Individuals with Down's syndrome present with deficits in receptive and expressive language that are not wholly accounted for by their cognitive delay. Receptive vocabulary is a strength in comparison with expressive and receptive language skills, but it was unclear from the findings whether it is more advanced compared with non-verbal cognitive skills. The majority of speech errors were developmental in nature, but all of the children with Down's syndrome showed at least one atypical or non-developmental speech error. Children with Down's syndrome present with speech disorders characterized by atypical, and often unusual, errors alongside many developmental errors. A lack of correlation between speech and cognition or language measures suggests that the speech disorder in Down's syndrome is not simply due to cognitive delay. Better differential diagnosis of speech disorders in Down's syndrome is required, allowing interventions to target the specific disorder in each

  15. Early life instruction in foreign language and music and incidence of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yang, Jingyun; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that foreign language and music instruction in early life are associated with lower incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and slower rate of cognitive decline in old age. At enrollment in a longitudinal cohort study, 964 older persons without cognitive impairment estimated years of foreign language and music instruction by age 18. Annually thereafter they completed clinical evaluations that included cognitive testing and clinical classification of MCI. There were 264 persons with no foreign language instruction, 576 with 1-4 years, and 124 with > 4 years; 346 persons with no music instruction, 360 with 1-4 years, and 258 with > 4 years. During a mean of 5.8 years of observation, 396 participants (41.1%) developed MCI. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher levels (> 4 years) of foreign language (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.687, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.482, 0.961]) and music (HR = 0.708, 95% CI [0.539, 0.930]) instruction by the age of 18 were each associated with reduced risk of MCI. The association persisted after adjustment for other early life indicators of an enriched cognitive environment, and it was stronger for nonamnestic than amnestic MCI. Both foreign language and music instruction were associated with higher initial level of cognitive function, but neither instruction measure was associated with cognitive decline. Higher levels of foreign language and music instruction during childhood and adolescence are associated in old age with lower risk of developing MCI but not with rate of cognitive decline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Early Life Instruction in Foreign Language and Music and Incidence of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Yang, Jingyun; James, Bryan D.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that foreign language and music instruction in early life are associated with lower incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and slower rate of cognitive decline in old age. Method At enrollment in a longitudinal cohort study, 964 older persons without cognitive impairment estimated years of foreign language and music instruction by age 18. Annually thereafter they completed clinical evaluations that included cognitive testing and clinical classification of MCI. Results There were 264 persons with no foreign language instruction, 576 with 1–4 years, and 124 with >4 years; 346 persons with no music instruction, 360 with 1–4 years, and 258 with >4 years. During a mean of 5.8 years of observation, 396 participants (41.1%) developed MCI. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher levels (>4 years) of foreign language (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.687, 95% confidence interval [ CI]: 0.482, 0.961) and music (HR = 0.708, 95% CI: 0.539, 0.930) instruction by the age of 18 were each associated with reduced risk of MCI. The association persisted after adjustment for other early life indicators of an enriched cognitive environment, and it was stronger for nonamnestic than amnestic MCI. Both foreign language and music instruction were associated with higher initial level of cognitive function, but neither instruction measure was associated with cognitive decline. Conclusions Higher levels of foreign language and music instruction during childhood and adolescence are associated in old age with lower risk of developing MCI but not with rate of cognitive decline. PMID:25110933

  17. Prejudice in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Janie

    2005-01-01

    This article about issues and strategies looks at the need for teachers to recognize prejudice among students in Canadian ESL classrooms. The author notes the lack of information on this topic in TESL courses and publications. A sampling of responses from ESL teachers interviewed about the issues is included and serves to highlight the need for…

  18. "Pride and Prejudice". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…

  19. Short-term language switching training tunes the neural correlates of cognitive control in bilingual language production.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunyan; Fu, Yongben; Wu, Junjie; Ma, Fengyang; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2017-09-03

    The present study investigated how language switching experience would modulate the neural correlates of cognitive control involved in bilingual language production. A group of unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals undertook an 8-day cued picture naming training during which they named pictures in either of their languages based on visually presented cues. Participants' brain activation was scanned before and after the training in the same task. Behavioral results revealed a significant training effect such that switch costs were reduced after training. fMRI results showed that after training, activation of brain areas associated with cognitive control including the anterior cingulated cortex and the caudate was reduced. Besides, the activation reduction in the left dorsal anterior cingulated cortex positively correlated with the reduction in switch costs in response time and this training effect could be transferred to untrained stimuli. These findings suggest that neural correlates of cognitive control, especially that of the conflict monitoring process, in bilingual language production could be modulated by short-term language switching training. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  1. Parsimony in personality: predicting sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Audrey K; Wagner, Maverick M; Hunt, Amy N

    2012-01-01

    Extant research has established numerous demographic, personal-history, attitudinal, and ideological correlates of sexual prejudice, also known as homophobia. The present study investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality domains, particularly Openness, and FFM facets, particularly Openness to Values, contribute independent and incremental variance to the prediction of sexual prejudice beyond these established correlates. Participants were 117 college students who completed a comprehensive FFM measure, measures of sexual prejudice, and a demographics, personal-history, and attitudes-and-ideologies questionnaire. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that, whereas Openness domain score predicted only marginal incremental variance in sexual prejudice, Openness facet scores (particularly Openness to Values) predicted independent and substantial incremental variance beyond numerous other zero-order correlates of sexual prejudice. The importance of integrating FFM personality variables, especially facet-level variables, into conceptualizations of sexual prejudice is highlighted. Study strengths and weaknesses are discussed as are potential implications for prejudice-reduction interventions.

  2. Before the measurement of prejudice: early psychological and sociological papers on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Webster, Russell J; Saucier, Donald A; Harris, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Given its renown, many psychologists and sociologists likely consider the publication of Gordon Allport's (1954/1979) seminal book The Nature of Prejudice as the inauguration of the psychological study of prejudice. However, we have uncovered rarely-cited, published papers (starting in 1830) that provide a wealth of speculation on prejudice even before psychologists/sociologists attempted to measure it (circa 1925). Thus, this paper intends to discuss early published work on prejudice in psychology and sociology by focusing on three key questions: a) when did psychologists/sociologists recognize prejudice as a psychological phenomenon, b) when did psychologists/sociologists recognize prejudice as a phenomenon in need of study, and c) what were the historical and personal conditions that gave rise to the interest in prejudice? In short, the seeds of prejudice research were maturing for some time before Allport's seminal book and the first attitudinal studies on prejudice, although these earlier works are seldom cited.

  3. No Prejudice in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    be sufficient to determine the correct model of the underlying physics. As a first look at the signatures of these models in indirect detection experiments, we examined whether our models could explain the PAMELA excess in the positron to electron ratio at high energies. We find that there are models which fit the PAMELA data rather well, and some of these have significantly smaller boost factors than generally assumed for a thermal relic. The study of the pMSSM presents exciting new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology. The next few years will hopefully see important discoveries both in colliders and in satellite or ground-based astrophysical experiments. It is important that we follow the data and not our existing prejudices; hopefully this sort of relatively model-independent approach to collider and astrophysical phenomenology can be useful in this regard.

  4. Social norms and prejudice against homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio

    2009-11-01

    Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable.

  5. Effects of Embedded and Direct Language Strategies on Prekindergarten Students' Cognitive and Social Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominy, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of a standard of care embedded language strategies program utilized in combination with direct language strategy instruction on the measured expressive language, cognitive development, social emotional development, and language development of prekindergarten students attending three neighborhood…

  6. Integrating Language and Cognition in Grounded Adaptive Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    session on “Modelling Language Acquisition and Evolution” at the IJCNN06 conference. Cangelosi was the chair of the Special Session on “Modelling... Language Acquisition and Evolution” held on July 2006 at the IJCNN2006 conference. The session was organized in collaboration with Dr. Leonid Perlovsky...learning during language acquisition . 5. Webpage for grant Tikhanoff has designed a web page dedicated to the project. This includes an overview of

  7. Brain Circuit for Cognitive Control is Shared by Task and Language Switching.

    PubMed

    De Baene, Wouter; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals. However, this evidence is only indirect. Direct evidence for neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control can only be provided if two prerequisites are met: Language control and nonverbal cognitive control should be compared within the same participants, and the task requirements of both conditions should be closely matched. To provide such direct evidence for the first time, we used fMRI to examine the overlap in brain activation between switch-specific activity in a linguistic switching task and a closely matched nonlinguistic switching task, within participants, in early, highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals. The current findings provide direct evidence that, in these bilinguals, highly similar brain circuits are involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.

  8. Cognitive and speech-language performance in children with ataxia telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Vinck, Anja; Verhagen, Mijke M M; Gerven, Marjo van; de Groot, Imelda J M; Weemaes, Corry M R; Maassen, Ben A M; Willemsen, Michel A A P

    2011-01-01

    To describe cognitive and speech-language functioning of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) in relation to their deteriorating (oculo)motor function. Observational case series. Cognitive functioning, language, speech and oral-motor functioning were examined in eight individuals with A-T (six boys, two girls), taking into account the confounding effects of motor functioning on test performance. All patients, except the youngest one, suffered from mild-to-moderate/severe intellectual impairment. Compared to developmental age, patients showed cognitive deficits in attention, (non)verbal memory and verbal fluency. Furthermore, dysarthria and weak oral-motor performance was found. Language was one of the patients' assets. In contrast to the severe deterioration of motor functioning in A-T, cognitive and language functioning appeared to level off with a typical profile of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. Based on our experiences with A-T, suggestions are made to determine a valid assessment of the cognitive and speech-language manifestations.

  9. Association between Primary Caregiver Education and Cognitive and Language Development of Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Church, Paige T; Riley, Patricia; Fajardo, Carlos; Shah, Prakesh S

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the association between primary caregiver education and cognitive and language composite scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (Bayley-III) in preterm infants at 18 to 21 months corrected age. Design An observational study was performed on preterm infants born before 29 weeks' gestation between 2010 and 2011. Primary caregivers were categorized by their highest education level and cognitive and language composite scores of the Bayley-III were compared among infants between these groups with adjustment for perinatal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 1,525 infants/caregivers were included in the multivariate analysis. Compared with those with less than a high school education, infants with primary caregivers who received partial college/specialized training displayed higher cognitive (adjusted difference [AD]: 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-7.4) and language scores (AD: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.8-7.1); infants with primary caregivers with university graduate education or above also demonstrated higher cognitive (AD: 6.4, 95% CI: 2.6-10.1) and language scores (AD: 9.9, 95% CI: 5.7-14.1). Conclusion Higher levels of education of the primary caregiver were associated with increased cognitive and language composite scores at 18 to 21 months corrected age in preterm infants.

  10. Grounding language in action and perception: From cognitive agents to humanoid robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition.

  11. Grounding language in action and perception: from cognitive agents to humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition.

  12. The role of domain-general cognitive control in language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina

    2014-01-01

    What role does domain-general cognitive control play in understanding linguistic input? Although much evidence has suggested that domain-general cognitive control and working memory resources are sometimes recruited during language comprehension, many aspects of this relationship remain elusive. For example, how frequently do cognitive control mechanisms get engaged when we understand language? And is this engagement necessary for successful comprehension? I here (a) review recent brain imaging evidence for the neural separability of the brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing vs. those that support domain-general cognitive control abilities; (b) define the space of possibilities for the relationship between these sets of brain regions; and (c) review the available evidence that constrains these possibilities to some extent. I argue that we should stop asking whether domain-general cognitive control mechanisms play a role in language comprehension, and instead focus on characterizing the division of labor between the cognitive control brain regions and the more functionally specialized language regions. PMID:24803909

  13. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  14. Attraction, personality, and prejudice: liking none of the people most of the time.

    PubMed

    Graziano, William G; Bruce, Jennifer; Sheese, Brad E; Tobin, Renée M

    2007-10-01

    Unfavorable evaluations of others reflect both specific prejudice and generalized negativity. Study 1 examined self-reported norms and personal endorsement of prejudices to various social groups. Study 2 used judgments of overweight persons to examine links among prejudice, personality, and prosocial motives. Study 3 examined negative evaluations and social distancing during interpersonal interaction. Study 4 observed the translation of negative evaluations into overt discrimination. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the behavior of the target and observed its interactive effects with weight, personality, and prosocial motives. Results suggest that prejudice can emerge from otherwise unprejudiced persons when situations permit justification. Patterns in negative evaluations are linked distinctively to (a) the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness, (b) proximal social cognition and motives, and (c) discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Building Blocks of Fetal Cognition: Emotion and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huotilainen, Minna

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can be effectively used to record fetal and neonatal cognitive abilities/functions by recording completely non-invasively the magnetic fields produced by the active neurons in the brain. During the last trimester and the first months of life, the cognitive capabilities related to emotion recognition and language…

  16. Building Blocks of Fetal Cognition: Emotion and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huotilainen, Minna

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can be effectively used to record fetal and neonatal cognitive abilities/functions by recording completely non-invasively the magnetic fields produced by the active neurons in the brain. During the last trimester and the first months of life, the cognitive capabilities related to emotion recognition and language…

  17. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  18. A Dynamic Systems Model of Cognitive and Language Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Geert, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual framework of cognitive growth is sketched and a mathematical model of cognitive growth is presented with the conclusion that the most plausible model is a model of logistic growth with delayed feedback. The model is transformed into a dynamic systems model based on the logistic-growth equation. (SLD)

  19. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  20. Bilingual Language Representation and Cognitive Processes in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2008-01-01

    A "text"-translation task and a recognition task investigated the hypothesis that "semantic memory" principally mediates translation from a bilingual's native first language (L1) to her second language (L2), whereas "lexical memory" mediates translation from L2 to L1. This has been held for word translation by the revised hierarchical model (RHM)…

  1. Laboratory Studies on Multilingual Cognition and Further Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Cristina; Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Multilingualism is now seen as the norm rather than the exception in an age of migration and supranational entities, and where minority language rights and the consequent educational policies have become more common. The field of applied linguistics reflects that transition: second language acquisition (sla) research is slowly being replaced by…

  2. Laboratory Studies on Multilingual Cognition and Further Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Cristina; Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Multilingualism is now seen as the norm rather than the exception in an age of migration and supranational entities, and where minority language rights and the consequent educational policies have become more common. The field of applied linguistics reflects that transition: second language acquisition (sla) research is slowly being replaced by…

  3. Exploring Cognitive Relations between Prediction in Language and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Aniruddh D.; Morgan, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The online processing of both music and language involves making predictions about upcoming material, but the relationship between prediction in these two domains is not well understood. Electrophysiological methods for studying individual differences in prediction in language processing have opened the door to new questions. Specifically, we ask…

  4. Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

  5. Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

  6. Neurolinguistic Relativity: How Language Flexes Human Perception and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing. On the basis of empirical evidence showing effects of terminology on perception, language-idiosyncratic relationships in semantic memory, grammatical skewing of event conceptualization, and unconscious modulation of executive functioning by verbal input, I advocate a neurofunctional approach through which we can systematically explore how languages shape human thought.

  7. Insights from studying prejudice in the context of American atheists.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric P; Rowland, Nicholas J; Long, Brooke; Yarrison, Fritz

    2012-12-01

    Our research on non-religion supports the proposed shift toward more interactive models of prejudice. Being nonreligious is easily hideable and, increasingly, of low salience, leading to experiences not easily understood via traditional or contemporary frameworks for studying prejudice and prejudice reduction. This context affords new opportunity to observe reverse forms of interactive prejudice, which can interfere with prejudice reduction.

  8. Are There Any Connections between Language Deficits and Cognitive Slowing in Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed

    Schecker, Michael; Kochler, Carsten; Schmidtke, Klaus; Rauh, Reinhold

    2014-09-01

    Speech disorders already occur in the early phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a possible cause, problems of executive processes are discussed. Cognitive slowing is also repeatedly addressed. Are there any connections between cognitive slowing and speech disorders in AD? And is there a relationship between cognitive slowing and executive processes? The data of 72 healthy controls and 52 AD patients were examined with regard to their language performance and their response times in a computerized Stroop paradigm. The AD patients showed significantly worse results in all language tests as well as much longer reaction times in all Stroop conditions, especially in the interference condition (Stroop 3). Speech errors and response times correlated with severity (MMSE), and the speech errors correlated with the reaction times in Stroop 3 (interference condition, which reflects the processing time of executive processes). The most interesting question now is: How are language processing and executive processing time (Stroop 3) related?

  9. Variation in spatial language and cognition: exploring visuo-spatial thinking and speaking cross-linguistically.

    PubMed

    Soroli, Efstathia

    2012-08-01

    Languages differ strikingly in how they encode spatial information. This variability is realized with spatial semantic elements mapped across languages in very different ways onto lexical/syntactic structures. For example, satellite-framed languages (e.g., English) express MANNER: in the verb and PATH: in satellites, while verb-framed languages (e.g., French) lexicalize PATH: in the verb, leaving MANNER: implicit or peripheral. Some languages are harder to classify into these categories, rather presenting equipollently framed systems, such as Chinese (serial-verb constructions) or Greek (parallel verb- and satellite-framed structures in equally frequent contexts). Such properties seem to have implications not only on the formulation/articulation levels, but also on the conceptualization level, thereby reviving questions concerning the language-thought interface. The present study investigates the relative impact of language-independent and language-specific factors on spatial representations across three typologically different languages (English-French-Greek) combining a variety of complementary tasks (production, non-verbal, and verbal categorization). The findings show that typological properties of languages can have an impact on both linguistic and non-linguistic organization of spatial information, open new perspectives for the investigation of conceptualization, and contribute more generally to the debate concerning the universal and language-specific dimensions of cognition.

  10. Thinking and Content Learning of Mathematics and Science as Cognitional Development in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Teaching Through a Foreign Language in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study on thinking and learning processes of mathematics and science in teaching through a foreign language, in Finland. The entity of thinking and content learning processes is, in this study, considered as cognitional development. Teaching through a foreign language is here called Content and Language Integrated Learning or…

  11. Second language lexical development and cognitive control: A longitudinal fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Language and cognitive shifting: evidence from young monolingual and bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between language and cognitive shifting in young children was examined. Specifically, second language experiences from infancy as well as individual differences in monolingual language experience may affect performances on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task. 54 Japanese-French bilingual children and two groups of Japanese monolingual children participated (ns = 18). One monolingual group was matched to the bilingual group on verbal ability and chronological age (VC monolingual group) and the other group was matched by chronological age but had higher verbal ability (C monolingual group). The results showed that the groups of children who were bilingual and monolingual with higher verbal ability performed the task significantly better than matched monolingual children. Language experiences may affect cognitive set shifting in young children.

  13. Developing embodied cognition: insights from children’s concepts and language processing

    PubMed Central

    Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition. PMID:24904513

  14. The Cognitive Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen; Castro, Dina C; Sanchez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Dual language exposure and bilingualism are relatively common experiences for children. The present review set out to synthesize the existing research on cognitive development in bilingual children and to identify the gaps and the methodological concerns present in the existing research. A search of major data bases for research conducted with typically-developing, preschool-age dual language learners between 2000-2013 yielded 102 peer-reviewed articles. The existing evidence points to areas of cognitive development in bilingual children where findings are robust or inconclusive, and reveals variables that influence performance. The present review also identifies areas for future research and methodological limitations.

  15. The Cognitive Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen; Castro, Dina C.; Sanchez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Dual language exposure and bilingualism are relatively common experiences for children. The present review set out to synthesize the existing research on cognitive development in bilingual children and to identify the gaps and the methodological concerns present in the existing research. A search of major data bases for research conducted with typically-developing, preschool-age dual language learners between 2000-2013 yielded 102 peer-reviewed articles. The existing evidence points to areas of cognitive development in bilingual children where findings are robust or inconclusive, and reveals variables that influence performance. The present review also identifies areas for future research and methodological limitations. PMID:25284958

  16. Effects of early language, speech, and cognition on later reading: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Vanessa N.; Loe, Irene M.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal secondary analysis examined which early language and speech abilities are associated with school-aged reading skills, and whether these associations are mediated by cognitive ability. We analyzed vocabulary, syntax, speech sound maturity, and cognition in a sample of healthy children at age 3 years (N = 241) in relation to single word reading (decoding), comprehension, and oral reading fluency in the same children at age 9–11 years. All predictor variables and the mediator variable were associated with the three reading outcomes. The predictor variables were all associated with cognitive abilities, the mediator. Cognitive abilities partially mediated the effects of language on reading. After mediation, decoding was associated with speech sound maturity; comprehension was associated with receptive vocabulary; and oral fluency was associated with speech sound maturity, receptive vocabulary, and syntax. In summary, all of the effects of language on reading could not be explained by cognition as a mediator. Specific components of language and speech skills in preschool made independent contributions to reading skills 6–8 years later. These early precursors to later reading skill represent potential targets for early intervention to improve reading. PMID:24027549

  17. Neurolinguistic Relativity: How Language Flexes Human Perception and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences—and may be influenced by—nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing. On the basis of empirical evidence showing effects of terminology on perception, language‐idiosyncratic relationships in semantic memory, grammatical skewing of event conceptualization, and unconscious modulation of executive functioning by verbal input, I advocate a neurofunctional approach through which we can systematically explore how languages shape human thought. PMID:27642191

  18. From Cognition To Language: The Modeling Field Theory Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-02

    multi-agent framework was probably best made by Ferdinand de Saussure in his famous statement “language is not complete in any speaker; it exists...was probably best made by Ferdinand de Saussure in a famous statement made in his lectures at the University of Geneva (1906-1911) “language is not... Ferdinand de Saussure may be appropriate to describe this situation – without labels the world is a vague, uncharted nebula. (The original quotation

  19. The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396

  20. Cognitive and linguistic profiles of specific language impairment and semantic-pragmatic disorder in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, H; Shaw-Ridley, G; Serfontein, J; Orelowitz, K; Monaghan, N

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the notion that the extent to which language-impaired children can become bilingual depends on the type of language impairment. Single-case studies were conducted on two 7-year-old bilingual children, who had both been exposed to English and Afrikaans consistently and regularly from an early age. The subjects presented with specific language impairment (SLI) and semantic-pragmatic disorder (SPD), respectively. They were assessed on a battery of cognitive and linguistic tests in both their languages. Results indicate that the SLI subject, who presented with a deficit in successive processing on the Cognitive Assessment System, had difficulty in acquiring the surface features of both languages. She developed much better proficiency in English than in Afrikaans, despite substantial exposure to the latter. The SPD subject, whose cognitive profile was characterised by planning and attention deficits, but a strength in successive processing, presented with equal proficiency in both languages. The theoretical and clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  1. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  2. Speed of Word Recognition and Vocabulary Knowledge in Infancy Predict Cognitive and Language Outcomes in Later Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006 ) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical…

  3. Teacher Language Awareness and Cognitive Linguistics (CL): Building a CL-Inspired Perspective on Teaching Lexis in EFL Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giebler, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that it may be useful for language teaching practitioners to have some knowledge of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics (CL) provides tools that may help the language-teaching practitioner to gain insight into the semantic potential of words and communicate the meaning of lexical chunks in greater detail…

  4. Teacher Language Awareness and Cognitive Linguistics (CL): Building a CL-Inspired Perspective on Teaching Lexis in EFL Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giebler, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that it may be useful for language teaching practitioners to have some knowledge of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics (CL) provides tools that may help the language-teaching practitioner to gain insight into the semantic potential of words and communicate the meaning of lexical chunks in greater detail…

  5. Utility of the Psychoeducational Profile-3 for Assessing Cognitive and Language Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Mandy L.; D'Entremont, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The Psychoeducational Profile-3's (PEP-3) ability to estimate cognitive and language skills of 136 children (20-75 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) across a range of functioning, and the association between the PEP-3 and ASD symptomatology was examined using retrospective data. PEP-3 cognitive and language measures were positively…

  6. Cognitive Predictors of Language Development in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) was followed over a 2-year period to provide additional evidence for the…

  7. Cognitive Predictors of Language Development in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) was followed over a 2-year period to provide additional evidence for the…

  8. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  9. Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood

    PubMed Central

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of language, cognition, and working memory. Speed of spoken word recognition and vocabulary size at 25 months each accounted for unique variance in linguistic and cognitive skills at 8 years, effects that were attributable to strong relations between both infancy measures and working memory. These findings suggest that processing speed and early language skills are fundamental to intellectual functioning, and that language development is guided by learning and representational principles shared across cognitive and linguistic domains. PMID:18466367

  10. Long-term differences in language and cognitive function after childhood exposure to anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ing, Caleb; DiMaggio, Charles; Whitehouse, Andrew; Hegarty, Mary K; Brady, Joanne; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S; Davidson, Andrew; Wood, Alastair J J; Li, Guohua; Sun, Lena S

    2012-09-01

    Over the past decade, the safety of anesthetic agents in children has been questioned after the discovery that immature animals exposed to anesthesia display apoptotic neurodegeneration and long-term cognitive deficiencies. We examined the association between exposure to anesthesia in children under age 3 and outcomes in language, cognitive function, motor skills, and behavior at age 10. We performed an analysis of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which includes 2868 children born from 1989 to 1992. Of 2608 children assessed, 321 were exposed to anesthesia before age 3, and 2287 were unexposed. On average, exposed children had lower scores than their unexposed peers in receptive and expressive language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals: Receptive [CELF-R] and Expressive [CELF-E]) and cognition (Colored Progressive Matrices [CPM]). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, exposure to anesthesia was associated with increased risk of disability in language (CELF-R: adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.93, CELF-E: aRR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.12-2.64), and cognition (CPM: aRR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13-2.53). An increased aRR for disability in language and cognition persisted even with a single exposure to anesthesia (CELF-R aRR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.40-4.17, and CPM aRR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.04-2.88). Our results indicate that the association between anesthesia and neuropsychological outcome may be confined to specific domains. Children in our cohort exposed to anesthesia before age 3 had a higher relative risk of language and abstract reasoning deficits at age 10 than unexposed children.

  11. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play.

  12. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief

    PubMed Central

    Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. PMID:26341901

  13. Exploring Cognitive Relations Between Prediction in Language and Music.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D; Morgan, Emily

    2017-03-01

    The online processing of both music and language involves making predictions about upcoming material, but the relationship between prediction in these two domains is not well understood. Electrophysiological methods for studying individual differences in prediction in language processing have opened the door to new questions. Specifically, we ask whether individuals with musical training predict upcoming linguistic material more strongly and/or more accurately than non-musicians. We propose two reasons why prediction in these two domains might be linked: (a) Musicians may have greater verbal short-term/working memory; (b) music may specifically reward predictions based on hierarchical structure. We provide suggestions as to how to expand upon recent work on individual differences in language processing to test these hypotheses.

  14. New evidence about language and cognitive development based on a longitudinal study: hypotheses for intervention.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C; Hedges, Larry V; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Small, Steven L

    2014-09-01

    We review findings from a four-year longitudinal study of language learning conducted on two samples: a sample of typically developing children whose parents vary substantially in socioeconomic status, and a sample of children with pre- or perinatal brain injury. This design enables us to study language development across a wide range of language learning environments and a wide range of language learners. We videotaped samples of children's and parents' speech and gestures during spontaneous interactions at home every four months, and then we transcribed and coded the tapes. We focused on two behaviors known to vary across individuals and environments-child gesture and parent speech-behaviors that have the potential to index, and perhaps even play a role in creating, differences across children in linguistic and other cognitive skills. Our observations have led to four hypotheses that have promise for the development of diagnostic tools and interventions to enhance language and cognitive development and brain plasticity after neonatal injury. One kind of hypothesis involves tools that could identify children who may be at risk for later language deficits. The other involves interventions that have the potential to promote language development. We present our four hypotheses as a summary of the findings from our study because there is scientific evidence behind them and because this evidence has the potential to be put to practical use in improving education. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. New Evidence About Language and Cognitive Development Based on a Longitudinal Study: Hypotheses for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.; Hedges, Larry V.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Small, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    We review findings from a four-year longitudinal study of language learning conducted on two samples: a sample of typically developing children whose parents vary substantially in socioeconomic status, and a sample of children with pre- or perinatal brain injury. This design enables us to study language development across a wide range of language learning environments and a wide range of language learners. We videotaped samples of children's and parents' speech and gestures during spontaneous interactions at home every four months, and then we transcribed and coded the tapes. We focused on two behaviors known to vary across individuals and environments—child gesture and parent speech—behaviors that have the potential to index, and perhaps even play a role in creating, differences across children in linguistic and other cognitive skills. Our observations have led to four hypotheses that have promise for the development of diagnostic tools and interventions to enhance language and cognitive development and brain plasticity after neonatal injury. One kind of hypothesis involves tools that could identify children who may be at risk for later language deficits. The other involves interventions that have the potential to promote language development. We present our four hypotheses as a summary of the findings from our study because there is scientific evidence behind them and because this evidence has the potential to be put to practical use in improving education. PMID:24911049

  16. Language learning in Down syndrome: the speech and language profile compared to adolescents with cognitive impairment of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robin S

    2006-07-01

    Children and adolescents with Down syndrome show an emerging profile of speech and language characteristics that is typical of the syndrome (Chapman & Hesketh, 2000; Chapman, 2003; Abbeduto & Chapman, 2005) and different from typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age, including expressive language deficits relative to comprehension that are most severe for syntax, and, in adolescence, strengths in comprehension vocabulary, improvements in expressive syntax, but losses in comprehension of syntax (Chapman, Hesketh & Kistler, 2002). Here we compare 20 adolescents with Down syndrome to 16 individuals with cognitive impairment of unknown origin, statistically matched for age and nonverbal mental age, to show that the age-related strengths in vocabulary comprehension are not limited to the Down syndrome phenotype, but are limited to a certain type of vocabulary test: for both groups, performance on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3 is significantly greater than performance on the vocabulary subtest of the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language-3, which does not differ from the syntax comprehension subtests. Vocabulary size, but not conceptual level, is a strength for adolescents with cognitive impairment. In contrast, deficits in auditory-verbal working memory, syntax and vocabulary comprehension, and narration of picture-books without an opportunity to preview them are all specific to the adolescent group with Down syndrome. The expressive language deficit disappears when a preview opportunity and picture support is given.

  17. Cognition and Literacy in English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Latent Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Kudo, Milagros; Guzman-Orth, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and stability of latent classes at risk for reading disabilities (RD) in elementary-aged children whose first language is Spanish. To this end, children (N = 489) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of reading, vocabulary, and cognitive measures (short-term memory [STM], working memory…

  18. Preschool Experience in 10 Countries: Cognitive and Language Performance at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montie, Jeanne E.; Xiang, Zongping; Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    The IEA Preprimary Project is a longitudinal, cross-national study of preprimary care and education designed to identify how process and structural characteristics of the settings children attended at age 4 are related to their age-7 cognitive and language performance. Investigators collaborated to develop common instruments to measure family…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Links between Natural Language Use and Cognitive Ability in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Caitlin F.; Edelson, Lisa R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between language and nonverbal cognitive ability is well-documented, studies examining the etiology of the covariance between these abilities are scant, particularly in very young children. The goal of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the genetic and environmental links between…

  20. Expressive language and cognitive development: diversity and complexity of children's productions.

    PubMed

    Flabiano, Fabíola Custódio; Bühler, Karina Elena Bernardis; Limongi, Suelly Cecilia Olivan

    2010-01-01

    Objective and systematized analysis of cognitive and expressive language development. To characterize expressive language and cognitive development considering the diversity and complexity of children's productions. This study involved 20 subjects (10 male and 10 female), who were adequate for gestational age and birth weight and had no pre, peri or post natal intercurrences. Participants were submitted to 30-minute sessions, once a month, for the observation of expressive language and cognitive development. The observations were made during the period that went from eight to 18 months of age, using the material and application procedures suggested by the PELCDO-r. The amount of different schemes, gestures and verbalizations that children were capable of producing (diversity and complexity) are presented and analyzed considering each one of the 30-minute sessions as well as the overall total during the period of observation (from eight to 18 months). The PELCDO-r allowed the characterization of expressive language and cognitive development by means of the objective observation of this process concerning the diversity and complexity of subjects' productions, considering the period between the fourth phase of sensorimotor stage and the beginning of preoperational stage.

  1. Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2006-01-01

    Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

  2. Bridging the Gap: Cognitive and Social Approaches to Research in Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find…

  3. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  4. Cognition and Literacy in English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Latent Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Kudo, Milagros; Guzman-Orth, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and stability of latent classes at risk for reading disabilities (RD) in elementary-aged children whose first language is Spanish. To this end, children (N = 489) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of reading, vocabulary, and cognitive measures (short-term memory [STM], working memory…

  5. Emotional Vitality in Infancy as a Predictor of Cognitive and Language Abilities in Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amanda J.; Robinson, JoAnn L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work by our group has shown that infant emotional vitality (EV), the lively expression of shared emotion both positive and negative, predicts cognitive and language abilities in toddlerhood. Specifically, infants who demonstrated a pattern of high emotional expression combined with high bids to their caregivers, fared significantly better…

  6. Reflecting on the Cognitive-Social Debate in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Firth and Wagner's (1997) call for a more socially and contextually situated view of second language acquisition (SLA) research has generated a great deal of discussion and debate, a summary of which is offered in this reflective commentary. Given the individualistic, cognitive origin of the SLA field, such controversy is entirely understandable.…

  7. Cognitive and Language Development in an Additive-Bilingual Program: Report after Four Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

    The fourth phase of a longitudinal study focusing on the cognitive and language development of children in a primary-grade Spanish immersion program (SIP) is reported. Subjects were the remaining 13 members of an SIP cohort beginning in 1987, 15 members of a standard program comparison classroom, 18 members of another class in the 1987 SIP cohort,…

  8. The Language, Working Memory, and Other Cognitive Demands of Verbal Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the cognitive processes supporting verbal abilities, the underlying structure and interrelationships between common verbal measures were investigated. Methods: An epidemiological sample (n = 374) of school-aged children completed standardized tests of language, intelligence, and short-term and working…

  9. Bridging the Gap: Cognitive and Social Approaches to Research in Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find…

  10. The Cognitive Contribution to the Development of Proficiency in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Beno; Nikolov, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports results of a longitudinal research project studying the contribution of cognitive skills and other factors to proficiency in a foreign language (L2) in the Hungarian educational context. The larger project aims to describe the levels of L2 proficiency of school-aged populations in order to explore the conditions and…

  11. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  12. Cognitive Load of Navigating without Vision when Guided by Virtual Sound versus Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Marston, James R.; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Loomis, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    A vibrotactile N-back task was used to generate cognitive load while participants were guided along virtual paths without vision. As participants stepped in place, they moved along a virtual path of linear segments. Information was provided en route about the direction of the next turning point, by spatial language ("left," "right," or "straight")…

  13. Fleeing from the Elephant: Language, Cognition and Post-Skinnerian Behavior Analytic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    The present set of papers show that leaders in the field of organizational behavior management are grappling with issues of human language and cognition. That is a good and necessary step for the field, but the solutions proposed are worrisome: adopting principles from non-behavioral psychology, adopting principles from introspection that have not…

  14. Task Complexity, the Cognition Hypothesis and Second Language Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter; Gilabert, Roger

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a taxonomy of task demands which distinguishes between Task Complexity, Task Condition and Task Difficulty. We then describe three theoretical claims and predictions of the Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson 2001, 2003b, 2005a) concerning the effects of task complexity on: (a) language production; (b) interaction and uptake…

  15. Preschool Experience in 10 Countries: Cognitive and Language Performance at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montie, Jeanne E.; Xiang, Zongping; Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    The IEA Preprimary Project is a longitudinal, cross-national study of preprimary care and education designed to identify how process and structural characteristics of the settings children attended at age 4 are related to their age-7 cognitive and language performance. Investigators collaborated to develop common instruments to measure family…

  16. The Cognition Hypothesis: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis of Research on Second Language Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Daniel O.; Suethanapornkul, Sakol

    2013-01-01

    This study employed synthetic and meta-analytic techniques to review the literature on the Cognition Hypothesis, which predicts that increasing task complexity influences the quality of second language production. Based on 8 inclusion criteria, 17 published studies were synthesized according to key features. A subset of these studies (k = 9) was…

  17. Air Traffic Communication in a Second Language: Implications of Cognitive Factors for Training and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Candace; Trofimovich, Pavel; Segalowitz, Norman; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of second language (L2) proficiency and task-induced cognitive workload on participants' speech production and retention of information in an environment designed to simulate the demands faced by pilots receiving instructions from air-traffic controllers. Three groups of 20 participants (one…

  18. Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2006-01-01

    Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

  19. Air Traffic Communication in a Second Language: Implications of Cognitive Factors for Training and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Candace; Trofimovich, Pavel; Segalowitz, Norman; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of second language (L2) proficiency and task-induced cognitive workload on participants' speech production and retention of information in an environment designed to simulate the demands faced by pilots receiving instructions from air-traffic controllers. Three groups of 20 participants (one…

  20. Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies among Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusri, Ghazali; Rahimi, Nik Mohd; Shah, Parilah M.; Wah, Wan Haslina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning oral Arabic among students at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. The concept of these strategies was derived from the self-regulated learning framework, which consists of five components, namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, and…

  1. Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies among Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusri, Ghazali; Rahimi, Nik Mohd; Shah, Parilah M.; Wah, Wan Haslina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning oral Arabic among students at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. The concept of these strategies was derived from the self-regulated learning framework, which consists of five components, namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, and…

  2. Relation of Infant Vision to Early Cognitive and Language Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckman, Robert; Tulloch, Deborah

    Relationships between infant visual skills and the development of object permanence and expressive language skills were examined with 31 infants in three groups: visually typical, visually atypical, and Down Syndrome. Measures used to evaluate visual status were: forced preferential looking, optokinetic nystagmus, and behavioral. Object permanence…

  3. Young Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Numerical Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvedson, Paula J.

    2002-01-01

    Enumeration and numerical reasoning levels of 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI) were compared to children matched for age and children matched for grammatical ability (GM). Children with SLI performed better than the GM group on reproduction of sets, numerosity of sets, an addition/subtraction condition, and transformation…

  4. Speech, Language, and Cognition in Preschool Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selassie, G. Rejno-Habte; Viggedal, G.; Olsson, I.; Jennische, M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied expressive and receptive language, oral motor ability, attention, memory, and intelligence in 20 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, six males; mean age 6y 5mo, range 6y-6y 11mo) without learning disability, cerebral palsy (CP), and/or autism, and in 30 reference children without epilepsy (18 females, 12 males; mean age 6y…

  5. Speech, Language, and Cognition in Preschool Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selassie, G. Rejno-Habte; Viggedal, G.; Olsson, I.; Jennische, M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied expressive and receptive language, oral motor ability, attention, memory, and intelligence in 20 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, six males; mean age 6y 5mo, range 6y-6y 11mo) without learning disability, cerebral palsy (CP), and/or autism, and in 30 reference children without epilepsy (18 females, 12 males; mean age 6y…

  6. Cognitive Contributions to Plurilithic Views of English and Other Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic views of languages predominate in linguistics, applied linguistics, and everyday discourse. The World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and Critical Applied Linguistics frameworks have gone some way to counter the myth, highlighting the iniquities it gives rise to for global users and learners of English. Here, I propose that…

  7. Cognitive Principles Underlying Task-Centred Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William

    A discussion of the task-based approach to second language learning looks at different interpretations of "task" and defines it in terms of two basic dimensions: (1) degree of learner involvement in purposeful work, and (2) a continuum from focus on linguistic form to focus on message. It is proposed that these dimensions can be understood better…

  8. An evaluation of language in brain tumor patients using a new cognitively motivated testing protocol.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Josh W; Wilshire, Carolyn E; Parker, Andrew J; Cunningham, Kay

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the language impairments that occur in brain tumor patients using a cognitively oriented theoretical framework. Forty-nine preoperative brain tumor patients completed a new testing protocol (the BLAST) which assesses 8 well documented, "core" cognitive skills required for language: auditory word recognition, accessing semantic knowledge, lexical selection, phonological encoding, verbal short-term memory, goal-driven language selection, verb retrieval, and articulatory-motor planning. Patients were unselected with respect to lesion location. A surprising 65% of patients scored below controls on at least 1 core skill. Patients with left temporal tumors, as a group, had lower scores than the remaining patients on phonological encoding, accessing semantic knowledge and verbal short-term memory (STM). Those with left frontal tumors had the lowest scores on articulatory-motor planning. These findings are broadly consistent with previous studies examining the anatomical substrates of our "core" cognitive processes. We conclude that selective impairments in key language skills are common in brain tumor patients, but many of these are not adequately assessed on conventional aphasia assessments. Our protocol may provide a useful resource for preoperative, postoperative and intraoperative language assessment in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: does amygdala response reflect threat?

    PubMed Central

    Chekroud, Adam M.; Everett, Jim A. C.; Bridge, Holly; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area using racial group memberships has quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions. PMID:24734016

  10. Homophobia or sexism? A systematic review of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Peroni, Rodrigo Oliva; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2013-01-01

    Since it was coined in the 1970s, in the United States, the term "homophobia" has been invoked to define the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation. Besides the US, the phenomenon has been detected in many contemporary societies, including Brazil. Prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation is strongly associated with the historical and social contexts in which it is embedded, which means that the term should not be used without a clear definition of its local specificities. This applies to the recent debate around homophobia in the Brazilian context. In an attempt to identify existing studies of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations in Brazil, a systematic review was conducted in SciELO indexes, PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. The articles were collected using the keyword "homophobia" and related terms, and "Brazil", in the languages of the databases. The search returned 355 articles. Of these, 247 were removed because they were duplicates. The abstracts of 109 studies published between 1973 and 2011were analyzed. Thirty-one articles were identified as relevant. The reviewed studies indicate that prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations is an evident and widespread phenomenon that is prevalent in various populations and contexts. Nevertheless, prejudice in Brazil is not homogeneous, and particular attention is necessary to the inequality of gender relations (sexism) and prejudice against gender nonconformity, which seem to explain, if not cause, most of the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations. Although theoretically there is a clear distinction between sexual orientation and gender expression, from the standpoint of manifestation of prejudice that distinction seems to be more tenuous.

  11. Gender Differences in Human Cognition. Counterpoints: Cognition, Memory, and Language Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Paula J.; Crawford, Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Richardson, John T. E.

    Noting the fascination of both researchers and the general public with possible gender differences in human cognition and whether these differences originate in biology, childhood influences, or cultural stereotypes, this book summarizes research studies on gender differences in cognition. The book examines social and cultural implications of this…

  12. Using music to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to language.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2017-02-01

    This article argues that music can be used in cross-species research to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to spoken language. This is because music and language share certain cognitive processing mechanisms and because music offers specific advantages for cross-species research. Music has relatively simple building blocks (tones without semantic properties), yet these building blocks are combined into rich hierarchical structures that engage complex cognitive processing. I illustrate this point with regard to the processing of musical harmonic structure. Because the processing of musical harmonic structure has been shown to interact with linguistic syntactic processing in humans, it is of interest to know if other species can acquire implicit knowledge of harmonic structure through extended exposure to music during development (vs. through explicit training). I suggest that domestic dogs would be a good species to study in addressing this question.

  13. Language and cognitive development in 47,XXX females followed since birth.

    PubMed

    Pennington, B; Puck, M; Robinson, A

    1980-01-01

    In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47,XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6--14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4--6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who presently have serious language and learning problems were significantly delayed in first walking or talking, whereas the relatively unaffected girls were not. Results of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) at 4 years of age and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC or WISC-R) at 8 years of age are similar and show a generalized depression of both verbal and nonverbal abilities. Thus, unlike 45,X females or 47,XXX males, triple-X females do not have a specifically nonverbal or verbal cognitive deficit.

  14. Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics. Cognitive Linguistics in Practice Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirven, Rene; Verspoor, Marjolijn

    This book is designed as a comprehensive introductory text for first and second year college students of language and linguistics. It provides a chapter on each of the more established areas of linguistics, such as lexicology, morphology, syntax, phonetics and phonology, historical linguistics, and language typology and on some newer areas such as…

  15. Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnard, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)

  16. Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnard, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)

  17. Do cognitive, language, or physical impairments affect participation in a trial of self-management programs for stroke?

    PubMed

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Srikanth, Velandai; Lindley, Richard I; Lalor, Erin; Osborne, Richard H; Batterbsy, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Research studies may have limited generalizability when survivors of stroke with physical, language, or cognitive impairments are excluded. To assess whether presence of cognitive, language, or global impairments affects participation in self-management programs. Stroke survivors were recruited in South Australia from seven hospitals or via advertisements into a randomized controlled trial (1:1:1 ratio) of a Stroke Self-Management Program, the Stanford chronic condition self-management program, or standard care. Impairment status was measured using: Cognistat (cognition), Frenchay Aphasia assessment (language), modified Rankin Score (mRS; where score 3-5 = global disability). participation (i.e. booked, accessed, and completed a program (defined as attending ≥ 50% of sessions)) and safety (i.e. adverse events). Outcomes were compared by impairment status. Among 315 people screened 143/149 eligible were randomized (median age 71 years; 41% male; with impairments: 62% cognitive, 34% language, 64% global disability). Participation did not differ by cognitive or language impairment status (cognitive 75%, no cognitive 68%, p = 0.54; language 78%, no language 69%, p = 0.42). However, participation did vary by global impairment status (global disability 61%, no disability 96%, p < 0.001). Participants with cognitive impairment experienced more adverse events (severe n = 9 versus no cognitive impairment n = 1). Survivors of stroke with cognitive, language, or global impairments are able to participate in self-management programs and should be included in these types of research studies or programs. Reduced participation by those with global disability and the possibility of more adverse events in people with cognitive impairments needs to be considered. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  18. Prejudice, Mental Health and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Nathan W.

    This pamphlet explores the relationship among prejudice, mental health, and family life. Prejudice is learned behavior, initially within the family unit which sets the framework for good or bad mental health as well as for the development of positive or negative attitudes. The family also determines the degree and kind of mental health of each…

  19. Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2013-01-01

    The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

  20. News exposure predicts anti-Muslim prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Chris G.; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media’s role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950’s, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world’s most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice. PMID:28362823

  1. Prejudice Toward Women: Some Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Philip A.

    This research sought to determine what personality characteristics are associated with prejudice toward women, and given the reality of such characteristics, what is the functional, personal value of this prejudice. This paper reports on the results of a series of correlational studies intended to answer these questions using a variety of…

  2. Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2013-01-01

    The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

  3. Automatic prejudice in childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as prejudice-related prime stimuli. In all 4 studies, a pattern occurred that suggests a linear developmental increase of automatic prejudice with significant effects of outgroup negativity appearing only around the ages of 12 to 13 years. Results of younger children, on the contrary, did not indicate any effect of automatic prejudice activation. In contrast, prejudice effects in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) showed high levels of prejudice independent of age (Study 3). Results of Study 4 suggest that these age differences are due to age-related differences in spontaneous categorization processes. Introducing a forced-categorization into the affective priming procedure produced a pattern of results equivalent to that obtained with the IAT. These results suggest that although children are assumed to acquire prejudice at much younger ages, automatization of such attitudes might be related to developmental processes in early adolescence. We discuss possible theoretical implications of these results for a developmental theory of prejudice representation and automatization during childhood and adolescence.

  4. The Approach of Emotional Deactivation of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jean-Nil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…

  5. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  6. Discriminations: Kinds and Types of Prejudices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the nature of prejudice and racism, and argues that there is no generalized prejudiced person, and there are no groups in which all prejudices are exercised by all members. For individual change or group transformation, people must have their specific desires analyzed. (SLD)

  7. Research: General Semantics Training: Pride or Prejudice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that general semantics research into prejudice has made only minor contributions to an understanding of prejudice because of weak experimental designs. Suggests improvements in research methodology and urges that knowledge of the semantic world of minority groups be sought as a prerequisite to eliminating cultural bias in standardized…

  8. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  9. Research: General Semantics Training: Pride or Prejudice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that general semantics research into prejudice has made only minor contributions to an understanding of prejudice because of weak experimental designs. Suggests improvements in research methodology and urges that knowledge of the semantic world of minority groups be sought as a prerequisite to eliminating cultural bias in standardized…

  10. The Approach of Emotional Deactivation of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jean-Nil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…

  11. Confronting Prejudice in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Luisa; Strasser, Janis

    2003-01-01

    By age three or four, children have already begun to construct their gender and racial identity. Stereotypes, prejudices, and practices in homes, communities, and the media can negatively affect children's feelings about themselves and others. Derman-Sparks (1983, 3) warned that young children may develop "pre-prejudice," which she defined as…

  12. Prejudice (Student Book). Value Reasoning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, John, Ed.

    This curriculum unit consists of various student readings and activities on the topic of prejudice. The focus is upon prejudice as it relates to various ethnic groups in North America, to anti-Semitism as a national policy in Nazi Germany, and to immigration policy. It is divided into six episodes, each of which focuses upon the teaching of a…

  13. Prejudice: Teacher's Manual. Value Reasoning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, John, Ed.

    This curriculum unit consists of various student readings and activities on the topic of prejudice. The focus is upon prejudice as it relates to various ethnic groups in North America, to anti-Semitism as a national policy in Nazi Germany, and to immigration policy. It is divided into six episodes, each of which focuses upon the teaching of a…

  14. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  15. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    PubMed

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Individual differences in spatial cognition influence mental simulation of language.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Williams, John N

    2015-09-01

    The factors that contribute to perceptual simulation during sentence comprehension remain underexplored. Extant research on perspective taking in language has largely focused on linguistic constraints, such as the role of pronouns in guiding perspective adoption. In the present study, we identify preferential usage of egocentric and allocentric reference frames in individuals, and test the two groups on a standard sentence-picture verification task. Across three experiments, we show that individual biases in spatial reference frame adoption observed in non-linguistic tasks influence visual simulation of perspective in language. Our findings suggest that typically reported grand-averaged effects may obscure important between-subject differences, and support proposals arguing for representational pluralism, where perceptual information is integrated dynamically and in a way that is sensitive to contextual and especially individual constraints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial Language Facilitates Spatial Cognition: Evidence from Children Who Lack Language Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre; Ozyurek, Asli; Gurcanli, Ozge; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Does spatial language influence how people think about space? To address this question, we observed children who did not know a conventional language, and tested their performance on nonlinguistic spatial tasks. We studied deaf children living in Istanbul whose hearing losses prevented them from acquiring speech and whose hearing parents had not…

  18. Grammatical Language Impairment and the Specificity of Cognitive Domains: Relations between Auditory and Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Rosen, Stuart; Adlard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Grammatical-specific language impairment (G-SLI) in children, arguably, provides evidence for the existence of a specialised grammatical sub-system in the brain, necessary for normal language development. Some researchers challenge this, claiming that domain-general, low-level auditory deficits, particular to rapid processing, cause phonological…

  19. Spatial Language Facilitates Spatial Cognition: Evidence from Children Who Lack Language Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre; Ozyurek, Asli; Gurcanli, Ozge; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Does spatial language influence how people think about space? To address this question, we observed children who did not know a conventional language, and tested their performance on nonlinguistic spatial tasks. We studied deaf children living in Istanbul whose hearing losses prevented them from acquiring speech and whose hearing parents had not…

  20. When Language of Instruction and Language of Application Differ: Cognitive Costs of Bilingual Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalbach, Henrik; Eckstein, Doris; Andri, Nicoletta; Hobi, Reto; Grabner, Roland H.

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education programs implicitly assume that the acquired knowledge is represented in a language-independent way. This assumption, however, stands in strong contrast to research findings showing that information may be represented in a way closely tied to the specific language of instruction and learning. The present study aims to examine…

  1. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  2. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  3. Relations between language and cognition in native-signing children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron; Pyers, Jennie; Martin, Amber; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Two populations have been found to exhibit delays in theory of mind (ToM): deaf children of hearing parents and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Deaf children exposed to sign from birth by their deaf parents, however, show no such delay, suggesting that early language exposure is key to ToM development. Sign languages also present frequent opportunities with visual perspective-taking (VPT), leading to the question of whether sign exposure could benefit children with ASD. We present the first study of children with ASD exposed to sign from birth by their deaf parents. Seventeen native-signing children with a confirmed ASD diagnosis and a chronological- and mental age-matched control group of 18 typically developing (TD) native-signing deaf children were tested on American Sign Language (ASL) comprehension, two minimally verbal social cognition tasks (ToM and VPT), and one spatial cognition task (mental rotation). The TD children outperformed the children with ASD on ASL comprehension (p < 0.0001), ToM (p = 0.02), and VPT (p < 0.01), but not mental rotation (p = 0.12). Language strongly correlated with ToM (p < 0.01) and VPT (p < 0.001), but not mental rotation (p = ns). Native exposure to sign is thus insufficient to overcome the language and social impairments implicated in ASD. Contrary to the hypothesis that sign could provide a scaffold for ToM skills, we find that signing children with ASD are unable to access language so as to gain any potential benefit sign might confer. Our results support a strong link between the development of social cognition and language, regardless of modality, for TD and ASD children. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1304-1315. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Overlapping networks engaged during spoken language production and its cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Wise, Richard J S; Mehta, Amrish; Leech, Robert

    2014-06-25

    Spoken language production is a complex brain function that relies on large-scale networks. These include domain-specific networks that mediate language-specific processes, as well as domain-general networks mediating top-down and bottom-up attentional control. Language control is thought to involve a left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal (FTP) system. However, these regions do not always activate for language tasks and similar regions have been implicated in nonlinguistic cognitive processes. These inconsistent findings suggest that either the left FTP is involved in multidomain cognitive control or that there are multiple spatially overlapping FTP systems. We present evidence from an fMRI study using multivariate analysis to identify spatiotemporal networks involved in spoken language production in humans. We compared spoken language production (Speech) with multiple baselines, counting (Count), nonverbal decision (Decision), and "rest," to pull apart the multiple partially overlapping networks that are involved in speech production. A left-lateralized FTP network was activated during Speech and deactivated during Count and nonverbal Decision trials, implicating it in cognitive control specific to sentential spoken language production. A mirror right-lateralized FTP network was activated in the Count and Decision trials, but not Speech. Importantly, a second overlapping left FTP network showed relative deactivation in Speech. These three networks, with distinct time courses, overlapped in the left parietal lobe. Contrary to the standard model of the left FTP as being dominant for speech, we revealed a more complex pattern within the left FTP, including at least two left FTP networks with competing functional roles, only one of which was activated in speech production.

  5. Cognitive and language development of healthy preterm infants at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Magill-Evans, Joyce; Harrison, Margaret J; Van der Zalm, Jeanne; Holdgrafer, Gary

    2002-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, forty-three Canadian 10-year-olds, 20 born preterm without significant health problems and 23 born at term, were compared. Cognitive development was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Language development was measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3 (CELF-3) and language used in a 5 minute interview. The children born preterm had subtle delays. They scored significantly lower on Performance IQ and the CELF-3. The subtests on which they had lower scores appear to require visual-spatial skills. Early intervention focusing on parent behaviours that encourage language development and early screening for delays in visual-spatial skills may be useful.

  6. Interactions of language and cognition in deaf learners: from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Marschark, Marc

    2003-07-01

    It is well established that deaf children begin school lagging in general language skills relative to hearing peers, and that deaf and hearing students differ with regard to literacy and other academic skills. These domains are typically treated separately, by different groups of researchers, with little consideration for common factors that might underlie them. It appears, however, that both of these situations might reflect differences in conceptual and content knowledge, as well as linguistic knowledge, between and among deaf and hearing learners. Such differences would clearly contribute to observed patterns of academic performance, and might have rather specific consequences for the development of language and literacy. A review of relevant research indicates interactions in concept-related language and cognitive processes among deaf learners, interactions that would be expected to influence language and literacy skills and potentially provide avenues for improvements in both.

  7. Improvement in cognitive and language skills from preschool to adolescence in autism.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Marian; McGovern, Corina W

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports on the developmental progression of a sample of 48 adolescents and young adults with autism who were previously assessed at preschool age and again in the mid-school period. In contrast to the earlier period when about one-third of the children made dramatic gains, cognitive and language skills tended to remain stable or decline over this time span. The gain in mental and language age of the non-retarded adolescents with autism was less than half the change in their chronological age. The mentally retarded adolescents with autism showed some gain in mental age over time but this was far less than their change in chronological age, and they showed almost no gain in language age. Early childhood predictors of language skills in adolescence were functional play skills, responsiveness to others' bids for joint attention, and the frequency of requesting behaviors.

  8. Language and cognitive communication during post-traumatic amnesia: A critical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal speech pathology literature on communication presentation during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and the early recovery period after traumatic brain injury. While a body of research reports on other cognitive and behavioural functions during PTA, language and/or cognitive communication are not routinely the primary focus of current research literature. This critical synthesis provides an overview of research to date on communication during PTA to inform speech pathology assessment practice and to assist with information provision to the multidisciplinary team and family members. A search was conducted of studies reporting on language, cognition, and cognitive communication during the acute, inpatient and early recovery period after TBI. These were examined for relevance to speech pathology practice during PTA and acute confusional state. Historic and recent literature has described types of language and communication impairment during PTA and early recovery after TBI. Recently, aspects of communication impairment during PTA have been found relevant for outcome prediction. Few studies were found originating from speech pathology on communication during PTA. Communication disruption forms a key feature of PTA. Existing literature indicates that speech pathology monitoring of communication during PTA may be of benefit as part of multidisciplinary team management during early recovery.

  9. Language, Executive Function and Social Cognition in the Diagnosis of Frontotemporal Dementia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Harciarek, Michał; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represents a spectrum of non-Alzheimer’s degenerative conditions associated with focal atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. Frontal and temporal regions of the brain have been shown to be strongly involved in executive function, social cognition and language processing and, thus, deficits in these domains are frequently seen in patients with FTD or may even be hallmarks of a specific FTD subtype ( i.e., relatively selective and progressive language impairment in primary progressive aphasia). In this review, we have attempted to delineate how language, executive function, and social cognition may contribute to the diagnosis of FTD syndromes, namely the behavioral variant FTD as well as the language variants of FTD including the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic. This review also addresses the extent to which deficits in these cognitive areas contribute to the differential diagnosis of FTD versus AD. Finally, early clinical determinants of pathology are briefly discussed and contemporary challenges to the diagnosis of FTD are presented. PMID:23611348

  10. Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: Digging Deeper for the Contributions of Language Dominance, Linguistic Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…

  11. Effects of Target Person Expression on Ethnic Prejudice toward Middle Easterners and Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Tia N.; Scott, David A.; Nocks, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    Research on implicit prejudice suggests that target person judgments may be affected by unintentional, but well-learned, cognitive associations. Ethnicity, gender, and smiling or nonsmiling expression were varied as cues in White college students' perception tasks. The results of a factorial experiment are included as well as a discussion of the…

  12. Teaching Students About Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination: An Interview with Susan Fiske

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorate, Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). She wrote Social Cognition (with Taylor) on how people make sense of each other. Currently, she investigates emotional prejudices (pity, contempt, envy, and pride) at cultural,…

  13. Teaching Students About Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination: An Interview with Susan Fiske

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorate, Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). She wrote Social Cognition (with Taylor) on how people make sense of each other. Currently, she investigates emotional prejudices (pity, contempt, envy, and pride) at cultural,…

  14. Effects of Target Person Expression on Ethnic Prejudice toward Middle Easterners and Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Tia N.; Scott, David A.; Nocks, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    Research on implicit prejudice suggests that target person judgments may be affected by unintentional, but well-learned, cognitive associations. Ethnicity, gender, and smiling or nonsmiling expression were varied as cues in White college students' perception tasks. The results of a factorial experiment are included as well as a discussion of the…

  15. Speech, language, and cognition in preschool children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Selassie, G Rejnö-Habte; Viggedal, G; Olsson, I; Jennische, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied expressive and receptive language, oral motor ability, attention, memory, and intelligence in 20 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, six males; mean age 6y 5mo, range 6y-6y 11mo) without learning disability, cerebral palsy (CP), and/or autism, and in 30 reference children without epilepsy (18 females, 12 males; mean age 6y 5mo, range 6y-6y 11mo). Ten children had partial, six primarily generalized, and four unclassified epilepsy. Fourteen were having monotherapy and six were taking two or more antiepileptic drugs; 13 children were free from seizures 3 months before the assessment. Results show no statistically significant difference between the groups concerning Verbal IQ, expressive and receptive grammar, and receptive vocabulary. The children with epilepsy had a significantly lower Performance IQ and lower scores in tests of oral motor ability, articulation, emerging literacy, auditory attention, short-term memory, and rapid word retrieval. Parent ratings revealed no significant difference in communicative ability. Polytherapy and early onset of epilepsy influenced some results. Preschool children with epilepsy without learning disability, CP, and/or autism may have receptive verbal ability within the normal range but visuoperceptual, auditory attentional, and speech-language difficulties that could affect school achievement. Careful testing of children with epilepsy who appear to be functioning within the normal range is needed because this may reveal specific impairments that require appropriate professional input.

  16. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.03 Psychology and Second-Language Teaching: Behaviorist & Cognitive Approaches. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    This learning module is designed to provide the student with an introduction to the relevance of psychology for second-language teaching and its practical classroom applications and to enable him to: (a) define concisely cognitive and behaviorist theories, (b) identify the effects of the cognitive and behaviorist theories in a series of…

  17. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Hellendoorn, Annika; Wijnroks, Lex; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Leseman, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition, exploration, and language development in preschool children with ASD and children with other developmental delays/disorders. The ASD group included 63 children at T1 (Mage = 27.10 months, SD = 8.71) and 46 children at T2 (Mage = 45.85 months, SD = 7.16). The DD group consisted of 269 children at T1 (Mage = 17.99 months, SD = 5.59), and 121 children at T2 (Mag e= 43.51 months, SD = 3.81). A subgroup nested within the total sample was randomly selected and studied in-depth on exploratory behavior. This group consisted of 50 children, 21 children with ASD (Mage = 27.57, SD = 7.09) and 29 children with DD (Mage = 24.03 months, SD = 6.42). Fine motor functioning predicted language in both groups. Fine motor functioning was related to visuospatial cognition in both groups and related to object exploration, spatial exploration, and social orientation during exploration only in the ASD group. Visuospatial cognition and all exploration measures were related to both receptive and expressive language in both groups. The findings are in line with the embodied cognition theory, which suggests that cognition emerges from and is grounded in the bodily interactions of an agent with the environment. This study emphasizes the need for researchers and clinicians to consider cognition as emergent from multiple interacting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  20. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  1. Workplace Incivility as Modern Sexual Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; Hoel, Helge; Arenas, Alicia; Munduate, Lourdes

    2015-12-23

    Although discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation is prohibited by law in many countries, negative prejudices against Lesbian and Gay (LG) people, as a stigmatized minority, might be internalized by co-workers, being a source of a modern and subtle form of discrimination. Results from 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with LG employees show that they are victims of workplace incivility which is manifested through jokes, use of language, stereotypes, and intrusive behaviors. Such acts are barely recognizable as a form of discrimination, due to the absence of any reference to sexual orientation, and for this reason it is more difficult to act against them at an organizational level. This is the first study that demonstrates how workplace incivility toward LG employees can be an expression of a subtle form of discrimination. It shows that discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation has not disappeared; it has simply changed its manifestations. Contributions and implications of the study are discussed from a theoretical and a practical perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Soares, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. Method We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Results Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Conclusion Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging. PMID:25565785

  3. Cognitive assessment of refugee children: Effects of trauma and new language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ida; Stolk, Yvonne; Valibhoy, Madeleine; Tucker, Alan; Baker, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Each year, approximately 60,000 children of refugee background are resettled in Western countries. This paper reviews the effects of the refugee experience on cognitive functioning. The distinctive influences for these children include exposure to traumatic events and the need to acquire a new language, factors that need to be considered to avoid overdiagnosis of learning disorders and inappropriate educational placements. Prearrival trauma, psychological sequelae of traumatic events, developmental impact of trauma, and the quality of family functioning have been found to influence cognitive functioning, learning, and academic performance. In addition, the refugee child may be semiproficient in several languages, but proficient in none, whilst also trying to learn a new language. The influence that the child's limited English proficiency, literacy, and school experience may have on academic and test performance is demonstrated by drawing on the research on refugees' English language acquisition, as well as the more extensive literature on bilingual English language learners. Implications for interventions are drawn at the level of government policy, schools, and the individual. The paper concludes with the observation that there is a major need for longitudinal research on refugee children's learning and academic performance and on interventions that will close the academic gap, thereby enabling refugee children to reach their educational potential. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fernanda Cabral; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging.

  5. Modeling the emergence of language as an embodied collective cognitive activity.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Edwin; Johnson, Christine M

    2009-07-01

    Two decades of attempts to model the emergence of language as a collective cognitive activity have demonstrated a number of principles that might have been part of the historical process that led to language. Several models have demonstrated the emergence of structure in a symbolic medium, but none has demonstrated the emergence of the capacity for symbolic representation. The current shift in cognitive science toward theoretical frameworks based on embodiment is already furnishing computational models with additional mechanisms relevant to the emergence of symbolic language. An analysis of embodied interaction among captive, but not human-enculturated, bonobo chimpanzees reveals a number of additional features of embodiment that are relevant to the emergence of symbolic language, but that have not yet been explored in computational simulation models; for example, complementarity of action in addition to imitation, iconic in addition to indexical gesture, coordination among multiple sensory and perceptual modalities, and the orchestration of intra- and inter-individual motor coordination. The bonobos provide an evolutionarily plausible intermediate stage in the development of symbolic expression that can inform efforts to model the emergence of symbolic language.

  6. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Julien

    2004-06-01

    Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (+/- 1000 Hz) and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source). Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island), and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens). Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates), providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  7. Straight Talk about Prejudice. The Straight Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranz, Rachel

    The Straight Talk series is designed for teenagers today. It presents the most factual, up-to-date information available. "Straight Talk about Prejudice" provides readers with clear, factual information about prejudice and explores how unjust and destructive prejudice and discrimination really are. Prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination are…

  8. Nonverbal Cognition in Deaf Children Following Cochlear Implantation: Motor Sequencing Disturbances Mediate Language Delays

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Henning, Shirley C.; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF–4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs. PMID:21347923

  9. Nonverbal cognition in deaf children following cochlear implantation: motor sequencing disturbances mediate language delays.

    PubMed

    Conway, Christopher M; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M; Henning, Shirley C; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B

    2011-01-01

    We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF-4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs.

  10. The co-emergence of cognition, language, and speech motor control in early development: a longitudinal correlation study.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R; Marx, David B

    2011-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in articulatory kinematics and development of skills in multiple domains thought to support early communication development. Twenty-four children were investigated every 3 months between the ages of 9 and 21 months. Movements of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw were transduced using a three-dimensional motion capture system to obtain age-related changes in movement speed and range of movement. Standardized measures of cognition and language from the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory were also collected. Significant associations were identified between orofacial kinematic and the standardized measures of language and cognitive skills, even when age served as covariate. These findings provide preliminary evidence of interactions between cognition, language, and speech motor skills during early communication development. Further work is needed to identify and quantify causal relations among these co-emerging skills. The reader will be able to: (1) describe how cognition, language, and speech motor control may interact during speech development, (2) describe the associations between speech kinematic characteristics and measures of cognition and language. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    PubMed

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  12. Language and cognitive communication disorder during post-traumatic amnesia: Profiles of recovery after TBI from three cases.

    PubMed

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2017-09-25

    There has been limited empirical speech-language pathology (SLP) study of language and cognitive communication during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and the early stages after TBI. The purpose of the current research was to explore the potential means and utility of assessing cognitive communication during PTA and the post-acute recovery period. This research used a longitudinal mixed methods design to describe language and cognitive communication assessment and recovery profiles of three patients with TBI. Cognitive communication was assessed with repeated standardised and non-standardised methods during PTA (rated with Westmead PTA Scale) and at follow-up 3 months after PTA emergence. All participants demonstrated a profile of language and cognitive communication strengths and weaknesses during PTA and the post-acute period, also evident at follow-up. Improvement occurred gradually throughout PTA, although with individual fluctuation across test occasions. There was no marked change in communication function immediately before and after PTA emergence, indicating that cognitive communication ability and those functions measured on the Westmead PTA Scale (memory and orientation) did not recover at the same rate. It was feasible to assess language and cognitive communication throughout PTA and the post-acute period, and early assessment results were relevant to the patient's ongoing communicative function. It is suggested that early and repeated SLP assessment may contribute to the prediction of persisting cognitive communication issues.

  13. Taking Seriously Ingroup Self-Evaluation, Meta-Prejudice, and Prejudice in Analyzing Interreligious Relations.

    PubMed

    Putra, Idhamsyah Eka

    2016-07-18

    The present study aims to understand the conditions where prejudice can be predicted by ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice. The data collecting was disseminated toward Muslim and Christian participants (N = 362) living in Maumere, Flores Island, Indonesia. In Flores, Christianity is the largest religion and Islam is the second. Across two samples, the effects of ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice on prejudice were found to be moderated by ingroup self-evaluation. It shows that at high level (but not low) of positive ingroup self-evaluation, ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice were found to predict prejudice. The results suggest that it is important to consider how group members evaluate their own group and how group members think what others are thinking, in the study pertaining to intergroup relations.

  14. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children. PMID:24917836

  15. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children.

  16. The neuroscience of prejudice and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.

  17. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology.

    PubMed

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child's language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child's language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child's language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development.

  18. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology

    PubMed Central

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child’s language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child’s language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child’s language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development. PMID:26379591

  19. Cognitive and language skills in adults with autism: a 40-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Moss, Philippa; Tempier, Althea; Rutter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that very few individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and an IQ below 70 are able to live independently as adults. However, even amongst children with an IQ in the normal range, outcome is very variable. Childhood factors that predict later stability, improvement or decline in cognitive functioning remain uncertain and, in particular, very little is known about trajectories in later adulthood. Changes in cognitive and language ability from childhood to adulthood were assessed in 60 individuals with autism, all of whom had an IQ in the average range as children. Mean age in childhood = 6 years (range 2-13 years); mean age in adulthood = 44 years (range 29-64 years). Trajectories of change and factors related to current cognitive abilities were explored. For the majority of participants (N = 45, 75%), who were testable both as children and adults, IQ remained very stable and language also improved over time. However, 15 individuals could not be assessed on standard tests as adults and their developmental level could be estimated only on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Almost all these adults (apart from one who had suffered a major stroke) showed severe aggressive or self-injurious behaviours; none had ever developed language above a 3-year level, and seven had developed epilepsy. For most individuals with autism who had an IQ in the average range (i.e. ≥ 70) as children, childhood IQ proved a reliable predictor of cognitive functioning well into mid- to- later adulthood. However, a significant minority was no longer testable on standard tests as adults. Their current very low levels of functional ability were generally associated with severe behavioural disturbance and persisting and severe language impairment; 50% of these individuals had also developed epilepsy, pointing to the role of organic brain dysfunction. Implications for early intervention are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and

  20. From Domain Specific Languages to DEVS Components: Application to Cognitive M&S

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    XML-Based Finite Deterministic DEVS, last accessed Jan 2011 at: http://www.duniptechnologies.com/ research /xfddevs/ [22] Hong. KJ, Kim, TG...1 From Domain Specific Languages to DEVS Components: Application to Cognitive M&S Saurabh Mittal L-3 Communications, Air Force Research ...Laboratory, Mesa, AZ 85212 USA Saurabh.Mittal@L-3com.com Scott A. Douglass Air Force Research Laboratory, Mesa, AZ 85212, USA Scott.Douglass

  1. The limits of racial prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  2. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Niche construction, social cognition, and language: hypothesizing the human as the production of place.

    PubMed

    Davies, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al. (in: Interdisziplinäre anthropologie, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014) of face-to-face social cognition, as well as tool use. The possibility of a positive or negative tension between the more recent ALC and the more ancient, pre-thematic, self-organizing 'in-between' frames an 'internal' niche construction. This indexes the internal structure of HC as 'convergence', where complex, engaged, social reasoning in ALC mirrors the cognitive structure of the pre-thematic 'in-between', extending the bio-energy of our social cognition, through reflexive amplification, in the production of 'social place' as 'humanized space'. If individual word/phrase acquisition, in contextual actuality, is the distinctive feature of human language (Hurford in European Reviews 12:551-565, 2004), then human language is a hyperbolic, species-wide training in particularized co-location, developing consciousness of a shared world. The humanization of space and production of HC, through co-location, requires the 'disarming' of language as a medium of control, and a foregrounding of the materiality of the sign. The production of 'hyper-place' as solidarity beyond the face-to-face, typical of world religions, becomes possible where internal niche construction as convergence with the 'in-between' (world in us) combines with religious cosmologies reflecting an external 'cosmic' niche construction (world outside us).

  4. Association between speech-language, general cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, N F; Giacheti, C M

    2017-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. The study's participants were 26 individuals with WS and their parents. General cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Token Test and the Cookie Theft Picture test were used as speech-language measures. Five speech-language characteristics were evaluated from a 30-min conversation (clichés, echolalia, perseverative speech, exaggerated prosody and monotone intonation). The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 6-18) was used to assess behavioural problems. Higher single-word receptive vocabulary and narrative vocabulary were negatively associated with CBCL T-scores for Social Problems, Aggressive Behaviour and Total Problems. Speech rate was negatively associated with the CBCL Withdrawn/Depressed T-score. Monotone intonation was associated with shy behaviour, as well as exaggerated prosody with talkative behaviour. WS with perseverative speech and exaggerated prosody presented higher scores on Thought Problems. Echolalia was significantly associated with lower Verbal IQ. No significant association was found between IQ and behaviour problems. Age-associated effects were observed only for the Aggressive Behaviour scale. Associations reported in the present study may represent an insightful background for future predictive studies of speech-language, cognition and behaviour problems in WS. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of literacy level on cognitive and language tests in Korean illiterate older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, JungWan; Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, HyangHee

    2014-10-01

    Illiterate individuals represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Acquisition of reading and writing skills influences the functional status of the brain, and consequently alters the performance on cognitive and language tests. Thus, it is important to identify the degree of the impact of levels of both illiteracy and education as potential confounders on test performance in people with neurological communication disorders. A total of 203 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were recruited for the present study. Participants were classified into four groups based on the literacy level; pure illiterate (n=29), semi-illiterate (n=67), literate (n=75) and high-level literate (n=32). The participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (animal), verb naming, and sentence comprehension tests. The pure illiterate group showed the lowest performance on all five tests. Regression analysis showed that literacy level was the variable that best predicted the performance on cognitive and language tests. These findings suggest that literacy in performance on cognitive and language tests is an important factor in neuropsychological evaluations for older adults. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Nitric oxide signaling in the development and evolution of language and cognitive circuits.

    PubMed

    Funk, Owen H; Kwan, Kenneth Y

    2014-09-01

    The neocortex underlies not only remarkable motor and sensory capabilities, but also some of our most distinctly human cognitive functions. The emergence of these higher functions during evolution was accompanied by structural changes in the neocortex, including the acquisition of areal specializations such as Broca's speech and language area. The study of these evolutionary mechanisms, which likely involve species-dependent gene expression and function, represents a substantial challenge. These species differences, however, may represent valuable opportunities to understand the molecular underpinnings of neocortical evolution. Here, we discuss nitric oxide signaling as a candidate mechanism in the assembly of neocortical circuits underlying language and higher cognitive functions. This hypothesis was based on the highly specific mid-fetal pattern of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1, previously nNOS) expression in the pyramidal (projection) neurons of two human neocortical areas respectively involved in speech and language, and higher cognition; the frontal operculum (FOp) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This expression is transiently present during mid-gestation, suggesting that NOS1 may be involved in the development of these areas and the assembly of their neural circuits. As no other gene product is known to exhibit such exquisite spatiotemporal expression, NOS1 represents a remarkable candidate for these functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental Trajectories in Siblings of Children with Autism: Cognition and Language from 4 Months to 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit; Jaffe, Dena H.; Manor, Orly; Sigman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    We compared the cognitive and language development at 4, 14, 24, 36, 54 months, and 7 years of siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) to that of siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) using growth curve analyses. At 7 years, 40% of the SIBS-A, compared to 16% of SIBS-TD, were identified with cognitive, language and/or academic…

  8. Could language deficits really differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from mild Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Tsantali, E; Economidis, D; Tsolaki, M

    2013-01-01

    Naming abilities seem to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, though MCI individuals tend to exhibit greater impairments in category fluency. In this study we: (1) detect language deficits of amnestic MCIs (aMCIs) and mild AD (mAD) participants and present their language performance (the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - BDAE scores) according to educational level, (2) study the diagnostic value of language deficits according to the cognitive state of the participants. One hundred nineteen participants, 38 normal controls (NC), 28 aMCIs and 53 mADs, were recruited randomly as outpatients of 2 clinical departments and administered clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging assessment. Language abilities were assessed by the adapted Greek edition of the BDAE (2nd edition). Our results indicate that verbal fluency, auditory, reading comprehension and narrative ability are the main language abilities to be affected in mADs, although they are almost intact in NCs and less vulnerable in aMCIs. Narrative ability seems to be significantly impaired in mADs but not so in aMCIs. Six language subtests of the BDAE assess safely the above deficits. This brief version of the BDAE discriminated mADs from the other 2 groups 92.5% of the time, NCs 86.8% and aMCI 67.9% of the time in order to save time and to be accurate in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth in literacy, cognition, and working memory in English language learners.

    PubMed

    Lee Swanson, H; Orosco, Michael J; Lussier, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    This cohort sequential study explored the components of working memory that underlie English reading and language acquisition in elementary school children whose first language is Spanish. To this end, children (N=410) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory [STM], working memory [WM], rapid naming, phonological processing, and random letter and number generation), vocabulary, and reading measures in both Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. The results showed that (a) a three-factor structure (phonological STM, visual-spatial WM, and verbal WM) captured the data within both language systems, (b) growth in both the executive and STM storage components was uniquely related to growth in second language (L2) reading and language acquisition, and (c) the contribution of growth in the executive component of WM to growth in L2 processing was independent of growth in storage, phonological knowledge, inhibition, and rapid naming speed. The results suggested that growth in the phonological storage system does not supersede growth of the executive component of WM as a major contributor to growth in children's L2 reading and language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A methodology for the characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments-Application to specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Jesús; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of mental disorders is in most cases very difficult because of the high heterogeneity and overlap between associated cognitive impairments. Furthermore, early and individualized diagnosis is crucial. In this paper, we propose a methodology to support the individualized characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments. The methodology can also be used as a test platform for existing theories on the causes of the impairments. We use computational cognitive modeling to gather information on the cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and impaired behavior. We then use this information to feed machine-learning algorithms to individually characterize the impairment and to differentiate between normal and impaired behavior. We apply the methodology to the particular case of specific language impairment (SLI) in Spanish-speaking children. The proposed methodology begins by defining a task in which normal and individuals with impairment present behavioral differences. Next we build a computational cognitive model of that task and individualize it: we build a cognitive model for each participant and optimize its parameter values to fit the behavior of each participant. Finally, we use the optimized parameter values to feed different machine learning algorithms. The methodology was applied to an existing database of 48 Spanish-speaking children (24 normal and 24 SLI children) using clustering techniques for the characterization, and different classifier techniques for the diagnosis. The characterization results show three well-differentiated groups that can be associated with the three main theories on SLI. Using a leave-one-subject-out testing methodology, all the classifiers except the DT produced sensitivity, specificity and area under curve values above 90%, reaching 100% in some cases. The results show that our methodology is able to find relevant information on the underlying cognitive mechanisms and to use it appropriately to provide better

  11. The Cognitive Advantages of Counting Specifically: A Representational Analysis of Verbal Numeration Systems in Oceanic Languages.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Schlimm, Dirk; Beller, Sieghard

    2015-10-01

    The domain of numbers provides a paradigmatic case for investigating interactions of culture, language, and cognition: Numerical competencies are considered a core domain of knowledge, and yet the development of specifically human abilities presupposes cultural and linguistic input by way of counting sequences. These sequences constitute systems with distinct structural properties, the cross-linguistic variability of which has implications for number representation and processing. Such representational effects are scrutinized for two types of verbal numeration systems-general and object-specific ones-that were in parallel use in several Oceanic languages (English with its general system is included for comparison). The analysis indicates that the object-specific systems outperform the general systems with respect to counting and mental arithmetic, largely due to their regular and more compact representation. What these findings reveal on cognitive diversity, how the conjectures involved speak to more general issues in cognitive science, and how the approach taken here might help to bridge the gap between anthropology and other cognitive sciences is discussed in the conclusion.

  12. Language between Bodies: A Cognitive Approach to Understanding Linguistic Politeness in American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an answer to the primary question of how the American Sign Language (ASL) community in the United States conceptualizes (im)politeness and its related notions. It begins with a review of evolving theoretical issues in research on (im)politeness and related methodological problems with studying (im)politeness in natural…

  13. Language between Bodies: A Cognitive Approach to Understanding Linguistic Politeness in American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an answer to the primary question of how the American Sign Language (ASL) community in the United States conceptualizes (im)politeness and its related notions. It begins with a review of evolving theoretical issues in research on (im)politeness and related methodological problems with studying (im)politeness in natural…

  14. Children's Comprehension Problems in Oral and Written Language: A Cognitive Perspective. Challenges in Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate, Ed.; Oakhill, Jane, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehension is the ultimate aim of reading and listening. How do children develop the ability to comprehend written and spoken language, and what can be done to help those who are having difficulties? This book presents cutting-edge research on comprehension problems experienced by children without any formal diagnosis as well as those with…

  15. Children's Comprehension Problems in Oral and Written Language: A Cognitive Perspective. Challenges in Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate, Ed.; Oakhill, Jane, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehension is the ultimate aim of reading and listening. How do children develop the ability to comprehend written and spoken language, and what can be done to help those who are having difficulties? This book presents cutting-edge research on comprehension problems experienced by children without any formal diagnosis as well as those with…

  16. Language Reflects "Core" Cognition: A New Theory About the Origin of Cross-Linguistic Regularities.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Brent

    2017-01-01

    The underlying structures that are common to the world's languages bear an intriguing connection with early emerging forms of "core knowledge" (Spelke & Kinzler, 2007), which are frequently studied by infant researchers. In particular, grammatical systems often incorporate distinctions (e.g., the mass/count distinction) that reflect those made in core knowledge (e.g., the non-verbal distinction between an object and a substance). Here, I argue that this connection occurs because non-verbal core knowledge systematically biases processes of language evolution. This account potentially explains a wide range of cross-linguistic grammatical phenomena that currently lack an adequate explanation. Second, I suggest that developmental researchers and cognitive scientists interested in (non-verbal) knowledge representation can exploit this connection to language by using observations about cross-linguistic grammatical tendencies to inspire hypotheses about core knowledge.

  17. Cognitive adaptations induced by a multi-language input in early development.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Ágnes Melinda

    2015-12-01

    Children around the world successfully adapt to the specific requirements of their physical and social environment, and they readily acquire any language they are exposed to. Still, learning simultaneously two languages has been a continuous concern of parents, educators and scientists. While the focus has shifted from the possible costs to the possible advantages of bilingualism, the worries still linger that early bilingualism may cause delays and confusion. Here we adopt a less dichotomist view, by asking what specific adaptations might result from simultaneously learning two languages. We will discuss findings that point to a surprising plasticity of the cognitive system allowing young infants to cope with the bilingual input and reaching linguistic milestones at the same time as monolinguals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language.

  19. Tone Language Speakers and Musicians Share Enhanced Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities for Musical Pitch: Evidence for Bidirectionality between the Domains of Language and Music

    PubMed Central

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language. PMID:23565267

  20. Grounded and embodied mathematical cognition: Promoting mathematical insight and proof using action and language.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Mitchell J; Walkington, Candace

    2017-01-01

    We develop a theory of grounded and embodied mathematical cognition (GEMC) that draws on action-cognition transduction for advancing understanding of how the body can support mathematical reasoning. GEMC proposes that participants' actions serve as inputs capable of driving the cognition-action system toward associated cognitive states. This occurs through a process of transduction that promotes valuable mathematical insights by eliciting dynamic depictive gestures that enact spatio-temporal properties of mathematical entities. Our focus here is on pre-college geometry proof production. GEMC suggests that action alone can foster insight but is insufficient for valid proof production if action is not coordinated with language systems for propositionalizing general properties of objects and space. GEMC guides the design of a video game-based learning environment intended to promote students' mathematical insights and informal proofs by eliciting dynamic gestures through in-game directed actions. GEMC generates several hypotheses that contribute to theories of embodied cognition and to the design of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education interventions. Pilot study results with a prototype video game tentatively support theory-based predictions regarding the role of dynamic gestures for fostering insight and proof-with-insight, and for the role of action coupled with language to promote proof-with-insight. But the pilot yields mixed results for deriving in-game interventions intended to elicit dynamic gesture production. Although our central purpose is an explication of GEMC theory and the role of action-cognition transduction, the theory-based video game design reveals the potential of GEMC to improve STEM education, and highlights the complex challenges of connecting embodiment research to education practices and learning environment design.

  1. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. PMID:23557881

  2. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children.

    PubMed

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-07-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  4. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  5. Extending network approach to language dynamics and human cognition. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2014-12-01

    By analyzing complex networks constructed from authentic language data, Cong and Liu [1] advance linguistics research into the big data era. The network approach has revealed many intrinsic generalities and crucial differences at both the macro and micro scales between human languages. The axiom behind this research is that language is a complex adaptive system [2]. Although many lexical, semantic, or syntactic features have been discovered by means of analyzing the static and dynamic linguistic networks of world languages, available network-based language studies have not explicitly addressed the evolutionary dynamics of language systems and the correlations between language and human cognition. This commentary aims to provide some insights on how to use the network approach to study these issues.

  6. Examining Differences between Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Those with Specific Language Disorders on Cognition, Emotions and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Sideridis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences between students with LD and SLI on emotional psychopathology and cognitive variables. In particular, the study examined whether cognitive, emotional, and psychopathology variables are significant discriminatory variables of speech and language disordered groups versus those…

  7. Elementary School ELLs' Reading Skill Profiles Using Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling: Roles of Length of Residence and Home Language Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Dunlop, Maggie; Wagner, Maryam; Kim, Youn-Hee; Gu, Zhimei

    2013-01-01

    The study examined differences in reading achievement and mastery skill development among Grade-6 students with different language background profiles, using cognitive diagnosis modeling applied to large-scale provincial reading test performance data. Our analyses revealed that students residing in various home language environments show different…

  8. Elementary School ELLs' Reading Skill Profiles Using Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling: Roles of Length of Residence and Home Language Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Dunlop, Maggie; Wagner, Maryam; Kim, Youn-Hee; Gu, Zhimei

    2013-01-01

    The study examined differences in reading achievement and mastery skill development among Grade-6 students with different language background profiles, using cognitive diagnosis modeling applied to large-scale provincial reading test performance data. Our analyses revealed that students residing in various home language environments show different…

  9. The Co-Emergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in…

  10. How Sex, Native Language, and College Major Relate to the Cognitive Strategies Used during 3-D Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yingli; O'Boyle, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Eighty college students mentally rotated 3-D shapes while maintaining a concurrent verbal or spatial memory load to investigate how sex, native language, and college major relate to the cognitive strategies employed during mental rotation (MR). Males were significantly better than females at MR, whereas native language was not related to MR…

  11. How Sex, Native Language, and College Major Relate to the Cognitive Strategies Used during 3-D Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yingli; O'Boyle, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Eighty college students mentally rotated 3-D shapes while maintaining a concurrent verbal or spatial memory load to investigate how sex, native language, and college major relate to the cognitive strategies employed during mental rotation (MR). Males were significantly better than females at MR, whereas native language was not related to MR…

  12. The Effects of Cognitive: Linguistic Variables and Language Experience on Behavioural and Kinematic Performances in Nonword Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cognitive-linguistic variables and language experience on behavioral and kinematic measures of nonword learning in young adults. Group 1 consisted of thirteen participants who spoke American English as the first and only language. Group 2 consisted of seven participants with varying…

  13. The Co-Emergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in…

  14. The Effects of Cognitive: Linguistic Variables and Language Experience on Behavioural and Kinematic Performances in Nonword Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cognitive-linguistic variables and language experience on behavioral and kinematic measures of nonword learning in young adults. Group 1 consisted of thirteen participants who spoke American English as the first and only language. Group 2 consisted of seven participants with varying…

  15. Bilingual Cognitive Control in Language Switching: An fMRI Study of English-Chinese Late Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hengfen; Hu, Jiehui; Xi, Jie; Shen, Wen; Ge, Jianqiao; Geng, Feng; Wu, Yuntao; Guo, Jinjin; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the bilingual cognitive control mechanism by comparing Chinese-English bilinguals’ language switching in a blocked picture naming paradigm against three baseline conditions, namely the control condition (a fixation cross, low-level baseline), single L1 production (Chinese naming, high-level baseline), and single L2 production (English naming, high-level baseline). Different activation patterns were observed for language switching against different baseline conditions. These results indicate that different script bilingual language control involves a fronto-parietal-subcortical network that extends to the precentral gyrus, the Supplementary Motor Area, the Supra Marginal Gyrus, and the fusiform. The different neural correlates identified across different comparisons supported that bilingual language switching involves high-level cognitive processes that are not specific to language processing. Future studies adopting a network approach are crucial in identifying the functional connectivity among regions subserving language control. PMID:25180974

  16. Attention control and ability level in a complex cognitive skill: attention shifting and second-language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Segalowitz, Norman; Frenkiel-Fishman, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between attention control and proficiency in a complex cognitive skill. The participants were English-French bilinguals with varying degrees of second-language (French) proficiency. Proficiency was operationalized as efficiency of lexical access in an animacy judgment task, as reflected in the coefficient of variability of response time adjusted for first-language performance on the same task. Attention control was operationalized as the shift cost obtained in a linguistic version of the alternating runs task-switching paradigm. Hierarchical regression revealed that, overall, attention control accounted for 59% of the variance of proficiency and that second-language attention control alone accounted for 32% of the unique variance of proficiency, indicating a high degree of skill domain (second language) specificity in the relationship between attention control and proficiency. The results speak to issues regarding the development of expertise, second-language acquisition, and a cognitive linguistic approach to language and attention.

  17. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among Secondary School Pupils in Northern England: Introducing the Outgroup Prejudice Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No…

  18. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among Secondary School Pupils in Northern England: Introducing the Outgroup Prejudice Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No…

  19. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL.

  20. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities. PMID:26560154

  1. Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism: language, motor and cognitive profiles.

    PubMed

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Wriedt, Elke; Höhne, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the cognitive profile, the motor and language functioning and the psychosocial adaptation of children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and with high-functioning autism (HFA). Subjects were recruited through the department Autism and Developmental Disorders of the Heckscher-Klinikum. To be included in the study, the full-scale-IQ had to be at least 80. Subjects with AS had to have a normal early language development and subjects with HFA a clear delay in language development, as reported by their parents. The sample consisted of 57 children with Asperger syndrome and 55 children with high-functioning autism. The mean age of the children was 10 years. All subjects were examined with a standardised test battery. Children with AS had a higher full-scale-IQ than children with HFA. This was due to a higher verbal-IQ. There were no significant differences in the performance-IQ. At a mean age of 10 years, subjects with AS had better language skills than subjects with HFA, but at least 30% showed clear receptive language problems. Motor problems were present in about 50% of the children with AS and HFA. The level of psychosocial adaptation was clearly reduced, but was comparable for the two groups. The differences in verbal-IQ and language skills between the two groups could be explained through the definition of the syndromes. The presence of language problems in the subjects with AS at age 10, the comparable degree of motor impairment and level of psychosocial adaptation question the validity of the distinction between AS and HFA within the category of pervasive developmental disorders.

  2. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities.

  3. Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Okada, Brooke M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between structural processing in music and language has received increasing interest in the past several years, spurred by the influential Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH; Patel, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681, 2003). According to this resource-sharing framework, music and language rely on separable syntactic representations but recruit shared cognitive resources to integrate these representations into evolving structures. The SSIRH is supported by findings of interactions between structural manipulations in music and language. However, other recent evidence suggests that such interactions also can arise with nonstructural manipulations, and some recent neuroimaging studies report largely nonoverlapping neural regions involved in processing musical and linguistic structure. These conflicting results raise the question of exactly what shared (and distinct) resources underlie musical and linguistic structural processing. This paper suggests that one shared resource is prefrontal cortical mechanisms of cognitive control, which are recruited to detect and resolve conflict that occurs when expectations are violated and interpretations must be revised. By this account, musical processing involves not just the incremental processing and integration of musical elements as they occur, but also the incremental generation of musical predictions and expectations, which must sometimes be overridden and revised in light of evolving musical input.

  4. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    PubMed

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed.

  5. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development.

  6. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p <.0001) and was predictive of 24-month language (β = 0.20, p <.05). The effect of early cognitive stimulation on 24-month language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  7. Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-08-01

    First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Language and cognition in children with metachromatic leukodystrophy: onset and natural course in a nationwide cohort.

    PubMed

    Kehrer, Christiane; Groeschel, Samuel; Kustermann-Kuhn, Birgit; Bürger, Friederike; Köhler, Wolfgang; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Bley, Annette; Steinfeld, Robert; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2014-02-05

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, genetic neurodegenerative disease. It leads to progressive demyelination resulting in regression of development and early death. With regard to experimental therapies, knowledge of the natural course of the disease is highly important. We aimed to analyse onset and character of first symptoms in MLD and to provide detailed natural course data concerning language and cognition. Patients with MLD were recruited nationwide within the scope of the German research network LEUKONET. 59 patients' questionnaires (23 late-infantile, 36 juvenile) were analysed. Time from first symptoms (at a median age of 1.5 years in late-infantile and 6 years in juvenile MLD) to diagnosis took one year in late-infantile and two years in juvenile patients on average. Gait disturbances and abnormal movement patterns were first signs in all patients with late-infantile and in most with juvenile MLD. Onset in the latter was additionally characterized by problems in concentration, behaviour and fine motor function (p=0.0011, p<0.0001, and p=0.0012). Half of late-infantile patients did not learn to speak in complete sentences after an initially normal language acquisition. They showed a rapid language decline with first language difficulties at a median age of 2.5 years and complete loss of expressive language within several months (median age 32, range 22-47 months). This was followed by total loss of communication at a median age of around four years. In juvenile patients, language decline was more protracted, and problems in concentration and behaviour were followed by decline in skills for reading, writing and calculating around four years after disease onset. Our data reflect the natural course of decline in language and cognition in late-infantile and juvenile MLD in a large cohort over a long observation period. This is especially relevant to juvenile patients where the disease course is protracted and prospective studies are hardly feasible

  9. Exploration as a Mediator of the Relation between the Attainment of Motor Milestones and the Development of Spatial Cognition and Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and…

  10. Exploration as a Mediator of the Relation between the Attainment of Motor Milestones and the Development of Spatial Cognition and Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and…

  11. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition. PMID:23970869

  12. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  13. Dynamic Engagement of Cognitive Control Modulates Recovery From Misinterpretation During Real-Time Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Novick, Jared M

    2016-04-01

    Speech unfolds swiftly, yet listeners keep pace by rapidly assigning meaning to what they hear. Sometimes, though, initial interpretations turn out to be wrong. How do listeners revise misinterpretations of language input moment by moment to avoid comprehension errors? Cognitive control may play a role by detecting when processing has gone awry and then initiating behavioral adjustments accordingly. However, no research to date has investigated a cause-and-effect interplay between cognitive-control engagement and the overriding of erroneous interpretations in real time. Using a novel cross-task paradigm, we showed that Stroop-conflict detection, which mobilizes cognitive-control procedures, subsequently facilitates listeners' incremental processing of temporarily ambiguous spoken instructions that induce brief misinterpretation. When instructions followed incongruent Stroop items, compared with congruent Stroop items, listeners' eye movements to objects in a scene reflected more transient consideration of the false interpretation and earlier recovery of the correct one. Comprehension errors also decreased. Cognitive-control engagement therefore accelerates sentence-reinterpretation processes, even as linguistic input is still unfolding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Dynamic engagement of cognitive control modulates recovery from misinterpretation during real-time language processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nina S.; Novick, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Speech unfolds swiftly, yet listeners keep pace by rapidly assigning meaning to what they hear. Sometimes though, initial interpretations turn out wrong. How do listeners revise misinterpretations of language input moment-by-moment, to avoid comprehension errors? Cognitive control may play a role by detecting when processing has gone awry, and then initiating behavioral adjustments accordingly. However, no research has investigated a cause-and-effect interplay between cognitive control engagement and overriding erroneous interpretations in real-time. Using a novel cross-task paradigm, we show that Stroop-conflict detection, which mobilizes cognitive control procedures, subsequently facilitates listeners’ incremental processing of temporarily ambiguous spoken instructions that induce brief misinterpretation. When instructions followed Stroop-incongruent versus-congruent items, listeners’ eye-movements to objects in a scene reflected more transient consideration of the false interpretation and earlier recovery of the correct one. Comprehension errors also decreased. Cognitive control engagement therefore accelerates sentence re-interpretation processes, even as linguistic input is still unfolding. PMID:26957521

  15. Profile of language and cognitive functions in children with dyslexia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Thais; Rodrigues, Camila Cruz; Toledo-Piza, Carolina Mattar; Navas, Ana Luiza Gomes Pinto; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeu

    2015-01-01

    To verify the language and cognitive profile of children with dyslexia, contributing to the diagnosis of this condition in readers of a regular orthography, such as Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, 47 children with dyslexia (GD) and two controlled groups, one composed of 41 age controls (GCI) and the other with 31 reading controls (GCL), participated. All children were submitted to a battery involving the above-mentioned abilities. GD demonstrated predominant deficits in phonological processing, which were not compatible with a delay in the development of such abilities, indicating an atypical development. The GD also obtained lower scores in both basic and more complex reading and writing skills (i.e., letters, words, pseudowords, and texts, respectively), as well as in other domains, such as language (syntactic processing and oral sentence comprehension), which may be a result of a deficit in phonological skills, that interfered with higher complexity linguistic skills. Phonological abilities demonstrated to be the main difficulty observed in children with dyslexia investigated in this study, corroborating previous studies in other languages. This demonstrates that, independently of the language regularity, phonological skills are fundamental to the diagnosis of developmental dyslexia.

  16. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  17. Contribution of language studies to the understanding of cognitive impairment and its progression over time in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie; Lieberman, Philip; Monchi, Oury

    2017-08-03

    Parkinson's disease is a frequent neurodegenerative disease that is mostly known for its motor symptoms. However, cognitive impairment is now recognised as an important part of the disease. Studies of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease reveal considerable heterogeneity in terms of which cognitive domains are impaired, and of how cognitive impairment progresses over time. In parallel, a growing body of research reports language difficulties in Parkinson's disease, more specifically in the domains of sentence processing and lexical-semantic processing. In this review, the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease in these domains of language will be reviewed with a focus on the links that they have with the rest of cognition and on how they could contribute to the earlier and more precise characterization and prediction of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. More specifically, the potential for modulation of complexity and sensitivity of language tasks to mild deficits and difficulties that are predictive of further decline will be emphasized. Other motivations for studying language difficulties in this disease will also be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Explaining dehumanization among children: the interspecies model of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Costello, Kimberly; Hodson, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Although many theoretical approaches have emerged to explain prejudices expressed by children, none incorporate outgroup dehumanization, a key predictor of prejudice among adults. According to the Interspecies Model of Prejudice, beliefs in the human-animal divide facilitate outgroup prejudice through fostering animalistic dehumanization (Costello & Hodson, 2010). In the present investigation, White children attributed Black children fewer 'uniquely human' characteristics, representing the first systematic evidence of racial dehumanization among children (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, path analyses supported the Interspecies Model of Prejudice: children's human-animal divide beliefs predicted greater racial prejudice, an effect explained by heightened racial dehumanization. Similar patterns emerged among parents. Furthermore, parent Social Dominance Orientation predicted child prejudice indirectly through children's endorsement of a hierarchical human-animal divide and subsequent dehumanizing tendencies. Encouragingly, children's human-animal divide perceptions were malleable to an experimental prime highlighting animal-human similarity. Implications for prejudice interventions are considered.

  19. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  20. Who confronts prejudice?: the role of implicit theories in the motivation to confront prejudice.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-07-01

    Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.